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Tipitaka >> Sutta Pitaka >> Samyutta Nikaya >> SN4-Salayatanavagga-ver2-Samyutta35


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


Note : 'c' of Pali words is pronounced as 'ch' as in 'China'


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Contents

Samyutta Nikaya:4.Salayatanavagga-Six Sense Faculties[]



Namo Tassya Bhagavato, Arahato, Samma-Sam-Buddhassya

Homage to that Bhagavato(Lord) , Evil Vanquisher(Arahato),
the Rightly and Perfectly Enlightened(Awakened) One



Chapter 1 : Connected Discourses on the Six sense faculties (Salayatanasamyutta) {Samyutta-35}[]

(i) Division 1, Root Fifty - The Impermanent (Aniccavaggo sans. Anitya-varg)[]

1. The Internal as Impermanent 1 (Ajjhattanicca)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). 2 On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. There the Lord (Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus(monks)!"

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), the eye is impermanent. 3 What is impermanent is suffering. What is suffering is nonself. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my (true) self.'

"The ear is impermanent. What is impermanent is suffering. What is suffering is nonself. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my (true) self.'

"The nose is impermanent. What is impermanent is suffering. What is suffering is nonself. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my (true) self.'

"The tongue is impermanent. What is impermanent is suffering. What is suffering is nonself. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my (true) self.'

"The body is impermanent. What is impermanent is suffering. What is suffering is nonself. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my (true) self.'

"The mind is impermanent. What is impermanent is suffering. What is suffering is nonself. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my (true) self.'

"Seeing thus, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple experiences revulsion(nibbida) towards the eye, revulsion towards the ear, revulsion towards the nose, revulsion towards the tongue, revulsion towards the body, revulsion towards the mind.
Experiencing revulsion, he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion [his mind] is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt). When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: 'It's liberated.' He understands: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'"

(Note : Here the notion of 'self' is questioned [which Buddha found as a false construct]. In samadhi/trance states the 'Self' appears differently in each state. In intial states of samadhi/trance the 'self' appears as glowing blissful awareness within brain & spine, later it transcends human body & expands to material infinity, later then it becomes nothingness and finally in liberated nirvana state [9th samadhi] it transcends all and loses 'self or I' attitude and becomes transcendental [beyond matter] probably universal. )


2. The Internal as Suffering (Ajjhattadukkha)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the eye is suffering. What is suffering is nonself. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.'

"The ear is suffering.... The nose is suffering.... The tongue is suffering.... The body is suffering.... The mind is suffering. What is suffering is nonself. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.'

"Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"


3. The Internal as Nonself (Ajjhattanatta)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the eye is nonself. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.'

"The ear is nonself.... The nose is nonself.... The tongue is non-self.... The body is nonself.... The mind is nonself. What is non-self should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.'

"Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"


4. The External as Impermanent (Bahiranicca sans. Bahira-anitya)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), forms are impermanent. What is impermanent is suffering. What is suffering is nonself. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.'

"Sounds ... Odours ... Tastes ... Tactile objects ... Mental phenomena(dhamma) are impermanent. 4 What is impermanent is suffering. What is suffering is nonself. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.'

"Seeing thus, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple experiences revulsion(nibbida) towards forms, revulsion towards sounds, revulsion towards odours, revulsion towards tastes, revulsion towards tactile objects, revulsion towards mental phenomena(dhamma). Experiencing revulsion, he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion [his mind] is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt). When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: 'It's liberated.' He understands: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being."'


5. The External as Suffering (Bahiradukkha)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), forms are suffering. What is suffering is nonself. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.'

"Sounds ... Odours ... Tastes ... Tactile objects ... Mental phenomena(dhamma) are suffering. What is suffering is nonself. What is non-self should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.'

"Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"


6. The External as Nonself (Bahiranatta sans. Bahira-anatm)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), forms are nonself. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.'

"Sounds ... Odours ... Tastes ... Tactile objects ... Mental phenomena(dhamma) are nonself. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.'

"Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"


7. The Internal as Impermanent in the Three Times (Ajjhattaniccatitanagata)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), the eye is impermanent, both of the past and the future, not to speak of the present. Seeing thus, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple is indifferent towards the eye of the past; he does not seek delight(nandi\anand) in the eye of the future; and he is practising for revulsion towards the eye of the present, for its fading away and cessation(nirodha).

"The ear is impermanent ... The nose is impermanent ... The tongue is impermanent ... The body is impermanent ... The mind is impermanent, both of the past and the future, not to speak of the present. Seeing thus, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple is indifferent towards the mind of the past ... for its fading away and cessation."


8. The Internal as Suffering in the Three Times (Ajjhattadukkhatitanagata)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), the eye is suffering, both of the past and the future, not to speak of the present. Seeing thus . . . The mind is suffering ... for its fading away and cessation(nirodha)."


9. The Internal as Nonself in the Three Times (Ajjhattanattatitanagata)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), the eye is nonself, both of the past and the future, not to speak of the present. Seeing thus ... The mind is nonself ... for its fading away and cessation."


10. The External as Impermanent in the Three Times (Bahiraniccatitanagata sans. Bahira-anitya-atita-anagata)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the forms are impermanent, both of the past and the future, not to speak of the present. Seeing thus, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple is indifferent towards the forms of the past; he does not seek delight(nandi\anand) in the forms of the future; and he is practising for revulsion(nibbida) towards the forms of the present, for its fading away and cessation(nirodha).

"The sounds are impermanent ... The odours are impermanent ... The tastes are impermanent ... The Tactile objects are impermanent ... The mental phenomena(dhamma) are impermanent, both of the past and the future, not to speak of the present. Seeing thus, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple is indifferent towards the mental phenomena(dhamma) of the past ... for its fading away and cessation."


11. The External as Suffering in the Three Times (Bahiradukkhatitanagata sans. Bahira-dukkha-atita-anagata)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the forms are suffering, both of the past and the future, not to speak of the present. Seeing thus, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple is indifferent towards the forms of the past; he does not seek delight(nandi\anand) in the forms of the future; and he is practising for revulsion towards the forms of the present, for its fading away and cessation(nirodha).

"The sounds are suffering ... The odours are suffering ... The tastes are suffering ... The Tactile objects are suffering ... The mental phenomena(dhamma) are suffering, both of the past and the future, not to speak of the present. Seeing thus, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple is indifferent towards the mental phenomena(dhamma) of the past ... for its fading away and cessation(nirodha)."


12. The External as Nonself in the Three Times (Bahiranattatitanagata sans. Bahira-anatm-atita-anagata)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the forms are nonself, both of the past and the future, not to speak of the present. Seeing thus, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple is indifferent towards the forms of the past; he does not seek delight(nandi\anand) in the forms of the future; and he is practising for revulsion(nibbida) towards the forms of the present, for its fading away and cessation(nirodha).

"The sounds are nonself ... The odours are nonself ... The tastes are nonself ... The Tactile objects are nonself ... The mental phenomena(dhamma) are nonself, both of the past and the future, not to speak of the present. Seeing thus, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple is indifferent towards the mental phenomena(dhamma) of the past ... for its fading away and cessation."



(ii) Division 1, Root Fifty - The Pairs Section (Yamakavaggo)[]

13. Before My Enlightenment (1) (Pubbesambodh1 sans. Purv-sambodhi)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), before my enlightenment, while I was still a bodhisatta, not yet fully enlightened, it occurred to me; 'What is the worldly-enjoyment(assado sans. aswad), what is the danger, what is the escape in the case of the eye? What is the worldly-enjoyment, what is the danger.

what is the escape in the case of the ear ... the nose ... the tongue. ... the body ... the mind?'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'The happiness(sukh) and joy(somanassa) that arise in dependence on the eye: this is the worldly-enjoyment in the eye. That the eye is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change: this is the danger in the eye. The removal and abandonment of desire(chand) & lust(raag) for the eye: this is the escape from the eye.

"'The happiness(sukh) and joy(somanassa) that arise in dependence on the ear .. . the nose ... the tongue ... the body ... the mind: this is the worldly-enjoyment in the mind. That the mind is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change: this is the danger in the mind. The removal and abandonment of desire(chand) & lust(raag) for the mind: this is the escape from the mind.'

"So long, bhikkhus, as I did not directly know as they really are the worldly-enjoyment(assado sans. aswad), the danger, and the escape in the case of these six internal sense faculties, I did not claim to have awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment in this world with its Devas(Angels), Mara(Satan), and brahma(arch-angel), in this generation with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas and humans. But when I directly knew all this as it really is, then I claimed to have awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment in this world with ... its devas and humans.

"The knowledge and vision arose in me: 'Unshakable is my liberation(vimutti sans. vimukti) of mind; this is my last rebirth; now there is no more renewed existence(rebirth cause).'"


14. Before My Enlightenment (2) (Pubbesambodh2 sans. Purv-sambodhi)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), before my enlightenment, while I was still a bodhisatta, not yet fully enlightened, it occurred to me; 'What is the worldly-enjoyment(assado sans. aswad), what is the danger, what is the escape in the case of the forms? What is the worldly-enjoyment, what is the danger.

what is the escape in the case of the sounds ... the odours ... the tastes. ... the tactile objects ... the mental phenomena(dhamma)?'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'The happiness(sukh) and joy(somanassa) that arise in dependence on the forms: this is the worldly-enjoyment in the forms. That the forms are impermanent, suffering, and subject to change: this is the danger in the forms. The removal and abandonment of desire(chand) & lust(raag) for the forms: this is the escape from the forms.

"'The happiness(sukh) and joy(somanassa) that arise in dependence on the sounds .. . the odours ... the tastes ... the tactile objects ... the mental phenomena(dhamma): this is the worldly-enjoyment in the mental phenomena(dhamma). That the mental phenomena(dhamma) are impermanent, suffering, and subject to change: this is the danger in the mental phenomena(dhamma). The removal and abandonment of desire(chand) & lust(raag) for the mental phenomena(dhamma): this is the escape from the mental phenomena(dhamma).'

"So long, bhikkhus, as I did not directly know as they really are the worldly-enjoyment(assado sans. aswad), the danger, and the escape in the case of these six external sense faculties, I did not claim to have awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment in this world with its Devas(Angels), Mara(Satan), and brahma(arch-angel), in this generation with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas and humans. But when I directly knew all this as it really is, then I claimed to have awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment in this world with ... its devas and humans.

"The knowledge and vision arose in me: 'Unshakable is my liberation(vimutti sans. vimukti) of mind; this is my last rebirth; now there is no more renewed existence(rebirth cause).'"


15. Seeking Worldly-enjoyment (1) (Assadapriyesana1 sans. Aswad..)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I set out seeking the worldly-enjoyment(assado sans. aswad) in the eye. Whatever worldly-enjoyment there is in the eye - that I discovered. I have clearly seen with illuminated-insight(panna) just how far the worldly-enjoyment in the eye extends.

"Bhikkhus, I set out seeking the danger in the eye. Whatever danger there is in the eye - that I discovered. I have clearly seen with panna(illuminated-insight) just how far the danger in the eye extends.
"Bhikkhus, I set out seeking the escape from the eye. Whatever escape there is from the eye - that I discovered. I have clearly seen with illuminated-insight(panna) just how far the escape from the eye extends.

"Bhikkhus, I set out seeking the worldly-enjoyment in . . . the danger in ... the escape from the ear ... the nose ... the tongue ... the body . . . the mind. Whatever escape there is from the mind - that I discovered. I have clearly seen with panna(illuminated-insight) just how far the escape from the mind extends.

"So long, bhikkhus, as I did not directly know as they really are the worldly-enjoyment, the danger, and the escape in the case of these six internal sense faculties, I did not claim to have awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment in this world with its Devas(Angels), Mara(Satan), and brahma(arch-angel), in this generation with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas and humans. But when I directly knew all this as it really is, then I claimed to have awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment in this world with ... its devas and humans.

"The knowledge and vision arose in me: 'Unshakable is my liberation(vimutti sans. vimukti) of mind; this is my last rebirth; now there is no more renewed existence(rebirth cause)."'


16. Seeking Worldly-enjoyment (2) (Assadapriyesana2 sans. Aswad..)[]

(The same as previous 15 for the six external faculties - forms, sounds, odours, tactile objects & mental phenomena(dhamma).)


17. If There Were No Worldly-enjoyment (1) (Noceassada1 sans. Noce-aswad)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), if there were no worldly-enjoyment(assado sans. aswad) in the eye, beings would not become enamoured with it; but because there is worldly-enjoyment in the eye, beings become enamoured with it. If there were no danger in the eye, beings would not experience revulsion(nibbida) towards it; but because there is danger in the eye, beings experience revulsion towards it. If there were no escape from the eye, beings would not escape from it; but because there is an escape from the eye, beings escape from it.

"Bhikkhus, if there were no worldly-enjoyment in the ear .... in the nose ... in the tongue ... in the body ... in the mind, beings would not become enamoured with it ... but because there is an escape from the mind, beings escape from it.

"So long, bhikkhus, as beings have not directly known as they really are the worldly-enjoyment as worldly-enjoyment, the danger as danger. and the escape as escape in the case, of these six internal sense faculties, they have not escaped from this world with its Devas(Angels), Mara(Satan), and brahma(arch-angel), from this generation with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas and humans; they have not become detached from it, released(in mokkha/moksha) from it, nor do they dwell with a mind rid of barriers. But when beings have directly known all this as it really is, then they have escaped from this world with its devas and humans ... they have become detached from it, released(in mokkha/moksha) from it, and they dwell with a mind rid of barriers."


18. If There Were No (2) (Noceassada2 sans. Noce-aswad)[]

(The same as previous 17 for the six external faculties - forms, sounds, odours, tactile objects & mental phenomena(dhamma).)


19. Delight (1) (Abhinanda1)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), one who seeks delight in the eye seeks delight in suffering. One who seeks delight in suffering, I say, is not freed from suffering. One who seeks delight in the ear ... in the nose ... in the tongue ... in the body ... in the mind seeks delight in suffering. One who seeks delight in suffering, I say, is not freed from suffering.

"One who does not seek delight in the eye ... in the mind does not seek delight in suffering. One who does not seek delight in suffering, I say, is freed from suffering."


20. (8) Delight (2) (Abhinanda2)[]

(The same as previous 19 for the six external faculties - forms, sounds, odours, tactile objects & mental phenomena(dhamma).)


21. Arising of Suffering (1) (Dukkhuppada1 sans. Dukkha-utpad)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the arising, continuation, production, and manifestation tion of the eye is the arising of suffering, the continuation of disease, the manifestation of aging-and-death. The arising of the ear ... the nose ... the tongue ... the body ... the mind is the arising of suffering, the continuation of disease, the manifestation of aging-and-death.

"The cessation(nirodha), subsiding, and passing away of the eye ... the mind is the cessation of suffering, the subsiding of disease, the passing away of aging-and-death."


22. Arising of Suffering (2) (Dukkhuppada2 sans. Dukkha-utpad)[]

(The same as previous 21 for the six external faculties - forms, sounds, odours, tactile objects & mental phenomena(dhamma).)



(iii) Division 1, Root Fifty - The All (Sabba sans. Sarv)[]

23. The All (Sabba sans. Sarv)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the all. 6 Listen to that....

"And what, bhikkhus, is the all? The eye and forms, the ear and sounds, the nose and odours, the tongue and tastes, the body and tactile objects, the mind and mental phenomena(dhamma). This is called the all.

"If anyone, bhikkhus, should speak thus: 'Having rejected this all, I shall make known another all' - that would be a mere empty boast on his part. 7 If he were questioned he would not be able to reply and, further, he would meet with vexation. For what reason? Because, bhikkhus, that would not be within his domain." 8


24. Abandonment (Pahana sans. Prahan)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the dhamma(path,law) for abandoning all. Listen to that....

"And what, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma for abandoning all? The eye is to be abandoned, forms are to be abandoned, eye-consciousness is to be abandoned, eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) is to be abandoned(withdrawl within samadhi state), and whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact as cause, whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, that too is to be abandoned. 9

"The ear is to be abandoned ... The mind is to be abandoned, mental phenomena(dhamma) are to be abandoned, mind-consciousness is to be abandoned, mind-contact is to be abandoned, and whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact as cause - whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant - that too is to be abandoned.

"This, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma for abandoning all."


25. Abandonment through divine-knowledge & Full Understanding (Abhinna-parinna-pahana2 sans. Abhigyan-paripurngyan-prahan)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the dhamma(path,law) for abandoning all through divine-knowledge(abhinna) and full understanding. 10 Listen to that....

"And what, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma for abandoning all through divine-knowledge(abhinna) and full understanding? The eye is to be abandoned through divine-knowledge and full understanding, forms are to be so abandoned, eye-consciousness is to be so abandoned, eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) is to be so abandoned, and whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause- whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant- that too is to be abandoned through divine-knowledge and full understanding.

"The ear is to be abandoned through divine-knowledge(abhinna) and full understanding ... The mind is to be abandoned through divine-knowledge and full understanding, mental phenomena(dhamma) are to be so abandoned, mind-consciousness is to be so abandoned, mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) is to be so abandoned, and whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause - whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant - that too is to be abandoned through divine-knowledge and full understanding.

"This, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma for abandoning all through divine-knowledge(abhinna) and full understanding."


26. Without Full Understanding (1) (Aparijanana1 sans. Aparipurngyan)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), without directly knowing and fully understanding the all, without developing dispassion towards it and abandoning it, one is incapable of destroying suffering. 11

"And what, bhikkhus, is that all without directly knowing and fully understanding which, without developing dispassion towards which and abandoning which, one is incapable of destroying suffering?

"Without directly knowing and fully understanding the eye, without developing dispassion towards it and abandoning it, one is incapable of destroying suffering. Without directly knowing and fully understanding forms ... eye-consciousness ... eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) . . . and whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact as cause ... without developing dispassion towards it and abandoning it, one is incapable of destroying suffering.

"Without directly knowing and fully understanding the ear ... the mind ... and whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact as cause . . . without developing dispassion towards it and abandoning it, one is incapable of destroying suffering.

"This, bhikkhus, is the all without directly knowing and fully understanding which . . . one is incapable of destroying suffering.

"Bhikkhus, by directly knowing and fully understanding the all, by developing dispassion towards it and abandoning it, one is capable of destroying suffering. [18]

"And what, bhikkhus, is that all by directly knowing and fully understanding which, by developing dispassion towards which and abandoning which, one is capable of destroying suffering?

"By directly knowing and fully understanding the eye ... the mind . . . and whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact as cause ... by developing dispassion towards it and abandoning it, one is capable of destroying suffering.

"This, bhikkhus, is the all by directly knowing and fully understanding which ... one is capable of destroying suffering."


27. Without Full Understanding (2) (Aparijanana2 sans. Aparipurngyan)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), without directly knowing and fully understanding the all, without developing dispassion towards it and abandoning ing it, one is incapable of destroying suffering.

"And what, bhikkhus, is the all. . .?

"The eye and forms and eye-consciousness and dhammas(attributes,laws) to be cognized by eye-consciousness. The ear and sounds and ear-consciousness and Dhammas to be cognized by ear-consciousness.... The mind and mental phenomena(dhamma) and mind-consciousness and Dhammas to be cognized by mind-consciousness.

"This, bhikkhus, is the all without directly knowing and fully understanding which, without developing dispassion towards which and abandoning which, one is incapable of destroying suffering.

"But, bhikkhus, by directly knowing and fully understanding the all, by developing dispassion towards it and abandoning it, one is capable of destroying suffering.

"And what, bhikkhus, is the all...? (as above)

"This, bhikkhus, is the all by directly knowing and fully understanding which, by developing dispassion towards which and abandoning which, one is capable of destroying suffering."


28 Burning (Aditta sans. Aditya)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Gaya, at Gaya's Head, together with a thousand bhikkhus(monks). There the Lord (Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus thus: 13

"Bhikkhus, all is burning. And what, bhikkhus, is the all that is burning? The eye is burning, forms are burning, eye-consciousness is burning, eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) is burning, and whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause - whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant - that too is burning. Burning with what? Burning with the fire of lust(raag), with the fire of hatred(dosa\dvesh), with the fire of delusion(moha); burning with rebirth, aging, and death; with sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair, I say.

"The ear is burning .. . [20] . . . The mind is burning . . . and whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause -whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant -that too is burning. Burning with what? Burning with the fire of lust(raag), with the fire of hatred(dosa\dvesh), with the fire of delusion(moha); burning with rebirth, aging, and death; with sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair, I say.

"Seeing thus, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple experiences revulsion(nibbida) towards the eye, towards forms, towards eye-consciousness, towards eye-contact(phassa/sparsh), towards whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause - whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant; experiences revulsion towards the ear ... towards the mind ... towards whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause.... Experiencing revulsion sion, he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion [his mind] is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt). When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: 'It's liberated.' He understands: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'"

This is what the Lord (Buddha) said. Elated, those bhikkhus delighted in the Lord (Buddha)'s statement. And while this discourse was being spoken, the minds of the thousand bhikkhus were liberated from the defilements by nonclinging.


29. Weighed Down (Addhabhuta)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). There the Lord (Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus thus:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), all is weighed down. 14 And what, bhikkhus, is the all that is weighed down? The eye is weighed down, forms are weighed down, eye-consciousness is weighed down, eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) is weighed down, and whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause - whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant - that too is weighed down. Weighed down by what? Weighed down by rebirth, aging, and death; by sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair, I say.

"The ear is weighed down . . . The mind is weighed down . . . Weighed down by what? Weighed down by rebirth ... by despair, I say.

"Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"


30. Appropriate for Uprooting (Samugghatasaruppa)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the way that is appropriate for uprooting all conceivings. Listen to that and be mindful(manasikaro), I will speak....

"And what, bhikkhus, is the way that is appropriate for uprooting all conceivings? 15 Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu(monk) does not conceive the eye, does not conceive in the eye, does not conceive from the eye, does not conceive, 'The eye is mine.' 16 He does not conceive forms ... eye-consciousness ... eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) ... and as to whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause - whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant - he does not conceive that, does not conceive in that, does not conceive from that, does not conceive, 'That is mine.'

"He does not conceive the ear ... He does not conceive the mind . . . mental phenomena(dhamma) . . . mind-consciousness . . . mind-contact . . . and as to whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause ... he does not conceive that, does not conceive in that, does not conceive from that, does not conceive, 'That is mine.'

"He does not conceive all, does not conceive in all, does not conceive from all, does not conceive, 'All is mine.'

"Since he does not conceive anything thus, he does not cling to anything in the world. Not clinging(upadana sans. asakti), he is not agitated. Being unagitated, he personally attains Nibbana. He understands:
'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'

"This, bhikkhus, is the way that is appropriate for uprooting all conceivings."


31. Suitable for Uprooting (1) (Samugghatasappaya1)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the way that is suitable for uprooting all conceivings. 18 Listen to that....

"And what, bhikkhus, is the way that is suitable for uprooting all conceivings? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu(monk) does not conceive the eye, does not conceive in the eye, does not conceive from the eye, does not conceive, 'The eye is mine.' He does not conceive forms . . . eye-consciousness . . . eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) . . . and as to whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause - whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant - he does not conceive that, does not conceive in that, does not conceive from that, does not conceive, 'That is mine.' For, bhikkhus, whatever one conceives, whatever one conceives in, whatever one conceives from, whatever one conceives as 'mine' - that is otherwise. The world, becoming otherwise, attached to becoming, seeks delight(nandi\anand) only in becoming. 19

"He does not conceive the ear .... He does not conceive the mind . . . and as to whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause ... he does not conceive that, does not conceive in that, does not conceive from that, does not conceive, 'That is mine.' For, bhikkhus, whatever one conceives, whatever one conceives in, whatever one conceives from, whatever one conceives as 'mine' - that is otherwise. The world, becoming otherwise, attached to becoming, seeks delight only in becoming.

"Whatever, bhikkhus, is the extent of the aggregates(khandha sans. skandha), the elements(dhatu), and the senses, he does not conceive that, does not conceive in that, does not conceive from that, does not conceive, 'That is mine.'

"Since he does not conceive anything thus, he does not cling to anything in the world. Not clinging(upadana sans. asakti), he is not agitated. Being unagitated, he personally attains Nibbana. He understands:
'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'

"This, bhikkhus, is the way that is suitable for uprooting all conceivings." 20


32. Suitable for Uprooting (2) (Samugghatasappaya2)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the way that is suitable for uprooting all conceivings. Listen to that....

"And what, bhikkhus, is the way that is suitable for uprooting all conceivings? What do you think, bhikkhus, is the eye permanent or impermanent?" - "Impermanent, venerable sir." - "Is what is impermanent suffering or happiness(sukh)?" - "Suffering, venerable sir." - "Is what is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change fit to be regarded thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this is my self'?" - "No, venerable sir."

"Are forms permanent or impermanent?... Is eye-consciousness ... Is eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) ... Is any sensation(vedana) that arises with eye-contact as cause - whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant - permanent or impermanent?...

"Is the ear permanent or impermanent? ... Is the mind ... Is any sensation(vedana) that arises with mind-contact as cause permanent or impermanent?" - "Impermanent, venerable sir." - "Is what is impermanent suffering or happiness?" - "Suffering, venerable sir." - "Is what is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change fit to be regarded thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this is my self'?" - "No, venerable sir."

"Seeing thus, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple experiences revulsion(nibbida) towards the eye, towards forms, towards eye-consciousness, towards eye-contact, towards whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact as cause - whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant. He experiences revulsion towards the ear ... towards the mind ... towards whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause.... Experiencing revulsion, he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion [his mind] is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt). When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: 'It's liberated.' He understands: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'

"This, bhikkhus, is the way that is suitable for uprooting all conceivings."



(iv) Division 1, Root Fifty - Subject to Re-Birth (Jatidhammavaggo sans. Jati-dharm-varg)[]

33. Subject to Re-Birth (Jatidhammadi sans. Jati-dharm-adi)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), all is subject to rebirth. And what, bhikkhus, is the all that is subject to rebirth? The eye is subject to rebirth. Forms ... Eye-consciousness ... Eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) ... Whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact as cause ... that too is subject to rebirth.

'The ear ... The tongue ... The body ... The mind ... Whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact as cause ... that too is subject to rebirth.

"Seeing thus, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple experiences revulsion(nibbida) towards the eye, towards forms, towards eye-consciousness, towards eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"


34.-42 (10) Subject to Aging, Etc. (Jatidhammadi sans. Jati-dharm-adi)[]

34. "Bhikkhus(monks), all is subject to aging(Jaradhamma).... 35. All is subject to sickness(Byadhidhamma)....36. All is subject to death(Maranadhamma).... 37.All is subject to sorrow(Sokadhamma).... 38.All is subject to defilement(Samkilesikadhamma).. .. 39.All is subject to destruction(Khayadhamma).... 40.All is subject to decline (Vayadhamma).... 41.All is subject to origination(Samudayadhamma).... 42.All is subject to cessation(Nirodhadhamma)...." (Each is to be completed as previous 33.)



(v) Division 1, Root Fifty - All is Impermanent Section (Sabbaaniccavaggo sans. Sarv-anitya-varg)[]

43-52 Impermanent, Etc. (Anicchadi sans. Anitya-adi)[]

43. At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), all is impermanent(Aniccha sans. Anitya).... 44.All is suffering(Dukkha).... 45.All is nonself(Anatta sans. Anatm).... 46.All is to be directly known(Abhinneyya sans. Abhi-gyaneyya).... 47.All is to be fully understood(Parineyya sans. Paripurn-gyaneyya).... 48.All is to be abandoned(Pahatabba).... 49.All is to be realized(Sacchikatabba)... 50.All is to be fully understood through divine-knowledge(Abhinnaparinneyyasans. Abhigyan-paripurn-gyaneyya)....51.All is oppressed(Upadduta).... 52.All is stricken(Upassattha)...." (Each to be completed as in 33.)



(i) Division 2, The Second Fifty - Ignorance Section (Avijjavaggo sans. Avidya-varg)[]

53. Abandoning Ignorance (Avijjapahana sans. Avidya-prahan)[]

At Savatthi. Then a certain bhikkhu(monk) approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

"Venerable sir, how should one know, how should one see, for ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) to be abandoned and true knowledge to arise?"

"Bhikkhu, when one knows and sees(in meditation,passato ref. to vipassana meditation) the eye as impermanent, ignorance is abandoned and true knowledge arises. 21 When one knows and sees(in meditation,passato) forms as impermanent ... When one knows and sees(in meditation,passato) as impermanent whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause - whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, ignorance is abandoned and true knowledge arises. When one knows and sees(in meditation,passato) thus, bhikkhu, ignorance is abandoned and true knowledge arises."


54. Abandoning the Fetters (Samyojanapahana sans. Samyojana-prahan)[]

... "Venerable sir, how should one know, how should one see, for the fetters to be abandoned?" 22
{The Buddha's reply is as above in previous 53.)


55. Uprooting the Fetters (Samyojanasamugghata)[]

... "Venerable sir, how should one know, how should one see, for the fetters to be uprooted?"

"bhikkhu(monk), when one knows and sees(in meditation,passato ref. to vipassana meditation) the eye as nonself, the fetters are uprooted. When one knows and sees(in meditation,passato) forms as nonself ... (all as above) ... When one knows and sees(in meditation,passato) thus, bhikkhu, the fetters are uprooted."


56-59 Abandoning the Defilements, Etc. (Asavapahana sans. Ashrav-prahan)[]

... "Venerable sir, how should one know, how should one see, for the defilements to be abandoned?... for the defilements to be uprooted?... for the underlying-tendencies(anusaya) to be abandoned?... for the underlying-tendencies to be uprooted?" 23

"bhikkhu(monk), when one knows and sees(in meditation,passato) the eye as nonself, the underlying-tendencies(anusaya) are uprooted. When one knows and sees(in meditation,passato) form as nonself . . . (all as above) . . . When one knows and sees(in meditation,passato) thus, bhikkhu, the underlying-tendencies are uprooted."

Note: Non-self is understoood when Samadhi/Trance is experienced. In samadhi state a new essence is discovered within wrt which the body & mind appear as non-self.


60. The Full Understanding of All Clinging (Sabbupadanaparinna)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the dhamma(path,law) for the full understanding of all clinging(upadana sans. asakti). 24 Listen to that....

"And what, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma for the full understanding of all clinging? In dependence on the eye and forms, eye-consciousness arises. The meeting of the three is contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh). With contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause, sensation(vedana) [comes to be]. Seeing thus, the instructed noble disciple experiences revulsion(nibbida) towards the eye, towards forms, towards eye-consciousness, towards eye-contact(phassa/sparsh), towards sensation(vedana). Experiencing revulsion, he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion [the mind] is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt). With its deliverance(vimokkkha\vimoksha) he understands: 'clinging(upadana sans. asakti) has been fully understood by me.'

"In dependence on the ear and sounds ... In dependence on the mind and mental phenomena(dhamma), mind-consciousness arises. The meeting of the three is contact(phassa/sparsh). With contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause, sensation(vedana) [comes to be]. Seeing thus, the instructed noble disciple experiences revulsion towards the mind, towards mental phenomena(dhamma), towards mind-consciousness, towards mind-contact(phassa/sparsh), towards sensation(vedana). Experiencing revulsion, he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion [the mind] is liberated. With its deliverance he understands: 'Clinging has been fully understood by me.'

"This, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma for the full understanding of all clinging(upadana sans. asakti)."


61. The Exhaustion of All Clinging (1) (Sabbupadanapariyadana1)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the dhamma(path,law) for the exhaustion of all clinging(upadana sans. asakti). Listen to that....

"And what, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma for the exhaustion of all clinging? In dependence on the eye and forms, eye-consciousness arises.... (as above) ... With its deliverance(vimokkkha\vimoksha) he understands:
'Clinging has been exhausted by me.'

"In dependence on the ear and sounds . . . the mind and mental phenomena(dhamma), mind-consciousness arises.... With its deliverance he understands: 'Clinging has been exhausted by me.'

"This, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma for the exhaustion of all clinging."


62 The Exhaustion of All Clinging (2) (Sabbupadanapariyadana2)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the dhamma(path,law) for the exhaustion of all clinging(upadana sans. asakti). Listen to that...."

"And what, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma for the exhaustion of all clinging? What do you think, bhikkhus, is the eye permanent or impermanent?"

.. . (To be completed as in 32)

"This, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma for the exhaustion of all clinging."



(ii) Division 2, The Second Fifty - Migajalavaggo[]

63 (1) Migajala (1)[]

At Savatthi. Then the Venerable Migajala approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him: 26

"Venerable sir, it is said, 'a lone dweller, a lone dweller.' 27 In what way, venerable sir, is one a lone dweller, and in what way is one dwelling with a partner?" 28

"There are, Migajala, forms cognizable by the eye that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu(monk) seeks delight(nandi\anand) in them, welcomes them, and remains holding to them, delight arises. When there is delight, there is infatuation. When there is infatuation, there is bondage. Bound by the fetter of delight, Migajala, a bhikkhu is called one dwelling with a partner.

"There are, Migajala, sounds cognizable by the ear ... odours cognizable by the nose .. . tastes cognizable by the tongue ... tactile objects cognizable by the body ... mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu seeks delight(nandi\anand) in them ... he is called one dwelling with a partner.

"Migajala, even though a bhikkhu who dwells thus resorts to forests and groves, to remote lodgings where there are few sounds and little noise, desolate, hidden from people, appropriate for seclusion, he is still called one dwelling with a partner. For what reason? Because craving(tanha sans. trishna) is his partner, and he has not abandoned it; therefore he is called one dwelling with a partner.

"There are, Migajala, forms cognizable by the eye that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu does not seek delight(nandi\anand) in them, does not welcome them, and does not remain holding to them, delight ceases. When there is no delight, there is no infatuation. When there is no infatuation, there is no bondage. released(in mokkha/moksha) from the fetter of delight, Migajala, a bhikkhu is called a lone dweller.

"There are, Migajala, sounds cognizable by the ear ... odours cognizable by the nose ... tastes cognizable by the tongue ... tactile objects cognizable by the body ... mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu does not seek delight(nandi\anand) in them ... he is called a lone dweller.

"Migajala, even though a bhikkhu who dwells thus lives in the vicinity of a village, associating with bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, with male and female lay followers, with kings and royal ministers, with sectarian teachers and their disciples, he is still called a lone dweller. For what reason? Because craving(tanha sans. trishna) is his partner, and he has abandoned it; therefore he is called a lone dweller."


64. Migajala (2)[]

Then the Venerable Migajala approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:
"Venerable sir, it would be good if the Lord (Buddha) would teach me the dhamma(path,law) in brief, so that, having heard the Dhamma from the Lord (Buddha), I might dwell alone, withdrawn, alertful(appamada), ardent, and resolute."

"There are, Migajala, forms cognizable by the eye that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu(monk) seeks delight(nandi\anand) in them, welcomes them, and remains holding to them, delight arises. With the arising of delight, I say, Migajala, there is the arising of suffering.

"There are, Migajala, sounds cognizable by the ear . . . odours cognizable by the nose ... tastes cognizable by the tongue ... tactile objects cognizable by the body ... mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable able by the mind that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu seeks delight(nandi\anand) in them, . . . delight arises. [38] With the arising of delight, I say, Migajala, there is the arising of suffering.

"There are, Migajala, forms cognizable by the eye that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu does not seek delight in them, does not welcome them, and does not remain holding to them, delight ceases. With the cessation(nirodha) of delight, I say, Migajala, comes the cessation of suffering.

"There are, Migajala, sounds cognizable by the ear . . . odours cognizable by the nose ... tastes cognizable by the tongue ... tactile objects cognizable by the body . . . mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu does not seek delight in them ... delight ceases. With the cessation of delight, I say, Migajala, comes the cessation of suffering."

Then the Venerable Migajala, having delighted and rejoiced in the Lord (Buddha)'s words, rose from his seat, and, after paying homage to the Lord (Buddha), keeping him on his right, he departed.

Then, dwelling alone, withdrawn, alertful(appamada), ardent, and resolute, the Venerable Migajala, by realizing it for himself with divine-knowledge(abhinna), in this very life entered and dwelt in that unsurpassed goal of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the household life into hermit life. He directly knew: "Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being." And the Venerable Migajala became one of the arahants.


65.Samiddhi (1)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). Then the Venerable Samiddhi approached the Lord (Buddha) ... and said to him: 29
"Venerable sir, it is said, 'Mara(Satan), Mara.' In what way, venerable sir, might there be Mara or the description of Mara?" 30

"Where there is the eye, Samiddhi, where there are forms, eye-consciousness, dhammas(path,law) to be cognized by eye-consciousness, there Mara exists or the description of Mara.

"Where there is the ear ... the mind, where there are mental phenomena(dhamma), mind-consciousness, Dhammas to be cognized by mind-consciousness, there Mara exists or the description of Mara.

"Where there is no eye, Samiddhi, no forms, no eye-consciousness, no Dhammas to be cognized by eye-consciousness, there Mara does not exist nor any description of Mara.

"Where there is no ear ... no mind, no mental phenomena(dhamma), no mind-consciousness, no Dhammas to be cognized by mind-consciousness, there Mara does not exist nor any description of Mara."


66. Samiddhi (2)[]

"Venerable sir, it is said, 'a being, a being.' In what way, venerable sir, might there be a being or the description of a being?"

(The reply is as in the preceding sutta 65.)


67. Samiddhi (3)[]

"Venerable sir, it is said, 'suffering, suffering.' In what way, venerable
sir, might there be suffering or the description of suffering?" . . .(similar to 65)


68. Samiddhi (4)[]

"Venerable sir, it is said, 'the world, the world.' In what way, venerable sir, might there be the world or the description of the world?"

"Where there is the eye, Samiddhi, where there are forms, eye-consciousness, dhammas(attributes,law) to be cognized by eye-consciousness, there the world exists or the description of the world.

"Where there is the ear ... the mind, where there are mental phenomena(dhamma), mind-consciousness, Dhammas to be cognized by mind-consciousness, there the world exists or the description of the world.

"Where there is no eye, Samiddhi, no forms, no eye-consciousness, no Dhammas to be cognized by eye-consciousness, there the world does not exist nor any description of the world.

"Where there is no ear ... no mind, no mental phenomena(dhamma), no mind-consciousness, no Dhammas to be cognized by mind-consciousness, there the world does not exist nor any description of the world."

Note: this also refers to samadhi state.


69. Upasena[]

On one occasion the Venerable Sariputta and the Venerable Upasena were dwelling at Rajagaha in the Cool Grove(Seetvana), in the Snake's Hood Grotto(Sappa-sondik-pabbhare). 31 Now on that occasion a viper had fallen on the Venerable Upasena's body. Then the Venerable Upasena addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Come, friends, lift this body of mine on to the bed and carry it outside before it is scattered right here like a handful of chaff." 32

When this was said, the Venerable Sariputta said to the Venerable Upasena: "We do not see any alteration in the Venerable Upasena's body nor any change in his faculties; yet the Venerable Upasena says: 'Come, friends, lift this body of mine on to the bed and carry it outside before it is scattered right here like a handful of chaff.'"

"Friend Sariputta, for one who thinks, 'I am the eye' or 'The eye is mine'; 'I am the ear' or 'The ear is mine' ... 'I am the mind' or 'The mind is mine,' lust(raag) might be alteration of the body or a change of the faculties. But, friend Sariputta, it does not occur to me, 'I am the eye' or The eye is mine'; 'I am the ear' or 'The ear is mine' ... 'I am the mind' or 'The mind is mine,' so why should there be any alteration in my body or any change in my faculties?" 33

"It must be because I-making, mine-making, and the underlying-tendency(anusaya) to conceit have been thoroughly uprooted in the Venerable Upasena for a long time that it does not occur to him, 'I am the eye' or 'The eye is mine'; 'I am the ear' or 'The ear is mine' ... 'I am the mind' or 'The mind is mine.'"

Then those bhikkhus lifted the Venerable Upasena's body on to the bed and carried it outside. Then the Venerable Upasena's body was scattered right there just like a handful of chaff.


70. Upavana[]

Then the Venerable Upavana approached the Lord (Buddha) . . . and said to him: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'the directly visible dhamma(path,law), the directly visible Dhamma.' 34 In what way, venerable sir, is the Dhamma directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise?"

"Here, Upavana, having seen a form with the eye, a bhikkhu(monk) experiences the form as well as lust(raag) for the form. He understands that lust for forms exists internally thus: There is in me lust for forms internally.' Since that is so, Upavana, the Dhamma is directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise.

"Further, Upavana, having heard a sound with the ear . . . having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, a bhikkhu experiences the mental phenomenon as well as lust(raag) for the mental phenomenon. He understands that lust for mental phenomena(dhamma) exists internally thus: 'There is in me lust for mental phenomena(dhamma) internally.' Since that is so, Upavana, the Dhamma is directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise.

"But here, Upavana, having seen a form with the eye, a bhikkhu experiences the form without experiencing lust(raag) for the form. He understands that lust for forms does not exist internally thus:
'There is in me no lust for forms internally.' Since that is so, Upavana, the Dhamma is directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise.

"Further, Upavana, having heard a sound with the ear . . . ... having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, a bhikkhu experiences the mental phenomenon without experiencing lust(raag) for the mental phenomenon. He understands that lust for mental phenomena(dhamma) does not exist internally thus: 'There is in me no lust for mental phenomena(dhamma) internally.' Since that is so, Upavana, the Dhamma is directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise." 35


71. The Six Sense Faculties for Contact (1) (Pathamachaphassayatana1 sans. Pratham-chaha-sparsh-ayatana)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), if a bhikkhu(monk) does not understand as they really are the origin and the passing away, the worldly-enjoyment(assado sans. aswad), the danger, and the escape, in the case of these six sense faculties for contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh), then he has not lived the holy celibate life(brahmacariya); he is far away from this dhamma(path,law) and Discipline."

When this was said, a certain bhikkhu said to the Lord (Buddha):
"Here, venerable sir, I am lost, 36 for I do not understand as they really are the origin and the passing away, the worldly-enjoyment, the danger, and the escape, in the case of these six senses for contact(phassa/sparsh)."

"What do you think, bhikkhu, do you regard the eye thus:
'This is mine, this I am, this is my self'?"

"No, venerable sir."

"Good, bhikkhu! And here, bhikkhu, you should clearly see the eye as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' This itself is the end of suffering.

"Do you regard the ear thus...? Do you regard the mind thus:
'This is mine, this I am, this is my self'?"

"No, venerable sir."

"Good, bhikkhu! And here, bhikkhu, you should clearly see the mind as it really is with correct panna(illuminated-insight) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' This itself is the end of suffering."


72. The Six Sense Faculties for Contact (2) (Dutiyachaphassayatana2 sans. Dwitiya-chaha-sparsh-ayatana)[]

(The first two paragraphs as in the preceding sutta 71.)

"What do you think, bhikkhu(monk), do you regard the eye thus:
'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self'?"

"Yes, venerable sir."

"Good, bhikkhu! And here, bhikkhu, you should clearly see the eye as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' Thus this first faculty for contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) will be abandoned by you for no future renewed existence(rebirth cause). 37

"Do you regard the ear thus...? Thus this second faculty for contact will be abandoned by you for no future renewed existence(rebirth cause) ....

"Do you regard the mind thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self'?"

"Yes, venerable sir."

"Good, bhikkhu! And here, bhikkhu, you should clearly see the mind as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' Thus this sixth faculty for contact(phassa/sparsh) will be abandoned by you for no future renewed existence(rebirth cause)."


73. The Six Faculties for Contact (3) (Tatiyachaphassayatana3 sans. Tritiya-chaha-sparsh-ayatana)[]

(The first two paragraphs as in 71.)

"What do you think, bhikkhu(monk), is the eye permanent or impermanent?" - "Impermanent, venerable sir." - "Is what is impermanent suffering or happiness(sukh)?" - "Suffering, venerable sir." - "Is what is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change fit to be regarded thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this is my self'?" - "No, venerable sir."

"Is the ear ... the mind permanent or impermanent?" "Impermanent, venerable sir." - "Is what is impermanent suffering or happiness?" - "Suffering, venerable sir." - "Is what is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change fit to be regarded thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this is my self'?" - "No, venerable sir."

"Seeing thus, bhikkhu, the instructed noble disciple experiences revulsion(nibbida) towards the eye . . . revulsion towards the mind. Experiencing revulsion, he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion [his mind] is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt). When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: 'It's liberated.' He understands: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'"



(iii) Division 2, The Second Fifty - Sick Section(Gilanavaggo)[]

74. Sick (1) (Gilana)[]

At Savatthi. Then a certain bhikkhu(monk) approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:
"Venerable sir, in such and such a dwelling there is a certain newly ordained bhikkhu, not well known, who is sick, afflicted, gravely ill. It would be good, venerable sir, if the Lord (Buddha) would approach that bhikkhu out of compassion."

Then, when the Lord (Buddha) heard the words "newly ordained" and "sick," and understood that he was not a well known bhikkhu, he went to him. That bhikkhu saw the Lord (Buddha) coming in the distance and stirred on his bed . 38 The Lord (Buddha) said to him: "Enough, bhikkhu, do not stir on your bed. There are these seats ready, I will sit down there."

The Lord (Buddha) then sat down on the appointed seat and said to that bhikkhu: "I hope you are bearing up, bhikkhu, I hope you are getting better. I hope that your painful sensations(vedana) are subsiding and not increasing, and that their subsiding, not their increase, is to be discerned."

"Venerable sir, I am not bearing up, I am not getting better. Strong painful sensations(vedana) are increasing in me, not subsiding, and their increase, not their subsiding, is to be discerned."

"I hope then, bhikkhu, that you are not troubled by remorse and regret."

"Indeed, venerable sir, I have quite a lot of remorse and regret." [47]

"I hope, bhikkhu, that you have nothing for which to reproach yourself in regard to virtue(sheel)."

"I have nothing, venerable sir, for which to reproach myself in regard to virtue."

"Then, bhikkhu, if you have nothing for which to reproach yourself in regard to virtue, why are you troubled by remorse and regret?"

"I understand, venerable sir, that it is not for the sake of purification of virtue that the dhamma(path,law) has been taught by the Lord (Buddha)."

"If, bhikkhu, you understand that the Dhamma has not been taught by me for the sake of purification of virtue, then for what purpose do you understand the Dhamma to have been taught by me?"

"Venerable sir, I understand the Dhamma to have been taught by the Lord (Buddha) for the sake of the fading away of lust." 39

"Good, good, bhikkhu! It is good that you understand the Dhamma to have been taught by me for the sake of the fading away of lust. For the Dhamma is taught by me for the sake of the fading away of lust.

"What do you think, bhikkhu, is the eye permanent or impermanent?" - "Impermanent, venerable sir."... "Is the ear ... the mind permanent or impermanent?" - "Impermanent, venerable sir." - "Is what is impermanent suffering or happiness(sukh)?" -"Suffering, venerable sir." - "Is what is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change fit to be regarded thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this is my self'?" - "No, venerable sir."

"Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"

This is what the Lord (Buddha) said. Elated, that bhikkhu delighted in the Lord (Buddha)'s statement. And while this discourse was being spoken, there arose in that bhikkhu the dust-free, stainless vision of the Dhamma: "Whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation(nirodha)." 40


75. Sick (2) (Gilana)[]

(As above in 74 down to:)

"If, bhikkhu(monk) you understand that the dhamma(path,law) has not been taught by me for the sake of purification of virtue(sheel), then for what purpose do you understand the Dhamma to have been taught by me?"

"Venerable sir, I understand the Dhamma to have been taught by the Lord (Buddha) for the sake of final Nibbana without clinging(upadana sans. asakti)."

"Good, good, bhikkhu! It is good that you understand the Dhamma to have been taught by me for the sake of final Nibbana without clinging. For the Dhamma is taught by me for the sake of final Nibbana without clinging. 41

"What do you think, bhikkhu, is the eye permanent or impermanent?" - "Impermanent, venerable sir."... "Is the ear ... the nose ... the tongue ... the body ... the mind ... mind-consciousness ... mind-contact(of mind with thought;phassa/sparsh) ... whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact as cause - whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful -nor-pleasant - permanent or impermanent?" - "Impermanent, venerable sir." - "Is what is impermanent suffering or happiness(sukh)?" - "Suffering, venerable sir." - "Is what is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change fit to be regarded thus: This is mine, this I am, this is my self'?" - "No, venerable sir."

"Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"

This is what the Lord (Buddha) said. Elated, that bhikkhu delighted in the Lord (Buddha)'s statement. And while this discourse was being spoken, that bhikkhu's mind was liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) from the defilements by nonclinging.


76. Radha (1)[]

Then the Venerable Radha approached the Lord (Buddha) ... and said to him: "Venerable sir, it would be good if the Lord (Buddha) would teach me the dhamma(path,law) in brief, so that, having heard the Dhamma from the Lord (Buddha), I might dwell alone, withdrawn, alertful(appamada), ardent, and resolute."

"Radha, you should abandon desire for whatever is impermanent. And what is impermanent? The eye is impermanent; you should abandon desire for it. Forms are impermanent ... Eye-consciousness is impermanent . . . Eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) is impermanent . . . Whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact as cause - whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant - that too is impermanent; you should abandon desire for it.

"The ear ... The mind is impermanent ... Whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact(of mind with thought;phassa/sparsh) as cause . . . that too is impermanent; you should abandon desire for it. [49] Radha, you should abandon desire for whatever is impermanent."


77. Radha (2)[]

(as previous 76)
... "Radha, you should abandon desire for whatever is suffering."...


78. Radha (3)[]

(as previous 76)
... "Radha, you should abandon desire for whatever is nonself."...


79. Abandoning Ignorance (1) (Avijjapahana1 sans. Avidya-prahan)[]

Then a certain bhikkhu(monk) approached the Lord (Buddha) ... and said to him: "Venerable sir, is there one dhamma(quality,law) through the abandoning of which ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) is abandoned by a bhikkhu and true knowledge arises?"

"There is one dhamma(quality,law), bhikkhu, through the abandoning of which ignorance is abandoned by a bhikkhu and true knowledge arises."

"And what is that one dhamma(quality,law), venerable sir?"

"Ignorance, bhikkhu, is that one dhamma(quality,law) through the abandoning of which ignorance is abandoned by a bhikkhu and true knowledge arises." 42

"But, venerable sir, how should a bhikkhu know, how should he see, for ignorance to be abandoned by him and true knowledge to arise?"

"Bhikkhu, when a bhikkhu knows and sees(in meditation,passato) the eye as impermanent, ignorance is abandoned by him and true knowledge arises. When he knows and sees(in meditation,passato) forms as impermanent ... When he knows and sees(in meditation,passato) as impermanent whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause . . . ignorance is abandoned by him and true knowledge arises.

"When, bhikkhu, a bhikkhu knows and sees(in meditation,passato) thus, ignorance is abandoned by him and true knowledge arises."


80. Abandoning Ignorance (2) (Avijjapahana2 sans. Avidya-prahan)[]

(As above down to:)

"But, venerable sir, how should a bhikkhu(monk) know, how should he see, for ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) to be abandoned by him and true knowledge to arise?"

"Here, bhikkhu, a bhikkhu has heard, 'Nothing is worth adhering to.' When a bhikkhu has heard, 'Nothing is worth adhering to,' he directly knows everything. Having directly known everything, he fully understands everything. Having fully understood everything, he sees(in meditation,passati) all causatives(nimitta) differently. 43 He sees(in meditation,passati) the eye differently, he sees(in meditation,passati) forms differently ... whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause . . . that too he sees(in meditation,passati) differently.

"When, bhikkhu, a bhikkhu knows and sees thus, ignorance is abandoned by him and true knowledge arises."


81. A Number of Bhikkhus (Sambahulabhikku)[]

Then a number of bhikkhus approached the Lord (Buddha) . . . and said to him: [51] "Here, venerable sir, ascetics of other sects ask us: 'For what purpose, friends, is the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) lived under the ascetic Gotama?' When we are asked thus, venerable sir, we answer those ascetics thus: 'It is, friends, for the full understanding of suffering that the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) is lived under the Lord (Buddha). ' We hope, venerable sir, that when we answer thus we state what has been said by the Lord (Buddha) and do not misrepresent him with what is contrary to fact; that we explain in accordance with the dhamma(path,law), and that no reasonable consequence of our assertion gives ground for criticism." 44

"For sure, bhikkhus, when you answer thus you state what has been said by me and do not misrepresent me with what is contrary to fact; you explain in accordance with the Dhamma, and no reasonable consequence of your assertion gives ground for criticism. For, bhikkhus, it is for the full understanding of suffering that the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) is lived under me.

"But, bhikkhus, if ascetics of other sects ask you: 'What, friends, is that suffering for the full understanding of which the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) is lived under the ascetic Gotama?' - being asked thus, you should answer them thus: 'The eye, friends, is suffering: it is for the full understanding of this that the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) is lived under the Lord (Buddha). Forms are suffering ... Whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) as cause ... that too is suffering ... The mind is suffering . . . Whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause ... that too is suffering: it is for the full understanding of this that the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) is lived under the Lord (Buddha). This, friends, is that suffering for the full understanding of which the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) is lived under the Lord (Buddha).'

"Being asked thus, bhikkhus, you should answer those ascetics of other sects in such a way."


82. The World (Lokapanha sans. Loka-prashn)[]

Then a certain bhikkhu(monk) approached the Lord (Buddha) . . . and said to him: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'the world, the world.' In what way, venerable sir, is it said 'the world'?"

"It is disintegrating, bhikkhu, therefore it is called the world. 45 And what is disintegrating? The eye, bhikkhu, is disintegrating, forms are disintegrating, eye-consciousness is disintegrating, eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) is disintegrating, and whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact as cause ... that too is disintegrating. The ear is disintegrating . . . The mind is disintegrating . . . Whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact as cause ... that too is disintegrating. It is disintegrating, bhikkhu, therefore it is called the world."


83. Phaggunapanha (sans. Phagguna-prashn)[]

Then the Venerable Phagguna approached the Lord (Buddha) ... and said to him: "Venerable sir, is there any eye by means of which one describing the Buddhas of the past could describe them - those who have attained final Nibbana, cut through 6-sensory-deception(papanca sans. prapanch/maya), cut through the rut, exhausted the round, and transcended all suffering? 46 Is there any ear by way of which one describing the Buddhas of the past could describe them?... Is there any mind by way of which one describing the Buddhas of the past could describe them - those who have attained final Nibbana, cut through 6-sensory-deception(papanca sans. prapanch/maya), cut through the rut, exhausted the round, and transcended all suffering?"

"There is no eye, Phagguna, by means of which one describing the Buddhas of the past could describe them - those who have attained final Nibbana, cut through 6-sensory-deception(papanca sans. prapanch/maya), cut through the rut, exhausted the round, and transcended all suffering. There is no ear by means of which one describing the Buddhas of the past could describe them.... There is no mind by means of which one describing the Buddhas of the past could describe them - those who have attained final Nibbana, cut through 6-sensory-deception(papanca sans. prapanch/maya), cut through the rut, exhausted the round, and transcended all suffering."



(iv) Division 2, The Second Fifty - Channa Section (Channavaggo)[]

84. Subject to Disintegration (Palokadhamma)[]

At Savatthi. Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Lord (Buddha) ... and said to him: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'the world, the world.' In what way, venerable sir, is it said 'the world'?"

"Whatever is subject to disintegration, Ananda, is called the world in the Noble One's Discipline. 47 And what is subject to disintegration? The eye, Ananda, is subject to disintegration, forms ... eye-consciousness ... eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) ... whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact as cause ... that too is subject to disintegration tion. The ear is subject to disintegration ... The mind is subject to disintegration ... Whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact as cause ... that too is subject to disintegration. Whatever is subject to disintegration, Ananda, is called the world in the Noble One's Discipline."


85. Empty Is the World (Sunataloka sans. Shunyata-lok)[]

Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Lord (Buddha) ... and said to him: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'Empty is the world, empty is the world.' In what way, venerable sir, is it said, 'Empty is the world'?"

"It is, Ananda, because it is empty of self and of what belongs to self that it is said, 'Empty is the world.' And what is empty of self and of what belongs to self? The eye, Ananda, is empty of self and of what belongs to self. Forms are empty of self and of what belongs to self. Eye-consciousness is empty of self and of what belongs to self. Eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) is empty of self and of what belongs to self . . . . Whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact(of mind with thought;phassa/sparsh) as cause -whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant -that too is empty of self and of what belongs to self.

"It is, Ananda, because it is empty of self and of what belongs to self that it is said, 'Empty is the world.'"


86. The Dhamma in Brief (Samkhittadhamma sans. Sankshipt-dharma)[]

Sitting to one side, the Venerable Ananda said to the Lord (Buddha):
"Venerable sir, it would be good if the Lord (Buddha) would teach me the dhamma(path,law) in brief, so that, having heard the Dhamma from the Lord (Buddha), I might dwell alone, withdrawn, alertful(appamada), ardent, and resolute."

"What do you think, Ananda, is the eye permanent or impermanent?" - "Impermanent, venerable sir."

(Complete as in 32, down to "there is no more for this state of being.") [55]


87. Channa[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). 48 Now on that occasion the Venerable Sariputta, the Venerable Mahacunda, and the Venerable Channa were dwelling on Mount Vulture Peak, and the Venerable Channa was sick, afflicted, gravely ill. Then, in the evening, the Venerable Sariputta emerged from seclusion, approached the Venerable Mahacunda, and said to him: "Come, friend Cunda, let us approach the Venerable Channa and ask about his illness."

"Yes, friend," the Venerable Mahacunda replied.

Then the Venerable Sariputta and the Venerable Mahacunda approached the Venerable Channa and exchanged greetings with him, after which they sat down in the appointed seats. The Venerable Sariputta then said to the Venerable Channa: "I hope you are bearing up, friend Channa, I hope you are getting better. I hope that your painful sensations(vedana) are subsiding and not increasing, and that their subsiding, not their increase, is to be discerned."

"Friend Sariputta, I am not bearing up, I am not getting better. 49 Strong painful sensations(vedana) are increasing in me, not subsiding, and their increase, not their subsiding, is to be discerned. Just as if a strong man were to split my head open with a sharp sword, so too violent winds cut through my head. I am not bearing up. . .. Just as if a strong man were to tighten a tough leather strap around my head as a headband, so too there are violent pains in my head. I am not bearing up.... Just as if a skilled butcher or his apprentice were to carve up an ox's belly with a sharp butcher's knife, so too violent winds are carving up my belly. I am not bearing up.... Just as if two strong men were to seize a weaker man by both arms and roast him over a pit of hot coals, so too there is a violent burning in my body. I am not bearing up, I am not getting better. Strong painful sensations(vedana) are increasing in me, not subsiding, and their increase, not their subsiding, is to be discerned. I will use the knife, 50 friend Sariputta, I have no desire to live."

"Let the Venerable Channa not use the knife. Let the Venerable Channa live. We want the Venerable Channa to live. If the Venerable Channa lacks suitable food, I will go in search of suitable food for him; if he lacks suitable medicine, I will go in search of suitable medicine for him; if he lacks a proper attendant, I will attend on him. Let the Venerable Channa not use the knife. Let the Venerable Channa live. We want the Venerable Channa to live."

"Friend Sariputta, it is not that I lack suitable food; I have suitable food. It is not that I lack suitable medicine; I have suitable medicine. It is not that I lack proper attendants; I have proper attendants. Moreover, friend, for a long time the Teacher has been served by me in an agreeable way, not in a disagreeable way; for it is proper for a disciple to serve the Teacher in an agreeable way, not in a disagreeable way. Remember this, friend Sariputta: the bhikkhu Channa will use the knife blamelessly." 51

"We would ask the Venerable Channa about a certain point, if he would grant us the favour of answering our question."

"Ask, friend Sariputta. When I have heard I shall know."

"Friend Channa, do you regard the eye, eye-consciousness, and dhammas(attributes,law) cognizable with eye-consciousness thus: This is mine, this I am, this is my self? Do you regard the ear, ear-consciousness, and Dhammas cognizable with ear-consciousness thus...? Do you regard the mind, mind-consciousness, and Dhammas cognizable with mind-consciousness thus: This is mine, this I am, this is my self?

"Friend Sariputta, I regard the eye, eye-consciousness, and Dhammas cognizable with eye-consciousness thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' I regard the ear, ear-consciousness, and Dhammas cognizable with ear-consciousness thus ... I regard the mind, mind-consciousness, and Dhammas cognizable with mind-consciousness thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.'"

"Friend Channa, what have you seen and directly known in the eye, in eye-consciousness, and in Dhammas cognizable with eye-consciousness, that you regard them thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self'? What have you seen and directly known in the ear ... in the mind, in mind-consciousness, and in Dhammas cognizable with mind-consciousness, that you regard them thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self'?"

"Friend Sariputta, it is because I have seen and directly known cessation(nirodha) in the eye, in eye-consciousness, and in Dhammas cognizable with eye-consciousness, that I regard them thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' It is because I have seen and directly known cessation in the ear . . ... in the mind, in mind-consciousness, and in Dhammas cognizable with mind-consciousness, that I regard them thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.'" 52

When this was said, the Venerable Mahacunda said to the Venerable Channa: "Therefore, friend Channa, this teaching of the Lord (Buddha) is to be constantly given close mindfulness: 'For one who is dependent there is wavering; for one who is independent there is no wavering. When there is no wavering, there is tranquillity(pasaddhi/prashabdhi); when there is tranquillity, there is no inclination; when there is no inclination, there is no coming and going; when there is no coming and going, there is no passing away and being reborn; when there is no passing away and being reborn, there is neither here nor beyond nor in between the two. This itself is the end of suffering.'" 53

Then, when the Venerable Sariputta and the Venerable Mahacunda had given the Venerable Channa this instruction, they rose from their seats and departed. Then, soon after they had left, the Venerable Channa used the knife. 54

Then the Venerable Sariputta approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:
"Venerable sir, the Venerable Channa has used the knife. What is his destination, what is his future destiny?"

"Sariputta, didn't the bhikkhu(monk) Channa declare his blamelessness right in your presence?" 55

"Venerable sir, there is a Vajjian village named Pubbavijjhana. There the Venerable Channa had friendly families, intimate families, hospitable families." 56

"The Venerable Channa did indeed have these friendly families, Sariputta, intimate families, hospitable families; but I do not say that to this extent one is blameworthy. Sariputta, when one lays down this body and takes up another body, then I say one is blameworthy. This did not happen in the case of the bhikkhu Channa. The bhikkhu Channa used the knife blamelessly. Thus, Sariputta, should you remember it." 57

Note : It means that Channa did not take up another body(rebirth) hence liberated / attained nirvana.


88. Punna[]

Then the Venerable Punna approached the Lord (Buddha) . . . and said to him: 58 "Venerable sir, it would be good if the Lord (Buddha) would teach me the dhamma(path,law) in brief, so that, having heard the Dhamma from the Lord (Buddha), I might dwell alone, withdrawn, alertful(appamada), ardent, and resolute."

"Punna, there are forms cognizable by the eye that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu(monk) seeks delight(nandi\anand) in them, welcomes them, and remains holding to them, delight arises in him. With the arising of delight, Punna, there is the arising of suffering, I say. There are, Punna, sounds cognizable by the ear ... mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu seeks delight in them, welcomes them, and remains holding to them, delight arises in him. With the arising of delight, Punna, there is the arising of suffering, I say.

"Punna, there are forms cognizable by the eye ... mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu does not seek delight(nandi\anand) in them, does not welcome them, and does not remain holding to them, delight ceases in him.

With the cessation(nirodha) of delight(nandi\anand), Punna, there is the cessation of suffering, I say.

"Now that you have received this brief instruction from me, Punna, in which country will you dwell?"

"There is, venerable sir, a country named Sunaparanta. I will dwell there."

"Punna, the people of Sunaparanta are wild and rough. If they abuse and revile you, what will you think about that?"

"Venerable sir, if the people of Sunaparanta abuse and revile me, then I will think: 'These people of Sunaparanta are excellent, truly excellent, in that they do not give me a blow with the fist.' Then I will think thus. Lord (Buddha); then I will think thus. Fortunate One(Sugato)."

"But, Punna, if the people of Sunaparanta do give you a blow with the fist, what will you think about that?"

"Venerable sir, if the people of Sunaparanta give me a blow with the fist, then I will think: 'These people of Sunaparanta are excellent, truly excellent, in that they do not give me a blow with a clod.' Then I will think thus. Lord (Buddha); then I will think thus. Fortunate One(Sugato)."

"But, Punna, if the people of Sunaparanta do give you a blow with a clod, what will you think about that?"

1'Venerable sir, if the people of Sunaparanta give me a blow with a clod, then I will think: 'These people of Sunaparanta are excellent, truly excellent, in that they do not give me a blow with a rod.' Then I will think thus. Lord (Buddha); then I will think thus. Fortunate One(Sugato)."

"But, Punna, if the people of Sunaparanta do give you a blow with a rod, what will you think about that?"

"Venerable sir, if the people of Sunaparanta give me a blow with a rod, then I will think: 'These people of Sunaparanta are excellent, truly excellent, in that they do not stab me with a knife.' Then I will think thus. Lord (Buddha); then I will think thus. Fortunate One(Sugato)."

"But, Punna, if the people of Sunaparanta do stab you with a knife, what will you think about that?"

"Venerable sir, if the people of Sunaparanta stab me with a knife, then I will think: 'These people of Sunaparanta are excellent, truly excellent, in that they do not take my life with a sharp knife.' Then I will think thus. Lord (Buddha); then I will think thus. Fortunate One(Sugato)."

"But, Putina, if the people of Sunaparanta do take your life with a sharp knife, what will you think about that?"

"Venerable sir, if the people of Sunaparanta take my life with a sharp knife, then I will think: There have been disciples of the Lord (Buddha) who, being repelled, humiliated, and disgusted by the body and by life, sought for an assailant. 59 But I have come upon this assailant even without a search.' Then I will think thus. Lord ; then I will think thus, Fortunate One(Sugato)."

"Good, good, Punna! Endowed with such self-control and peacefulness, you will be able to dwell in the Sunaparanta country. Now, Punna, you may go at your own convenience." 60

Then, having delighted and rejoiced in the Lord (Buddha)'s statement, the Venerable Punna rose from his seat, paid homage to the Lord (Buddha), and departed, keeping him on his right. He then set his lodging in order, took his bowl and outer robe, and set out to wander towards the Sunaparanta country. Wandering by stages, he eventually arrived in the Sunaparanta country, where he dwelt. Then, during that rains, the Venerable Punna established five hundred male lay followers and five hundred female lay followers in the practice, and he himself, during that same rains, realized the three true knowledges. And during that same rains he attained final Nibbana. 61

Then a number of bhikkhus(monks) approached the Lord (Buddha) . . . and said to him: "Venerable sir, the clansman named Punna, who was given a brief instruction by the Lord (Buddha), has died. What is his destination? What is his future rebirth?"

"Bhikkhus, the clansman Punna was wise. He practised in accordance with the Dhamma and did not trouble me on account of the Dhamma. The clansman Punna has attained final Nibbana."


89. Bahiya[]

Then the Venerable Bahiya approached the Lord (Buddha) ... and said to him: "Venerable sir, it would be good if the Lord (Buddha) would teach me the dhamma(path,law) in brief, so that, having heard the Dhamma from the Lord (Buddha), I might dwell alone, withdrawn, alertful(appamada), ardent, and resolute."

"What do you think, Bahiya, is the eye permanent or impermanent?" - "Impermanent, venerable sir." ... (as in 32 down to:) ... "He understands: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being"

Then the Venerable Bahiya, having delighted and rejoiced in the Lord (Buddha)'s words, rose from his seat, and, after paying homage to the Lord (Buddha), keeping him on his right, he departed. Then, dwelling alone, withdrawn, alertful, ardent, and resolute, the Venerable Bahiya, by realizing it for himself with divine-knowledge(abhinna), in this very life entered and dwelt in that unsurpassed goal of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the household life into hermit life. He directly knew: "Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being." And the Venerable Bahiya became one of the arahants.


90. Being Stirred (1) (Eja1)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), being stirred is a disease, being stirred is a tumour, being stirred is a dart. 62 Therefore, bhikkhus, the Tathagata dwells unstirred, with the dart removed. Therefore, bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu(monk) should wish, 'May I dwell unstirred, with the dart removed!' he should not conceive the eye, should not conceive in the eye, should not conceive from the eye, should not conceive, 'The eye is mine.' 63

"He should not conceive forms ... eye-consciousness ... eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) ... and as to whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause ... he should not conceive that, should not conceive in that, should not conceive from that, should not conceive, 'That is mine.'

"He should not conceive the ear ... He should not conceive the mind ... mental phenomena(dhamma) ... mind-consciousness ... mind-contact ... and as to whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact as cause ... he should not conceive that, should not conceive in that, should not conceive from that, should not conceive, 'That is mine.'

"He should not conceive all, should not conceive in all, should not conceive from all, should not conceive, 'All is mine.'

"Since he does not conceive anything thus, he does not cling to anything in the world. Not clinging(upadana sans. asakti), he is not agitated. Being unagitated, he personally attains Nibbana. He understands:

'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being."'


91. Being Stirred (2) (Eja2)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), being stirred is a disease, being stirred is a tumour, being stirred is a dart. Therefore, bhikkhus, the Tathagata dwells unstirred, with the dart removed. Therefore, bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu(monk) should wish, 'May I dwell unstirred, with the dart removed!' he should not conceive the eye ... forms ... eye-consciousness ... eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) ... and as to whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact as cause ... he should not conceive that, should not conceive in that, should not conceive from that, should not conceive, 'That is mine.' For whatever one conceives, bhikkhus, whatever one conceives in, whatever one conceives from, whatever one conceives as 'mine' - that is otherwise. The world, becoming otherwise, attached to existence(bhavo), seeks delight(nandi\anand) only in existence(bhavo). 64

"He should not conceive the ear . . . He should not conceive the mind ... mental phenomena(dhamma) ... mind-consciousness ... mind-contact ... and as to whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact as cause ... he should not conceive that, should not conceive in that, should not conceive from that, should not conceive, 'That is mine.' For whatever one conceives, bhikkhus, whatever one conceives in, [67] whatever one conceives from, whatever one conceives as 'mine' - that is otherwise. The world, becoming otherwise, attached to existence(bhavo), seeks delight only in existence(bhavo).

"Whatever, bhikkhus, is the extent of the aggregates(khandha sans. skandha), the elements(dhatu), and the sense faculties, he does not conceive that, does not conceive in that, does not conceive from that, does not conceive, 'That is mine.'

"Since he does not conceive anything thus, he does not cling to anything in the world. Not clinging(upadana sans. asakti), he is not agitated. Being unagitated, he personally attains Nibbana. He understands:
'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'"


92. The Dyad(couplet) (1)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the dyad. Listen to that.. ..

"And what, bhikkhus, is the dyad? The eye and forms, the ear and sounds, the nose and odours, the tongue and tastes, the body and tactile objects, the mind and mental phenomena(dhamma). This is called the dyad.

"If anyone, bhikkhus, should speak thus: 'Having rejected this dyad, I shall make known another dyad' - that would be a mere empty boast on his part. If he was questioned he would not be able to reply and, further, he would meet with vexation. For what reason? Because, bhikkhus, that would not be within his domain." 65


93. The Dyad(couplet)(2)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) comes to be in dependence on a dyad. And how, bhikkhus, does consciousness come to be in dependence on a dyad? In dependence on the eye and forms there arises eye-consciousness. The eye is impermanent, changing, becoming otherwise; forms are impermanent, changing, becoming otherwise. Thus this dyad is moving and tottering, 66 impermanent, changing, becoming otherwise.

"Eye-consciousness is impermanent, changing, becoming otherwise. The cause for the arising of eye-consciousness is also impermanent, changing, becoming otherwise. When, bhikkhus, eye-consciousness has arisen in dependence on a cause that is impermanent, how could it be permanent?

"The meeting, the encounter, the concurrence of these three dhammas(attributes,law) is called eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh). Eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) too is impermanent, changing, becoming otherwise. The cause for the arising of eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) is also impermanent, changing, becoming otherwise. When, bhikkhus, eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) has arisen in dependence on a cause that is impermanent, how could it be permanent?

"Contacted, bhikkhus, one feels, contacted one intends, contacted one perceives. 67 Thus these Dhammas too are moving and tottering, impermanent, changing, becoming otherwise.

"In dependence on the ear and sounds there arises ear-consciousness ... In dependence on the mind and mental phenomena(dhamma) there arises mind-consciousness. The mind is impermanent, changing, becoming otherwise; mental phenomena(dhamma) are impermanent, changing, becoming otherwise. Thus this dyad is moving and tottering, impermanent, changing, becoming otherwise.

"Mind-consciousness is impermanent, changing, becoming otherwise. The cause for the arising of mind-consciousness is also impermanent, changing, becoming otherwise. When, bhikkhus, mind-consciousness has arisen in dependence on a cause that is impermanent, how could it be permanent?

"The meeting, the encounter, the concurrence of these three Dhammas is called mind-contact(of mind with thought;phassa/sparsh). Mind-contact too is impermanent, changing, becoming otherwise. The cause for the arising of mind-contact is also impermanent, changing, becoming otherwise. When, bhikkhus, mind-contact has arisen in dependence on a cause that is impermanent, how could it be permanent?

"Contacted, bhikkhus, one feels, contacted one intends, contacted one perceives. Thus these Dhammas too are moving and tottering, impermanent, changing, becoming otherwise.

"It is in such a way, bhikkhus, that consciousness comes to be in dependence on a dyad."



(v) Division 2, The Second Fifty - The Sixes Section (Salavaggo)[]

94. Untamed, Unguarded 68 (Adantagutta)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), these six sense faculties for contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) - if untamed, unguarded, unprotected, unrestrained - are bringers of suffering. 69 What six?

"The eye, bhikkhus, as a faculty for contact(phassa/sparsh) - if untamed unguarded, unprotected, unrestrained - is a bringer of suffering. The ear as a faculty for contact(phassa/sparsh) - if untamed unguarded, unprotected, unrestrained - is a bringer of suffering. The nose as a faculty for contact(phassa/sparsh) - if untamed unguarded, unprotected, unrestrained - is a bringer of suffering. The tongue as a faculty for contact(phassa/sparsh) - if untamed unguarded, unprotected, unrestrained - is a bringer of suffering. The touch as a faculty for contact(phassa/sparsh) - if untamed unguarded, unprotected, unrestrained - is a bringer of suffering. The mind as a faculty for contact(phassa/sparsh) - if untamed unguarded, unprotected, unrestrained - is a bringer of suffering. These six sense faculties for contact(phassa/sparsh) - if untamed, unguarded, unprotected, unrestrained - are bringers of suffering

"Bhikkhus, these six sense faculties for contact(phassa/sparsh) - if well tamed, well guarded, well protected, well restrained - are bringers of happiness(sukh). 70 What six?

"The eye, bhikkhus, as a faculty for contact(phassa/sparsh) - if well tamed, well guarded, well protected, well restrained - is a bringer of happiness. The ear as a faculty for contact(phassa/sparsh) - if well tamed, well guarded, well protected, well restrained - is a bringer of happiness. The nose as a faculty for contact(phassa/sparsh) - if well tamed, well guarded, well protected, well restrained - is a bringer of happiness. The tongue as a faculty for contact(phassa/sparsh) - if well tamed, well guarded, well protected, well restrained - is a bringer of happiness. The touch as a faculty for contact(phassa/sparsh) - if well tamed, well guarded, well protected, well restrained - is a bringer of happiness. The mind as a faculty for contact(phassa/sparsh) - if well tamed, well guarded, well protected, well restrained - is a bringer of happiness. These six sense faculties for contact(phassa/sparsh) - if well tamed, well guarded, well protected, well restrained - are bringers of happiness."

This is what the Lord (Buddha) said. Having said this, the Fortunate One(Sugato), the Teacher(Sattha), further said this:

"Just six, O bhikkhus, are the faculties for contact(phassa/sparsh),
Where one unrestrained meets with suffering.
Those who know how to restrain them
Dwell uncorrupted, with faith their partner.

"Having seen forms that delight(nandi\anand) the mind
And having seen those that give no delight.
Dispel the path of lust(raag) towards the delightful
And do not soil the mind by thinking, '[The other] is displeasing to me.'

"Having heard sounds both pleasant and raucous.
Do not be enthralled with pleasant sound.
Dispel the course of hate towards the raucous.
And do not soil the mind by thinking,
'[This one] is displeasing to me.'

"Having smelt a fragrant, delightful scent.
And having smelt a putrid stench.
Dispel aversion towards the stench
And do not yield to desire for the lovely.

"Having enjoyed a sweet delicious taste, And having sometimes tasted what is bitter. Do not greedily enjoy the sweet taste. Do not feel aversion towards the bitter.

"When touched by pleasant contact(phassa/sparsh) do not be enthralled,
Do not tremble when touched by pain.
Look evenly on both the pleasant and painful.
Not drawn or repelled by anything.

"When common people with 6-sense-deceiving(papanca sans. prapanch/maya) perception(sanna sans. sangya)
Perceive thus and sense-deceived they become engaged.
Having dispelled every mind-state bound to the home(worldly/material) life.
One travels on the road of renunciation. 71

"When the mind is thus well developed in six.
If touched, one's mind never flutters anywhere.
Having vanquished both lust(raag) and hate(dosa/dvesh), O bhikkhus.
Go to the far shore beyond rebirth and death!(i.e. Nibbana)"


95. Malunkyaputta (sans. Malukya-putra)[]

Then the Venerable Malunkyaputta approached the Lord (Buddha) ... and said to him: 72 "Venerable sir, it would be good if the Lord (Buddha) would teach me the dhamma(path,law) in brief, so that, having heard the Dhamma from the Lord (Buddha), I might dwell alone, withdrawn, alertful(appamada), ardent, and resolute."

"Here now, Malunkyaputta, what should I say to the young bhikkhus when a bhikkhu(monk) like you - old, aged, burdened with years, advanced in life, come to the last stage - asks me for an instruction in brief?" 73

"Although, venerable sir, I am old, aged, burdened with years, advanced in life, come to the last stage, let the Lord (Buddha) teach me the Dhamma in brief, let the Fortunate One(Sugato) teach me the Dhamma in brief. Perhaps I may understand the meaning of the Lord (Buddha)'s statement, perhaps I may become an heir to the Lord (Buddha)'s statement."

"What do you think, Malunkyaputta, do you have any desire, lust(raag), or affection for those forms cognizable by the eye that you have not seen and never saw before, that you do not see and would not think might be seen?" 74

"No, venerable sir."

"Do you have any desire, lust(raag), or affection for those sounds cognizable by the ear ... for those odours cognizable by the nose ... for those tastes cognizable by the tongue ... for those tactile objects cognizable by the body . . . for those mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind that you have not cognized and never cognized before, that you do not cognize and would not think might be cognized?"

"No, venerable sir."

"Here, Malunkyaputta, regarding dhammas(attributes,law) seen, heard, sensed, and cognized by you: in the seen there will be merely the seen; in the heard there will be merely the heard; in the sensed there will be merely the sensed; in the cognized there will be merely the cognized.

"When, Malunkyaputta, regarding dhammas seen, heard, sensed, and cognized by you, in the seen there will be merely the seen, in the heard there will be merely the heard, in the sensed there will be merely the sensed, in the cognized there will be merely the cognized, then, Maluhkyaputta, you will not be 'by that', When, Maluhkyaputta, you are not 'by that,' then you will not be 'therein.' When, Maluhkyaputta, you are not 'therein,' then you will be neither here nor beyond nor in between the two. This itself is the end of suffering." 75

"I understand in detail, venerable sir, the meaning of what was stated by the Lord (Buddha) in brief:

"Having seen a form with meditation muddled;Attending to the pleasing sign(causative,nimitta).
One experiences it with infatuated mind;And remains tightly holding to it.

"Originating from the visible form; many sensations(vedana) flourish within;
Covetousness and annoyance as well; By which one's mind becomes disturbed. 76
For one who accumulates suffering thus ; Nibbana is said to be far away.

"Having heard a sound with meditation muddled;Attending to the pleasing sign(causative,nimitta).
One experiences it with infatuated mind;And remains tightly holding to it.

"Originating from the audible sound; many sensations(vedana) flourish within;
Covetousness and annoyance as well; By which one's mind becomes disturbed.
For one who accumulates suffering thus ; Nibbana is said to be far away.

"Having smelt an odour with meditation muddled;Attending to the pleasing sign(causative,nimitta).
One experiences it with infatuated mind;And remains tightly holding to it.

"Originating from the odour; many sensations(vedana) flourish within;
Covetousness and annoyance as well; By which one's mind becomes disturbed.
For one who accumulates suffering thus ; Nibbana is said to be far away.

"Having enjoyed a taste with meditation muddled;Attending to the pleasing sign(causative,nimitta).
One experiences it with infatuated mind;And remains tightly holding to it.

"Originating from the taste; many sensations(vedana) flourish within;
Covetousness and annoyance as well; By which one's mind becomes disturbed.
For one who accumulates suffering thus ; Nibbana is said to be far away.

"Having felt a contact(phassa/sparsh) with meditation muddled;Attending to the pleasing sign(causative,nimitta).
One experiences it with infatuated mind;And remains tightly holding to it.

"Originating from the touch; many sensations(vedana) flourish within;
Covetousness and annoyance as well; By which one's mind becomes disturbed.
For one who accumulates suffering thus ; Nibbana is said to be far away.

"Having known a dhamma(here idea in mind) with meditation muddled;Attending to the pleasing sign(causative,nimitta).
One experiences it with infatuated mind;And remains tightly holding to it.

"Originating from the dhamma(here idea in mind); many sensations(vedana) flourish within;
Covetousness and annoyance as well; By which one's mind becomes disturbed.
For one who accumulates suffering thus ; Nibbana is said to be far away.
--------------------------------------------------------------------

"When, firmly meditative(sato), one sees a form, One is not inflamed by lust for forms;
One experiences it with dispassionate mind, And does not remain holding it tightly.

"One is meditating(sato) in such a way, That even as one sees the form.
And while one experiences a sensation, [Suffering] is exhausted, not built up. 77
For one dismantling suffering thus, Nibbana is said to be close by.

"When, firmly meditative, one hears a sound,One is not inflamed by lust(raag) for sounds;
One experiences it with dispassionate mind, And does not remain holding it tightly.

"One is meditating(sato) in such a way, That even as one hears a sound.
And while one experiences a sensation, [Suffering] is exhausted, not built up.
For one dismantling suffering thus, Nibbana is said to be close by.

"When, firmly meditative, one smells an odour,One is not inflamed by lust(raag) for odours;
One experiences it with dispassionate mind, And does not remain holding it tightly.

"One is meditating(sato) in such a way, That even as one smells an odour.
And while one experiences a sensation, [Suffering] is exhausted, not built up.
For one dismantling suffering thus, Nibbana is said to be close by.

"When, firmly meditative, one enjoys a taste.One is not inflamed by lust(raag) for tastes;
One experiences it with dispassionate mind, And does not remain holding it tightly.

"One is meditating(sato) in such a way, That even as one enjoys a taste.
And while one experiences a sensation, [Suffering] is exhausted, not built up.
For one dismantling suffering thus, Nibbana is said to be close by.

"When, firmly meditative, one feels a touch,One is not inflamed by lust(raag) for contacts(touch);
One experiences it with dispassionate mind, And does not remain holding it tightly.

"One is meditating(sato) in such a way, That even as one feels a touch.
And while one experiences a sensation, [Suffering] is exhausted, not built up.
For one dismantling suffering thus, Nibbana is said to be close by.

"When, firmly meditative(satima), one knows a dhamma(here idea in mind),One is not inflamed by lust for objects;
One experiences it with dispassionate mind, And does not remain holding it tightly.

"One is meditating(sato) in such a way, That even as one knows a dhamma(here idea in mind).
And while one experiences a sensation, [Suffering] is exhausted, not built up.
For one dismantling suffering thus, Nibbana is said to be close by.

"It is in such a way, venerable sir, that I understand in detail the meaning of what was stated by the Lord (Buddha) in brief."

Buddha : "Good, good, Malunkyaputta! It is good that you understand in detail the meaning of what was stated by me in brief.

{The Buddha here repeats the above verses in full.)

"It is in such a way, Malunkyaputta, that the meaning of what was stated by me in brief should be understood in detail."

Then the Venerable Malunkyaputta, having delighted and rejoiced in the Lord (Buddha)'s words, rose from his seat, and, after paying homage to the Lord (Buddha), keeping him on his right, he departed. Then, dwelling alone, withdrawn, alertful(appamada), ardent, and resolute, the Venerable Malunkyaputta, by realizing it for himself with divine-knowledge(abhinna), in this very life entered and dwelt in that unsurpassed goal of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the household life into hermit life. He directly knew: "Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived. What had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being." And the Venerable Maluhkyaputta became one of the arahants.


96. Declining Dhamma (Parihanadhamma sans. Parihani-Dhamma)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you about one who is subject to loss, about one who is not subject to loss, and about the six mastered sense faculties. Listen to that....

"And how, bhikkhus, is one subject to loss? 78 Here, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu(monk) has seen a form with the eye, there arise in him evil harmful(akusala sans. akushal) states, memories and intentions connected with the fetters. 79 If the bhikkhu tolerates them and does not abandon them, dispel them, put an end to them, and obliterate them, he should understand this thus: 'I am declining away from beneficial(kusala sans. kushal) states. For this has been called loss by the Lord (Buddha).'

"Further, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu has heard a sound with the ear ... cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, there arise in him evil harmful(akusala) states, memories and intentions connected with the fetters. If the bhikkhu tolerates them and does not abandon them, dispel them, put an end to them, and obliterate them, he should understand this thus: 'I am declining away from beneficial(kusala) states. For this has been called loss by the Lord (Buddha).'

"It is in such a way, bhikkhus, that one is subject to loss.

"And how, bhikkhus, is one not subject to loss? Here, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu has seen a form with the eye, there arise in him evil harmful(akusala) states, memories and intentions connected with the fetters. If the bhikkhu does not tolerate them, but abandons them, dispels them, puts on end to them, and obliterates them, he should understand this thus: 'I am not declining away from beneficial(kusala) states. For this has been called no loss by the Lord (Buddha).'

"Further, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu has heard a sound with the ear . . . cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, there arise in him evil harmful(akusala) states, memories and intentions connected with the fetters. If the bhikkhu does not tolerate them, but abandons them, dispels them, puts an end to them, and obliterates them, he should understand this thus: 'I am not declining away from beneficial(kusala) states. For this has been called no loss by the Lord (Buddha).'

"It is in such a way, bhikkhus, that one is not subject to loss.

"And what, bhikkhus, are the six mastered sense faculties? 80 Here, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu has seen a form with the eye, there do not arise in him evil harmful(akusala) states, nor any memories and intentions connected with the fetters. The bhikkhu should understand this thus: 'This faculty has been mastered. For this has been called a mastered faculty by the Lord (Buddha).'

"Further, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu has heard a sound with the ear ... cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, there do not arise in him evil harmful(akusala sans. akushal) states, nor any memories and intentions connected with the fetters. The bhikkhu should understand this thus: 'This faculty has been mastered. For this has been called a mastered faculty by the Lord (Buddha).' These, bhikkhus, are called the six mastered sense faculties."


97. Dwelling Slothfully (Pamadavihari sans. Pramad-vihari)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you about one who dwells slothfully(in pamada), and about one who dwells alertful(appamada). Listen to that....

"And how, bhikkhus, does one dwell slothfully? If one dwells without restraint over the eye faculty, the mind is soiled 81 among forms cognizable by the eye. If the mind is soiled, there is no gladness. When there is no gladness, there is no bliss(piti/preeti). When there is no bliss, there is no tranquillity(pasaddhi/prashabdhi). When there is no tranquillity, one dwells in suffering. 82 The mind of one who suffers does not become in-samadhi(trance)state. When the mind is not in-samadhi(trance)state, phenomena(dhamma) do not become manifest. 83 Because phenomena(dhamma) do not become manifest, one is reckoned as 'one who dwells slothfully.'

"If one dwells without restraint over the ear faculty, the mind is soiled among sounds cognizable by the ear..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind).. If one dwells without restraint over the mind faculty, the mind is soiled among mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind.... Because phenomena(dhamma) do not become manifest, one is reckoned as 'one who dwells slothfully.'

"It is in such a way, bhikkhus, that one dwells slothfully.

"And how, bhikkhus, does one dwell alertful? If one dwells with restraint over the eye faculty, the mind is not soiled among forms cognizable by the eye. If the mind is not soiled, gladness is born. When one is gladdened, bliss is born. When the mind is uplifted by bliss(piti/preeti), the body becomes tranquil. One tranquil in body experiences happiness(sukh). The mind of one who is happy becomes in-samadhi(trance)state. When the mind is in-samadhi(trance)state, phenomena(dhamma) become manifest. Because phenomena(dhamma) become manifest, one is reckoned as 'one who dwells alertful.'

"If one dwells with restraint over the ear faculty, the mind is not soiled among sounds cognizable by the ear..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind).. If one dwells with restraint over the mind faculty, the mind is not soiled among mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind.... Because phenomena(dhamma) become manifest, one is reckoned as 'one who dwells alertful.'

"It is in such a way, bhikkhus, that one dwells alertful."


98. Restraint (Samvara)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you restraint and nonrestraint. Listen to that....

"And how, bhikkhus, is there nonrestraint? There are, bhikkhus, forms cognizable by the eye that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu(monk) seeks delight(nandi\anand) in them, welcomes them, and remains holding to them, he should understand this thus: 'I am declining away from beneficial(kusala sans. kushal) states. For this has been called loss by the Lord (Buddha).'

"There are, bhikkhus, sounds cognizable by the ear ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind).. mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu seeks delight(nandi\anand) in them, welcomes them, and remains holding to them, he should understand this thus: 'I am declining away from beneficial(kusala) states. For this has been called loss by the Lord (Buddha).'

"Such, bhikkhus, is nonrestraint.

"And how, bhikkhus, is there restraint? There are, bhikkhus, forms cognizable by the eye that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu does not seek delight(nandi\anand) in them, does not welcome them, and does not remain holding to them, he should understand this thus: 'I am not declining away from beneficial(kusala) states. For this has been called no loss by the Lord (Buddha).'

"There are, bhikkhus, sounds cognizable by the ear ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind).. mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu does not seek delight in them, does not welcome them, and does not remain holding to them, he should understand this thus: 'I am not losing beneficial(kusala) states. For this has been called no loss by the Lord (Buddha).'

"Such, bhikkhus, is restraint."


99. Self-Absorptive Trance (Samadhi)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), develop samadhi(trance)state. A bhikkhu(monk) who is in-samadhi(trance)state understands things as they really are. 84

"And what does he understand as they really are? He understands stands as it really is: 'The eye is impermanent.' He understands as it really is: 'Forms are impermanent.'... 'Eye-consciousness is impermanent.'... 'Eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) is impermanent.'... 'Whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause - whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant - that too is impermanent.'...(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind)...

"He understand as it really is: 'The mind is impermanent. (similarly for consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan), contact(phassa/sparsh) etc) ... He understand as it really is: 'Whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause ... that too is impermanent.'

"Bhikkhus, develop samadhi(trance)state. A bhikkhu who is in-samadhi(trance)state understands things as they really are."


100. Seclusion (Patisallana)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), make an exertion in seclusion. A secluded bhikkhu understands things as they really are."

(The rest is identical with the preceding sutta 99.)


101. Not Yours (1) (Natumhaka1)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), whatever is not yours, abandon it. 85 When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness(sukh). And what is it, bhikkhus, that is not yours? The eye is not yours: abandon it. When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness. Forms are not yours ... Eye-consciousness is not yours ... Eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) is not yours ... Whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause - whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant - that too is not yours: abandon it. When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness.

"The ear is not yours ..(similarly nose,tongue,touch).. The mind is not yours ... Whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause ... that too is not yours: abandon it. When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, people were to carry off the grass, sticks, branches, and foliage in this Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), or to burn them, or to do with them as they wish. Would you think: 'People are carrying us off, or burning us, or doing with us as they wish'?"

"No, venerable sir. For what reason? Because, venerable sir, that is neither our self nor what belongs to our self."

"So too, bhikkhus, the eye is not yours . . (similarly its forms, consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan), contact(phassa/sparsh) & sensation) . . Whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind). that too is not yours: abandon it. When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness."


102. Not Yours (2) (Natumhaka2)[]

(This sutta is identical with the preceding one except that it omits the simile.)


103. Uddaka[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), Uddaka Ramaputta used to make this declaration:

"'This, surely a knowledge-master
This, surely a universal conqueror
This, surely he has cut
The tumour's root not cut before!' 86

"Bhikkhus, though Uddaka Ramaputta was not himself a knowledge-master, he declared: 'I am a knowledge-master.' Though he was not himself a universal conqueror, he declared: 'I am a universal conqueror.' Though he had not cut the tumour's root, he declared: 'I have cut the tumour's root.' But here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu(monk) speaking rightly might say:

"'This, surely a knowledge-master
This, surely a universal conqueror
This, surely he has cut
The tumour's root not cut before!'

"And how, bhikkhus, is one a knowledge-master? When a bhikkhu understands as they really are the origin, the passing away, the worldly-enjoyment(assado sans. aswad), the danger, and the escape in regard to the six sense faculties for contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh), such a bhikkhu is a knowledge-master.

"And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu a universal conqueror? When, having understood as they really are the origin, the passing away, the worldly-enjoyment, the danger, and the escape in regard to the six sense faculties for contact(phassa/sparsh), a bhikkhu is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) by nonclinging, such a bhikkhu is a universal conqueror.

"And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu excise the tumour's root not cut before? 'The tumour,' bhikkhus: this is a designation for this body consisting of the four great elements(dhatu), originating from mother and father, built up out of rice and gruel, subject to impermanence(anicca sans. anitya), to rubbing and pressing, to breaking apart and dispersal. 87 'The tumour's root': this is a designation for craving(tanha sans. trishna). When craving has been abandoned by a bhikkhu, cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so that it is no more subject to future arising, in such a case the bhikkhu has cut the tumour's root not cut before.

"Bhikkhus, though Uddaka Ramaputta was not himself a knowledge-master, he declared: 'I am a knowledge-master.'... But here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu speaking rightly might say:

"'This, surely a knowledge-master
This, surely a universal conqueror
This, surely he has cut
The tumour's root not cut before!'"



(i) Division 3. The Third Fifty - Secure from Bondage (Yogakkhemivaggo sans. Yogkshemi-varg)[]

104. Secure from Bondage (Yogakkhemi sans. Yogkshemi)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you a dhamma(path,law) exposition on the theme of the one who declares the exertion to become secure from bondage. 88 Listen to that....

"And what, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma exposition on the theme of the one who declares the exertion to become secure from bondage? There are, bhikkhus, forms cognizable by the eye that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. These have been abandoned by the Tathagata, cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so that they are no more subject to future arising. He declares an exertion [should be made] for their abandoning. Therefore the Tathagata is called one who declares the exertion to become secure from bondage. 89

"There are, bhikkhus, sounds cognizable by the ear .., mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. These have been abandoned by the Tathagata, cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so that they are no more subject to future arising. He declares an exertion [should be made] for their abandoning. Therefore the Tathagata is called one who declares the exertion to become secure from bondage.

"This, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma exposition on the theme of the one who declares the exertion to become secure from bondage."


105. By Clinging (Upadaya)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), when what exists, by clinging(upadana sans. asakti) to what, do happiness and sorrow arise internally?" 90

"Venerable sir, our teachings are rooted in the Lord (Buddha)...."
"When there is the eye, bhikkhus, by clinging to the eye, happiness and sorrow arise internally. When there is the ear ... the mind,
by clinging to the mind, happiness and sorrow arise internally.

"What do you think, bhikkhus, is the eye permanent or impermanent?"

"Impermanent, venerable sir."

"Is what is impermanent suffering or happiness(sukh)?"

"Suffering, venerable sir."

"But without clinging to what is impermanent, suffering, and
subject to change, could happiness and sorrow arise internally?"

"No, venerable sir."

"Is the ear ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch & mind)..the mind permanent or impermanent?... But without clinging to what is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change, could happiness and sorrow arise internally?"

"No, venerable sir."

"Seeing thus, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple experiences revulsion(nibbida) towards the eye . . . the mind. Experiencing revulsion, he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion [his mind] is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt). When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: 'It's liberated.' He understands: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'"


106. The Origin of Suffering (Dukkhasamudaya)[]

(Identical with previous 105)


107. The Origin of the World (Lokasamudaya)[]

(Identical with previous 105)


108. I Am Superior (Seyyohamasmi)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), when what exists, by clinging(upadana sans. asakti) to what, by adhering to what, does the thought occur: 'I am superior' or 'I am equal' or 'I am inferior'?"

"Venerable sir, our teachings are rooted in the Lord (Buddha)...."

"When there is the eye, bhikkhus, by clinging to the eye, by adhering to the eye, the thought occurs: 'I am superior' or 'I am equal' or 'I am inferior.' When there is the ear ... When there is the mind, by clinging to the mind, by adhering to the mind, the thought occurs: 'I am superior' or 'I am equal' or 'I am inferior.'

"What do you think, bhikkhus, is the eye ... the mind permanent or impermanent?"

"Impermanent, venerable sir."...

"But without clinging to what is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change, could the thought occur: 'I am superior' or 'I am equal 7 or 'I am inferior'?"

"No, venerable sir."

"Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'" [89]


109. Fetters Causing (Samyojaniya)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the dhammas(attributes,law) that fetter and the fetter. Listen to that.... 92

"And what, bhikkhus, are the dhammas that fetter, and what is the fetter? The eye, bhikkhus, is a dhamma(quality,law) that fetters; the desire(chand) & lust(raag) for it is the fetter there. The ear is a dhamma(quality,law) that fetters ... The mind is a dhamma(quality,law) that fetters; the desire(chand) & lust(raag) for it is the fetter there. These are called the dhammas that fetter, and this the fetter."


110. Clinging Causing (Upadaniya)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the dhammas(attributes,law) that can be clung to and the clinging(upadana sans. asakti). Listen to that....

"And what, bhikkhus, are the dhammas that can be clung to, and what is the clinging? The eye, bhikkhus, is a dhamma(quality,law) that can be clung to; the desire(chand) & lust(raag) for it is the clinging there. The ear is a dhamma(quality,law) that can be clung to . . . The mind is a dhamma(quality,law) that can be clung to; the desire(chand) & lust(raag) for it is the clinging there. These are called the dhammas that can be clung to, and this the clinging."


111. Fully Understanding The Inside (1) (Ajjhattikayatanaparijanana)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), without directly knowing and fully understanding the eye, 93 without developing dispassion towards it and abandoning it, one is incapable of destroying suffering. Without directly knowing and fully understanding the ear ... the mind, without developing dispassion towards it and abandoning it, one is incapable of destroying suffering. But by directly knowing and fully understanding the eye ... the mind, by developing dispassion towards it and abandoning it, one is capable of destroying suffering."


112. Fully Understanding The Outside (2) (Bahirayatanaparijanana)[]

(Identical with 111, but stated by way of the six external sense faculties.)


113. Listening In (Upassuti)[]

(Identical with 107)



(ii) Division 3. The Third Fifty - The World and Cords of sensual pleasure (Lokakamagunavaggo)[]

114. Mara's Snare (1) (Marapasa1)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), there are forms cognizable by the eye that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu(monk) seeks delight(nandi\anand) in them, welcomes them, and remains holding to them, he is called a bhikkhu who has entered Mara(Satan)'s lair, who has come under Mara's control; Mara's snare has been fastened to him 94 so that he is bound by the bondage of Mara and the Evil One can do with him as he wishes.

"There are, bhikkhus, sounds cognizable by the ear ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch & mind).. mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu seeks delight(nandi\anand) in them ... the Evil One can do with him as he wishes.

"There are, bhikkhus, forms cognizable by the eye that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu does not seek delight(nandi\anand) in them, does not welcome them, and does not remain holding to them, he is called a bhikkhu who has not entered Mara's lair, who has not come under Mara's control; Mara's snare has been unfastened from him so that he is not bound by the bondage of Mara and the Evil One cannot do with him as he wishes.

"There are, bhikkhus, sounds cognizable by the ear . . (similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch & mind). . mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu does not seek delight(nandi\anand) in them ... the Evil One cannot do with him as he wishes."


115. Mara's Snare (2) (Marapasa2)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), there are forms cognizable by the eye that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu(monk) seeks delight(nandi\anand) in them, welcomes them, and remains holding to them, he is called a bhikkhu who is bound among forms cognizable by the eye, who has entered Mara(Satan)'s lair, who has come under Mara's control; [Mara's snare has been fastened to him so that he is bound by the bondage of Mara] 95 and the Evil One can do with him as he wishes.

"There are, bhikkhus, sounds cognizable by the ear ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch & mind).. mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu seeks delight(nandi\anand) in them . . . the Evil One can do with him as he wishes.

"There are, bhikkhus, forms cognizable by the eye that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu does not seek delight(nandi\anand) in them, does not welcome them, and does not remain holding to them, he is called a bhikkhu who is free among forms cognizable by the eye, who has not entered Mara's lair, who has not come under Mara's control; [Mara's snare has been unfastened from him so that he is not bound by the bondage of Mara] and the Evil One cannot do with him as he wishes.

"There are, bhikkhus, sounds cognizable by the ear ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch & mind).. mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu does not seek delight(nandi\anand) in them . . . the Evil One cannot do with him as he wishes."


116. Going to the End of the World (Lokantagamana)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I say that the end of the world cannot be known, seen, or reached by travelling. Yet, bhikkhus, I also say that without reaching the end of the world there is no making an end to suffering." 96

Having said this, the Lord (Buddha) rose from his seat and entered his dwelling. 97 Then, soon after the Lord (Buddha) had left, the bhikkhus considered: "Now, friends, the Lord (Buddha) has risen from his seat and entered his dwelling after reciting a synopsis in brief without expounding the meaning in detail. Now who will expound in detail the meaning-of the synopsis that the Lord (Buddha) recited in brief?" Then they considered: "The Venerable Ananda is praised by the Teacher and esteemed by his wise brothers in the holy celibate life(brahmacariya); the Venerable Ananda is capable of expounding in detail the meaning of this synopsis recited in brief by the Lord (Buddha) without expounding the meaning in detail. Let us approach him and ask him the meaning of this."

Then those bhikkhus approached the Venerable Ananda and exchanged greetings with him, after which they sat down to one side and told him what had taken place, adding: "Let the Venerable Ananda expound it to us."

[The Venerable Ananda replied:] "Friends, it is as though a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, would pass over the root and trunk of a great tree standing possessed of heartwood, thinking that heartwood should be sought among the branches and foliage. And so it is with you venerable ones: when you were face to face with the Teacher you passed by the Lord (Buddha), thinking that I should be asked about the meaning. For, friends, knowing, the Lord (Buddha) knows; seeing, he sees; he has become vision, he has become knowledge, he has become the Dhamma, he has become the holy one; he is the expounder, the proclaimer, the elucidator of meaning, the giver of the deathless-state(nirvana), the lord of the dhamma(path,law), the Tathagata. That was the time when you should have asked the Lord (Buddha) the meaning. [95] As he explained it to you, so you should have remembered it."

"Surely, friend Ananda, knowing, the Lord (Buddha) knows; seeing, he sees; he has become vision ... the Tathagata. That was the time when we should have asked the Lord (Buddha) the meaning, and as he explained it to us, so we should have remembered it. Yet the Venerable Ananda is praised by the Teacher and esteemed by his wise brothers in the holy celibate life(brahmacariya); the Venerable Ananda is capable of expounding the detailed meaning of this synopsis recited in brief by the Lord (Buddha) without expounding the meaning in detail. Let the Venerable Ananda expound it without finding it troublesome."

"Then listen, friends, and be mindful(manasikaro) to what I shall say."

"Yes, friend," the bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Ananda said this:

"Friends, when the Lord (Buddha) rose from his seat and entered his dwelling after reciting a synopsis in brief without expounding the meaning in detail, that is: 'Bhikkhus, I say that the end of the world cannot be known, seen, or reached by travelling. Yet, bhikkhus, I also say that without reaching the end of the world there is no making an end to suffering', I understand the detailed meaning of this synopsis as follows: That in the world by which one is a perceiver of the world, a conceiver of the world - this is called the world in the Noble One's Discipline. 98 And what, friends, is that in the world by which one is a perceiver of the world, a conceiver of the world? The eye is that in the world by which one is a perceiver of the world, a conceiver of the world. 99 The ear ... The nose ... The tongue ... The body ... The mind is that in the world by which one is a perceiver of the world, a conceiver of the world. That in the world by which one is a perceiver of the world, a conceiver of the world - this is called the world in the Noble One's Discipline.

"Friends, when the Lord (Buddha) rose from his seat and entered his dwelling after reciting a synopsis in brief without expounding the meaning in detail, that is: 'Bhikkhus, I say that the end of the world cannot be known, seen, or reached by travelling. Yet, bhikkhus, I also say that without reaching the end of the world there is no making an end to suffering,' I understand the meaning of this synopsis in detail to be thus. Now, friends, if you wish, go to the Lord (Buddha) and ask him about the meaning of this. As the Lord (Buddha) explains it to you, so you should remember it."

"Yes, friends," those bhikkhus replied, and having risen from their seats, they went to the Lord (Buddha). After paying homage to him, they sat down to one side and told the Lord (Buddha) all that had taken place after he had left, adding: [97] "Then, venerable sir, we approached the Venerable Ananda and asked him about the meaning. The Venerable Ananda expounded the meaning to us in these ways, with these terms, with these phrases."

"Ananda is wise, bhikkhus, Ananda has great illuminated-insight(panna). If you had asked me the meaning of this, I would have explained it to you in the same way that it has been explained by Ananda. Such is the meaning of this, and so you should remember it."


117. Cords of sensual pleasure (Kamaguna)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), before my enlightenment, while I was still a bodhisatta, not yet fully enlightened, the thought occurred to me: 'My mind may often stray towards those five cords of sensual pleasure that have already left their impression on the heart 100 but which have passed, ceased, and changed, or towards those that are present, or slightly towards those in the future.' Then it occurred to me: 'Being set on my own welfare, 101 I should practise alertfulness(appamada), meditation, and guarding of the mind in regard to those five cords of sensual pleasure that have already left their impression on the heart, which have passed, ceased, and changed.'

"Therefore, bhikkhus, in your case too your minds may often stray towards those five cords of sensual pleasure that have already left their impression on the heart but which have passed, ceased, and changed, or towards those that are present, or slightly towards those in the future. Therefore, bhikkhus, being set on your own welfare, you should practise alertfulness, meditation, and guarding of the mind in regard to those five cords of sensual pleasure that have already left their impression on the heart but which have passed, ceased, and changed.

"Therefore, bhikkhus, that faculty should be understood, 102 where the eye ceases and perception(sanna sans. sangya) of forms fades away. 103 That faculty should be understood, where the ear ceases and perception of sounds fades away..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch & mind).. That faculty should be understood, where the mind ceases and perception of mental phenomena(dhamma) fades away. That faculty should be understood."

Having said this, the Lord (Buddha) rose from his seat and entered his dwelling. Then, soon after the Lord (Buddha) had left, the bhikkhus considered ... (all as in preceding sutta down to:) ... The Venerable Ananda said this:

"Friends, when the Lord (Buddha) rose from his seat and entered his dwelling after reciting a synopsis in brief without expounding the meaning in detail - that is: 'Therefore, bhikkhus, that faculty should be understood, where the eye ceases and perception of forms fades away.... That faculty should be understood, where the mind ceases and perception of mental phenomena(dhamma) fades away. That faculty should be understood' - I understand the detailed meaning of this synopsis as follows: This was stated by the Lord (Buddha), friends, with reference to the cessation(nirodha) of the six sense faculties. 104

"Friends, when the Lord (Buddha) rose from his seat and entered his dwelling after reciting a synopsis in brief without expounding the meaning in detail ... I understand the meaning of this synopsis in detail to be thus. Now, friends, if you wish, go to the Lord (Buddha) and ask him about the meaning of this. As the Lord (Buddha) explains it to you, so you should remember it."

"Yes, friends," those bhikkhus replied, and having risen from their seats, they went to the Lord (Buddha). After paying homage to him, they sat down to one side and told the Lord (Buddha) all that had taken place after he had left, adding: "Then, venerable sir, we approached the Venerable Ananda and asked him about the meaning. The Venerable Ananda expounded the meaning to us in these ways, with these terms, with these phrases."

"Ananda is wise, bhikkhus, Ananda has great illuminated-insight(panna). If you had asked me the meaning of this, I would have explained it to you in the same way that it has been explained by Ananda. Such is the meaning of this, and so you should remember it."


118. Sakka's Question (Sakkapanha sans. Shakra-prashn)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha on Mount Vulture Peak. Then Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, stood to one side, and said to him:

"Venerable sir, what is the cause and reason [102] why some beings here do not attain Nibbana in this very life? And what is the cause and reason why some beings here attain Nibbana in this very life?"

"There are, lord of the devas, forms cognizable by the eye that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu(monk) seeks delight(nandi\anand) in them, welcomes them, and remains holding to them, his consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) becomes dependent upon them and clings to them. A bhikkhu with clinging(upadana sans. asakti) does not attain Nibbana. 105

"There are, lord of the devas, sounds cognizable by the ear ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch & mind).. mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu seeks delight(nandi\anand) in them, welcomes them, and remains holding to them, his consciousness becomes dependent upon them and clings to them. A bhikkhu with clinging does not attain Nibbana.

"This is the cause and reason, lord of the devas, why some beings here do not attain Nibbana in this very life.

"There are, lord of the devas, forms cognizable by the eye . .(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch & mind). . mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu does not seek delight(nandi\anand) in them, does not welcome them, and does not remain holding to them, his consciousness does not become dependent upon them or cling to them. A bhikkhu without clinging attains Nibbana.

"This is the cause and reason, lord of the devas, why some beings here attain Nibbana in this very life."


119. Pancasikha[]

(The same except that the interlocutor is Pancasikha, son of the gandhabbas.) 106


120. Sariputta[]

On one occasion the Venerable Sariputta was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Then a certain bhikkhu(monk) approached the Venerable Sariputta and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to the Venerable Sariputta:

"Friend Sariputta, a bhikkhu who was my co-resident has given up the training and returned to the lower life."

"So it is, friend, when one does not guard the doors of the sense faculties, is immoderate in eating, and is not devoted to wakefulness. That a bhikkhu who does not guard the doors of the sense faculties, who is immoderate in eating, and who is not devoted to wakefulness will maintain all his life the complete and pure holy celibate life(brahmacariya) - this is impossible. But, friend, that a bhikkhu who guards the doors of the sense faculties, who is moderate in eating, and who is devoted to wakefulness will maintain all his life the complete and pure holy celibate life(brahmacariya) - this is possible.

"And how, friend, does one guard the doors of the sense faculties? Here, having seen a form with the eye, a bhikkhu does not grasp its causatives(nimitta) and features. 107 Since, if he left the eye faculty unrestrained, evil harmful(akusala sans. akushal) states of covetousness and displeasure might invade him, he practises the way of its restraint, he guards the eye faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the eye faculty. Having heard a sound with the ear ... Having smelt an odour with the nose . . . Having savoured a taste with the tongue . . . Having felt a tactile object with the body . . . Having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, a bhikkhu does not grasp its causatives(nimitta) and features. Since, if he left the mind faculty unrestrained, evil harmful(akusala) states of covetousness and displeasure might invade him, he practises the way of its restraint, he guards the mind faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the mind faculty. It is in this way, friend, that one guards the doors of the sense faculties.

"And how, friend, is one moderate in eating? Here, meditatively(carefully), a bhikkhu takes food neither for amusement nor for intoxication nor for the sake of physical beauty and attractiveness, but only for the support and maintenance of this body, for ending discomfort, and for assisting the holy celibate life(brahmacariya), considering: Thus I shall terminate the old sensation(vedana) and not arouse a new sensation(vedana), and I shall be healthy and blameless and live in comfort.' 108 It is in this way, friend, that one is moderate in eating.

"And how, friend, is one devoted to wakefulness? Here, during the day, while walking back and forth and sitting, a bhikkhu purifies his mind of obstructive states. In the-first watch of the night, while walking back and forth and sitting, he purifies his mind of obstructive states. In the middle watch of the night he lies down on his right side in the lion's posture with one foot overlapping the other, meditative(satima) and completely comprehending (sampajano), after noting in his mind the idea of rising. After rising, in the last watch of the night, while walking back and forth and sitting, he purifies his mind of obstructive states. It is in this way, friend, that one is devoted to wakefulness.

"Therefore, friend, you should train yourself thus: 'We will guard the doors of the sense faculties; we will be moderate in eating; we will be devoted to wakefulness.' Thus, friend, should you train yourself."


121. Instruction to Rahula (Rahulovada)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. 109 Then, while the Lord (Buddha) was alone in seclusion, a thought arose in his mind thus:
"The states that ripen in liberation(vimutti sans. vimukti) have come to maturity in Rahula. Let me lead him on further to the destruction(khaya\kshaya) of the defilements." 110

Then, in the morning, the Lord (Buddha) dressed and, taking bowl and robe, walked for alms in Savatthi. When he had returned from the alms round, after his meal he addressed the Venerable Rahula thus: "Take a sitting cloth, Rahula. Let us go to the Blind men's grove(Andhavana) for the day's abiding."

"Yes, venerable sir," the Venerable Rahula replied and, having taken a sitting cloth, he followed close behind the Lord (Buddha).

Now on that occasion many thousands of devatas(angels) followed the Lord (Buddha), thinking: "Today the Lord (Buddha) will lead the Venerable Rahula on further to the destruction(khaya\kshaya) of the defilements' 111 Then the Lord (Buddha) plunged into the Blind men's grove(Andhavana) and sat down at the foot of a certain tree on a seat that was prepared for him. The Venerable Rahula paid homage to the Lord (Buddha) and sat down to one side. The Lord (Buddha) then said to him:

"What do you think, Rahula, is the eye permanent or impermanent?" - "Impermanent, venerable sir." - "Is what is impermanent suffering or happiness(sukh)?" - "Suffering, venerable sir." -"Is what is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change fit to be regarded thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this is my self'?" - "No, venerable sir."

"Are forms permanent or impermanent?. .. Is eye-consciousness ... Is eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) ... Is anything included in sensation(vedana), perception(sanna sans. sangya), sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), and consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) arisen with eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause permanent or impermanent?" - "Impermanent, venerable sir." ( The rest as in the preceding paragraph.)

"Is the ear ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch & mind).. the mind permanent or impermanent?.. ... Are mental phenomena(dhamma) ... Is mind-consciousness ... Is mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) ... Is anything included in sensation(vedana), perception, sankhara(behavior-conditioning), and consciousness arisen with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause permanent or impermanent?" - "Impermanent, venerable sir." - "Is what is impermanent suffering or happiness?" -"Suffering, venerable sir." - "Is what is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change fit to be regarded thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this is my self'?" - "No, venerable sir."

"Seeing thus, Rahula, the instructed noble disciple experiences revulsion(nibbida) towards the eye, revulsion towards forms, revulsion towards eye-consciousness, revulsion towards eye-contact(phassa/sparsh); revulsion towards anything included in sensation(vedana), perception, sankhara(behavior-conditioning), and consciousness arisen with eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause. He experiences revulsion towards the ear ... towards the mind ... towards anything included in sensation(vedana), perception, sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), and consciousness arisen with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause.

"Experiencing revulsion, he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion [his mind] is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt). When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: 'It's liberated.' He understands:
'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'"

This is what the Lord (Buddha) said. Elated, the Venerable Rahula delighted in the Lord (Buddha)'s statement. And while this discourse was being spoken, the Venerable Rahula's mind was liberated from the defilements by nonclinging, and in those many thousands of devatas(angels) there arose the dust-free, stainless vision of the Dhamma: "Whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation(nirodha)." 112


122. Fetters Causing (Samyojaniyadhamma)[]

(Identical with 109, but by way of the six external senses.)


123. Clinging Causing (Upadaniyadhamma)[]

(Identical with 110, but by way of the six external senses.)



(iii) Division 3. The Third Fifty - The Householder (Gahapati sans. Grihapati)[]

124. At Vesali[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Vesali in the Great Wood in the Hall with the Peaked Roof. Then the householder Ugga of Vesali approached the Lord (Buddha) ... and said to him.... 113

(The question and the reply are exactly the same as in 118.)


125. Among the Vajjians[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling among the
Vajjians at Hatthigama. Then the householder Ugga of Hatthigama approached the Lord (Buddha) ... and said to him.... 114
8 (As in 118.)


126. At Nalanda[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Nalanda in Pavarika's-Mango-Grove(Pavarik-AmbaVana). Then the householder Upali approached the Lord (Buddha) ... and said to him.... 115
(As in 118.)


127. Bharadvaja[]

On one occasion the Venerable Pindola Bharadvaja was dwelling at Kosambi in Ghosita's Park. 116 Then King Udena approached the Venerable Pindola Bharadvaja and exchanged greetings with him. 117 When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to him:

"Master Bharadvaja, what is the cause and reason why these young bhikkhus, lads with black hair, endowed with the blessing of youth, in the prime of life, who have not dallied with sensual pleasures, lead the complete and pure holy celibate life(brahmacariya) all their lives and maintain it continuously?" 118

"Great king, this was said by the Lord (Buddha) who knows and sees, the Arahant, the Fully Enlightened One: 'Come, bhikkhus, towards women old enough to be your mother set up the idea that they are your mother; 119 towards those of an age to be your sisters set up the idea that they are your sisters; towards those young enough to be your daughters set up the idea that they are your daughters.' This is a cause and reason, great king, why these young bhikkhus ... lead the complete and pure holy celibate life(brahmacariya) all their lives and maintain it continuously."

"The mind is wanton. Master Bharadvaja. Sometimes states of lust(raag) arise even towards women old enough to be one's mother; sometimes they arise towards women of an age to be one's sister; sometimes they arise towards women young enough to be one's daughter. Is there any other cause and reason why these young bhikkhus ... lead the complete and pure holy celibate life(brahmacariya) all their lives and maintain it continuously?"

"Great king, this was said by the Lord (Buddha) who knows and sees, the Arahant, the Fully Enlightened One: 'Come, bhikkhus, review this very body upwards from the soles of the feet, downwards from the tips of the hairs, enclosed in skin, as full of many kinds of impurities: 120 "There are in this body head-hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, contents of the stomach, excrement, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, snot, fluid of the joints, urine.'" This too, great king, is a cause and reason why these young bhikkhus . . . lead the complete and pure holy celibate life(brahmacariya) all their lives and maintain it continuously."

"That is easy. Master Bharadvaja, for those bhikkhus who are developed in body, developed in virtue(sheel), developed in mind, developed in illuminated-insight(panna). But it is difficult for those bhikkhus who are undeveloped in body, 121 undeveloped in virtue, undeveloped in mind, undeveloped in panna(illuminated-insight). Sometimes, though one thinks, 'I will attend to the body as foul,' one looks at it as beautiful. Is there any other cause and reason why these young bhikkhus ... lead the complete and pure holy celibate life(brahmacariya) all their lives and maintain it continuously?"

"Great king, this was said by the Lord (Buddha) who knows and sees, the Arahant, the Fully Enlightened One: 'Come, bhikkhus, dwell guarding the doors of the sense faculties. Having seen a form with the eye, do not grasp its causatives(nimitta) and features. Since, if you leave the eye faculty unguarded, evil harmful(akusala sans. akushal) states of covetousness and displeasure might invade you, practise the way of its restraint, guard the eye faculty, undertake the restraint of the eye faculty. Having heard a sound with the ear . . . Having smelt an odour with the nose ... Having savoured a taste with the tongue . . . Having felt a tactile object with the body . . . Having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, do not grasp its causatives(nimitta) and features. Since, if you leave the mind faculty unguarded, evil harmful(akusala) states of covetousness and displeasure might invade you, practise the way of its restraint, guard the mind faculty, undertake the restraint of the mind faculty.' This too, great king, is a cause and reason why these young bhikkhus ... lead the complete and pure holy celibate life(brahmacariya) all their lives and maintain it continuously."

"It is wonderful. Master Bharadvaja! It is amazing. Master Bharadvaja! How well this has been stated by the Lord (Buddha) who knows and sees, the Arahant, the Fully Enlightened One. So this is the cause and reason why these young bhikkhus, lads with black hair, endowed with the blessing of youth, in the prime of life, who have not dallied with sensual pleasures, lead the complete and pure holy celibate life(brahmacariya) all their lives and maintain it continuously. In my case too, when I enter my harem unguarded in body, speech, and mind, without setting up meditation, unrestrained in the sense faculties, on that occasion states of lust assail me forcefully. But when I enter my harem guarded in body, speech, and mind, with meditation set up, restrained in the sense faculties, on that occasion states of lust do not assail me in such a way.

"Magnificent, Master Bharadvaja! Magnificent, Master Bharadvaja! The dhamma(path,law) has been made clear in many ways by Master Bharadvaja, as though he were turning upright what had been turned upside down, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. Master Bharadvaja, I go for refuge to the Lord (Buddha), and to the Dhamma, and to the bhikkhu(monk) Sangha(fraternity). From today let Master Bharadvaja remember me as a lay follower who has gone for refuge for life."


128. Sona[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). Then the householder's son Sona approached the Lord (Buddha) . . . and said to him

(As in 118.)


129. Ghosita[]

On one occasion the Venerable Ananda was dwelling at Kosambi in Ghosita 's Park. Then the householder Ghosita approached the Venerable Ananda ... and said to him: "Venerable Ananda, it is said, 'diversity of elements(dhatu), diversity of elements.' 122 In what Way, venerable sir, has the diversity of elements been spoken of by the Lord (Buddha)?"

"Householder, there exists the eye element, and forms that are agreeable, and eye-consciousness: in dependence on a contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) to be experienced as pleasant, a pleasant sensation(vedana) arises. 123 There exists the eye element, and forms that are disagreeable, and eye-consciousness: in dependence on a contact(phassa/sparsh) to be experienced as painful, a painful sensation(vedana) arises. There exists the eye element, and forms that are a basis for equanimity(upekkha sans. Upeksha), and eye-consciousness: in dependence on a contact(phassa/sparsh) to be experienced as neither-painful-nor-pleasant, a neither-painful-nor-pleasant sensation(vedana) arises.

"Householder, there exists the ear element ... the nose element ... the tongue element ... the body element ... the mind element, and mental phenomena(dhamma) that are agreeable, and mind-consciousness: in dependence on a contact(phassa/sparsh) to be experienced as pleasant, a pleasant sensation(vedana) arises. There exists the mind element, and mental phenomena(dhamma) that are disagreeable, and mind-consciousness: in dependence on a contact(phassa/sparsh) to be experienced as painful, a painful sensation(vedana) arises. There exists the mind element, and mental phenomena(dhamma) that are a basis for equanimity(upekkha), and mind-consciousness: in dependence on a contact(phassa/sparsh) to be experienced as neither-painful-nor-pleasant, a neither-painful-nor-pleasant sensation(vedana) arises.

"It is in this way, householder, that the diversity of elements has been spoken of by the Lord (Buddha)."


130. Haliddakani[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Venerable Mahakaccana was dwelling among the people of Avanti on Mount Papata at Kuraraghara. Then the householder Haliddakani approached the Venerable Mahakaccana ... and said to him: 124

"Venerable sir, it was said by the Lord (Buddha): 'It is in dependence on the diversity of elements(dhatu) that there arises the diversity of contacts(with sense objects;phassa/sparsh); in dependence on the diversity of contacts that there arises the diversity of sensations(vedana).' 125 How is this so, venerable sir?"

"Here, householder, having seen a form with the eye, a bhikkhu(monk) understands an agreeable one thus: 'Such it is!' 126 There is eye-consciousness, and in dependence on a contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) to be experienced as pleasant there arises a pleasant sensation(vedana). 127 Then, having seen a form with the eye, a bhikkhu understands a disagreeable one thus: 'Such it is!' There is eye-consciousness, and in dependence on a contact(phassa/sparsh) to be experienced ae painful there arises a painful sensation(vedana). Then, having seen a form with the eye, a bhikkhu understands one that is a basis for equanimity(upekkha sans. upeksha) thus:
'Such it is!' There is eye-consciousness, and in dependence on a contact(phassa/sparsh) to be experienced as neither-painful-nor-pleasant there arises a neither-painful-nor-pleasant sensation(vedana).

"Further, householder, having heard a sound with the ear ... having smelt an odour with the nose ... having savoured a taste with the tongue . . . having felt a tactile object with the body . . . having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, a bhikkhu understands an agreeable one thus ... [116] ... a disagreeable one thus ... one that is a basis for equanimity thus:
'Such it is!' There is mind-consciousness, and in dependence on a contact(phassa/sparsh) to be experienced as neither-painful-nor-pleasant there arises a neither-painful-nor-pleasant sensation(vedana).

"It is in this way, householder, that in dependence on the diversity of elements there arises the diversity of contacts, and in dependence on the diversity of contacts there arises the diversity of sensations(vedana)."


131. Nakulapita[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling among the Bhaggas at Sumsumaragira in the Bhesakala Grove(Bhesakalavana), the Deer-Park(Migdaye). Then the householder Nakulapita approached the Lord (Buddha) ... and said to him.... 128
(As in 118.)


132. Lohicca[]

On one occasion the Venerable Mahakaccana was dwelling among the people of Avanti in a forest hut at Makkarakata. Then a number of brahmin youths, students of the brahmin Lohicca, while collecting firewood, approached the Venerable Mahakaccana's forest hut. Having approached, they stomped and trampled all around the hut, and in a boisterous and noisy manner they played various pranks, 129 saying: "These shaveling ascetics, menials, swarthy offspring of the Lord's feet, are honoured, respected, esteemed, worshipped, and venerated by their servile devotees." 130

Then the Venerable Mahakaccana came out of his dwelling and said to those brahmin youths: "Don't make any noise, boys. I will speak to you on the dhamma(path,law)." When this was said, those youths became silent. Then the Venerable Mahakaccana addressed those youths with verses:

"Those men of old who excelled in virtue(sheel).
Those brahmins who recalled the ancient rules.
Their sense doors guarded, well protected.
Dwelt having vanquished wrath within.

They took delight(nandi\anand) in Dhamma and meditation, 131
Those brahmins who recalled the ancient rules.
"But these have fallen, claiming 'We recite.'
Puffed up by clan, living unrighteously.

Overcome by anger, armed with diverse weapons.
They molest both frail and firm.
"For one with sense doors unguarded
[All the vows he undertakes] are vain
Just like the wealth a man gains in a dream: [118]

Fasting and sleeping on the ground.
Bathing at dawn, [study of] the three Vedas,
Rough hides, matted locks, and dirt; Hymns, rules and vows, austerities.
Hypocrisy, bent staffs, ablutions;

These emblems of the brahmins; Are used to increase their worldly gains. 132
"A mind that is well in-samadhi(trance)state; Clear and free from blemish.
Tender towards all sentient beings ; That is the path for attaining brahma(arch-angel)."

Then those brahmin youths, angry and displeased, approached the brahmin Lohicca and told him: "See now, sir, you should know that the ascetic Mahakaccana categorically denigrates and scorns the hymns of the brahmins."

When this was said, the brahmin Lohicca was angry and displeased. But then it occurred to him: "It is not proper for me to abuse and revile the ascetic Mahakaccana solely on the basis of what I have heard from these youths. Let me approach him and inquire."

Then the brahmin Lohicca, together with those brahmin youths, approached the Venerable Mahakaccana. He exchanged greetings with the Venerable Mahakaccana and, when they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to him: "Master Kaccana, did a number of brahmin youths, my students, come this way while collecting firewood?"

"They did, brahmin."

"Did Master Kaccana have any conversation with them?"

"I did have a conversation with them, brahmin."

"What kind of conversation did you have with them. Master Kaccana?"

"The conversation I had with those youths was like this:

"'Those men of old who excelled in virtue(sheel).
Those brahmins who recalled the ancient rules, ...
....(same as before)....
Tender towards all sentient beings; That is the path for attaining brahma(arch-angel).'

Such was the conversation that I had with those youths."

"Master Kaccana said 'with sense doors unguarded.' In what way. Master Kaccana, is one 'with sense doors unguarded'?"

"Here, brahmin, having seen a form with the eye, someone is intent upon a pleasing form and repelled by a displeasing form. 133 He dwells without having set up meditation of the body, with a limited mind, and he does not understand as it really is that liberation(vimutti sans. vimukti) of mind, liberation by illuminated-insight(panna), wherein those evil harmful(akusala sans. akushal) states cease without remainder. Having heard a sound with the ear ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch & mind).. Having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, someone is intent upon a pleasing mental phenomenon and repelled by a displeasing mental phenomenon. He dwells without having set up meditation of the body ... cease without remainder. It is in such a way, brahmin, that one is 'with sense doors unguarded.'"

"It is wonderful. Master Kaccana! It is amazing. Master Kaccana! How Master Kaccana has declared one whose sense doors are actually unguarded to be one 'with sense doors unguarded'! But Master Kaccana said 'with sense doors guarded.' In what way. Master Kaccana, is one 'with sense doors guarded'?"

"Here, brahmin, having seen a form with the eye, someone is not intent upon a pleasing form and not repelled by a displeasing form. He dwells having set up meditation of the body, with a measureless mind, and he understands as it really is that liberation of mind, liberation by illuminated-insight(panna), wherein those evil harmful(akusala) states cease without remainder. Having heard a sound with the ear ... Having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, someone is not intent upon a pleasing mental phenomenon and not repelled by a displeasing mental phenomenon. He dwells having set up meditation of the body . . . cease without remainder. It is in such a way, brahmin, that one is 'with sense doors guarded.'"

"It is wonderful. Master Kaccana! It is amazing. Master Kaccana! How Master Kaccana has declared one whose sense doors are actually guarded to be one 'with sense doors guarded'! Magnificent, Master Kaccana! Magnificent, Master Kaccana! The Dhamma has been made clear in many ways by Master Kaccana ... (as in 127) ... From today let Master Kaccana remember me as a lay follower who has gone for refuge for life.

"Let Master Kaccana approach the Lohicca family just as he approaches the families of the lay followers in Makkarakata. The brahmin youths and maidens there will pay homage to Master Kaccana, they will stand up for him out of respect, they will offer him a seat and water, and that will lead to their welfare and happiness(sukh) for a long time."


133. Verahaccani[]

On one occasion the Venerable Udayi was living at Kamanda in the brahmin Todeyya's Mango Grove. Then a brahmin youth, a student of the brahmin lady of the Verahaccani clan, approached the Venerable Udayi and greeted him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side, and the Venerable Udayi instructed, inspired, and gladdened him with a Dhamma talk. Having been instructed, inspired, and gladdened by the Dhamma talk, the brahmin youth rose from his seat, approached the brahmin lady of the Verahaccani clan, and said to her: "See now, madam, you should know that the ascetic Udayi teaches a dhamma(path,law) that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing; he reveals a holy celibate life(brahmacariya) that is perfectly complete and pure."

"In that case, young man, invite the ascetic Udayi in my name for tomorrow's meal."

"Yes, madam," the youth replied. Then he went to the Venerable Udayi and said to him: "Let Master Udayi consent to accept tomorrow's meal from our revered teacher, 134 the brahmin lady of the Verahaccani clan."

The Venerable Udayi consented by silence. Then, when the night had passed, in the morning the Venerable Udayi dressed, took his bowl and outer robe, and went to the residence of the brahmin lady of the Verahaccani clan. There he sat down in the appointed seat. Then, with her own hands, the brahmin lady served and satisfied the Venerable Udayi with various kinds of delicious food. When the Venerable Udayi had finished eating and had put away his bowl, 135 the brahmin lady put on her sandals, sat down on a high seat, covered her head, and told him:
"Preach the Dhamma, ascetic." Having said, "There will be an occasion for that, sister," he rose from his seat and departed. 136

A second time that brahmin youth approached the Venerable Udayi ... (as above down to:) ... "See now, madam, you should know that the ascetic Udayi teaches a Dhamma that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing; he reveals a holy celibate life(brahmacariya) that is perfectly complete and pure."

"In such a way, young man, you keep on praising the ascetic Udayi, but when I told him, 'Preach the Dhamma, ascetic,' he said, 'There will be an occasion for that, sister,' and he rose from his seat and departed."

"That, madam, was because you put on your sandals, sat down on a high seat, covered your head, and told him: 'Preach the Dhamma, ascetic.' For these worthies respect and revere the Dhamma."

"In that case, young man, invite the ascetic Udayi in my name for tomorrow's meal."

"Yes, madam," he replied. Then he went to the Venerable Udayi .. . (all as above) . . . When the Venerable Udayi had finished eating and had put away his bowl, the brahmin lady removed her sandals, sat down on a low seat, uncovered her head, and said to him: "Venerable sir, what do the arahants maintain must exist for there to be happiness and sorrow? And what is it that the arahants maintain must cease to exist for there to be no happiness and sorrow?"

"Sister, the arahants maintain that when the eye exists there is happiness and sorrow, and when the eye does not exist there is no happiness and sorrow. The arahants maintain that when the ear exists there is happiness and sorrow, and when the ear does not exist there is no happiness and sorrow .... The arahants maintain that when the mind exists there is happiness and sorrow, and when the mind does not exist there is no happiness and sorrow."

When this was said, the brahmin lady of the Verahaccani clan said to the Venerable Udayi: "Magnificent, venerable sir! Magnificent, venerable sir! The Dhamma has been made clear in many ways by Master Udayi ... (as in 127) ... From today let Master Udayi remember me as a lay follower who has gone for refuge for life."



(iv) Division 3. The Third Fifty - Devadaha Section[]

134. At Devadaha 137[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling among the Sakyans where there was a town of the Sakyans named Devadaha. There the Lord (Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus thus:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), I do not say of all bhikkhus that they still have work to do with alertfulness(appamada) in regard to the six senses for contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh), nor do I say of all bhikkhus that they do not have work to do with alertfulness in regard to the six senses for contact(phassa/sparsh).

"I do not say of those bhikkhus who are arahants, whose defilements are destroyed, who have lived the holy celibate life(brahmacariya), done what had to be done, laid down the burden, reached their own goal, utterly destroyed the fetters of existence(bhavo), and are completely liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) through final knowledge, that they still have work to do with alertfulness in regard to the six senses for contact(phassa/sparsh). Why is that? They have done their work with alertfulness; they are incapable of being slothful(in pamada).

"But I say of those bhikkhus who are trainees, who have not attained their mind's ideal, who dwell aspiring for the unsurpassed security from bondage, that they still have work to do with alertfulness in regard to the six senses for contact(phassa/sparsh). Why is that? There are, bhikkhus, forms cognizable by the eye that are agreeable and those that are disagreeable. [One should train so that] these do not persist obsessing one's mind even when they are repeatedly experienced. When the mind is not obsessed, tireless energetic-strength(viriya) is aroused, unmuddled meditation-state is set up, the body becomes tranquil and untroubled, the mind becomes in-samadhi(trance)state and one-pointed. Seeing this fruit of alertfulness, bhikkhus, I say that those bhikkhus still have work to do with alertfulness in regard to the six senses for contact(phassa/sparsh).

"There are, bhikkhus, sounds cognizable by the ear ... mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind that are agreeable and those that are disagreeable. [One should train so that] these do not persist obsessing one's mind even when they are repeatedly experienced. When the mind is not obsessed, tireless energetic-strength is aroused, unmuddled meditation-state is set up, the body becomes tranquil and untroubled, the mind becomes in-samadhi(trance)state and one-pointed. Seeing this fruit of alertfulness, bhikkhus, I say that those bhikkhus still have work to do with alertfulness in regard to the six senses for contact(phassa/sparsh)."


135. The Opportunity (Khana sans. Kshana)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), it is a gain for you, it is well gained by you, that you have obtained the opportunity for living the holy celibate life(brahmacariya). I have seen, bhikkhus, the hell named 'contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh)'s Sixfold faculty.'(cha-phass-ayatanika) 138 There whatever form one sees with the eye is undesirable, never desirable; unlovely, never lovely; disagreeable, never agreeable. Whatever sound one hears with the ear ... Whatever odour one smells with the nose ... Whatever taste one savours with the tongue ... Whatever tactile object one feels with the body ... Whatever mental phenomenon one cognizes with the mind is undesirable, never desirable; unlovely, never lovely; disagreeable, never agreeable.

"It is a gain for you, bhikkhus, it is well gained by you, that you have obtained the opportunity for living the holy celibate life(brahmacariya). I have seen, bhikkhus, the heaven named 'contact(phassa/sparsh)'s Sixfold faculty.' (cha-phass-ayatanika) 139 There whatever form one sees with the eye is desirable, never undesirable; lovely, never unlovely; agreeable, never disagreeable. Whatever sound one hears with the ear ... Whatever odour one smells with the nose ... Whatever taste one savours with the tongue ... Whatever tactile object one feels with the body ... Whatever mental phenomenon one cognizes with the mind is desirable, never undesirable; lovely, never unlovely; agreeable, never disagreeable.

"It is a gain for you, bhikkhus, it is well gained by you, that you have obtained the opportunity for living the holy celibate life(brahmacariya)."


136. Delight in Forms1 (Ruparama)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), devas(angels) and humans delight in forms, take delight in forms, rejoice in forms. With the change, fading away, and cessation(nirodha) of forms, devas and humans dwell in suffering. Devas and humans delight in sounds ... delight in odours ... delight in tastes ... delight in tactile objects ... delight in mental phenomena(dhamma), take delight in mental phenomena(dhamma), rejoice in mental phenomena(dhamma). With the change, fading away, and cessation of mental phenomena(dhamma), devas and humans dwell in suffering.

"But, bhikkhus, the Tathagata, the Arahant, the Fully Enlightened One, has understood as they really are the origin and the passing away, the worldly-enjoyment(assado sans. aswad), the danger, and the escape in the case of forms. He does not delight in forms, does not take delight in forms, does not rejoice in forms. With the change, fading away, and cessation of forms, the Tathagata dwells happily.

"He has understood as they really are the origin and the passing away, the worldly-enjoyment, the danger, and the escape in the case of sounds ... odours ... tastes ... tactile objects ... mental phenomena(dhamma). He does not delight in mental phenomena(dhamma), does not take delight in mental phenomena(dhamma), does not rejoice in mental phenomena(dhamma). With the change, fading away, and cessation of mental phenomena(dhamma), the Tathagata dwells happily."

This is what the Lord (Buddha) said. Having said this, the
Fortunate One(Sugato), the Teacher(Sattha), further said this: 141

"Forms, sounds, odours, tastes,
Tactiles and all objects of mind
Desirable, lovely, agreeable.
So long as it's said: They are.'

"These are considered happiness(sukh) .
By the world with its devas;
But where these cease.
That they consider suffering.

"The noble ones have seen as happiness
The ceasing of body-identity(sakkaya).
This [view] of those who clearly see
Runs counter to the entire world. 142

"What others speak of as happiness.
That the noble ones say is suffering;
What others speak of as suffering.
That the noble ones know as happiness.

"See this dhamma(path,law) hard to comprehend:
Here the childish(unwise) are bewildered.
For those with blocked minds it is obscure.
Sheer darkness for those who do not see.

"But for the good it is disclosed.
It is light here for those who see.
The dullards unskilled in the Dhamma
Don't understand it in its presence.

"This Dhamma isn't easily understood
By those afflicted with lust(raag) for existence(bhavo).
Who flow along in the stream of existence.
Deeply mired in Mara(Satan)'s realm.

"Who else apart from the noble ones
Are able to understand this state?
When they have rightly known that state.
The defilement-free ones are fully quenched." 143


137. Delight in Forms (2) (Ruparama)[]

( Identical with the preceding sutta, but without the verses.)


138. Not Yours (l) 144 (Natumhaka1)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), whatever is not yours, abandon it. When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness(sukh). And what is it, bhikkhus, that is not yours? The eye is not yours: abandon it. When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness. The ear is not yours .... The mind is not yours: abandon it. When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, people were to carry off the grass, sticks, branches, and foliage in this Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), or to burn them, or to do with them as they wish. Would you think: 'People are carrying us off, or burning us, or doing with us as they wish'?"

"No, venerable sir. For what reason? Because, venerable sir, that is neither our self nor what belongs to our self. "

"So too, bhikkhus, the eye is not yours . . . The ear . . . The mind is not yours ... When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness."


139. Not Yours (2) (Natumhaka2)[]

(Identical with the preceding sutta, but stated by way of the six external sense faculties.)


140. Impermanent with Cause (Internal) (Ajjhattaniccahetu)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the eye is impermanent. 145 The cause for the arising of the eye is also impermanent. As the eye has originated from what is impermanent, how could it be permanent?

"The ear is impermanent.... The mind is impermanent. The cause for the arising of the mind is also impermanent. As the mind has originated from what is impermanent, how could it be permanent?

"Seeing thus, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple experiences revulsion(nibbida) towards the eye ... towards the mind. Experiencing revulsion, he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion [his mind] is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt). When it is liberated there comes the knowledge:
'It's liberated.' He understands: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'"


141. Suffering with Cause (Internal) (Ajjhattadukkhahetu)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the eye is suffering. The cause for the arising of the eye is also suffering. As the eye has originated from what is suffering, how could it be happiness(sukh)?

"The ear is suffering.... The mind is suffering. The cause for the arising of the mind is also suffering. As the mind has originated from what is suffering, how could it be happiness?

"Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"


142. Nonself with Cause (Internal) (Ajjhattanattahetu)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the eye is nonself. The cause for the arising of the eye is also nonself. As the eye has originated from what is nonself, how could it be self?

"The ear is nonself..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch & mind).. The mind is nonself. The cause for the arising of the mind [131] is also nonself. As the mind has originated from what is nonself, how could it be self?

"Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"


143-145. Impermanent with Cause, Etc. (External) (Bahira..)[]

(These three suttas are identical with 140-142, but are stated by way of the six external sense faculties i.e forms, sounds, odours, tastes, touch & thoughts.)



(v) Division 3. The Third Fifty - New and Old (Navapuranavaggo)[]

146. Kamma Cessation (Kammanirodha sans. Karma-nirodha)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you new and old kamma(karma), the cessation(nirodha) of kamma, and the way leading to the cessation of kamma. Listen to that and be mindful(manasikaro), I will speak. . ..

"And what, bhikkhus, is old kamma? The eye is old kamma, to be seen as generated and conditioned(sankhata) by cognitive-awareness, as something to be felt. 146 The ear is old kamma ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch & mind).. The mind is old kamma, to be seen as generated and conditioned by cognitive-awareness, as something to be felt. This is called old kamma.

"And what, bhikkhus is new kamma? Whatever action one does now by body, speech, or mind. This is called new kamma.

"And what, bhikkhus, is the cessation of kamma? When one reaches liberation through the cessation of bodily action, verbal action, and mental action, this is called the cessation of kamma.

"And what, bhikkhus, is the way leading to the cessation of kamma? It is this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right meditation, right samadhi(trance)state.

"Thus, bhikkhus, I have taught old kamma, I have taught new kamma, I have taught the cessation of kamma, I have taught the way leading to the cessation of kamma. Whatever should be done, bhikkhus, by a compassionate teacher out of compassion for his disciples, desiring their welfare, that I have done for you. These are the feet of trees, bhikkhus, these are empty huts. Meditate, bhikkhus, do not be slothful(in pamada), lest you regret it later. This is our instruction to you."


147. Suitable for Attaining Nibbana (1) (Aniccanibbanasappaya)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the way that is suitable for attaining Nibbana. 147 Listen to that....

"And what, bhikkhus, is the way that is suitable for attaining Nibbana? Here, a bhikkhu(monk) sees(in meditation,passati ref. vipassana meditation) the eye as impermanent, he sees(in meditation) forms as impermanent, he sees(in meditation) eye-consciousness as impermanent, he sees(in meditation) eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) as impermanent, he sees(in meditation,passati) as impermanent whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause, whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant.

"He sees(in meditation,passati) the ear as impermanent ... (similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch & mind) ... He see(in meditation) the mind as impermanent, he sees(in meditation) mental phenomena(dhamma) as impermanent, he sees(in meditation) mind-consciousness as impermanent, he sees(in meditation) mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as impermanent, he sees as impermanent whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind -contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause, whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant.

"This, bhikkhus, is the way that is suitable for attaining Nibbana."


148.-149. Suitable for Attaining Nibbana (2-3)[]

( Same as preceding sutta, with "suffering" and "nonself' substituted for " impermanent . ") [135]


150. Suitable for Attaining Nibbana (4) (Nibbanasappayapatipada)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach the way that is suitable for attaining Nibbana. Listen to that....

"What do you think, bhikkhus, is the eye permanent or impermanent?"... (all as in 32) ...

"Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'

"This, bhikkhus, is the way that is suitable for attaining Nibbana."


151. A Student (Antevasika)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), this holy celibate life(brahmacariya) is lived without students and without a teacher. 148 A bhikkhu(monk) who has students and a teacher dwells in suffering, not in comfort. A bhikkhu who has no students and no teacher dwells happily, in comfort.

"And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu who has students and a teacher dwell in suffering, not in comfort? Here, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu has seen a form with the eye, there arise in him evil harmful(akusala sans. akushal) states, memories and intentions connected with the fetters. 149 They dwell within him. Since those evil harmful(akusala) states dwell within him, he is called 'one who has students.' They assail him. Since evil harmful(akusala) states assail him, he is called 'one who has a teacher.'

"Further, when a bhikkhu has heard a sound with the ear . . . cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind ... he is called 'one who has a teacher.'

"It is in this way that a bhikkhu who has students and a teacher dwells in suffering, not in comfort.

"And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu who has no students and no teacher dwell happily, in comfort? Here, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu has seen a form with the eye, there do not arise in him evil harmful(akusala) states, memories and intentions connected with the fetters. They do not dwell within him. Since those evil harmful(akusala) states do not dwell within him, he is called 'one who has no students.' They do not assail him. Since evil harmful(akusala) states do not assail him, he is called 'one who has no teacher.'

"Further, when a bhikkhu has heard a sound with the ear . . (similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch & mind). . cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind ... he is called 'one who has no teacher.'

"It is in this way, bhikkhus, that a bhikkhu who has no students and no teacher dwells happily, in comfort.

"Bhikkhus, this holy celibate life(brahmacariya) is lived without students and without a teacher. A bhikkhu who has students and a teacher dwells in suffering, not in comfort. A bhikkhu who has no students and no teacher dwells happily, in comfort."


152. For What Purpose is holy celibate life? (Kimatthiyabrahmacariya) []

"Bhikkhus(monks), if ascetics of other sects ask you: 'For what purpose, friends, is the holy celibate life lived under the ascetic Gotama?' -being asked thus, you should answer those ascetics thus: 'It is, friends, for the full understanding of suffering that the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) is lived under the Lord (Buddha).' Then, bhikkhus, if those ascetics ask you: 'What, friends, is that suffering for the full understanding of which the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) is lived under the ascetic Gotama?' -being asked thus, you should answer those ascetics thus:

'"The eye, friends, is suffering: it is for the full understanding of this that the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) is lived under the Lord (Buddha). Forms are suffering: it is for the full understanding of them that the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) is lived under the Lord (Buddha). Eye-consciousness is suffering . . . Eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) is suffering ... Whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause - whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant - that too is suffering: it is for the full understanding of this that the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) is lived under the Lord (Buddha). The ear is suffering . .(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch & mind). . The mind is suffering . . . Whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause . . . that too is suffering: it is for the full understanding of this that the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) is lived under the Lord (Buddha). This, friends, is the suffering for the full understanding of which the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) is lived under the Lord (Buddha).'

"Being asked thus, bhikkhus, you should answer those ascetics of other sects in such a way."


153. Is There a Method? (Atthinukhopariyaya)[]

"Is there a method of exposition, bhikkhus, by means of which a bhikkhu(monk) - apart from faith, apart from personal preference, apart from oral tradition, apart from reasoned thought, apart from acceptance of a view after pondering it 150 can declare final knowledge thus: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being'?"

"Venerable sir, our teachings are rooted in the Lord (Buddha), guided by the Lord (Buddha), take recourse in the Lord (Buddha). It would be good if the Lord (Buddha) would clear up the meaning of this statement. Having heard it from him, the bhikkhus will remember it."

"Then listen and be mindful(manasikaro), bhikkhus, I will speak."

"Yes, venerable sir," the bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"There is a method of exposition by means of which a bhikkhu - apart from faith ... apart from acceptance of a view after pondering it - can declare final knowledge thus: 'Destroyed is rebirth ... there is no more for this state of being.' And what is that method of exposition? Here, bhikkhus, having seen a form with the eye, if there is lust(raag), hatred(dosa\dvesh), or delusion(moha) internally, a bhikkhu understands: 'There is lust(raag), hatred(dosa\dvesh), or delusion(moha) internal!'; or, if there is no lust(raag), hatred(dosa\dvesh), or delusion(moha) internally, he understands: 'There is no lust(raag), hatred(dosa\dvesh), or delusion(moha) internally.' 151 Since this is so, are these dhammas(attributes,law) to be understood by faith, or by personal preference, or by oral tradition, or by reasoned thought, or by acceptance of a view after pondering it?"

"No, venerable sir."

"Aren't these dhammas to be understood by seeing them with illuminated-insight(panna)?"

"Yes, venerable sir."

"This, bhikkhus, is the method of exposition by means of which a bhikkhu can declare final knowledge thus: 'Destroyed is rebirth . . . there is no more for this state of being.'

"Further, bhikkhus, having heard a sound with the ear . . . Having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, if there is lust(raag), hatred(dosa\dvesh), or delusion(moha) internally, a bhikkhu understands:
'There is lust(raag), hatred(dosa\dvesh), or delusion(moha) internally'; or, if there is no lust(raag), hatred(dosa\dvesh), or delusion(moha) internally, he understands: 'There is no lust(raag), hatred(dosa\dvesh), or delusion(moha) internally.' Since this is so, are these dhammas to be understood by faith, or by personal preference, or by oral tradition, or by reasoned thought, or by acceptance of a view after pondering it?"

"No, venerable sir."

"Aren't these dhammas to be understood by seeing them with illuminated-insight(panna)?"

"Yes, venerable sir."

"This, bhikkhus, is the method of exposition by means of which a bhikkhu - apart from faith, apart from personal preference, apart from oral tradition, apart from reasoned thought, apart from acceptance of a view after pondering it - can declare final knowledge thus: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'"


154. Equipped with Faculties (Indriyasampanna)[]

Then a certain bhikkhu(monk) approached the Lord (Buddha) ... and said to him: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'equipped with faculties, equipped with faculties.' 152 In what way, venerable sir, is one equipped with faculties?"

"If, bhikkhu, while one dwells watching-in-meditation(anupassi) on rise and fall(udaya-bbya) in the eye faculty, one experiences revulsion(nibbida) towards the eye faculty; if, while one dwells watching-in-meditation on rise and fall(udaya-bbya) in the ear faculty, one experiences revulsion towards the ear faculty; ... if, while one dwells watching-in-meditation on rise and fall(udaya-bbya) in the mind faculty, one experiences revulsion towards the mind faculty, then, experiencing revulsion, one becomes dispassionate.... When [the mind] is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt), there comes the knowledge: 'It's liberated.' One understands: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being. ' It is in this way, bhikkhu, that one is equipped with faculties."


155. A Speaker on the Dhamma (Dhammakathikapuccha)[]

Then a certain bhikkhu(monk) approached the Lord (Buddha) ... and said to him: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'a speaker on the dhamma(path,law), a speaker on the Dhamma.' In what way, venerable sir, is one a speaker on the Dhamma?" 153

"Bhikkhu, if one teaches the Dhamma for the purpose of revulsion(nibbida) towards the eye, for its fading away and cessation(nirodha), one can be called a bhikkhu who is a speaker on the Dhamma. If one is practising for the purpose of revulsion towards the eye, for its fading away and cessation, one can be called a bhikkhu who is practising in accordance with the Dhamma. If, through revulsion towards the eye, through its fading away and cessation, one is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) by nonclinging, one can be called a bhikkhu who has attained Nibbana in this very life.

"Bhikkhu, if one teaches the Dhamma for the purpose of revulsion(nibbida) towards the ear ... for the purpose of revulsion(nibbida) towards the mind, for its fading away and cessation, one can be called a bhikkhu who is a speaker on the Dhamma. If one is practising for the purpose of revulsion towards the mind, for its fading away and cessation, one can be called a bhikkhu who is practising in accordance with the Dhamma. If, through revulsion towards the mind, through its fading away and cessation, one is liberated by nonclinging, one can be called a bhikkhu who has attained Nibbana in this very life."



(i) Division 4. The Fourth Fifty - The Destruction of Delight Section (Nandikkhayavaggo sans. nandi\anand-kshaya-varg)[]

156. The Destruction of Delight (1) (Ajjhattanandikkhaya)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), a bhikkhu(monk) sees(in meditation,passati ref Vipassana meditation) as impermanent the eye which is actually impermanent: that is his right view. 154 Seeing rightly, he experiences revulsion(nibbida). With the destruction(khaya\kshaya) of delight(nandi\anand) comes destruction of lust(raag); with the destruction of lust comes destruction of delight. With the destruction of delight and lust the mind is said to be well liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt).

"Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu sees(in meditation) as impermanent the ear which is actually impermanent... the mind which is actually impermanent: that is his right view. ... With the destruction(khaya\kshaya) of delight(nandi\anand) and lust the mind is said to be well liberated."


157. The Destruction of Delight (2) (Bahiranandikkhaya sans. Bahira-nandi\anand-kshaya)[]

(The same for the external sense faculties.)


158. The Destruction of Delight (3) (Ajjhattaaniccanandikkhaya)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), be meditatively(yoniso) mindful(manasikaro) to the eye. 155 Recognize the impermanence(anicca sans. anitya) of the eye as it really is. When a bhikkhu, meditatively mindful to the eye, recognizes the impermanence(anicca) of the eye as it really is, he feels revulsion(nibbida) towards the eye. With the destruction(khaya\kshaya) of delight(nandi\anand) comes destruction of lust(raag); with the destruction of lust comes destruction of delight. With the destruction of delight and lust the mind is said to be well liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt).

"Bhikkhus, be meditatively(yoniso) mindful(manasikaro) to the ear ... to the mind. Recognize the impermanence(anicca) of the mind as it really is.... With the destruction(khaya\kshaya) of delight and lust the mind is said to be well liberated."


159. The Destruction of Delight (4) (Bahiraniccanandikkhaya sans. Bahir-anitya-nandi\anand-kshaya)[]

( The same for the external sense faculties.)


160. Jivaka's Mango Grove (1) (Jivakambavanasamadhi1)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in Jivaka's-Mango-Grove(Jivaka-Ambavana). There he addressed the bhikkhus(monks) thus: 156
"Bhikkhus, develop samadhi(trance)state. When a bhikkhu(monk) is in-samadhi(trance)state, things become manifest 157 to him as they really are. And what becomes manifest to him as it really is? The eye becomes manifest to him as it really is - as impermanent. Forms become manifest to him as they really are - as impermanent. Eye-consciousness ... Eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) ... Whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause - whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant - becomes manifest to him as it really is - as impermanent.

"The ear becomes manifest to him as it really is . . (similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch & mind). . The mind becomes manifest to him as it really is ... Whatever sensation(vedana) arises es with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause ... becomes manifest to him as it really is - as impermanent.

"Develop samadhi(trance)state, bhikkhus. When a bhikkhu is in-samadhi(trance)state,
things become manifest to him as they really are."


161. Jivaka's Mango Grove (2) (Jivakambavanasamadhi2)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in Jivaka's-Mango-Grove(Jivaka-Ambavana). There he addressed the bhikkhus thus:
"Bhikkhus(Monks), make an exertion in seclusion. When a bhikkhu(monk) is secluded, things become manifest to him as they really are. And what becomes manifest to him as it really is?"

(All as in preceding sutta 161.)


162. Kotthita (1)[]

Then the Venerable Mahakotthita approached the Lord (Buddha) ... and said to him: 158 "Venerable sir, it would be good if the Lord (Buddha) would teach me the dhamma(path,law) in brief, so that, having heard the Dhamma from the Lord (Buddha), I might dwell alone, withdrawn, alertful(appamada), ardent, and resolute."

"Kotthita, you should abandon desire for whatever is impermanent. And what is impermanent? The eye is impermanent; you should abandon desire for it. Forms are impermanent ... Eye-consciousness is impermanent ... Eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) is impermanent . . . Whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause . . . that too is impermanent; you should abandon desire for it.

"The -ear is impermanent ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch & mind).. The mind is impermanent ... Whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause . . . that too is impermanent; you should abandon desire for it.

"Kotthita, you should abandon desire for whatever is impermanent."


163 (8) Kotthita (2)[]

"Kotthita, you should abandon desire for whatever is suffering."
... (Complete as in preceding sutta.)


164. Kotthita (3)[]

"Kotthita, you should abandon desire for whatever is nonself."...'


165. Abandoning Wrong View (Micchaditthipahana)[]

Then a certain bhikkhu(monk) approached the Lord (Buddha) ... and said to him: "Venerable sir, how should one know, how should one see, for wrong view to be abandoned?" 159

"Bhikkhu, when one knows and sees(in meditation,passato ref. Vipassana meditation) the eye as impermanent, wrong view is abandoned. When one knows and sees(in meditation) forms as impermanent ... eye-consciousness as impermanent ... eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) as impermanent . . . whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause ... as impermanent, wrong view is abandoned. It is when one knows and sees(in meditation) thus that wrong view is abandoned. "


166. Abandoning Body-Identity-View (Sakkayaditthipahana sans. Sakaya-drishti-prahan)[]

. . . "Venerable sir, how should one know, how should one see(in meditation,passato ref. Vipassana meditation), for body-identity-view(sakkaya-ditthi) to be abandoned?"

"bhikkhu(monk), when one knows and sees(in meditation) the eye as impermanent, body-identity-view is abandoned."... (Complete as above.)


167. Abandoning the View of Self (Attanuditthipahana sans. Atam-anu-drishti-prahan)[]

... "Venerable sir, how should one know, how should one see, for the view of self to be abandoned?"

"bhikkhu(monk), when one knows and sees(in meditation,passato ref. Vipassana meditation) the eye as impermanent, the view of self is abandoned."... (Complete as above.)



(ii) Division 4. The Fourth Fifty - The Sixtyfold Repetition Series 160 (Satthipeyyalavaggo)[]

168. Desire for the Impermanent (Internal) (Ajjhattaaniccachanda)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), you should abandon desire for whatever is impermanent. And what is impermanent? The eye is impermanent ... The mind is impermanent; you should abandon desire for it. Bhikkhus, you should abandon desire for whatever is impermanent."


169. Lust for the Impermanent (Internal) (Ajjhattaaniccaraga)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), you should abandon lust(raag) for whatever is impermanent. And what is impermanent? The eye is impermanent . . . The mind is impermanent; you should abandon lust for it. Bhikkhus, you should abandon lust for whatever is impermanent."


170. desire(chand) & lust(raag) for the Impermanent (Internal) (Ajjhattaaniccachandaraga)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), you should abandon desire(chand) & lust(raag) for whatever is impermanent. And what is impermanent? The eye is impermanent ... The mind is impermanent; you should abandon desire(chand) & lust(raag) for it. Bhikkhus, you should abandon desire(chand) & lust(raag) for whatever is impermanent."


171.-173 Desire for Suffering (Internal), Etc. (Dukkhachandadi)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), you should abandon desire for whatever is suffering ... You should abandon lust(raag) for whatever is suffering.... You should abandon desire(chand) & lust(raag) for whatever is suffering. And what is suffering? The eye is suffering ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch & mind) . . The mind is suffering; you should abandon desire(chand) & lust(raag) for it. Bhikkhus, you should abandon desire(chand) & lust(raag) for whatever is suffering."


174.-176. Desire for Nonself (Internal), Etc. (Anattachandadi)[]

" Bhikkhus, you should abandon desire for whatever is nonself. . . . You should abandon lust(raag) for whatever is nonself. . . . You should abandon desire(chand) & lust(raag) for whatever is nonself. And what is nonself? The eye is nonself ... The mind is nonself; you should abandon desire for it. Bhikkhus, you should abandon desire(chand) & lust(raag) for whatever is nonself."


177-179. Desire for the Impermanent (External), Etc. (Bahiraniccachandadi)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), you should abandon desire for whatever is impermanent .... You should abandon lust(raag) for whatever is impermanent .... You should abandon desire(chand) & lust(raag) for whatever is impermanent. And what is impermanent? Forms are impermanent . . . Mental phenomena(dhamma) are impermanent; you should abandon desire(chand) & lust(raag) for them. Bhikkhus, you should abandon desire(chand) & lust(raag) for whatever is impermanent."


180-182. Desire for Suffering (External), Etc. (Bahiradukkhachandadi)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), you should abandon desire for whatever is suffering ... You should abandon lust(raag) for whatever is suffering.... You should abandon desire(chand) & lust(raag) for whatever is suffering. And what is suffering? Forms are suffering... Mental phenomena(dhamma) are suffering; you should abandon desire(chand) & lust(raag) for them. Bhikkhus, you should abandon desire(chand) & lust(raag) for whatever is suffering."


183.-185 Desire for Nonself (External), Etc. (Bahiraanattachandadi)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), you should abandon desire for whatever is nonself.... You should abandon lust(raag) for whatever is nonself.... You should abandon desire(chand) & lust(raag) for whatever is nonself. And what is nonself? Forms are nonself ... Mental phenomena(dhamma) are nonself; you should abandon desire(chand) & lust(raag) for them. Bhikkhus, you should abandon desire(chand) & lust(raag) for whatever is nonself."


186. The Past as Impermanent (Internal) (Ajjhattatitanicca)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the eye ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind).. the mind of the past was impermanent. Seeing thus, the instructed noble disciple experiences revulsion(nibbida) towards the eye . .(as above). . towards the mind. Experiencing revulsion, he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion [his mind] is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt). When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: 'It's liberated.' He understands: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'"


187. The Future as Impermanent (Internal) (Ajjhattanagatanicca)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the eye ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind).. the mind of the future will be impermanent. Seeing thus, the instructed noble disciple experiences revulsion(nibbida) towards the eye ..(as above).. towards the mind. He understands: '. there is no more for this state of being.'"


188. The Present as Impermanent (Internal) (Ajjhattapaccuppannanicca)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the eye ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind).. the mind of the present is impermanent. Seeing thus, the instructed noble disciple experiences revulsion towards the eye ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind).. towards the mind. He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being."'


189-191. The Past, Etc., as Suffering (Internal) (Ajjhattatitadidukkha)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the eye ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind).. the mind of the past .... of the future ... of the present is suffering. Seeing thus ... He understands: ' . . . there is no more for this state of being."'


192-194. The Past, Etc., as Nonself (Internal) (Ajjhattatitadianatta)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the eye . .(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind). . the mind of the past ... of the future ... of the present is nonself. Seeing thus ... He understands: ' . . . there is no more for this state of being."'


195-197. The Past, Etc., as Impermanent (External) (Bahiratitadianicca)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), forms ..(also hearing,odours,tastes,touch).. mental phenomena(dhamma) of the past ... of the future ... of the present are impermanent. Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"


198-200. The Past, Etc., as Suffering (External) (Bahiratitadidukkha)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), forms ..(also hearing,odours,tastes,touch).. mental phenomena(dhamma) of the past ... of the future ... of the present are suffering. Seeing thus . . . He understands: ... there is no more for this state of being.'"


201-203. The Past, Etc., as Nonself (External) (Bahiratitadianatta)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), forms ..(also hearing,odours,tastes,touch).. mental phenomena(dhamma) of the past ... of the future ... of the present are nonself. Seeing thus ... He understands: . . . there is no more for this state of being.'"


204. What Is Impermanent of the Past (Internal) (Ajjhattatitayadanicca)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the eye ... (similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind)... the mind of the past was impermanent. What is impermanent is suffering. What is suffering is nonself. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"


205. What Is Impermanent of the Future (Internal) (Ajjhattanagatayadanicca)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the eye . .(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind). . the mind of the future will be impermanent. What is impermanent is suffering. What is suffering is non-self. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"


206. What Is Impermanent of the Present (Internal) (Ajjhattapaccuppannayadanicca)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the eye . .(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind). . the mind of the present is impermanent. What is impermanent is suffering. What is suffering is nonself. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"


207-209. What Is Suffering of the Past, Etc. (Internal) (Ajjhattatitadiyamdukkha)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the eye ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind).. the mind of the past ... of the future ... of the present is suffering. What is suffering is nonself. What is non-self should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' Seeing thus . . . He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"


210-212. What Is Nonself of the Past, Etc. (Internal) (Ajjhattatitadiyadanatta)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the eye ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind) . . the mind of the past ... of the future ... of the present is nonself. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"


213-215. What Is Impermanent of the Past, Etc. (External) (Bahiratitadiyadanicca)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), forms ..(also hearing,odours,tastes,touch).. mental phenomena(dhamma) of the past ... of the future ... of the present are impermanent. What is impermanent is suffering. What is suffering is nonself. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' Seeing thus . . . He understands:
'. . . there is no more for this state of being.'".


216-218. What Is Suffering of the Past, Etc. (External) (Bahiratitadiyamdukkha)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), forms ..(also hearing,odours,tastes,touch).. mental phenomena(dhamma) of the past ... of the future ... of the present are suffering. What is suffering is nonself. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"


219-221. What Is Nonself of the Past, Etc. (External) (Bahiratitadiyadanatta)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), forms ..(also hearing,odours,tastes,touch).. mental phenomena(dhamma) of the past ... of the future ... of the present are nonself. What is nonself should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' Seeing thus ... He understands:
'... there is no more for this state of being.'"


222. The Sense Faculties as Impermanent (Internal) (Ajjhattayatanaanicca)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the eye is impermanent ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind).. the mind is impermanent. Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"


223. The Sense Faculties as Suffering (Internal) (Ajjhattayatanadukkha)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the eye is suffering . .(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind). . the mind is suffering. Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"


224. The Sense Faculties as Nonself (Internal) (Ajjhattayatanaanatta)[]

Bhikkhus, the eye is nonself ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind).. the mind is nonself. Seeing thus . . . He understands: '. . . there is no more for this state of being.'"


225. The Sense Faculties as Impermanent (External) (Bahirayatanaanicca sans. Bahir-ayatan-anitya)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), forms are impermanent..(also hearing,odours,tastes,touch).. mental phenomena(dhamma) are impermanent. Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"


226. The Sense Faculties as Suffering (External) (Bahirayatanadukkha)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), forms are suffering ..(also hearing,odours,tastes,touch).. mental phenomena(dhamma) are suffering. Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"


227. The Sense Faculties as Nonself (External) (Bahirayatanaanatta sans. Bahir-ayatan-anatm)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), forms are nonself ..(also hearing,odours,tastes,touch).. mental phenomena(dhamma) are nonself. Seeing thus ... He understands: '... there is no more for this state of being.'"



(iii) Division 4. The Fourth Fifty - The Ocean (Samuddavaggo sans. Samudra-varg)[]

228. The Ocean (1) (Samudda1 sans. Samudra)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the uninstructed worldling speaks of 'the ocean, the ocean.' But that is not the ocean in the Noble One's Discipline; that is only a great mass of water, a great expanse of water.

"The eye, bhikkhus, is the ocean for a person; its current consists of forms. 161 One who withstands that current consisting of forms is said to have crossed the ocean of the eye with its waves, whirlpools, sharks, and demons. 162 Crossed over, gone beyond, the brahmin stands on high ground.

"The ear, bhikkhus, is the ocean for a person. . . . The mind is the ocean for a person; its current consists of mental phenomena(dhamma). One who withstands that current consisting of mental phenomena(dhamma) is said to have crossed the ocean of the mind with its waves, whirlpools, sharks, and demons. Crossed over, gone beyond, the brahmin stands on high ground."

This is what the Lord (Buddha) said. Having said this, the Fortunate One(Sugato), the Teacher(Sattha), further said this:

"One who has crossed this ocean so hard to cross.
With its dangers of sharks, demons, waves.
The knowledge-master who has lived the holy celibate life(brahmacariya).
Reached the world's end, is called one gone beyond."


229. The Ocean (2) (Samudda2 sans. Samudra)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the uninstructed worldling speaks of 'the ocean, the ocean.' But that is not the ocean in the Noble One's Discipline; that is only a great mass of water, a great body of water.

"There are, bhikkhus, forms cognizable by the eye that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. This is called the ocean in the Noble One's Discipline. Here this world with its Devas(Angels), Mara(Satan), and brahma(arch-angel), this generation with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas and humans, for the most part is submerged, 163 become like a tangled skin, like a knotted ball of thread, like matted reeds and rushes, and cannot pass beyond the plane of misery, the bad destinations, the nether world, samsara.

"There are sounds cognizable by the ear ... mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. Here this world with its devas(angels), Mara(satan), and Brahma(Archangels), this generation with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas and humans, for the most part is submerged, become like a tangled skein, like a knotted ball of thread, like matted reeds and rushes, and cannot pass beyond the plane of misery, the bad destinations, the nether world, samsara. 164

"One who has expunged lust(raag) and hate(dosa/dvesh);Along with [the defilement of] ignorance(avijja sans. avidya).
Has crossed this ocean so hard to cross; With its dangers of sharks, demons, waves.

"The bondage-remover, death-forsaker, without acquisitions(upadhi).
Has abandoned suffering for no renewed existence(rebirth cause).
Passed away, he cannot be measured, I say:
He has bewildered the King of Death."


230. The Fisherman Simile (Balisikopama)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), suppose a fisherman would cast a baited hook into a deep lake, and a fish on the lookout for food would swallow it. That fish who has thus swallowed the fisherman's hook would meet with calamity and disaster, and the fisherman could do with it as he wishes. So too, bhikkhus, there are these six hooks in the world for the calamity of beings, for the slaughtering of living beings.

"There are, bhikkhus, forms cognizable by the eye that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu(monk) seeks delight(nandi\anand) in them, welcomes them, and remains holding to them, he is called a bhikkhu who has swallowed Mara(Satan)'s hook. He has met with calamity and disaster, and the Evil One can do with him as he wishes.

"There are, bhikkhus, sounds cognizable by the ear ..(similarly for odours, tastes, touch).. mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind that are desirable ... tantalizing. If a bhikkhu seeks delight(nandi\anand) in them . . . the Evil One can do with him as he wishes.

"There are, bhikkhus, forms cognizable by the eye that are desirable, lovely, agreeable, pleasing, sensually enticing, tantalizing. If a bhikkhu does not seek delight in them, does not welcome them, and does not remain holding to them, he is called a bhikkhu who has not swallowed Mara's hook, who has broken the hook, demolished the hook. He has not met with calamity and disaster, and the Evil One cannot do with him as he wishes.

"There are, bhikkhus, sounds cognizable by the ear . . . mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind that are desirable ... tantalizing. If a bhikkhu does not seek delight in them . . . the Evil One cannot do with him as he wishes."


231. The Milk-Sap Tree (Khirarukkhopama sans. Kshir-vriksh-upama)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), in regard to forms cognizable by the eye, if in any bhikkhu(monk) or bhikkhuni(nun) lust(raag) still exists and has not been abandoned, if hatred(dosa\dvesh) still exists and has not been abandoned, if delusion(moha) still exists and has not been abandoned, then even trifling forms that enter into range of the eye obsess the mind, not to speak of those that are prominent. For what reason? Because lust still exists and has not been abandoned, hatred(dosa\dvesh) still exists and has not been abandoned, delusion(moha) Still exists and has not been abandoned. The same in regard to sounds cognizable by the ear . (similarly for odours, tastes, touch). . mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, there was a milk-sap tree 167 - an assattha or a banyan or a pilakkha or an udumbara - fresh, young, tender. If a man breaks it here and there with a sharp axe, would sap come out?"

"Yes, venerable sir. For what reason? Because there is sap."

"So too, bhikkhus, in regard to forms cognizable by the eye ... even trifling forms that enter into range of the eye obsess the mind, not to speak of those that are prominent. For what reason? Because lust(raag) still exists and has not been abandoned, hatred(dosa\dvesh) still exists and has not been abandoned, delusion(moha) still exists and has not been abandoned. The same in regard to sounds cognizable by the ear ..(similarly for odours, tastes, touch).. mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind.

"Bhikkhus, in regard to forms cognizable by the eye, if in any bhikkhu or bhikkhuni lust(raag) does not exist and has been abandoned, if hatred(dosa\dvesh) does not exist and has been abandoned, if delusion(moha) does not exist and has been abandoned, then even prominent forms that enter into range of the eye do not obsess the mind, not to speak of those that are trifling. For what reason? Because lust(raag) does not exist and has been abandoned, hatred(dosa\dvesh) does not exist and has been abandoned, delusion(moha) does not exist and has been abandoned. The same in regard to sounds cognizable by the ear . . . mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, there was a milk-sap tree - an assattha or a banyan or a pilakkha or an udumbara - dried up, desiccated, past its prime. If a man breaks it here and there with a sharp axe, would sap come out?".

"No, venerable sir. For what reason? Because there is no sap."

"So too, bhikkhus, in regard to forms cognizable by the eye .... even prominent forms that enter into range of the eye do not obsess the mind, not to speak of those that are trifling. For what reason? Because lust(raag) does not exist and has been abandoned, hatred(dosa\dvesh) does not exist and has been abandoned, delusion(moha) does not exist and has been abandoned. The same in regard to sounds cognizable by the ear . .(similarly for odours, tastes, touch &). . mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind."


232. Kotthika[]

On one occasion the Venerable Sariputta and the Venerable Mahakotthita were dwelling at Baranasi in the Deer-Park(Migdaye) at Isipatana. Then, in the evening, the Venerable Mahakotthita emerged from seclusion and approached the Venerable Sariputta. He exchanged greetings with the Venerable Sariputta and, when they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to him:

"How is it, friend Sariputta, is the eye the fetter of forms or are forms the fetter of the eye? Is the ear the fetter of sounds or are sounds the fetter of the ear?... Is the mind the fetter of mental phenomena(dhamma) or are mental phenomena(dhamma) the fetter of the mind?"

"Friend Kotthita, the eye is not the fetter of forms nor are forms the fetter of the eye, but rather the desire(chand) & lust(raag) that arise there in dependence on both: that is the fetter there. The ear is not the fetter of sounds nor are sounds the fetter of the ear, but rather the desire(chand) & lust(raag) that arise there in dependence on both: that is the fetter there.... The mind is not the fetter of mental phenomena(dhamma) nor are mental phenomena(dhamma) the fetter of the mind, but rather the desire(chand) & lust(raag) that arise there in dependence on both: that is the fetter there.

"Suppose, friend, a black ox and a white ox were yoked together by a single harness or yoke. Would one be speaking rightly if one were to say: The black ox is the fetter of the white ox; the white ox is the fetter of the black ox'?"

"No, friend. The black ox is not the fetter of the white ox nor is the white ox the fetter of the black ox, but rather the single harness or yoke by which the two are yoked together: that is the fetter there."

"So too, friend, the eye is not the fetter of forms . . . nor are mental phenomena(dhamma) the fetter of the mind, but rather the desire(chand) & lust(raag) that arise there in dependence on both: that is the fetter there.

"If, friend, the eye were the fetter of forms or if forms were the fetter of the eye, this living of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) could not be discerned for the complete destruction(khaya\kshaya) of suffering. 168 But since the eye is not the fetter of forms nor are forms the fetter of the eye -but rather the desire(chand) & lust(raag) that arise there in dependence on both is the fetter there - the living of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) is discerned for the complete destruction of suffering.

"If, friend, the ear were the fetter of sounds or if sounds were the fetter of the ear ..(similarly for odours, tastes, touch).. If the mind were the fetter of mental phenomena(dhamma) or if mental phenomena(dhamma) were the fetter of the mind, this living of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) could not be discerned for the complete destruction(khaya\kshaya) of suffering. But since the mind is not the fetter of mental phenomena(dhamma) nor are mental phenomena(dhamma) the fetter of the mind - but rather the desire(chand) & lust(raag) that arise there in dependence on both is the fetter there - the living of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) is discerned for the complete destruction of suffering.

"In this way too, friend, it may be understood how that is so: There exists in the Lord (Buddha) the eye, the Lord (Buddha) sees a form with the eye, yet there is no desire(chand) & lust(raag) in the Lord (Buddha); the Lord (Buddha) is well liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) in mind. There exists in the Lord (Buddha) the ear, the Lord (Buddha) hears a sound with the ear ... There exists in the Lord (Buddha) the nose, the Lord (Buddha) smells an odour with the nose ... There exists in the Lord (Buddha) the tongue, the Lord (Buddha) savours a taste with the tongue ... There exists in the Lord (Buddha) the body, the Lord (Buddha) feels a tactile object with the body . . . There exists in the Lord (Buddha) the mind, the Lord (Buddha) cognizes a mental phenomenon with the mind, yet there is no desire(chand) & lust(raag) in the Lord (Buddha); the Lord (Buddha) is well liberated in mind.

"In this way, friend, it can be understood how the eye is not the fetter of forms nor forms the fetter of the eye, but rather the desire(chand) & lust(raag) that arise there in dependence on both is the fetter there; how the ear is not the fetter of sounds nor sounds the fetter of the ear...; how the mind is not the fetter of mental phenomena(dhamma) nor mental phenomena(dhamma) the fetter of the mind, but rather the desire(chand) & lust(raag) that arise there in dependence on both is the fetter there."

(Also see 343)


233. Kamabhu[]

On one occasion the Venerable Ananda and the Venerable Kamabhu were dwelling at Kosambi in Ghosita's Park. Then, in the evening, the Venerable Kamabhu emerged from seclusion and approached the Venerable Ananda. He exchanged greetings w ith the Venerable Ananda and, when they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to him:
"How is it, friend Ananda, is the eye the fetter of forms or are forms the fetter of the eye?... Is the mind the fetter of mental phenomena(dhamma) or are mental phenomena(dhamma) the fetter of the mind?"

"Friend Kamabhu, the eye is not the fetter of forms nor are forms the fetter of the eye ... The mind is not the fetter of mental phenomena(dhamma) nor are mental phenomena(dhamma) the fetter of the mind, but rather the desire(chand) & lust(raag) that arise there in dependence on both: that is the fetter there.

"Suppose, friend, a black ox and a white ox were yoked together by a single harness or yoke. Would one be speaking rightly if one were to say: The black ox is the fetter of the white ox; the white ox is the fetter of the black ox'?"

"No, friend. The black ox is not the fetter of the white ox nor is the white ox the fetter of the black ox, but rather the single harness or yoke by which the two are yoked together: that is the fetter there."

"So too, friend, the eye is not the fetter of forms . . . nor are mental phenomena(dhamma) the fetter of the mind, but rather the desire(chand) & lust(raag) that arise there in dependence on both: that is the fetter there."


234. Udayi[]

On one occasion the Venerable Ananda and the Venerable Udayi were dwelling at Kosambi in Ghosita's Park. Then, in the evening, the Venerable Udayi emerged from seclusion and approached the Venerable Ananda. He exchanged greetings with the Venerable Ananda and, when they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to him:
"Friend Ananda, in many ways [the nature of] this body has been declared, disclosed, and revealed by the Lord (Buddha) thus:
'For such a reason this body is nonself.' Is it possible to explain [the nature of] this consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) in a similar way - to teach, proclaim, establish, disclose, analyse, and elucidate it thus: 'For such a reason this consciousness is nonself'?"

"It is possible, friend Udayi. Doesn't eye-consciousness arise in dependence on the eye and forms."

"Yes, friend."

"If the cause for the arising of eye-consciousness would cease completely and totally without remainder, could eye-consciousness be discerned?"

"No, friend."

"In this way, friend, this has been declared, disclosed, and revealed by the Lord (Buddha) thus: 'For such a reason this consciousness is nonself.'

"Doesn't ear-consciousness arise in dependence on the ear and sounds?.... Doesn't mind-consciousness arise in dependence on the mind and mental phenomena(dhamma)?"

"Yes, friend."

"If the cause for the arising of mind-consciousness would cease completely and totally without remainder, could mind-consciousness be discerned?"

"No, friend."

"In this way too, friend, this has been declared, disclosed, and revealed by the Lord (Buddha) thus: 'For such a reason this consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) is nonself.'

"Suppose, friend, a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, would take a sharp axe and enter a forest. 169 There he would see the trunk of a large plantain tree, straight, fresh, without a fruit-bud core. He would cut it down at the root, cut off the crown, and unroll the coil. As he unrolls the coil, he would not find even softwood, let alone heartwood.

"So too, a bhikkhu(monk) does not recognize either a self or anything belonging to a self in these six senses for contact(phassa/sparsh). Since he does not recognize anything thus, he does not cling to anything in the world. Not clinging(upadana sans. asakti), he is not agitated. Being unagitated, he personally attains Nibbana. He understands: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'"


235. The Exposition on Burning (Adittapriyaya sans. Aditya-pariyaya)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you a dhamma(path,law) exposition on the theme of burning. Listen to that....

"And what, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma exposition on the theme of burning? It would be better, bhikkhus, for the eye faculty to be lacerated by a red-hot iron pin burning, blazing, and glowing, than for one to grasp the sign(causative,nimitta) through the features in a form cognizable by the eye. 170 For if consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) should stand tied to worldly-enjoyment(assado sans. aswad) in the sign(causative,nimitta) or in the features, and if one should die on that occasion, it is possible that one will go to one of two destinations: hell or the animal realm. Having seen this danger, I speak thus.

"It would be better, bhikkhus, for the ear faculty to be lacerated by a sharp iron stake burning, blazing, and glowing, than for one to grasp the sign(causative,nimitta) through the features in a sound cognizable by the ear. For if consciousness should stand tied to worldly-enjoyment in the sign(causative,nimitta) or in the features, and if one should die on that occasion, it is possible that one will go to one of two destinations: hell or the animal realm. Having seen this danger, I speak thus.

"It would be better, bhikkhus, for the nose faculty to be lacerated by a sharp nail cutter burning, blazing, and glowing, than for one to grasp the sign(causative,nimitta) through the features in an odour cognizable by the nose. For if consciousness should stand tied to worldly-enjoyment in the sign(causative,nimitta) or in the features, and if one should die on that occasion, it is possible that one will go to one of two destinations: hell or the animal realm. Having seen this danger, I speak thus.

"It would be better, bhikkhus, for the tongue faculty to be lacerated by a sharp razor burning, blazing, and glowing, than for one to grasp the sign(causative,nimitta) through the features in a taste cognizable by the tongue. For if consciousness should stand tied to worldly-enjoyment in the sign(causative,nimitta) or in the features, and if one should die on that occasion, it is possible that one will go to one of two destinations: hell or the animal realm. Having seen this danger, I speak thus.

"It would be better, bhikkhus, for the body faculty to be lacerated by a sharp spear burning, blazing, and glowing, than for one to grasp the sign(causative,nimitta) through the features in a tactile object cognizable by the body. For if consciousness should stand tied to worldly-enjoyment in the sign(causative,nimitta) or in the features, and if one should die on that occasion, it is possible that one will go to one of two destinations: hell or the animal realm. Having seen this danger, I speak thus.

"It would be better, bhikkhus, to sleep - for sleep, I say, is barren for the living, fruitless for the living, insensibility for the living - than to think such thoughts as would induce one who has come under their control to bring about a schism in the Sangha(fraternity). Having seen this danger, I speak thus. 171

"In regard to this, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple thinks: 'Leave off lacerating the eye faculty with a red-hot iron pin burning, blazing, and glowing. Let me attend only to this: So the eye is impermanent, forms are impermanent, eye-consciousness is impermanent, eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) is impermanent, whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause - whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant - that too is impermanent.

"'Leave off lacerating the ear faculty with a sharp iron stake burning, blazing, and glowing. Let me attend only to this: So the ear is impermanent, sounds are impermanent, ear-consciousness is impermanent, ear-contact(phassa/sparsh) is impermanent, whatever sensation(vedana) arises with ear-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause ... that too is impermanent.

'"Leave off lacerating the nose faculty with a sharp nail cutter burning, blazing, and glowing. Let me attend only to this: So the nose is impermanent, odours are impermanent, nose-consciousness is impermanent, nose-contact(phassa/sparsh) is impermanent, whatever sensation(vedana) arises with nose-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause ... that too is impermanent.

"'Leave off lacerating the tongue faculty with a sharp razor burning, blazing, and glowing. Let me attend only to this: So the tongue is impermanent, tastes are impermanent, tongue-consciousness is impermanent, tongue-contact(phassa/sparsh) is impermanent, whatever sensation(vedana) arises with tongue-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause . . . that too is impermanent.

"'Leave off lacerating the body faculty with a sharp spear burning, blazing, and glowing. Let me attend only to this: So the body is impermanent, [171] tactile objects are impermanent, body-consciousness is impermanent, body-contact(phassa/sparsh) is impermanent, whatever sensation(vedana) arises with body-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause ... that too is impermanent.

"'Leave off sleeping. Let me attend only to this: So the mind is impermanent, mental phenomena(dhamma) are impermanent, mind-consciousness is impermanent, mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) is impermanent, whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause . . . that too is impermanent.'

"Seeing thus, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple experiences revulsion(nibbida) towards the eye, forms, eye-consciousness, eye-contact(phassa/sparsh), and whatever sensation(vedana) arises with eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause -whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant ... towards the mind, mental phenomena(dhamma), mind-consciousness, mind-contact(phassa/sparsh), and whatever sensation(vedana) arises with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause.... Experiencing revulsion, he becomes dispassionate.

Through dispassion [his mind] is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt). When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: 'It's liberated.' He understands:
'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'

"This, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma exposition on the theme of burning."


236. The Simile of Hands and Feet (1) (Hatthapadopama1 sans. Hast-pad-upama)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), when there are hands, picking up and putting down are discerned. When there are feet, coming and going are discerned. When there are limbs, bending and stretching are discerned. When there is the belly, hunger and thirst are discerned.

"So too, bhikkhus, when there is the eye, happiness and sorrow arise internally with eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) as cause. 172 When there is the ear, happiness and sorrow arise internally with ear-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause.... When there is the mind, happiness and sorrow arise internally with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause.

"When, bhikkhus, there are no hands, picking up and putting down are not discerned. When there are no feet, coming and going are not discerned. When there are no limbs, bending and stretching are not discerned. When there is no belly, hunger and thirst are not discerned.

"So too, bhikkhus, when there is no eye, no happiness and sorrow arise internally with eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause. When there is no ear, no happiness and sorrow arise internally with ear-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause.... When there is no mind, no happiness and sorrow arise internally with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause."


237. The Simile of Hands and Feet (2) (Hatthapadopama2 sans. Hast-pad-upama)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), when there are hands, there is picking up and putting down....

"So too, bhikkhus, when there is the eye, happiness and sorrow arise internally with eye-contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) as cause.... When there is the mind, happiness and sorrow arise internally with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause.

"When, bhikkhus, there are no hands, there is no picking up and putting down....

"So too, bhikkhus, when there is no eye ... no mind, no happiness and sorrow arise internally with mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause."



(iv) Division 4. The Fourth Fifty - The Vipers (Asivisavaggo)[]

238. The Simile of the Vipers (Asivisopama )[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), suppose there were four vipers of fierce heat and deadly venom. 173 Then a man would come along wanting to live, not wanting to die, desiring happiness(sukh) and averse to suffering. They would tell him: 'Good man, these four vipers are of fierce heat and deadly venom. From time to time they must be lifted up; from time to time they must be bathed; from time to time they must be fed; from time to time they must be laid to rest. 174 But if one or another of these vipers ever becomes angry with you, then, good man, you will meet death or deadly suffering. Do whatever has to be done, good man!'

"Then, bhikkhus, afraid of the four vipers of fierce heat and deadly venom, that man would flee in one direction or another. They would tell him: 'Good man, five murderous enemies are pursuing you, thinking, "Wherever we see him, we will take his life right on the spot." Do whatever has to be done, good man!'

"Then, bhikkhus, afraid of the four vipers of fierce heat and deadly venom, and of the five murderous enemies, that man would flee in one direction or another. They would tell him:
'Good man, a sixth murderer, an intimate companion, 175 is pursuing you with drawn sword, thinking, "Wherever I see him I will cut off his head right on the spot. " Do whatever has to be done, good man!'

"Then, bhikkhus, afraid of the four vipers of fierce heat and deadly venom, and of the five murderous enemies, and of the sixth murderer, the intimate companion with drawn sword, that man would flee in one direction or another. He would see an empty village. Whatever house he enters is void, deserted, empty. Whatever pot he takes hold of is void, hollow, empty. They would tell him: 'Good man, just now village-attacking dacoits will raid 176 this empty village. Do whatever has to be done, good man!'

"Then, bhikkhus, afraid of the four vipers of fierce heat and deadly venom, and of the five murderous enemies, and of the sixth murderer - the intimate companion with drawn sword - and of the village-attacking dacoits, that man would flee in one direction or another. He would see a great expanse of water whose near shore was dangerous and fearful, and whose further shore was safe and free from danger, but there would be no ferryboat or bridge for crossing over from the near shore to the far shore. 177

"Then the man would think: There is this great expanse of water whose near shore is dangerous and fearful, and whose further shore is safe and free from danger, but there is no ferryboat or bridge for crossing over. Let me collect grass, twigs, branches, and foliage, and bind them together into a raft, so that by means of that raft, making an effort with my hands and feet, I can get safely across to the far shore.'

"Then the man would collect grass, twigs, branches, and foliage, and bind them together into a raft, so that by means of that raft, making an effort with his hands and feet, he would get safely across to the far shore. Crossed over, gone beyond, the brahmin stands on high ground. 178

"I have made up this simile, bhikkhus, in order to convey a meaning. This is the meaning here: 'The four vipers of fierce heat and deadly venom': this is a designation for the four great elements(dhatu) - the earth element(dhatu), the water element, the heat element, the air element. 179

"'The five murderous enemies': this is a designation for the five aggregates(khandha sans. skandha) subject to clinging(upadana sans. asakti); that is, the material form aggregate subject to clinging, the sensation(vedana) aggregate subject to clinging, the perception(sanna sans. sangya) aggregate subject to clinging, the sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) aggregate subject to clinging, the consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) aggregate subject to clinging(upadana sans. asakti). 180

"'The sixth murderer, the intimate companion with drawn sword': this is a designation for delight(nandi\anand) and lust(raag). 181

"'The empty village': this is a designation for the six internal sense faculties. If, bhikkhus, a wise, competent, intelligent person examines them by way of the eye, they appear to be void, hollow, empty. If he examines them by way of the ear ... by way of the mind, they appear to be void, hollow, empty.

"'Village-attacking dacoits': this is a designation for the six external sense faculties. The eye, bhikkhus, is attacked by agreeable and disagreeable forms. The ear ... The nose ... The tongue The body . . . The mind is attacked by agreeable and disagreeable mental phenomena(dhamma).

"The great expanse of water': this is a designation for the four floods: the flood of sensuality, the flood of existence(bhavo), the flood of views, and the flood of ignorance(avijja sans. avidya).

'"The near shore, which is dangerous and fearful': this is a designation for body-identity(sakkaya). 182

"'The further shore, which is safe and free from danger': this is a designation for Nibbana.

"'The raft': this is a designation for the Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view ..(see SN5:8).. right samadhi(trance)state.

"'Making effort with hands and feet': this is a designation for the arousing of energetic-strength(viriya).

"'Crossed over, gone beyond, the brahmin stands on high ground': this is a designation for the arahant."


239. The Simile of the Chariot (Rathopama sans. Rath-upama)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), by possessing three qualities, a bhikkhu(monk) lives full of happiness(sukh) and joy in this very life, and he has laid a foundation 183 for the destruction(khaya\kshaya) of the defilements. What are the three? He is one who guards the doors of the sense faculties, who is moderate in eating, and who is devoted to wakefulness.

"And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu one who guards the doors of the sense faculties? Here, having seen a form with the eye, a bhikkhu does not grasp its causatives(nimitta) and features. Since, if he left the eye faculty unrestrained, evil harmful(akusala sans. akushal) states of covetousness and displeasure might invade him, he practises the way of its restraint, he guards the eye faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the eye faculty. Having heard a sound with the ear . . . Having smelt an odour with the nose ... Having tasted a taste with the tongue ... Having felt a tactile object with the body ... Having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, a bhikkhu does not grasp its causatives(nimitta) and its features. Since, if he left the mind faculty unrestrained, evil harmful(akusala) states of covetousness and displeasure might invade him, he practises the way of its restraint, he guards the mind faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the mind faculty.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, a chariot harnessed to thoroughbreds was standing ready on even ground at a crossroads, with a goad on hand. Then a skilful trainer, a charioteer of horses to be tamed, would mount it and, taking the reins in his left hand and the goad in his right, would drive away and return by any route he wants, whenever he wants. So too, a bhikkhu trains in protecting these six sense faculties, trains in controlling them, trains in taming them, trains in pacifying them. It is in this way, bhikkhus, that a bhikkhu guards the doors of the sense faculties.

"And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu moderate in eating? Here, thinking wisely, a bhikkhu takes food neither for amusement nor for intoxication nor for the sake of physical beauty and attractiveness, but only for the support and maintenance of this body, for ending discomfort, and for assisting the holy celibate life(brahmacariya), considering:
'Thus I shall terminate the old sensation(vedana) and not arouse a new sensation(vedana), and I shall be healthy and blameless and live in comfort.' Just as a person anoints a wound only for the purpose of enabling it to heal, or just as one greases an axle only for the sake of transporting a load, so a bhikkhu, thinking wisely, takes food ... for assisting the holy celibate life(brahmacariya). It is in this way, bhikkhus, that a bhikkhu is moderate in eating.

"And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu devoted to wakefulness? Here, during the day, while walking back and forth and sitting, a bhikkhu purifies his mind of obstructive states. In the first watch of the night, while walking back and forth and sitting, he purifies his mind of obstructive states. In the middle watch of the night he lies down on the right side in the lion's posture with one foot overlapping the other, meditative(satima) and completely comprehending (sampajano), after noting in his mind the idea of rising. After rising, in the last watch of the night, while walking back and forth and sitting, he purifies his mind of obstructive states. It is in this way, bhikkhus, that a bhikkhu is devoted to wakefulness.

"Bhikkhus, it is by possessing these three qualities that a bhikkhu lives full of happiness and joy in this very life, and he has laid the foundation for the destruction(khaya\kshaya) of the defilements."


240. The Simile of the Tortoise (Kummopama)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), in the past a tortoise 184 was searching for food along the bank of a river one evening. On that same evening a jackal was also searching for food along the bank of that same river. When the tortoise saw the jackal in the distance searching for food, it drew its limbs and neck inside its shell and passed the time keeping still and silent. 188

"The jackal had also seen the tortoise in the distance searching for food, so he approached and waited close by, thinking, 'When this tortoise extends one or another of its limbs or its neck, I will grab it right on the spot, pull it out, and eat it.' But because the tortoise did not extend any of its limbs or its neck, the jackal, failing to gain access to it, lost interest in it and departed.

"So too, bhikkhus, Mara(Satan) the Evil One is constantly and continually waiting close by you, thinking, 'Perhaps I will gain access to him through the eye or through the ear ... or through the mind.' Therefore, bhikkhus, dwell guarding the doors of the sense faculties. Having seen a form with the eye, do not grasp its causatives(nimitta) and features. Since, if you leave the eye faculty unguarded, evil harmful(akusala sans. akushal) states of covetousness and displeasure might invade you, practise the way of its restraint, guard the eye faculty, undertake the restraint of the eye faculty. Having heard a sound with the ear ... Having smelt an odour with the nose ... Having savoured a taste with the tongue . . . Having felt a tactile object with the body ... Having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, do not grasp its causatives(nimitta) and features. Since, if you leave the mind faculty unguarded, evil harmful(akusala) states of covetousness and displeasure might invade you, practise the way of its restraint, guard the mind faculty, undertake the restraint of the mind faculty.

"When, bhikkhus, you dwell guarding the doors of the sense faculties, Mara the Evil One, failing to gain access to you, will lose interest in you and depart, just as the jackal departed from the tortoise."

Drawing in the mind's thoughts
As a tortoise draws its limbs into its shell.
Independent, not harassing others, fully quenched,
A bhikkhu(monk) would not blame anyone. 186


241. The Simile of the Great Log (1) (Darukkhandhopama1)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Kosambi on the bank of the river Ganges. The Lord (Buddha) saw a great log being carried along by the current of the river Ganges, and he addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Do you see, bhikkhus, that great log being carried along by the current of the river Ganges?"

"Yes, venerable sir."

"If, bhikkhus, that log does not veer towards the near shore does not veer towards the far shore, does not sink in mid-stream does not get cast up on high ground, does not get caught by human beings, does not get caught by nonhuman beings, does not get caught in a whirlpool, and does not become inwardly rotten, it will slant, slope, and incline towards the ocean. For what reason? Because the current of the river Ganges slants, slopes, and inclines towards the ocean.

"So too, bhikkhus, if you do not veer towards the near shore, do not veer towards the far shore, do not sink in mid-stream, do not get cast up on high ground, do not get caught by human beings, do not get caught by nonhuman beings, do not get caught in a whirlpool, and do not become inwardly rotten, you will slant, slope, and incline towards Nibbana. For what reason? Because right view slants, slopes, and inclines towards Nibbana."

When this was said, a certain bhikkhu(monk) asked the Lord (Buddha):
"What, venerable sir, is the near shore? What is the far shore? What is sinking in mid-stream? What is getting cast up on high ground? What is getting caught by human beings, what is getting caught by nonhuman beings, what is getting caught in a whirlpool? What is inward rottenness?"

"'The near shore,' bhikkhu: this is a designation for the six internal sense faculties. 'The far shore': this is a designation for the six external sense faculties. 'Sinking in mid-stream': this is a designation for delight(nandi\anand) and lust(raag). 'Getting cast up on high ground': this is a designation for the conceit 'I am.'

"And what, bhikkhu, is getting caught by human beings? Here, someone lives in association with laypeople; he rejoices with them and sorrows with them, he is happy when they are happy and sad when they are sad, and he involves himself in their affairs and duties. 187 This is called getting caught by human beings.

"And what, bhikkhu, is getting caught by nonhuman beings? Here, someone lives the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) with the aspiration [to be reborn] into a certain order of devas, thinking: 'By this virtue(sheel) or vow or austerity(tapa) or holy celibate life(brahmacariya) I will become a deva(angel) or one among the devas.' This is called getting caught by nonhuman beings.

"'Getting caught in a whirlpool': this, bhikkhu, is a designation for the five cords of sensual pleasure.

"And what, bhikkhu, is inward rottenness? Here someone is immoral, one of evil character, of impure and suspect behaviour, secretive in his acts, no ascetic though claiming to be one, not a celibate though claiming to be one, inwardly rotten, corrupt, depraved. 188 This is called inward rottenness."

Now on that occasion the cowherd Nanda was standing near the Lord (Buddha). He then said to the Lord (Buddha): "Venerable sir, I will not veer 189 towards the near shore, I will not veer towards the far shore, I will not sink in mid-stream, I will not get cast up on high ground, I will not get caught by human beings, I will not get caught by nonhuman beings, I will not get caught in a whirlpool, I will not become inwardly rotten. May I receive the going-forth(initiation,pabajja) under the Lord (Buddha), may I receive the higher ordination(upsampada)?"

"In that case, Nanda, return the cows to their owners."

"The cows will go back of their own accord, venerable sir, out of attachment to the calves."

"Return the cows to their owners, Nanda."

Then the cowherd Nanda returned the cows to their owners, came back to the Lord (Buddha), and said: "The cows have been returned to their owners, venerable sir. May I receive the going-forth(initiation,pabajja) under the Lord (Buddha), may I receive the higher ordination?"

Then the cowherd Nanda received the going-forth(initiation,pabajja) under the Lord (Buddha), and he received the higher ordination. And soon, not long after his higher ordination, dwelling alone, withdrawn, alertful(appamada), ardent, and resolute ... the Venerable Nanda became one of the arahants."


242. The Simile of the Great Log (2) (Darukkhandhopama2)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Kimbila on the bank of the river Ganges. The Lord (Buddha) saw a great log being carried along by the current of the river Ganges, and he addressed thebhikkhus thus: "Do you see, bhikkhus, that great log being carried along by the current of the river Ganges?"
"Yes, venerable sir."... (as above) ...

When this was said, the Venerable Kimbila asked the Lord (Buddha):
"What, venerable sir, is the near shore ... what is inward rottenness?"

(Replies as above except the following:)

"And what, Kimbila, is inward rottenness? Here, Kimbila, a bhikkhu(monk) commits a certain defiled offence, an offence of a kind that does not allow for rehabilitation. 190 This is called inward rottenness."


243. Exposition on the Corrupted (Avassutapariyaya)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling among the Sakyans at Kapilavatthu in Nigrodha's Park. Now on that occasion a new assembly hall had just been built for the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu and it had not yet been inhabited by any ascetic or brahmin or by any human being at all. Then the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

"Venerable sir, a new council hall has just been built for the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu and it has not yet been inhabited by any ascetic or brahmin or by any human being at all. Venerable sir, let the Lord (Buddha) be the first to use it. When the Lord (Buddha) has used it first, then the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu will use it afterwards. That will lead to their welfare and happiness(sukh) for a long time." 191

. The Lord (Buddha) consented by silence. Then, when the Sakyans understood that the Lord (Buddha) had consented, they rose from their seats and, after paying homage to the Lord (Buddha), keeping him on their right, they went to the new assembly hall. They covered it thoroughly with mats, prepared seats, put out a large water jug, and hung up an oil lamp. Then they approached the Lord (Buddha) and informed him of this, adding: "Let the Lord (Buddha) come at his own convenience."

Then the Lord (Buddha) dressed and, taking bowl and robe, went together with the Sangha(fraternity) of bhikkhus to the new assembly hall. After washing his feet, he entered the hall and sat down against the central pillar facing east. The bhikkhus too, after washing their feet, entered the hall and sat down against the western wall facing east, with the Lord (Buddha) in front of them. The Sakyans of Kapilavatthu too, after washing their feet, entered the hall and sat down against the eastern wall facing west, with the Lord (Buddha) in front of them.

The Lord (Buddha) then instructed, inspired, and gladdened the Sakyans with a dhamma(path,law) talk through much of the night, after which he dismissed them, saying: "The night has passed, Gotamas. 192 You may go at your own convenience."

"Yes, venerable sir," they replied. Then they rose from their seats and, after paying homage to the Lord (Buddha), keeping him on their right, they departed. Then, not long after the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu had left, the Lord (Buddha) addressed the Venerable Mahamoggallana thus: "The Sangha of bhikkhus is free from sloth and torpor, Moggallana. Give a Dhamma talk to the bhikkhus. My back is aching, so I will stretch it." 193

"Yes, venerable sir," the Venerable Mahamoggallana replied.

Then the Lord (Buddha) prepared his outer robe folded in four and lay down on his right side in the lion's posture, with one foot overlapping the other, meditative(satima) and completely comprehending (sampajano), after noting in his mind the idea of rising. Thereupon the Venerable Mahamoggallana addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Friends, bhikkhus!"

"Friend!" those bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Mahamoggallana said this:

"I will teach you, friends, an exposition on the corrupted and
the uncorrupted. 194 Listen to it and be mindful(manasikaro), I will speak."

"Yes, friend," those bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Mahamoggallana said this:

"How, friends, is one corrupted? Here, having seen a form with the eye, a bhikkhu(monk) is intent upon a pleasing form and repelled by a displeasing form. 195 He dwells without having set up meditation of the body, with a limited mind, and he does not understand as it really is that liberation(vimutti sans. vimukti) of mind, liberation by illuminated-insight(panna), wherein those evil harmful(akusala sans. akushal) states cease without remainder. Having heard a sound with the ear ... Having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, he is intent upon a pleasing mental phenomenon and repelled by a displeasing mental phenomenon. He dwells without having set up meditation of the body, with a limited mind, and he does not understand as it really is that liberation of mind, liberation by panna(illuminated-insight), wherein those evil harmful(akusala sans. akushal) states cease without remainder.

"This is called, friends, a bhikkhu who is corrupted in forms cognizable by the eye, corrupted in sounds cognizable by the ear, corrupted in odours cognizable by the nose. corrupted in tastes cognizable by the tongue, corrupted in tactile objects cognizable by the body, corrupted in mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind. When a bhikkhu dwells thus, if Mara(Satan) approaches him through the eye, Mara gains access to him, Mara gets a hold on him. If Mara approaches him through the ear . . . through the mind, Mara gains access to him Mara gets a hold on him.

"Suppose, friends, there is a shed made of reeds or of grass, dried up, desiccated, past its prime. If a man approaches it from the east with a blazing grass torch, or from the west, from the north, from the south, from below, or from above, whichever way he approaches it the fire gains access to it, the fire gets a hold on it. So too, friends, when a bhikkhu dwells thus, if Mara approaches him through the eye . . . through the mind, Mara gains access to him, Mara gets a hold on him.

"When a bhikkhu dwells thus, forms overwhelm him; he does not overwhelm forms. Sounds overwhelm him; he does not overwhelm sounds. Odours overwhelm him; he does not overwhelm odours. Tastes overwhelm him; he does not overwhelm tastes. Tactile objects overwhelm him; he does not overwhelm tactile objects. Mental phenomena(dhamma) overwhelm him; he does not overwhelm mental phenomena(dhamma). This is called, friends, a bhikkhu who is overwhelmed by forms, overwhelmed by sounds, overwhelmed by odours, overwhelmed by tastes, overwhelmed by tactile objects, overwhelmed by mental phenomena(dhamma) - one who is overwhelmed and who does not overwhelm. Evil harmful(akusala sans. akushal) states have overwhelmed him, states that defile, that lead to renewed existence(rebirth cause), that bring trouble, that result in suffering, and that lead to future rebirth, aging, and death.

"It is in this way, friends, that one is corrupted.

"And how, friends, is one uncorrupted? Here, having seen a form with the eye, a bhikkhu is not intent upon a pleasing form and not repelled by a displeasing form. He dwells having set up meditation of the body, with a measureless mind, and he understands as it really is that liberation(vimutti sans. vimukti) of mind, liberation by illuminated-insight(panna), wherein those evil harmful(akusala) states cease without remainder. Having heard a sound with the ear ... Having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, he is not intent upon a pleasing mental phenomenon and not repelled by a displeasing mental phenomenon. He dwells having set up meditation of the body, with a measureless mind, and he understands as it really is that liberation of mind, liberation by panna(illuminated-insight), wherein those evil harmful(akusala sans. akushal) states cease without remainder.

"This is called, friends, a bhikkhu who is uncorrupted in forms cognizable by the eye, uncorrupted in sounds cognizable by the ear, uncorrupted in odours cognizable by the nose, uncorrupted in tastes cognizable by the tongue, uncorrupted in tactile objects cognizable by the body, uncorrupted in mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind. When a bhikkhu dwells thus, if Mara(Satan) approaches him through the eye, Mara fails to gain access to him, Mara fails to get a hold on him. If Mara approaches him through the ear . . . through the mind, Mara fails to gain access to him, Mara fails to get a hold on him.

"Suppose, friends, there is a peaked house or a hall built of thickly packed clay and freshly plastered. If a man approaches it from the east with a blazing grass torch, or from the west, from the north, from the south, from below, or from above, whichever way he approaches it the fire fails to gain access to it, the fire fails to get a hold on it. So too, friends, when a bhikkhu dwells thus, if Mara approaches him through the eye . . . through the mind, Mara fails to gain access to him, Mara fails to get a hold on him.

"When a bhikkhu dwells thus, he overwhelms forms; forms do not overwhelm him. He overwhelms sounds; sounds do not overwhelm him. He overwhelms odours; odours do not overwhelm him. He overwhelms tastes; tastes do not overwhelm him. He overwhelms tactile objects; tactile objects do not overwhelm him. He overwhelms mental phenomena(dhamma); mental phenomena(dhamma) do not overwhelm him. This is called, friends, a bhikkhu who overwhelms forms, who overwhelms sounds, who overwhelms odours, who overwhelms tastes, who overwhelms tactile objects, who overwhelms mental phenomena(dhamma) - one who overwhelms and who is not overwhelmed. He has overwhelmed those evil harmful(akusala sans. akushal) states that defile, that lead to renewed existence(rebirth cause), that bring trouble, that result in suffering, and that lead to future rebirth, aging, and death.

"It is in this way, friends, that one is uncorrupted."

Then the Lord (Buddha) got up and addressed the Venerable Mahamoggallana thus: "Good, good, Moggallana! You have spoken well to the bhikkhus the exposition on the corrupted and the uncorrupted."

This is what the Venerable Mahamoggallana said. The Teacher approved. Elated, those bhikkhus delighted in the Venerable Mahamoggallana's statement.


244. States That Entail Suffering (Dukkhadhamma)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), when a bhikkhu(monk) understands as they really are the origin and the passing away of all states whatsoever that entail suffering, then sensual pleasures have been seen by him in such a way that as he looks at them sensual desire, sensual affection, sensual infatuation, and sensual passion do not lie latent within him in regard to sensual pleasures; then he has comprehended a mode of conduct and manner of dwelling in such a way that as he conducts himself thus and as he dwells thus, evil harmful(akusala sans. akushal) states of covetousness and displeasure do not flow in upon him. 196

"And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu understand as they really are the origin and the passing away of all states whatsoever that entail suffering? 197 'Such is form, such its origin, such its passing away; such is sensation(vedana) . . . such is perception(sanna sans. sangya) . . . such are sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) ... such is consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan), such its origin, such its passing away': it is in such a way that a bhikkhu understands as they really are the origin and the passing away of all states whatsoever that entail suffering.

"And how, bhikkhus, are sensual pleasures seen by a bhikkhu in such a way that as he looks at them sensual desire, sensual affection, sensual infatuation, and sensual passion do not lie latent within him in regard to sensual pleasures? Suppose there is a charcoal pit deeper than a man's height, filled with glowing coals without flame or smoke. 198 A man would come along wanting to live, not wanting to die, desiring happiness(sukh) and averse to suffering. Then two strong men would grab him by both arms and drag him towards the charcoal pit. The man would wriggle his body this way and that. For what reason? Because he knows:
'I will fall into this charcoal pit and I will thereby meet death or deadly suffering.' So too, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu has seen sensual pleasures as similar to a charcoal pit, sensual desire, sensual affection, sensual infatuation, and sensual passion do not lie latent within him in regard to sensual pleasures.

"And how, bhikkhus, has a bhikkhu comprehended a mode of conduct and manner of dwelling in such a way that as he conducts himself thus and as he dwells thus, evil harmful(akusala sans. akushal) states of covetousness and displeasure do not flow in upon him? Suppose a man would enter a thorny forest. There would be thorns in front of him, thorns behind him, thorns to his left, thorns to his right, thorns below him, thorns above him. He would go forward in attentive, he would go back attentive, thinking, 'May no thorn prick me!' So too, bhikkhus, whatever in the world has a pleasing and agreeable nature is called a thorn in the Noble One's Discipline. Having understood this thus as 'a thorn,' 200 one should understand restraint and nonrestraint.

"And how, bhikkhus, is there nonrestraint? Here, having seen a form with the eye, a bhikkhu is intent upon a pleasing form and repelled by a displeasing form. He dwells without having set up meditation of the body, with a limited mind, and he does not understand as it really is that liberation(vimutti sans. vimukti) of mind, liberation by illuminated-insight(panna), wherein those evil harmful(akusala) states cease without remainder. Having heard a sound with the ear ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind).. Having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, he is intent upon a pleasing mental phenomenon and repelled by a displeasing mental phenomenon. He dwells without having set up meditation of the body, with a limited mind, and he does not understand as it really is that liberation of mind, liberation by illuminated-insight(panna), wherein those evil harmful(akusala) states cease without remainder. It is in such a way that there is nonrestraint.

"And how, bhikkhus, is there restraint? Here, having seen a form with the eye, a bhikkhu is not intent upon a pleasing form and not repelled by a displeasing form. He dwells having set up meditation of the body, with a measureless mind, and he understands as it really is that liberation of mind, liberation by illuminated-insight(panna), wherein those evil harmful(akusala) states cease without remainder. Having heard a sound with the ear ..(similarly for ear, nose, tongue, touch, mind).. Having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, he is not intent upon a pleasing mental phenomenon and not repelled by a displeasing mental phenomenon. He dwells having set up meditation of the body, with a measureless mind, and he understands as it really is that liberation of mind, liberation by illuminated-insight(panna), wherein those evil harmful(akusala) states cease without remainder. It is in such a way that there is restraint.

"When, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu is conducting himself and dwelling in such a way, if occasionally, due to a lapse of meditation-state, evil harmful(akusala) memories and intentions connected with the fetters arise in him, slow might be the arising of his meditation-state, but then he quickly abandons them, dispels them puts an end to them, obliterates them. 201 Suppose a man let two or three drops of water fall onto an iron plate heated for a whole day. Slow might be the falling of the water drops, but then they would quickly vaporize and vanish. So too, when a bhikkhu is conducting himself and dwelling in such a way . . . slow might be the arising of his meditation-state, but then he quickly abandons them, dispels them, puts an end to them, obliterates them.

"Thus a bhikkhu has comprehended a mode of conduct and manner of dwelling in such a way that as he conducts himself and as he dwells thus, evil harmful(akusala) states of covetousness and displeasure do not flow in upon him.

"When a bhikkhu is conducting himself thus and dwelling thus, kings or royal ministers, friends or colleagues, relatives or kinsmen, might invite him to accept wealth, saying: 'Come, good man, why let these saffron robes weigh you down? Why roam around with a shaven head and a begging bowl? Come, having returned to the lower life, enjoy wealth and do meritorious(punya) deeds.' Indeed, bhikkhus, when that bhikkhu is conducting himself thus and dwelling thus, it is impossible that he will give up the training and return to the lower life.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, that when the river Ganges slants, slopes, and inclines towards the east, a great crowd of people would come along bringing a shovel and basket, thinking: 'We will make this river Ganges slant, slope, and incline towards the west.' What do you think, bhikkhus, would that great crowd of people be able to make the river Ganges slant, slope, and incline towards the west?"

"No, venerable sir. For what reason? Because the river Ganges slants, slopes, and inclines towards the east, and it is not easy to make it slant, slope, and incline towards the west. That great crowd of people would only reap fatigue and vexation."

"So too, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu is conducting himself thus and dwelling thus, kings or royal ministers, friends or colleagues, relatives or kinsmen, might invite him to accept wealth ... [but] it is impossible that he will give up the training and return to the lower life. For what reason? Because for a long time his mind has slanted, sloped, and inclined towards seclusion. Thus it is impossible that he will give up the training and return to the lower life."


245. The Kimsuka Tree Simile (Kimsukopama)[]

One bhikkhu(monk) approached another and asked him: "In what way, friend, is a bhikkhu's vision well purified?" 202

"When, friend, a bhikkhu understands as they really are the origin and the passing away of the six sense faculties for contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh), in this way his vision is well purified." 203

Then the first bhikkhu, dissatisfied with the other's answer, approached another bhikkhu and asked him: "In what way, friend, is a bhikkhu's vision well purified?"

"When, friend, a bhikkhu understands as they really are the origin and the passing away of the five aggregates(khandha sans. skandha) subject to clinging(upadana sans. asakti), in this way his vision is well purified."

Again, the first bhikkhu, dissatisfied with the other's answer, approached still another bhikkhu and asked him: "In what way, friend, is a bhikkhu's vision well purified?"

"When, friend, a bhikkhu understands as they really are the origin and the passing away of the four great elements(dhatu), in this way his vision is well purified."

Again, the first bhikkhu, dissatisfied with the other's answer, approached still another bhikkhu and asked him: "In what way, friend, is a bhikkhu's vision well purified?"

"When, friend, a bhikkhu understands as it really is: 'Whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation(nirodha),' in this way his vision is well purified."

Then the first bhikkhu, dissatisfied with the other's answer, approached the Lord (Buddha), reported everything that had happened, and asked: "In what way, venerable sir, is a bhikkhu's vision well purified?"

"Bhikkhu, suppose there was a man who had never before seen a kimsuka tree. 204 He might approach a man who had seen a kimsuka tree and ask him: 'Sir, what is a kimsuka tree like?' The other might answer: 'Good man, a kimsuka tree is blackish, like a charred stump.' On that occasion a kimsuka tree was for him exactly as it had been in the other man's sight.

"Then that man, dissatisfied with the other's answer, might approach another man who had seen a kimsuka tree and ask him:
'Sir, what is a kimsuka tree like?' The other might answer: 'Good man, a kimsuka tree is reddish, like a piece of meat.' On that occasion a kimsuka tree was for him exactly as it had been in the other man's sight.

"Then that man, dissatisfied with the other's answer, might approach still another man who had seen a kimsuka tree and ask him: 'Sir, what is a kimsuka tree like?' The other might answer:
'Good man, a kimsuka tree has strips of bark hanging down and burst pods, like an acacia tree.' 205 On that occasion a kimsuka tree was for him exactly as it had been in the other man's sight.

"Then that man, dissatisfied with the other's answer, might approach still another man who had seen a kinisuka tree and ask him: 'Sir, what is a kimsuka tree like?' The other might answer: 'Good man, a kimsuka tree has plenty of leaves and foliage and gives abundant shade, like a banyan tree.' On that occasion a kimsuka tree was for him exactly as it had been in the other man's sight.

"So too,bhikkhu, those superior men answered as they were disposed in just the way their own vision had been well purified. 206

"Suppose, bhikkhu, a king had a frontier city with strong ramparts, walls, and arches, and with six gates. 207 The gatekeeper posted there would be wise, competent, and intelligent; one who keeps out strangers and admits acquaintances. A swift pair of messengers would come from the east and ask the gatekeeper:
'Where, good man, is the lord of this city?' He would reply: 'He is sitting in the central square.' Then the swift pair of messengers would deliver a message of reality to the lord of the city and leave by the route by which they had arrived. Similarly, messengers would come from the west, from the north, from the south, deliver their message, and leave by the route by which they had arrived.

"I have made up this simile, bhikkhu, in order to convey a meaning. This is the meaning here: 'The city': this is a designation for this body consisting of the four great elements(dhatu), originating from mother and father, built up out of boiled rice and gruel, subject to impermanence(anicca sans. anitya), to being worn and wasted away, to breaking apart and dispersal. 208 'The six gates': this is a designation for the six internal sense faculties. 'The gatekeeper': this is a designation for meditation. 'The swift pair of messengers': this is a designation for serenity(samatha/equanimity) and insight(vipassana-meditation), 'The lord of the city': this is designation for consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan). 209 'The central square': this is a designation for the four great elements - the earth element(dhatu), the water element, the heat element, the air element. 'A message of reality': this is a designation for Nibbana. 210 'The route by which they had arrived': this is a designation for the Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view ... right samadhi(trance)state."


246. The Simile of the Lute (Vinopama sans. Vina-upama)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), if in any bhikkhu(monk) or bhikkhuni(nun) desire or lust(raag) or hatred(dosa\dvesh) or delusion(moha) or aversion of mind should arise in regard to forms cognizable by the eye, such a one should rein in the mind from them thus: 211 'This path is fearful, dangerous, strewn with thorns, covered by jungle, a deviant path, an evil path, a way beset by scarcity. 212 This is a path followed by inferior people; it is not the path followed by superior people. This is not for you.' In this way the mind should be reined in from these states regarding forms cognizable by the eye. So too regarding sounds cognizable by the ear ... regarding mental phenomena(dhamma) cognizable by the mind.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, that the barley has ripened and the watchman is slothful(in pamada). If a bull fond of barley enters the barley field, he might indulge himself as much as he likes. So too, bhikkhus, the uninstructed worldling who does not exercise restraint over the six sense faculties for contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) indulges himself as much as he likes in the five cords of sensual pleasure. 213

"Suppose, bhikkhus, that the barley has ripened and the watchman is vigilant. If a bull fond of barley enters the barley field, the watchman would catch hold of him firmly by the muzzle. While holding him firmly by the muzzle, he would get a secure grip on the locks between his horns and, keeping him in check there, would give him a sound beating with his staff. After giving him that beating, he would drive the bull away. This might happen a second time and a third time. Thus that bull fond of barley, whether he has gone to the village or the forest, whether he is accustomed to standing or to sitting, remembering the previous beating he got from the staff, would not enter that barley field again.

"So too, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu's mind has been subdued well subdued, 214 regarding the six sense faculties for contact(phassa/sparsh), it then becomes inwardly steady, settled, unified, and in-samadhi(trance)state.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, there was a king or a royal minister who had never before heard the sound of a lute. He might hear the sound of a lute and say: 'Good man, what is making this sound so tantalizing, so lovely, so intoxicating, so entrancing, so enthralling?' They would say to him: 'Lord, it is a lute that is making this sound - so tantalizing, so lovely, so intoxicating, so entrancing, so enthralling.' He would reply: 'Go, man, bring me that lute.'

"They would bring him the lute and tell him: 'Lord, this is that lute, the sound of which was so tantalizing, so lovely, so intoxicating, so entrancing, so enthralling.' The king would say: 'I've had enough with this lute, man. Bring me just that sound.' The men would reply: 'This lute, lord, consists of numerous components, of a great many components, and it gives off a sound when it is played upon with its numerous components; that is, in dependence on the parchment sounding board, the belly, the arm, the head, the strings, the plectrum, and the appropriate effort of the musician. 215 So it is, lord, that this lute consisting of numerous components, of a great many components, gives off a sound when it is played upon with its numerous components.'

"The king would split the lute into ten or a hundred pieces, then he would reduce these to splinters. Having reduced them to splinters, he would burn them in a fire and reduce them to ashes, and he would winnow the ashes in a strong wind or let them be carried away by the swift current of a river. Then he would say:
'A poor thing, indeed sir, is this so-called lute, as well as anything else called a lute. How the multitude are utterly slothful(in pamada) about it, utterly taken in by it!' 216

"So too, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu investigates form to the extent that there is a range for form, he investigates sensation(vedana) to the extent that there is a range for sensation(vedana), he investigates perception(sanna sans. sangya) to the extent that there is a range for perception, he investigates sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) to the extent that there is a range for sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), he investigates consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) to the extent that there is a range for consciousness. As he investigates form to the extent that there is a range for form . . . consciousness to the extent that there is a range for consciousness, whatever notions of I or 'mine' or 'I am' had occurred to him before no longer occur to him." 217


247. The Simile of the Six Animals (Chappanakopama)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), suppose a man with limbs wounded and festering would enter a wood of thorny reeds, 218 and the kusa thorns would prick his feet and the reed blades would slash his limbs. Thus that man would thereby experience even more pain and displeasure. So too, bhikkhus, some bhikkhu(monk) here, gone to the village or the forest, meets someone who reproaches him thus:
'This venerable one, acting in such a way, behaving in such a way, is a foul village thorn.' Having understood him thus as a 'thorn,' one should understand restraint and nonrestraint . 219

"And how, bhikkhus is there nonrestraint? Here, having seen a form with the eye, a bhikkhu is intent upon a pleasing form and repelled by a displeasing form. He dwells without having set up meditation of the body, with a limited mind, and he does not understand as it really is that liberation(vimutti sans. vimukti) of mind, liberation by illuminated-insight(panna), wherein those evil harmful(akusala sans. akushal) states cease without remainder. Having heard a sound with the ear ... Having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, he is intent upon a pleasing mental phenomenon and repelled by a displeasing mental phenomenon. He dwells without having set up meditation of the body, with a limited mind, and he does not understand as it really is that liberation of mind, liberation by illuminated-insight(panna), wherein those evil harmful(akusala) states cease without remainder.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, a man would catch six animals - with different domains and different feeding grounds - and tie them by a strong rope. He would catch a snake, a crocodile, a bird, a dog, a jackal, and a monkey, and tie each by a strong rope. Having done so, he would tie the ropes together with a knot in the middle and release(mokkha/moksha) them. Then those six animals with different domains and different feeding grounds would each pull in the direction of its own feeding ground and domain. The snake would pull one way, thinking, 'Let me enter an anthill.' The crocodile would pull another way, thinking, 'Let me enter the water.' The bird would pull another way, thinking, 'Let me fly up into the sky.' The dog would pull another way, thinking, 'Let me enter a village.' The jackal would pull another way, thinking, 'Let me enter a charnel ground.' The monkey would pull another way, thinking, 'Let me enter a forest.'

"Now when these six animals become worn out and fatigued, they would be dominated by the one among them that was strongest; they would submit to it and come under its control. So too, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu has not developed and cultivated meditation directed to the body, the eye pulls in the direction of agreeable forms and disagreeable forms are repulsive; the ear pulls in the direction of agreeable sounds and disagreeable sounds are repulsive; the nose pulls in the direction of agreeable odours and disagreeable odours are repulsive; the tongue pulls in the direction of agreeable tastes and disagreeable tastes are repulsive; the body pulls in the direction of agreeable tactile objects and disagreeable tactile objects are repulsive; the mind pulls in the direction of agreeable mental phenomena(dhamma) and disagreeable mental phenomena(dhamma) are repulsive.

"It is in such a way that there is nonrestraint.

"And how, bhikkhus, is there restraint? Here, having seen a form with the eye, a bhikkhu is not intent upon a pleasing form and not repelled by a displeasing form. He dwells having set up meditation of the body, with a measureless mind, and he understands as it really is that liberation of mind, liberation by illuminated-insight(panna), wherein those evil harmful(akusala) states cease without remainder. Having heard a sound with the ear ... Having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, he is not intent upon a pleasing mental phenomenon and not repelled by a displeasing mental phenomenon. [200] He dwells having set up meditation of the body, with a measureless mind, and he understands as it really is that liberation of mind, liberation by wisdom, wherein those evil harmful(akusala) states cease without remainder. It is in such a way that there is restraint.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, a man would catch six animals - with different domains and different feeding grounds - and tie them by a strong rope. He would catch a snake, a crocodile, a bird, a dog, a jackal, and a monkey, and tie each by a strong rope. Having done so, he would bind them to a strong post or pillar. Then those six animals with different domains and different feeding grounds would each pull in the direction of its own feeding ground and domain. The snake would pull one way, thinking. 'Let me enter an anthill' ... (as above) ... The monkey would pull another way, thinking, 'Let me enter a forest.'

"Now when these six animals become worn out and fatigued, they would stand close to that post or pillar, they would sit down there, they would lie down there. So too, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu has developed and cultivated meditation directed to the body, the eye does not pull in the direction of agreeable forms nor are disagreeable forms repulsive; the ear does not pull in the direction of agreeable sounds nor are disagreeable sounds repulsive; the nose does not pull in the direction of agreeable odours nor are disagreeable odours repulsive; the tongue does not pull in the direction of agreeable tastes nor are disagreeable tastes repulsive; the body does not pull in the direction of agreeable tactile objects nor are disagreeable tactile objects repulsive; the mind does not pull in the direction of agreeable mental phenomena(dhamma) nor are disagreeable mental phenomena(dhamma) repulsive.

"It is in such a way that there is restraint.

"'A strong post or pillar': this, bhikkhus, is a designation for meditation directed to the body. Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves thus: 'We will develop and cultivate meditation directed to the body, make it our vehicle, make it our basis, stabilize it, exercise ourselves in it, and fully perfect it.' Thus should you train yourselves."


248. The Sheaf of Barley (Yavakalapisu)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), suppose a sheaf of barley were set down at a crossroads. Then six men would come along with flails in their hands 220 and they would strike that sheaf of barley with the six flails. Thus that sheaf of barley would be well struck, having been struck by the six flails. Then a seventh man would come along with a flail in his hand and he would strike that sheaf of barley with the seventh flail. Thus that sheaf of barley would be struck even still more thoroughly, having been struck by the seventh flail.

"So too, bhikkhus, the uninstructed worldling is struck in the eye by agreeable and disagreeable forms; struck in the ear by agreeable and disagreeable sounds; struck in the nose by agreeable and disagreeable odours; struck in the tongue by agreeable and disagreeable tastes; struck in the body by agreeable and disagreeable tactile objects; struck in the mind by agreeable and disagreeable mental phenomena(dhamma). If that uninstructed worldling sets his mind upon future renewed existence(rebirth cause), 221 then that senseless man is struck even still more thoroughly, just like the sheaf of barley struck by the seventh flail.

"Once in the past, bhikkhus, the devas(angels) and the asuras(demons) were arrayed for battle. 222 Then Vepacitti, lord of the asuras addressed the asuras thus: 'Good sirs, if in this impending battle the asuras win and the devas are defeated, bind Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, by his four limbs and neck and bring him to me in the city of the asuras.' And Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, addressed the Tavatimsa devas: 'Good sirs, if in this impending battle the devas win and the asuras are defeated, bind Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, by his four limbs and neck and bring him to me in Sudhamma, the assembly hall of the devas.'

"In that battle the devas won and the asuras(demons) were defeated. Then the Tavatimsa devas bound Vepacitti by his four limbs and neck and brought him to Sakka in Sudhamma, the assembly hall of the devas. And there Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, was bound by his four limbs and neck.

"When it occurred to Vepacitti: 'The devas are righteous, the asuras(demons) are unrighteous; now right here I have gone to the city of the devas,' he then saw himself freed from the bonds around his limbs and neck and he enjoyed himself furnished and endowed with the five cords of divine sensual pleasure. But when it occurred to him: 'The asuras are righteous, the devas are unrighteous; now I will go there to the city of the asuras,' then he saw himself bound by his four limbs and neck and he was deprived of the five cords of divine sensual pleasure.

"So subtle, bhikkhus, was the bondage of Vepacitti, but even subtler than that is the bondage of Mara(Satan). In conceiving, one is bound by Mara; by not conceiving, one is freed from the Evil One. 223

"Bhikkhus, 'I am'(Asmi) is a conceiving; 'I am this' is a conceiving; 'I shall be' is a conceiving; 'I shall not be' is a conceiving; 'I shall consist of form' is a conceiving; 'I shall be formless' is a conceiving; 'I shall be percipient' is a conceiving; 'I shall be nonpercipient' is a conceiving; 'I shall be neither percipient nor nonpercipient' is a conceiving 224 Conceiving is a disease, conceiving is a tumour. conceiving is a dart. Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves thus: 'We will dwell with a mind devoid of conceiving.'

"Bhikkhus, 'I am' is a perturbation; 225 'I am this' is a perturbation; 'I shall be' is a perturbation ... 'I shall be neither percipient nor nonpercipient' is a perturbation. Perturbation is a disease, perturbation is a tumour, perturbation is a dart. Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves thus: 'We will dwell with an imperturbable mind.'

"Bhikkhus, 'I am' is a palpitation; 'I am this' is a palpitation; 'I shall be' is a palpitation ... 'I shall be neither percipient nor non-percipient' is a palpitation. Palpitation is a disease, palpitation is a tumour, palpitation is a dart. Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves thus: 'We will dwell with a mind devoid of palpitation.'

"Bhikkhus, 'I am' is a 6-sense-deception(papanca sans. prapanch/maya); 'I am this' is a 6-sense-deception; 'I shall be' is a 6-sense-deception ... 'I shall be neither percipient nor nonpercipient' is a 6-sense-deception. 6-sense-deception is a disease, 6-sense-deception is a tumour, 6-sense-deception is a dart. Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves thus: 'We will dwell with a mind devoid of 6-sense-deception.'

"Bhikkhus, 'I am' is an involvement with conceit; 226 'I am this' is an involvement with conceit; 'I shall be' is an involvement with conceit; 'I shall not be' is an involvement with conceit; 'I shall consist of form' is an involvement with conceit; 'I shall be formless' is an involvement with conceit ; 'I shall be percipient' is an involvement with conceit; 'I shall be nonpercipient' is an involvement with conceit; 'I shall be neither percipient nor nonpercipient' is an involvement with conceit. Involvement with conceit is a disease, involvement with conceit is a tumour, involvement with conceit is a dart. Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves thus: 'We will dwell with a mind in which conceit has been struck down.' Thus should you train yourselves."


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