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Tipitaka >> Sutta Pitaka >> Samyutta Nikaya >> SN2-Sagathavagga-ver2-Samyutta12


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


Note : 'c' of Pali words is pronounced as 'ch' as in 'China'


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Contents

Samyutta Nikaya:II.Nidanavagga (Book of Causation)[]



Namo Tassya Bhagavato, Arahato, Samma-Sam-Buddhassya

Homage to that Bhagavato(Lord) , Evil Vanquisher(Arahato) ,
the Rightly and Perfectly Enlightened(Awakened) One



Chapter 1 : Connected Discourses on Causation (Nidanasamyutta) {Samyutta-12}[]

(i) The Buddhas[]

1. Dependent Origination (Paticcasamuppada sans. Pratitya-samutpad)[]

(Paticcasamuppada short version)

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. There the Lord (Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus(monks)!"
"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:
"Bhikkhus(Monks), I will teach you dependent origination. Listen to that and be mindful(manasikaro), I will speak." - "Yes, venerable sir," those bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:
DEPENDENT ORIGINATION
"And what, bhikkhus, is dependent origination(Paticcasamuppada)?
With ignorance(avijja sans. avidya; lack of enlightenment) as cause, sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) [come to be]; 1
with sankhara(behavior-conditioning) as cause, consciousness [arises];
with consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) as cause, mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) [arise];
with mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as cause, the six sense faculties [arise];
with the six sense faculties as cause, contact(phassa/sparsh) [occurs];
with contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause, sensation(vedana) [arises] ;
with sensation(vedana) as cause, craving(tanha sans. trishna) [arises];
with craving(tanha sans. trishna) as cause, clinging(upadana sans. asakti) [arises];
with clinging as cause, existence [is caused];
with existence as cause, [re-]birth [occurs];
with [re-]birth as cause, sorrow, aging-and-death, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair come to be.
Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. This, bhikkhus, is called dependent origination(Paticcasamuppada).

Pali
‘‘Katamo ca, bhikkhave, paṭiccasamuppādo?
Avijjā-paccayā, saṅkhārā;
saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṃ;
viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṃ;
nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṃ;
saḷāyatanapaccayā phasso;
phassapaccayā vedanā;
vedanāpaccayā taṇhā;
taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṃ;
upādānapaccayā bhavo;
bhavapaccayā jāti ;
jātipaccayā jarā-maraṇaṃ soka-parideva-dukkha-domanassupāyāsā sambhavanti. Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, paṭiccasamuppādo.

CESSATION(Nirodha)
"But with the remainderless fading away and cessation-of-ignorance(with enlightenment) comes cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning);
with the cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning), cessation of consciousness;
with the cessation of consciousness, cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa);
with the cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa), cessation of the six sense faculties;
with the cessation of the six sense faculties, cessation of contact(phassa/sparsh);
with the cessation of contact(phassa/sparsh), cessation of sensation(vedana);
with the cessation of sensation(vedana), cessation of craving(tanha sans. trishna);
with, the cessation of craving(tanha sans. trishna), cessation of clinging(upadana sans. asakti);
with the cessation of clinging, cessation of existence(bhavo);
with the cessation of existence(bhavo), cessation of rebirth;
with the cessation of rebirth, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair cease. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering."


Pali
‘‘Avijjāya tveva asesavirāganirodhā saṅkhāranirodho;
saṅkhāranirodhā viññāṇanirodho;
viññāṇanirodhā nāmarūpanirodho;
nāmarūpanirodhā saḷāyatananirodho;
saḷāyatananirodhā phassanirodho;
phassanirodhā vedanānirodho;
vedanānirodhā taṇhānirodho;
taṇhānirodhā upādānanirodho;
upādānanirodhā bhavanirodho;
bhavanirodhā jātinirodho;
jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇaṃ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā nirujjhanti. Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hotī’’ti.

This is what the Lord (Buddha) said. Elated, those bhikkhus delighted in the Lord (Buddha)'s statement.

Note: (a) In order to understand, the idea of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning, sans. sanskar or karma sanskar) can be considered as assignment of values to weights in an artificial neural network based artificial intelligence system in the realm of computing. And also each weight backed by experience/voluntary action/decision/reaction similar to data for training of A.I. neural network. These are further explained by Buddha in the next sutta 2.
(b) Here ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) can be understood as ignorance of the divine state/samadhi state/jhana state/zen. After deep meditation when samadhi occurs (in any of 9 levels of enlightenment) its corresponding ignorance is removed due to clear experience based understanding alongwith divine bliss as the true happiness(sukh) within.
(c) Cessation is a phenomenon that occurs during the divine or super-state of trance/samadhi/jhana state/zen, which can be considered as the suspension of 'ordinary' activities during the eperience of the super-state.
(d) The sutta can be understood in light of the idea that during meditation (in samadhi/jhana) a person can transform from 'ordinary/normal' state to a new enhanced super state of cessation and when in super state , the person can understand the 'ordinary/normal' state as described in this discourse.
(e) As an analogy of the super state in the material world , it can be compared to (i)Bose-Einstein-condensate when some materials are cooled to extreme, (ii) superconductivity when in certain conditions & cooled to low temperatures some materials can transmit extreme currents and also to (iii) laser action of production of perfect & extremely powerful light when lasing medium undergoes a transformation(population inversion), but these are to be considerd as analogy only with the idea that humans can also undergo a transformation into certain super-states(s) of consciousness.
(f) Ignorance can be considered as not knowing & not experiencing the super state (i.e. non-cessation or non-samadhi/jhana/zen/trance), in other words state of ignorance is the state of what is considered 'ordinary/normal'.
(g) Circular interdependence between (normal) consciousness & mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) is also mentioned in sutta 65.


2. Analysis of Dependent Origination (Vibhanga)[]

(Paticcasamuppada detailed version; Even more details in SN3-79)

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you dependent origination(Paticcasamuppada) and I will analyse it for you. Listen to that and be mindful(manasikaro), I will speak."
"Yes, venerable sir," those bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"And what, bhikkhus, is dependent origination(Paticcasamuppada)?
With ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) as cause, sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) [come to be]; 1
with sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) as cause, consciousness [arises];
with consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) as cause, mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) [arise];
with mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as cause, the six sense faculties [arise];
with the six sense faculties as cause, contact(phassa/sparsh) [occurs];
with contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause, sensation(vedana) [arises] ;
with sensation(vedana) as cause, craving(tanha sans. trishna) [arises];
with craving(tanha sans. trishna) as cause, clinging(upadana sans. asakti) [arises];
with clinging as cause, existence(bhavo) [is caused];
with existence(bhavo) as cause, [re-]birth [occurs];
with [re-]birth as cause, sorrow, aging-and-death, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair come to be.
Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. This, bhikkhus, is called dependent origination(Paticcasamuppada).

"And what, bhikkhus, is aging-and-death? The aging of the various beings in the various orders of beings, their growing old, brokenness of teeth, greyness of hair, wrinkling of skin, loss of vitality, degeneration of the faculties: this is called aging. The passing away of the various beings from the various orders of beings, their perishing, breakup, disappearance, mortality, death, completion of time, the breakup of the aggregates(khandha sans. skandha), the laying down of the carcass: this is called death. 2 Thus this aging and this death are together called aging-and-death.

"And what, bhikkhus, is birth? The birth of the various beings into the various orders of beings, their being born, descent [into the womb], production, the manifestation of the aggregates, the obtaining of the sense faculties. This is called birth. 3

"And what, bhikkhus, is existence(bhavo)? There are these three kinds of existence(bhavo): sense-sphere existence, form-sphere existence, form-less-sphere existence. This is called existence(bhavo). 4

"And what, bhikkhus, is clinging(upadana sans. asakti)? There are these four kinds of clinging: clinging to sensual pleasures, clinging to views, clinging to rules and vows, clinging to a doctrine of self. This is called clinging. 5

"And what, bhikkhus, is craving(tanha sans. trishna)? There are these six classes of craving: craving for forms, craving for sounds, craving for odours, craving for tastes, craving for tactile objects, craving for mental phenomena(dhamma). This is called craving(tanha sans. trishna).

"And what, bhikkhus, is sensation(vedana)? There are these six classes of sensation(vedana): sensation(vedana) born of eye-contact(phassa/sparsh), sensation(vedana) born of ear-contact, sensation(vedana) born of nose-contact, sensation(vedana) born of tongue-contact, sensation(vedana) born of body-contact, sensation(vedana) born of mind-contact. This is called sensation(vedana).

"And what, bhikkhus, is contact? There are these six classes of contact: eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact, tongue-contact, body-contact, mind-contact. This is called contact(phassa/sparsh).

"And what, bhikkhus, are the six sense faculties? The eye faculty, the ear faculty, the nose faculty, the tongue faculty, the body faculty, the mind faculty. These are called the six sense faculties.

"And what, bhikkhus, is mind-and-bodyform(namarupa)? sensation(vedana), perception(sanna sans. sangya), cognitive-awareness(sancetana), contact(phassa/sparsh), mindfulness(mansikara): this is called mind. The four great elements (earth[solidity], air[gaseous], water[liquidity], fire[heat]) and the form derived from the four great elements(dhatu): this is called form. Thus this mind and this form are together called mind-and-bodyform(namarupa). 6

"And what, bhikkhus, is consciousness? There are these six classes of consciousness: eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, mind-consciousness. This is called consciousness.

"And what, bhikkhus, are the sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning)? There are these three kinds of sankhara(behavior-conditioning): the bodily sankhara(behavior-conditioning), the verbal sankhara(behavior-conditioning), the mental sankhara(behavior-conditioning). These are called the sankhara(sankhara(behavior-conditioning), sans. sanskar). 7

"And what, bhikkhus, is ignorance? Not knowing suffering, not knowing the origin of suffering, not knowing the cessation(nirodha) of suffering, not knowing the way leading to the cessation of suffering. This is called ignorance. 8

DEPENDENT ORIGINATION
"And what, bhikkhus, is dependent origination(Paticcasamuppada)?
With ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) as cause, sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) [come to be]; 1
with sankhara(behavior-conditioning) as cause, consciousness [arises];
with consciousness as cause, mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) [arise];
with mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as cause, the six sense faculties [arise];
with the six sense faculties as cause, contact(phassa/sparsh) [occurs];
with contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause, sensation(vedana) [arises] ;
with sensation(vedana) as cause, craving(tanha sans. trishna) [arises];
with craving as cause, clinging(upadana sans. asakti) [arises];
with clinging as cause, existence(bhavo) [is caused];
with existence as cause, [re-]birth [occurs];
with [re-]birth as cause, sorrow, aging-and-death, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair come to be.
Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. This, bhikkhus, is called dependent origination(Paticcasamuppada).

CESSATION(Nirodha)
But with the remainderless fading away and
cessation of ignorance comes cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning);
with the cessation of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), cessation of consciousness;
with the cessation of consciousness, cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa);
with the cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa), cessation of the six sense faculties;
with the cessation of the six sense faculties, cessation of contact(phassa/sparsh);
with the cessation of contact(phassa/sparsh), cessation of sensation(vedana);
with the cessation of sensation(vedana), cessation of craving(tanha sans. trishna);
with the cessation of craving, cessation of clinging(upadana sans. asakti);
with the cessation of clinging, cessation of existence(bhavo);
with the cessation of existence, cessation of rebirth;
with the cessation of rebirth, cessation of aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair come to be.
Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering." 9

Note: (a) In order to understand, the idea of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning, sans. sanskar or karma sanskar) can be considered as assignment of values to weights in an artificial neural network based artificial intelligence system in the realm of computing. And also each weight backed by experience/voluntary action/decision/reaction similar to data for training of A.I. neural network. These are further explained by Buddha in the next sutta 2.
(b) Here ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) can be understood as ignorance of the divine state/samadhi state/jhana state/zen. After deep meditation when samadhi occurs (in any of 9 levels of enlightenment) its corresponding ignorance is removed due to clear experience based understanding alongwith divine bliss as the true happiness(sukh) within.
(c) Cessation is a phenomenon that occurs during the divine or super-state of trance/samadhi/jhana state/zen, which can be considered as the suspension of 'ordinary' activities during the eperience of the super-state.
(d) The sutta can be understood in light of the idea that during meditation (in samadhi/jhana) a person can transform from 'ordinary/normal' state to a new enhanced super state of cessation and when in super state , the person can understand the 'ordinary/normal' state as described in this discourse.
(e) As an analogy of the super state in the material world , it can be compared to (i)Bose-Einstein-condensate when some materials are cooled to extreme, (ii) superconductivity when in certain conditions & cooled to low temperatures some materials can transmit extreme currents and also to (iii) laser action of production of perfect & extremely powerful light when lasing medium undergoes a transformation(population inversion), but these are to be considerd as analogy only with the idea that humans can also undergo a transformation into certain super-states(s) of consciousness.
(f) Ignorance can be considered as not knowing & not experiencing the super state (i.e. non-cessation or non-samadhi/jhana/zen/trance), in other words state of ignorance is the state of what is considered 'ordinary/normal'.
(g) Circular interdependence between (normal) consciousness & mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) is also mentioned in sutta 65.


3. The Two Ways (Patipada sans. Pratipada)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the wrong way and the right way. Listen to that and be mindful(manasikaro), I will speak."
"Yes, venerable sir," those bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"And what, bhikkhus, is the wrong way?
With ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) as cause, sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) [come to be]; 1
with sankhara(behavior-conditioning) as cause, consciousness [arises];
with consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) as cause, mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) [arise];
with mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as cause, the six sense faculties [arise];
with the six sense faculties as cause, contact(phassa/sparsh) [occurs];
with contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause, sensation(vedana) [arises] ;
with sensation(vedana) as cause, craving(tanha sans. trishna) [arises];
with craving as cause, clinging(upadana sans. asakti) [arises];
with clinging as cause, existence(bhavo) [is caused];
with existence as cause, [re-] birth [occurs];
with [re-] birth as cause, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair come to be.
Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

This, bhikkhus, is called the wrong way.

"And what, bhikkhus, is the right way? With the remainderless fading away and
cessation(nirodha) of ignorance comes cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning);
with the cessation of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), cessation of consciousness;
with the cessation of consciousness, cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa);
with the cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa), cessation of the six sense faculties;
with the cessation of the six sense faculties, cessation of contact(phassa/sparsh);
with the cessation of contact(phassa/sparsh), cessation of sensation(vedana);
with the cessation of sensation(vedana), cessation of craving(tanha sans. trishna);
with the cessation of craving, cessation of clinging(upadana sans. asakti);
with the cessation of clinging, cessation of existence(bhavo);
with the cessation of existence, cessation of rebirth;
with the cessation of rebirth, cessation of aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair come to be.
Such is the cessation(nirodha) of this whole mass of suffering."

This, bhikkhus, is called the right way."


4. Vipassi (An Earlier Buddha)[]

At Savatthi. [Buddha:]
(i. Origination)
"Bhikkhus(monks), To Vipassi Buddha, before his enlightenment & rightly awakening to arahat, while he was still a bodhisatta not yet fully enlightened, it occurred him :
'Alas, this world has fallen into trouble, in that it is born, ages, and dies, it passes away and is reborn, yet it does not understand the escape from this suffering [headed by] aging-and-death. When now will an escape be discerned from this suffering [headed by] aging-and-death?'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta: 'When what exists does aging-and-death come to be? By what is aging-and-death caused-to-be(paccaya sans. pratyaya)?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 13 'When there is rebirth, aging-and-death comes to be; aging-and-death has rebirth as its cause(paccaya sans. pratyaya).' 14

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta: 'When what exists does rebirth come to be? By what is rebirth caused-to-be?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is factor-of-existence(bhavo), rebirth comes to be; rebirth has existence(bhavo) as its cause.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta: 'When what exists does factor-of-existence(bhavo) come to be? By what is existence(bhavo) caused-to-be(paccaya sans. pratyaya)?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is clinging(upadana sans. asakti), existence(bhavo) comes to be; existence(bhavo) has clinging as its cause.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta,: 'When what exists does clinging come to be? By what is clinging caused(paccaya sans. pratyaya)?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is craving(tanha sans. trishna), clinging comes to be; clinging has craving as its cause.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta,: 'When what exists does craving(tanha sans. trishna) come to be? By what is craving caused-to-be(paccaya)?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is sensation(vedana), craving comes to be; craving has sensation(vedana) as its cause'.

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta,: 'When what exists does sensation(vedana) come to be? By what is sensation(vedana) caused?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is contact(phassa/sparsh), sensation(vedana) comes to be; sensation(vedana) has contact(phassa/sparsh) as its cause.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta,: 'When what exists does contact(phassa/sparsh)(phassa/sparsh) caused-to-be(paccaya)? By what is contact(phassa/sparsh) caused-tobe?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there are the six sense faculties, contact(phassa/sparsh) comes to be; contact(phassa/sparsh) has the six sense faculties as its cause'.

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta,: 'When what exists do the six sense faculties come to be? By what are the six sense faculties caused-to-be(paccaya)?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is mind-and-bodyform(namarupa), the six sense faculties come to be; the six sense faculties have mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as their cause.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta,: 'When what exists does mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) come to be? By what is mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) caused-to-be(paccaya)?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is consciousness, mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) comes to be; mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) has consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) as its cause.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta,: 'When what exists does consciousness come to be? By what is consciousness caused-to-be(paccaya)?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there are sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), consciousness comes to be; consciousness has sankhara(behavior-conditioning) as its cause.' 15

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta,: 'When what exists do sankhara(behavior-conditioning) come to be? By what are sankhara(behavior-conditioning) caused-to-be(paccaya)?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is ignorance(avijja sans. avidya), sankhara(behavior-conditioning) come to be; sankhara(behavior-conditioning) have ignorance as their cause.'

"Thus with ignorance as cause, sankhara(behavior-conditioning) [come to be]; with sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) as cause, consciousness .... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. (same as in 1 & 2)

"'Origination, origination' - thus, bhikkhus, in regard to Dhammas(law,path) unheard before there arose in Vipassi bodhisatta, vision, knowledge, illuminated-insight(panna), true knowledge, and light(alok). 16

(ii. Cessation(nirodha))

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta,: 'When what does not exist does aging-and-death not come to be? With the cessation of what does the cessation of aging-and-death come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is no rebirth, aging-and-death does not come to be; with the cessation of rebirth comes cessation of aging-and-death.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta,: 'When what does not exist does rebirth not come to be? By the cessation of what does the cessation of rebirth come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna):
'When there is no [cause of] existence(bhavo), rebirth does not come to be; with the cessation of [cause of] existence(bhavo) comes cessation of rebirth.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta,: 'When what does not exist does [cause of] existence(bhavo) not come to be? By the cessation of what does the cessation of [cause of] existence(bhavo) come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): ... 'When there is no clinging(upadana sans. asakti), [cause of] existence(bhavo) does not come to be; with the cessation of clinging comes cessation of existence(bhavo).'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta,: 'When what does not exist does clinging not come to be? By the cessation of what does the cessation of clinging come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): ... 'When there is no craving(tanha sans. trishna), clinging does not come to be; with the cessation of craving comes cessation of clinging.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta,: 'When what does not exist does craving not come to be? By the cessation of what does the cessation of craving come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): ... 'When there is no sensation(vedana), craving does not come to be; with the cessation of sensation(vedana) comes cessation of craving(tanha sans. trishna).'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta,: 'When what does not exist does sensation(vedana) not come to be? By the cessation of what does the cessation of sensation(vedana) come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): ... 'When there is no contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh), sensation(vedana) does not come to be; with the cessation of contact(phassa/sparsh) comes cessation(nirodha) of sensation(vedana).'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta,: 'When what does not exist does contact not come to be? By the cessation of what does the cessation of contact come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): ... 'When there are no six sense faculties, contact does not come to be; with the cessation of the six sense faculties (cease of functioning during samadhi/jhana/zen) comes cessation of contact(phassa/sparsh).'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta,: 'When what does not exist does six sense faculties not come to be? By the cessation of what does the cessation of six sense faculties come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): ... 'When there is no mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) (cease of function during samadhi/jhana/zen) , the six sense faculties do not come to be; with the cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) comes cessation of the six sense faculties.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta,: 'When what does not exist does mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) not come to be? By the cessation of what does the cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna):
... 'When there is no consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan), mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) does not come to be; with the cessation of (ordinary) consciousness comes cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa).'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta,: 'When what does not exist does (ordinary) consciousness not come to be? By the cessation of what does the cessation of consciousness come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): ... 'When there are no sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), consciousness does not come to be; with the cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning) comes cessation of (ordinary) consciousness.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to Vipassi bodhisatta,: 'When what does not exist does sankhara(behavior-conditioning) not come to be? By the cessation of what does the cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning) come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in Vipassi bodhisatta, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna):
... 'When there is no ignorance, sankhara(behavior-conditioning) do not come to be; with the cessation of ignorance comes cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning).'

"Thus with the remainderless fading away and cessation of ignorance comes cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning); with the cessation of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), cessation of consciousness....(as before in 1 & 2)
Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.
"'Cessation, cessation' - thus, bhikkhus, in regard to Dhammas unheard before there arose in Vipassi bodhisatta vision, knowledge, illuminated-insight(panna), true knowledge, and light(alok)."


5. Sikhi (Another Earlier Buddha)[]

To Sikhi Buddha, before his enlightenment & rightly awakening to arahat...
(same as in 4. Vipassi )


6 (6) Vessabhu (Another Earlier Buddha)[]

To Vessabhu Buddha, before his enlightenment & rightly awakening to arahat...
(same as in 4. Vipassi )


7 (7) Kakusandha (Another Earlier Buddha)[]

To Kakusandha Buddha, before his enlightenment & rightly awakening to arahat...
(same as in 4. Vipassi )


8 (8) Konagamana (Another Earlier Buddha)[]

To Konagamana Buddha, before his enlightenment & rightly awakening to arahat...
(same as in 4. Vipassi )


9 (9) Kassapa (Another Earlier Buddha)[]

To Kassapa Buddha, before his enlightenment & rightly awakening to arahat...
(same as in 4. Vipassi )


10 (10) Gotama the Great Sakyan Sage (Present Buddha)[]


(i. Origination)
"Bhikkhus(monks), To me, before his enlightenment & rightly awakening to arahat, while I was still a bodhisatta not yet fully enlightened, it occurred me:
'Alas, this world has fallen into trouble, in that it is born, ages, and dies, it passes away and is reborn, yet it does not understand the escape from this suffering [headed by] aging-and-death. When now will an escape be discerned from this suffering [headed by] aging-and-death?'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'When what exists does aging-and-death come to be? By what is aging-and-death cause?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 13 'When there is rebirth, aging-and-death comes to be; aging-and-death has rebirth as its cause.' 14

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'When what exists does rebirth come to be? By what is rebirth caused?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is existence(bhavo), rebirth comes to be; rebirth has existence(bhavo) as its cause.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'When what exists does existence(bhavo) come to be? By what is existence(bhavo) caused?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is clinging(upadana sans. asakti), existence(bhavo) comes to be; existence(bhavo) has clinging as its cause.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me,: 'When what exists does clinging(upadana sans. asakti) come to be? By what is clinging caused-to-be(paccaya)?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is craving(tanha sans. trishna), clinging comes to be; clinging has craving as its cause.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me,: 'When what exists does craving come to be? By what is craving caused-to-be(paccaya)?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is sensation(vedana), craving comes to be; craving has sensation(vedana) as its cause'.

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me,: 'When what exists does sensation(vedana) come to be? By what is sensation(vedana) caused-to-be(paccaya)?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is contact(phassa/sparsh), sensation(vedana) comes to be; sensation(vedana) has contact as its cause.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me,: 'When what exists does contact come to be? By what is contact caused-to-be(paccaya)?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there are the six sense faculties, contact comes to be; contact(phassa/sparsh) has the six sense faculties as its cause'.

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me,: 'When what exists do the six sense faculties come to be? By what are the six sense faculties caused-to-be(paccaya)?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is mind-and-bodyform(namarupa), the six sense faculties come to be; the six sense faculties have mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as their cause.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me,: 'When what exists does mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) come to be? By what is mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) caused-to-be(paccaya)?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is consciousness, mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) comes to be; mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) has consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) as its cause.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me,: 'When what exists does consciousness come to be? By what is consciousness caused-to-be(paccaya)?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there are sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), consciousness comes to be; consciousness has sankhara(behavior-conditioning) as its cause.' 15

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me,: 'When what exists do sankhara(behavior-conditioning) come to be? By what are sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) caused-to-be(paccaya)?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is ignorance(avijja sans. avidya), sankhara(behavior-conditioning) come to be; sankhara(behavior-conditioning) have ignorance as their cause.'

"Thus with ignorance as cause, sankhara(behavior-conditioning) [come to be]; with sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) as cause, consciousness .... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. (same as in 1 & 2)

"'Origination, origination' - thus, bhikkhus, in regard to Dhammas(law,path) unheard before there arose in me, vision, knowledge, illuminated-insight(panna), true knowledge, and light(alok). 16

(ii. Cessation(nirodha))

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me,: 'When what does not exist does aging-and-death not come to be? With the cessation of what does the cessation of aging-and-death come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is no rebirth, aging-and-death does not come to be; with the cessation of rebirth comes cessation of aging-and-death.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me,: 'When what does not exist does rebirth not come to be? By the cessation of what does the cessation of rebirth come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna):
'When there is no [cause of] existence(bhavo), rebirth does not come to be; with the cessation of [cause of] existence(bhavo) comes cessation of rebirth.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me,: 'When what does not exist does [cause of] existence(bhavo) not come to be? By the cessation of what does the cessation of [cause of] existence(bhavo) come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): ... 'When there is no clinging, [cause of] existence(bhavo) does not come to be; with the cessation of clinging comes cessation of existence(bhavo).'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me,: 'When what does not exist does clinging(upadana sans. asakti) not come to be? By the cessation of what does the cessation of clinging come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): ... 'When there is no craving(tanha sans. trishna), clinging does not come to be; with the cessation of craving comes cessation of clinging.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me,: 'When what does not exist does craving not come to be? By the cessation of what does the cessation of craving come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): ... 'When there is no sensation(vedana), craving does not come to be; with the cessation of sensation(vedana) comes cessation of craving.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me,: 'When what does not exist does sensation(vedana) not come to be? By the cessation of what does the cessation of sensation(vedana) come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): ... 'When there is no contact(of sense with object; phassa/sparsh), sensation(vedana) does not come to be; with the cessation of contact comes cessation of sensation(vedana).'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me,: 'When what does not exist does contact not come to be? By the cessation of what does the cessation of contact come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): ... 'When there are no six sense faculties, contact does not come to be; with the cessation of the six sense faculties (cease of functioning during samadhi/jhana/zen) comes cessation of contact(phassa/sparsh).'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me,: 'When what does not exist does six sense faculties not come to be? By the cessation of what does the cessation of six sense faculties come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): ... 'When there is no mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) (cease of function during samadhi/jhana/zen) , the six sense faculties do not come to be; with the cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) comes cessation of the six sense faculties.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me,: 'When what does not exist does mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) not come to be? By the cessation of what does the cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna):
... 'When there is no consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan), mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) does not come to be; with the cessation of (ordinary) consciousness comes cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa).'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me,: 'When what does not exist does (ordinary) consciousness not come to be? By the cessation of what does the cessation of consciousness come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): ... 'When there are no sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), consciousness does not come to be; with the cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning) comes cessation of (ordinary) consciousness.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me,: 'When what does not exist does sankhara(behavior-conditioning) not come to be? By the cessation of what does the cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning) come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me, a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna):
... 'When there is no ignorance(avijja sans. avidya), sankhara(behavior-conditioning) do not come to be; with the cessation of ignorance comes cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning).'

"Thus with the remainderless fading away and cessation of ignorance comes cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning); with the cessation of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), cessation of consciousness....(as before in 1 & 2)
Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.
"'Cessation, cessation' - thus, bhikkhus, in regard to Dhammas(law,path) unheard before there arose in me vision, knowledge, illuminated-insight(panna), true knowledge, and light(alok)."



(ii) Nutriment Section (Aharavaggo)[]

11. Nutriment (Ahara)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park....

"Bhikkhus(monks), there are these four kinds of nutriment for the maintenance of beings that have already come to be and for the assistance of those about to come to be. 17 What four? The nutriment edible food, gross or subtle; second, contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh); third, mental cognitive-awareness; fourth, consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan). These are the four kinds of nutriment for the maintenance of beings that have already come to be and for the assistance of those about to come to be. 18

"Bhikkhus, these four kinds of nutriment have what as their source, what as their origin, from what are they born and produced? These four kinds of nutriment have craving(tanha sans. trishna) as their source, craving as their origin; they are born and produced from craving. 19

"And this craving(tanha sans. trishna) has what as its source, what as its origin, from what is it born and produced? This craving has sensation(vedana) as its source, sensation(vedana) as its origin; it is born and produced from sensation(vedana).

"And this sensation(vedana) has what as its source...? sensation(vedana) has contact(phassa/sparsh) as its source.... And this contact(phassa/sparsh) has what as its source...? contact(phassa/sparsh) has the six sense faculties as its source.... And these six sense faculties have what as their source...? The six sense faculties have mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as their source.... And this mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) has what as its source...? Mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) has consciousness as its source.... And this consciousness has what as its source...? Consciousness has sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) as its source.... And these sankhara(behavior-conditioning) have what as their source, what as their origin, from what are they born and produced? sankhara(behavior-conditioning) have ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) as their source, ignorance as their origin; they are born and produced from ignorance.

"Thus, bhikkhus, with ignorance as cause, sankhara(behavior-conditioning) [come to be]; with sankhara(behavior-conditioning) as cause. consciousness.... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. But with the remainderless fading away and cessation(nirodha) of ignorance comes cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning); with the cessation of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), cessation of consciousness.... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering." (similar to 1 & 2)


12. Moliyaphagguna[]

At Savatthi.[Buddha:] "Bhikkhus(monks), there are these four kinds of nutriment for the maintenance of beings that have already come to be and for the assistance of those about to come to be. What four? The nutriment edible food, gross or subtle; second, contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh); third, mental cognitive-awareness; fourth, consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan). These are the four kinds of nutriment for the maintenance of beings that have already come to be and for the assistance of those about to come to be." 20

When this was said, the Venerable Moliyaphagguna said to the Lord (Buddha): "Venerable sir, who consumes the nutriment consciousness?" 21

"Not a valid question," the Lord (Buddha) replied. "I do not say, 'One consumes.' 22 If I should say, 'One consumes,' in that case this would be a valid question: 'Venerable sir, who consumes?' But I do not speak thus. Since I do not speak thus, if one should ask me, 'Venerable sir, for what is the nutriment consciousness [a cause]?' 23 this would be a valid question. To this the valid answer is: 'The nutriment consciousness is a cause for the production of future renewed existence(rebirth cause) 24 When that which has come into being exists, the six sense faculties [come to be]; 25 with the six sense faculties as cause, contact(phassa/sparsh).'"

[Moliyaphagguna:] "Venerable sir, who makes contact?"
"Not a valid question," the Lord (Buddha) replied.
"I do not say, 'One makes contact.' If I should say, 'One makes contact,' in that case this would be a valid question: 'Venerable sir, who makes contact(phassa/sparsh)?' But I do not speak thus. Since I do not speak thus, if one should ask me, 'Venerable sir, with what as cause does contact [come to be]?' this would be a valid question. To this the valid answer is: 'With the six sense faculties as cause, contact [comes to be]; with contact as cause, sensation(vedana).'"

[Moliyaphagguna:] "Venerable sir, who feels?"
"Not a valid question," the Lord (Buddha) replied. "I do not say, 'One feels.' If I should say, 'One feels,' in that case this would be a valid question: 'Venerable sir, who feels?' But I do not speak thus Since I do not speak thus, if one should ask me, 'Venerable sir with what as cause does sensation(vedana) [come to be]?' this would be a valid question. To this the valid answer is: 'With contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause, sensation(vedana) [comes to be]; with sensation(vedana) as cause, craving(tanha sans. trishna).'"

[Moliyaphagguna:] "Venerable sir, who craves?"
"Not a valid question," the Lord (Buddha) replied. "I do not say, 'One craves.' If I should say, 'One craves,' in that case this would be a valid question: 'Venerable sir, who craves?' But I do not speak thus. Since I do not speak thus, if one should ask me, 'Venerable sir, with what as cause does craving [come to be]?' this would be a valid question. To this the valid answer is:
'With sensation(vedana) as cause, craving [comes to be]; with craving as cause, clinging(upadana sans. asakti).'"

[Moliyaphagguna:] "Venerable sir, who clings?"
"Not a valid question," the Lord (Buddha) replied. "I do not say, 'One clings.' If I should say, 'One clings,' in that case this would be a valid question: 'Venerable sir, who clings?' But I do not speak thus. Since I do not speak thus, if one should ask me, 'Venerable sir, with what as cause does clinging [come to be]?' this would be a valid question. To this the valid answer is:
'With craving(tanha sans. trishna) as cause, clinging [comes to be];
with clinging as cause, existence(bhavo).'......
Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.'

"But, Phagguna, with the remainderless fading away and cessation(nirodha) of the six sense faculties for contact comes cessation of contact; with the cessation of contact(phassa/sparsh), cessation of sensation(vedana); with the cessation of sensation(vedana), cessation of craving; with the cessation of craving(tanha sans. trishna), cessation of clinging(upadana sans. asakti); with the cessation of clinging, cessation of existence(bhavo); with the cessation of existence(bhavo), cessation of rebirth; with the cessation of rebirth, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair cease. Such is the cessation(nirodha) of this whole mass of suffering." (similar to 1 & 2)


13. Ascetics and Brahmins (1) (Samanabrahmana)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), those ascetics or brahmins who do not understand aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation(nirodha), and the way leading to its cessation; 27 who do not understand rebirth ... existence(bhavo) ... clinging(upadana sans. asakti) ... craving ... sensation(vedana) ... contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) ... the six sense faculties ... mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) ... consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) ... sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), their origin, their cessation, and the way leading to their cessation: these I do not consider to be ascetics among ascetics or brahmins among brahmins, and these venerable ones do not, by realizing it for themselves with divine-knowledge(abhinna), in this very life enter and dwell in the goal of asceticism or the goal of brahminhood. 28

"But, bhikkhus, those ascetics and brahmins who understand aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation; who understand rebirth ... sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), their origin, their cessation, and the way leading to their cessation; these I consider to be ascetics among ascetics and brahmins among brahmins, and these venerable ones, by realizing it for themselves with divine-knowledge(abhinna), in this very life enter and dwell in the goal of asceticism and the goal of brahminhood."


14. Ascetics and Brahmins (2)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), as to those ascetics and brahmins who do not understand these Dhammas(law,path), the origin of these Dhammas, the cessation(nirodha) of these Dhammas, and the way leading to the cessation of these Dhammas: what are those dhamma(path,law)s that they do not understand, whose origin they do not understand, whose cessation they do not understand, and the way leading to whose cessation they do not understand?

"They do not understand aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation. They do not understand rebirth ... existence(bhavo) ... clinging(upadana sans. asakti) ... craving(tanha sans. trishna) ... sensation(vedana) ... contact(phassa/sparsh) ... the six sense faculties ... mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) ... consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) ... sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), their origin, their cessation, and the way leading to their cessation. These are the Dhammas(law,path) that they do not understand, whose origin they do not understand, whose cessation they do not understand, and the way leading to whose cessation they do not understand.

"These I do not consider to be ascetics among ascetics or brahmins among brahmins, and these venerable ones do not, by realizing it for themselves with divine-knowledge(abhinna), in this very life enter and dwell in the goal of asceticism or the goal of brahminhood.

"But, bhikkhus, as to those ascetics and brahmins who understand stand these Dhammas, the origin of these Dhammas, the cessation of these Dhammas, and the way leading to the cessation of these Dhammas; what are those Dhammas that they understand, whose origin they understand, whose cessation they understand, and the way leading to whose cessation they understand?

"They understand aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation. They understand rebirth ... sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), their origin, their cessation, and the way leading to their cessation. These are the Dhammas that they understand. whose origin they understand, whose cessation they understand and the way leading to whose cessation they understand.

"These I consider to be ascetics among ascetics and brahmins among brahmins, and these venerable ones, by realizing it for themselves with divine-knowledge(abhinna), in this very life enter and dwell in the goal of asceticism and the goal of brahminhood."


15. Kaccanagotta[]

At Savatthi. Then the Venerable Kaccanagotta approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'right view, right view.' In what way, venerable sir, is there right view?"

"This world, Kaccana, for the most part depends upon a duality - upon the notion of existence(bhavo) and the notion of nonexistence. 29 But for one who sees(in meditation,passato) the origin of the world as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna), there is no notion of nonexistence in regard to the world. And for one who sees(in meditation,passato) the cessation(nirodha) of the world as it really is with correct insight(panna), there is no notion of existence(bhavo) in regard to the world. 30

"This world, Kaccana, is for the most part shackled by engagement, clinging(upadana sans. asakti), and adherence. 31 But this one [with right view] does not become engaged and cling through that engagement and clinging, mental standpoint, adherence, underlying-tendency(anusaya); he does not take a stand about 'my self.' 32 He has no perplexity or doubt that what arises is only suffering arising, what ceases is only suffering ceasing. His knowledge about this is independent of others. It is in this way, Kaccana, that there is right view. 33

"'All exists': Kaccana, this is one extreme. 'All does not exist': this is the second extreme. Without veering towards either of these extremes, the Tathagata teaches the dhamma(path,law) as the middle(path,not extreme):
'With ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) as cause, sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) [come to be]; with sankhara(behavior-conditioning) as cause, consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan).... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. But with the remainderless fading away and cessation of ignorance comes cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning); with the cessation of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), cessation of consciousness.... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering." (as in 1 & 2)


16. A Speaker on the Law/Path (Dhammakathika)[]

At Savatthi. Then a certain bhikkhu(monk) approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:
"Venerable sir, it is said, 'a speaker on the dhamma(path,law), a speaker on the Dhamma.' In what way, venerable sir, is one a speaker on the Dhamma?"

"Bhikkhu, if one teaches the Dhamma for the purpose of revulsion(nibbida) towards aging-and-death, for its fading away and cessation(nirodha), one is fit to be called a bhikkhu who is a speaker on the Dhamma. If one is practising for the purpose of revulsion towards aging-and-death, for its fading away and cessation, one is fit to be called a bhikkhu who is practising in accordance with the Dhamma. 34 If, through revulsion towards aging-and-death, through its fading away and cessation, one is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) by nonclinging, one is fit to be called a bhikkhu who has attained Nibbana in this very life. 35

"Bhikkhu, if one teaches the Dhamma for the purpose of revulsion(nibbida) towards rebirth ... for the purpose of revulsion towards ignorance(avijja sans. avidya), for its fading away and cessation, one is fit to be called a bhikkhu who is a speaker on the Dhamma. If one is practising for the purpose of revulsion towards ignorance, for its fading away and cessation, one is fit to be called a bhikkhu who is practising in accordance with the Dhamma. If, through revulsion towards ignorance, through its fading away and cessation, one is liberated(vimutta) by nonclinging, one is fit to be called a bhikkhu who has attained Nibbana in this very life."


17. The Naked Ascetic Kassapa (Acelakassapa)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). Then, in the morning, the Lord (Buddha) dressed and, taking bowl and robe, entered Rajagaha for alms. The naked ascetic Kassapa saw the Lord (Buddha) coming in the distance. Having seen him, he approached the Lord (Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he stood to one side and said to him: "We would like to ask Master Gotama about a certain point, if he would grant us the favour of answering our question."

[Buddha:]"This is not the right time for a question, Kassapa. We have entered among the houses." 36
A second time and a third time the naked ascetic Kassapa said to the Lord (Buddha): "We would like to ask Master Gotama about a certain point, if he would grant us the favour of answering our question."
[Buddha:]"This is not the right time for a question, Kassapa. We have entered among the houses."

Then the naked ascetic Kassapa said to the Lord (Buddha): "We do not wish to ask Master Gotama much."
[Buddha:]"Then ask what you want, Kassapa."
[Acelakassapa:] "How is it. Master Gotama: is suffering created by oneself?"
[Buddha:]"Not so, Kassapa," the Lord (Buddha) said.
[Acelakassapa:] "Then, Master Gotama, is suffering created by another?"
[Buddha:]"Not so, Kassapa," the Lord (Buddha) said.
[Acelakassapa:] "How is it then. Master Gotama: is suffering created both by oneself and by another?"
[Buddha:]"Not so, Kassapa," the Lord (Buddha) said.
[Acelakassapa:] "Then, Master Gotama, has suffering arisen fortuitously, being created neither by oneself nor by another?" 37
[Buddha:]"Not so, Kassapa," the Lord (Buddha) said.
[Acelakassapa:] "How is it then. Master Gotama: is there no suffering?"
[Buddha:]"It is not that there is no suffering, Kassapa; there is suffering."
[Acelakassapa:] "Then is it that Master Gotama does not know and see suffering?"
[Buddha:] "It is not that I do not know and see suffering, Kassapa. I know suffering, I see suffering."

[Acelakassapa:] "Whether you are asked: 'How is it, Master Gotama: is suffering created by oneself?' or 'Is it created by another?' or 'Is it created by both?' or 'Is it created by neither?' in each case you say:
'Not so, Kassapa.' When you are asked: 'How is it then. Master Gotama: is there no suffering?' you say: 'It is not that there is no suffering, Kassapa; there is suffering.' When asked: 'Then is it that Master Gotama does not know and see suffering?' you say: 'It is not that I do not know and see suffering, Kassapa. I know suffering, I see suffering.' Venerable sir, let the Lord (Buddha) explain suffering to me. Let the Lord (Buddha) teach me about suffering." 38

[Buddha:]"Kassapa, [if one thinks,] 'The one who acts is the same as the one who experiences [the result]' [then one asserts] with reference to one existing from the beginning: 'Suffering is created by oneself.' When one asserts thus, this amounts to eternalism. 39 But, Kassapa, [if one thinks,] The one who acts is one, the one who experiences [the result] is another' [then one asserts] with reference to one stricken by sensation(vedana): 'Suffering is created by another.' When one asserts thus, this amounts to annihilationism. 40 Without veering towards either of these extremes, the Tathagata teaches the dhamma(path,law) as the middle(path,not extreme): 41 'With ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) as cause, sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) [come to be]; with sankhara(behavior-conditioning) as cause, consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan).... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. But with the remainderless fading away and cessation(nirodha) of ignorance comes cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning); with the cessation of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), cessation of consciousness.... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.'" (as in 1 & 2)

When this was said, the naked ascetic Kassapa said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, venerable sir! Magnificent, venerable sir! The Dhamma has been made clear in many ways by the Lord (Buddha), as though he were turning upright what had been turned upside down, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. I go for refuge to the Lord (Buddha), and to the Dhamma, and to the bhikkhu(monk) Sangha(fraternity). May I receive the going-forth(initiation,pabajja) under the Lord (Buddha), may I receive the higher ordination(upsampada)?" 42

[Buddha:]"Kassapa, one formerly belonging to another sect who desires the going-forth(initiation,pabajja) and the higher ordination in this Dhamma and Discipline lives on probation for four months. At the end of the four months, if the bhikkhus are satisfied with him, they may if they wish give him the going-forth(initiation,pabajja) and the higher ordination to the state of a bhikkhu. But individual differences are recognized by me." 43

[Acelakassapa:] "If, venerable sir, one formerly belonging to another sect who desires the going-forth(initiation,pabajja) and the higher ordination in this dhamma(path,law) and Discipline lives on probation for four months, and if at the end of the four months the bhikkhus, being satisfied with him, may if they wish give him the going-forth(initiation,pabajja) and the higher ordination to the state of a bhikkhu, then I will live on probation for four years. At the end of the four years, if the bhikkhus are satisfied with me, let them if they wish give me the going-forth(initiation,pabajja) and the higher ordination to the state of a bhikkhu."

Then the naked ascetic Kassapa received the going-forth(initiation,pabajja) under the Lord (Buddha), and he received the higher ordination(upsampada). And soon, not long after his higher ordination, dwelling alone, withdrawn, alertful(appamada), ardent, and resolute, the Venerable Kassapa, by realizing it for himself with divine-knowledge(abhinna), in this very life entered and dwelt in that unsurpassed goal of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the household life into hermit life. He directly knew: "Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being." And the Venerable Kassapa became one of the arahants. 44


18 (8) Timbaruka[]

At Savatthi. Then the ascetic Timbaruka approached the Lord (Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to him:

[Timbaruka:] "How is it, Master Gotama: are happiness and sorrow created by oneself?" 45
[Buddha:] "Not so, Timbaruka," the Lord (Buddha) said.
[Timbaruka:] "Then, Master Gotama, are happiness and sorrow created by another?"
[Buddha:] "Not so, Timbaruka," the Lord (Buddha) said.
[Timbaruka:] "How is it then. Master Gotama: are happiness and sorrow created both by oneself and by another?"
[Buddha:] "Not so, Timbaruka," the Lord (Buddha) said.
[Timbaruka:] "Then, Master Gotama, have happiness and sorrow arisen fortuitously, being created neither by oneself nor by another?"
[Buddha:] "Not so, Timbaruka," the Lord (Buddha) said.
[Timbaruka:] "How is it then. Master Gotama: is there no happiness and sorrow?".
[Buddha:] "It is not that there is no happiness and sorrow, Timbaruka; there is happiness and sorrow."
[Timbaruka:] "Then is it that Master Gotama does not know and see happiness and sorrow?"
[Buddha:] "It is not that I do not know and see happiness and sorrow, Timbaruka. I know happiness and sorrow, I see happiness and sorrow."

[Timbaruka:] "Whether you are asked: 'How is it. Master Gotama: are happiness and sorrow created by oneself?' or 'Are they created by another?' [23] or 'Are they created by both?' or 'Are they created by neither?' in each case you say: 'Not so, Timbaruka.' When you are asked: 'How is it then. Master Gotama: is there no happiness and sorrow?' you say: 'It is not that there is no happiness and sorrow, Timbaruka; there is happiness and sorrow.' When asked: 'Then is it that Master Gotama does not know and see happiness and sorrow?' you say: 'It is not that I do not know and see happiness and sorrow, Timbaruka. I know happiness and sorrow, I see happiness and sorrow.' Venerable sir, let the Lord (Buddha) explain happiness and sorrow to me. Let the Lord (Buddha) teach me about happiness and sorrow."

[Buddha:] "Timbaruka, [if one thinks,] 'The sensation(vedana) and the one who feels it are the same,' [then one asserts] with reference to one existing from the beginning: 'happiness and sorrow are created by oneself.' I do not speak thus. 46 But, Timbaruka, [if one thinks,] 'The sensation(vedana) is one, the one who feels it is another,' [then one asserts] with reference to one stricken by sensation(vedana): 'happiness and sorrow are created by another.' Neither do I speak thus. 47 Without veering towards either of these extremes, the Tathagata teaches the dhamma(path,law) as the middle(path,not extreme): 'With ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) as cause, sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) [come to be]; with sankhara(behavior-conditioning) as cause, consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan).... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. But with the remainderless fading away and cessation(nirodha) of ignorance comes cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning); with the cessation of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), cessation of consciousness.... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.'" (as in 1 & 2)

When this was said, the naked ascetic Timbaruka said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, Master Gotama!... I go for refuge to Master Gotama, and to the Dhamma, and to the Bhikkhu Sangha(fraternity). From today let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone for refuge for life."


19. The Wise Man and the Unwise (Balapandita)[]

At Savatthi. [Buddha:]"Bhikkhus(monks), for the childish(unwise), hindered by ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) and fettered by craving(tanha sans. trishna), this body has thereby originated. So there is this body and external mind-and-bodyform(namarupa): thus this dyad(couplet). Dependent on the dyad there is contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh). There are just six sense faculties, contacted through which - or through a certain one among them - the childish(unwise) experiences happiness and sorrow. 48

"Bhikkhus, for the wise man, hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving(tanha sans. trishna), this body has thereby originated. So there is this body and external mind-and-bodyform(namarupa): thus this dyad. Dependent on the dyad there is contact(phassa/sparsh). There are just six sense faculties, contacted through which - or through a certain one among them - the wise man experiences happiness and sorrow. What, bhikkhus, is the distinction here, what is the disparity, what is the difference between the wise man and the childish(unwise)?"

"Venerable sir, our teachings are rooted in the Lord (Buddha), guided by the Lord (Buddha), take recourse in the Lord (Buddha). It would be good if the Lord (Buddha) would clear up the meaning of this statement. 49 Having heard it from him, the bhikkhus will remember it."

[Buddha:] "Then listen and be mindful, bhikkhus, I will speak."
"Yes, venerable sir," the bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), for the childish(unwise), hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving(tanha sans. trishna), this body has originated. For the childish(unwise) that ignorance has not been abandoned and that craving has not been utterly destroyed. For what reason? Because the childish(unwise) has not lived the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) for the complete destruction(khaya\kshaya) of suffering. Therefore, with the breakup of the body, the childish(unwise) takes on [new] body(rebirth). Taking on [new] body, he is not freed from rebirth, aging, and death; not freed from sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair; not freed from suffering, I say.

"Bhikkhus, for the wise man, hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving(tanha sans. trishna), this body has originated. For the wise man that ignorance has been abandoned and that craving has been utterly destroyed. For what reason? Because the wise man has lived the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) [25] for the complete destruction(khaya\kshaya) of suffering. Therefore, with the breakup of the body, the wise man does not take on [new] body. Not taking on [new] body, he is freed from rebirth, aging, and death; freed from sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair; freed from suffering, I say.
"This, bhikkhus, is the distinction, the disparity, the difference between the wise man and the childish(unwise), that is, the living of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya)." 50


20. Causes(Paccaya sans. Pratyaya)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you dependent origination(Paticcasamuppada) and dependently arisen phenomena(dhamma). Listen and be mindful, I will speak."
"Yes, venerable sir," those bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"And what, bhikkhus, is dependent origination? 'With rebirth as cause, aging-and-death [comes to be]': whether there is an arising of Tathagatas or no arising of Tathagatas, that element(dhatu) still persists, the stableness of the Dhamma, the fixed course of the Dhamma, specific causation. 51 A Tathagata awakens to this and breaks through to it. 52 Having done so, he explains it teaches it, proclaims it, establishes it, discloses it, analyses it, elucidates it. And he says: 'See! With rebirth as cause, bhikkhus, aging-and-death(comes to be).' 53

"'With existence(bhavo) as cause, rebirth' ... 'With clinging(upadana sans. asakti) as cause, existence(bhavo)' ... 'With craving(tanha sans. trishna) as cause, clinging' ... 'With sensation(vedana) as cause, craving' . . . 'With contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) as cause, sensation(vedana)' ... 'With the six sense faculties as cause, contact' ... 'With mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as cause, the six sense faculties' ... 'With consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) as cause, mind-and-bodyform(namarupa)' ... 'With sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) as cause, consciousness' ... 'With ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) as cause, sankhara(behavior-conditioning)': whether there is an arising of Tathagatas or no arising of Tathagatas, that element still persists, the stableness of the Dhamma, the fixed course of the Dhamma, specific causation. A Tathagata awakens to this and [26] breaks through to it. Having done so, he explains it, teaches it, proclaims it, establishes it, discloses it, analyses it, elucidates it. And he says: 'See! With ignorance as cause, bhikkhus, sankhara(behavior-conditioning)(come to be).' (as in 1 & 2)
"Thus, bhikkhus, the actuality in this, the inerrancy, the not-otherwise-ness, specific causation: this is called dependent origination(Paticcasamuppada). 54

"And what, bhikkhus, are the dependently arisen phenomena(dhamma)? Aging-and-death, bhikkhus, is impermanent, conditioned(sankhato), dependently arisen, subject to destruction(khaya\kshaya), decline, fading away, and cessation(nirodha). Birth is impermanent ... existence(bhavo) is impermanent ... Clinging is impermanent ... craving(tanha sans. trishna) is impermanent ... sensation(vedana) is impermanent ... contact(phassa/sparsh) is impermanent ... The six sense faculties are impermanent . . . Mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) is impermanent ... Consciousness is impermanent ... sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) are impermanent ... Ignorance is impermanent, conditioned(sankhata), dependently arisen, subject to destruction(khaya\kshaya), decline, fading away, and cessation. These, bhikkhus, are called the dependently arisen phenomena(dhamma).

"When, bhikkhus, a noble disciple has clearly seen with correct illuminated-insight(panna) as it really is this dependent origination and these dependently arisen phenomena(dhamma), it is impossible that he will run back into the past, thinking: 'Did I exist in the past? Did I not exist in the past? What was I in the past? How was I in the past? Having been what, what did I become in the past?' Or that he will run forward into the future, thinking: 'Will I exist in the future? Will I not exist [27] in the future? What will I be in the future? How will I be in the future? Having been what, what will I become in the future?' Or that he will now be inwardly confused about the present thus: 'Do I exist? Do I not exist? What am I? How am I? This being - where has it come from, and where will it go?' 56

"For what reason [is this impossible]? Because, bhikkhus, the noble disciple has clearly seen with correct illuminated-insight(panna) as it really is this dependent origination(Paticcasamuppada) and these dependently arisen phenomena(dhamma)."



(iii) The Ten Powers Section (Dasabalavaggo)[]

21. The Ten Powers (1) (Dasabala1)[]

At Savatthi. [Buddha:]"Bhikkhus(monks), possessing the ten powers and the four grounds of self-confidence, the Tathagata claims the place of the chief bull of the herd, roars his lion's roar in the assemblies, and sets rolling the Brahma-wheel(great-wheel) thus: 57 'Such is form, such its origin, such its passing away; such is sensation(vedana), such its origin, such its passing away; such is perception(sanna sans. sangya), such its origin, such its passing away; such are sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), such their origin, such their passing away; such is consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan), such its origin, such its passing away. 58 Thus when this exists, that comes to be; with the arising of this, that arises. When this does not exist, that does not come to be; with the cessation(nirodha) of this, that ceases. 59 That is, with ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) as cause, sankhara(behavior-conditioning) [come to be]; with sankhara(behavior-conditioning) as cause, consciousness.... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. But with the remainderless fading away and cessation of ignorance comes cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning); with the cessation of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), cessation of consciousness..(as in 1).. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.'" (as in 1 & 2)


22. The Ten Powers (2) (Dasabala2)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), possessing the ten powers and the four grounds of self-confidence, the Tathagata claims the place of the chief bull of the herd, roars his lion's roar in the assemblies, and sets rolling the Brahma-wheel thus: 'Such is form ... (as in 21 ) ... Such is the cessation(nirodha) of this whole mass of suffering.'

"Bhikkhus, the dhamma(path,law) has thus been well expounded by me, elucidated, disclosed, revealed, stripped of patchwork. 60 When, bhikkhus, the Dhamma has thus been well expounded by me, elucidated, disclosed, revealed, stripped of patchwork, this is enough for a clansman who has gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit) out of faith to arouse his energetic-strength(viriya) thus: 'Willingly, let only my skin, sinews, and bones remain, and let the flesh and blood dry up in my body, but I will not relax my energetic-strength so long as I have not attained what can be attained by manly strength, by manly energetic-strength, by manly exertion.' 61

"Bhikkhus, the lazy person dwells in suffering, soiled by evil harmful(akusala sans. akushal) states, and great is the personal good that he neglects. 62 But the energetic person dwells happily, secluded from evil harmful states, and great is the personal good that he achieves. It is not by the inferior that the supreme is attained; rather, it is by the supreme that the supreme is attained. 63 Bhikkhus, this holy celibate life(brahmacariya) is a beverage of cream; the Teacher is present. 64 Therefore, bhikkhus, arouse your energetic-strength for the attainment of the as-yet-unattained, for the achievement of the as-yet-unachieved, for the realization of the as-yet-unrealized, [with the thought]: 'In such a way this going-forth(initiation,pabajja) of ours will not be barren, but fruitful and fertile; and when we use the robes, almsfood, lodgings, and medicinal requisites [offered to us by others], these services they provide for us will be of great fruit and benefit to them.' 65 Thus, bhikkhus, should you train yourselves.

"Considering your own good, bhikkhus, it is enough to strive for the goal with alertfulness(appamada); considering the good of others, it is enough to strive for the goal with alertfulness; considering the good of both, it is enough to strive for the goal with alertfulness." 66


23. Proximate Cause (Upanisa)[]

At Savatthi. 67 "Bhikkhus(monks), I say that the destruction(khaya\kshaya) of the defilements is for one who knows and sees(in meditation,passati ref. to Vipassana meditation), not for one who does not know and does not see. For one who knows what, for one who sees(in meditation) what, does the destruction of the defilements come about? 'Such is form, such its origin, such its passing away; such is sensation(vedana) ... such is perception(sanna sans. sangya) ... such are sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) ... such is consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan), such its origin, such its passing away': it is for one who knows thus, for one who sees(in meditation,passato) thus, that the destruction of the defilements comes about.

"I say, bhikkhus, that the knowledge of destruction(khaya\kshaya) in regard to destruction has a proximate cause; it does not lack a proximate cause. And what is the proximate cause for the knowledge of destruction? It should be said: liberation(vimutti sans. vimukti). 68

"I say, bhikkhus, that liberation too has a proximate cause; it does not lack a proximate cause. And what is the proximate cause for liberation? It should be said: dispassion.

"I say, bhikkhus, that dispassion too has a proximate cause; it does not lack a proximate cause. And what is the proximate cause for dispassion? It should be said: revulsion(nibbida).

"I say, bhikkhus, that revulsion too has a proximate cause; it does not lack a proximate cause. And what is the proximate cause for revulsion? It should be said: the knowledge and vision of Dhammas(law,path & experience) as they really are.

"I say, bhikkhus, that the knowledge and vision of Dhammas as they really are too has a proximate cause; it does not lack a proximate cause. And what is the proximate cause for the knowledge and vision of Dhammas as they really are? It should be said: samadhi(trance)state.

"I say, bhikkhus, that samadhi(trance)state too has a proximate cause; it does not lack a proximate cause. And what is the proximate cause for samadhi(trance)state? It should be said: happiness(sukh).

"I say, bhikkhus, that happiness too has a proximate cause; it does not lack a proximate cause. And what is the proximate cause for happiness? It should be said: tranquility.

"I say, bhikkhus, that tranquillity(pasaddhi/prashabdhi) too has a proximate cause; it does not lack a proximate cause. And what is the proximate cause for tranquility? It should be said: bliss(piti/preeti).

"I say, bhikkhus, that bliss(piti/preeti) too has a proximate cause; it does not lack a proximate cause. And what is the proximate cause for bliss? It should be said: gladness.

"I say, bhikkhus, that gladness too has a proximate cause; it does not lack a proximate cause. And what is the proximate cause for gladness? It should be said: faith.

"I say, bhikkhus, that faith too has a proximate cause; it does not lack a proximate cause. And what is the proximate cause for faith? It should be said: suffering. 69

"I say, bhikkhus, that suffering too has a proximate cause; it does not lack a proximate cause. And what is the proximate cause for suffering? It should be said: rebirth.

"I say, bhikkhus, that rebirth too has a proximate cause; it does not lack a proximate cause. And what is the proximate cause for rebirth? It should be said: factor-of-existence(bhavo).

"I say, bhikkhus, that factor-of-existence(bhavo) too has a proximate cause; it does not lack a proximate cause. And what is the proximate cause for factor-of-existence(bhavo)? It should be said: clinging(upadana sans. asakti).

"I say, bhikkhus, that clinging too has a proximate cause; it does not lack a proximate cause. And what is the proximate cause for clinging? It should be said: craving(tanha sans. trishna).

"I say, bhikkhus, that craving(tanha sans. trishna) too has a proximate cause; it does not lack a proximate cause. And what is the proximate cause for craving? It should be said: sensation(vedana).

"For sensation(vedana), it should be said: contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh). For contact: the six sense faculties. For the six sense faculties: mind-and-bodyform(namarupa). For mind-and-bodyform: consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan). For consciousness: sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning).

"I say, bhikkhus, that sankhara(behavior-conditioning) too have a proximate cause; they do not lack a proximate cause. And what is the proximate cause for sankhara(behavior-conditioning)? It should be said: ignorance(avijja sans. avidya).

"Thus, bhikkhus, with ignorance as proximate cause, sankhara(behavior-conditioning) [come to be]; with sankhara(behavior-conditioning) as proximate cause, consciousness; with consciousness as proximate cause, mind-and-bodyform(namarupa); with mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as proximate cause, the six sense faculties; with the six sense faculties as proximate cause, contact; with contact(phassa/sparsh) as proximate cause, sensation(vedana); with sensation(vedana) as proximate cause, craving(tanha sans. trishna); with craving as proximate cause, clinging; with clinging as proximate cause, existence(bhavo); with existence(bhavo) as proximate cause, rebirth; with rebirth as proximate cause, suffering; with suffering as proximate cause, faith; with faith as proximate cause, gladness; with gladness as proximate cause, bliss(piti/preeti); with bliss as proximate cause, tranquillity(pasaddhi/prashabdhi); with tranquillity as proximate cause, happiness(sukh); with happiness as proximate cause, samadhi(trance)state; with samadhi(trance)state as proximate cause, the knowledge and vision of Dhammas(law,path) as they really are; with the knowledge and vision of Dhammas as they really are as proximate cause, revulsion(nibbida); with revulsion as proximate cause, dispassion; with dispassion as proximate cause, liberation(vimutti sans. vimukti); with liberation as proximate cause, the knowledge of destruction(khaya\kshaya).

"Just as, bhikkhus, when rain pours down in thick droplets on a mountain top, the water flows down along the slope and fills the cleft, gullies, and creeks; these being full fill up the pools; these being full fill up the lakes; these being full fill up the streams; these being full fill up the rivers; and these being full fill up the great ocean; 70

So too, with ignorance as proximate cause, sankhara(behavior-conditioning) [come to be]; with sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) as proximate cause, consciousness ... with liberation as proximate cause, the knowledge of destruction(khaya\kshaya)."


24. Ascetics of Other Sects (Annatitthiya sans. Anya-tettraiya)[]

At Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan).
(i)

Then, in the morning, the Venerable Sariputta dressed and, taking bowl and robe, entered Rajagaha for alms. Then it occurred to him: "It is still too early to walk for alms in Rajagaha. Let me go to the park of the ascetics of other sects."

Then the Venerable Sariputta went to the park of the ascetics of other sects. He exchanged greetings with those ascetics and, when they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side. The ascetics then said to him:

"Friend Sariputta, some ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma(karma), maintain that suffering is created by oneself; some ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma, maintain that suffering is created by another; some ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma, maintain that suffering is created both by oneself and by another; some ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma, maintain that suffering has arisen fortuitously, being created neither by oneself nor by another. 71 Now, friend Sariputta, what does the ascetic Gotama say about this? What does he teach? How should we answer if we are to state what has been said by the ascetic Gotama and not misrepresent him with what is contrary to fact? And how should we explain in accordance with the dhamma(path,law) so that no reasonable consequence of our assertion would give ground for criticism?" 72

"Friends, the Lord (Buddha) has said that suffering is dependently arisen. Dependent on what? Dependent on contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh). If one were to speak thus one would be stating what has been said by the Lord (Buddha) and would not misrepresent him with what is contrary to fact; one would explain in accordance with the Dhamma, and no reasonable consequence of one's assertion would give ground for criticism.

"Therein, friends, in the case of those ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma, who maintain that suffering is created by oneself, that is caused(paccaya) by contact. 73 Also, in the case of those ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma, who maintain that suffering is created by another, that too is caused(paccaya) by contact. Also, in the case of those ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma, who maintain that suffering is created both by oneself and by another, that too is caused(paccaya) by contact(phassa/sparsh). [34] Also, in the case of those ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma, who maintain that suffering has arisen fortuitously, being created neither by oneself nor by another, that too is caused(paccaya) by contact.

"Therein, friends, in the case of those ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma(karma), who maintain that suffering is created by oneself, it is impossible that they will experience [anything] without out contact. Also, in the case of those ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma, who maintain that suffering is created by another, it is impossible that they will experience [anything] without contact. Also, in the case of those ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma, who maintain that suffering is created both by oneself and by another, it is impossible that they will experience [anything] without contact. Also, in the case of those ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma, who maintain that suffering has arisen fortuitously, being created neither by oneself nor by another, it is impossible that they will experience [anything] without contact(phassa/sparsh)."

(ii)

The Venerable Ananda heard this conversation between the Venerable Sariputta and the ascetics of other sects. Then, when he had walked for alms in Rajagaha and had returned from the alms round, after his meal he approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and reported to the Lord (Buddha) the entire conversation between the Venerable Sariputta and those ascetics of other sects. [The Lord (Buddha) said:]

"Good, good, Ananda! Anyone answering rightly would answer just as Sariputta has done. I have said, Ananda, that suffering is dependently arisen. Dependent on what? Dependent on contact(phassa/sparsh). If one were to speak thus one would be stating what has been said by me and would not misrepresent me with what is contrary to fact; one would explain in accordance with the Dhamma, and no reasonable consequence of one's assertion would give ground for criticism.

"Therein, Ananda, in the case of those ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma, who maintain that suffering is created by oneself . .. . . and those who maintain that suffering has arisen fortuitously, being created neither by oneself nor by another, that too is caused(paccaya) by contact(phassa/sparsh).

"Therein, Ananda, in the case of those ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma, who maintain that suffering is created by oneself . . . and those who maintain that suffering has arisen fortuitously, being created neither by oneself nor by another, it is impossible that they will experience [anything] without contact(phassa/sparsh).

"On one occasion, Ananda, I was dwelling right here in Rajagaha, in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). Then, in the morning, I dressed and, taking bowl and robe, I entered Rajagaha for alms. Then it occurred to me: 'It is still too early to walk for alms in Rajagaha. Let me go to the park of the ascetics of other sects.' Then I went to the park of the ascetics of other sects. I exchanged greetings with those ascetics and, when we had concluded our greetings and cordial talk, I sat down to one side. The ascetics then said to me as I was sitting to one side: ... ( the ascetics ask exactly the same question as they had asked Sariputta and receive an identical reply) ... it is impossible that they will experience [anything] without contact(phassa/sparsh)."

"It is wonderful, venerable sir! It is amazing, venerable sir! How the entire meaning can be stated-by a single phrase! Can this same meaning be stated in detail in a way that is deep and deep in implications?" 74

"Well then, Ananda, clear up that same matter yourself."

"Venerable sir, if they were to ask me: 'Friend Ananda, what is the source of aging-and-death, what is its origin, from what is it born and produced?' - being asked thus, I would answer thus:
'Friends, aging-and-death has rebirth as its source, rebirth as its origin; it is born and produced from rebirth.' Being asked thus, I would answer in such a way. [37]

"Venerable sir, if they were to ask me: 'Friend Ananda, what is the source of rebirth, what is its origin, from what is it born and produced?' - being asked thus, I would answer thus: 'Friends, rebirth has factor-of-existence(bhavo) as its source, factor-of-existence(bhavo) as its origin; it is born and produced from factor-of-existence(bhavo).... factor-of-existence(bhavo) has clinging(upadana sans. asakti) as its source . . . Clinging has craving(tanha sans. trishna) as its source . . . Craving has sensation(vedana) as its source ... sensation(vedana) has contact(phassa/sparsh) as its source ... Contact has the six sense faculties as its source, the six sense faculties as its origin; it is born and produced from the six sense faculties. But with the remainderless fading away and cessation(nirodha) of the six sense faculties for contact comes cessation of contact; with the cessation of contact(phassa/sparsh), cessation of sensation(vedana); with the cessation of sensation(vedana), cessation of craving(tanha sans. trishna); with the cessation of craving, cessation of clinging; with the cessation of clinging, cessation of factor-of-existence(bhavo); with the cessation of factor-of-existence(bhavo), cessation of rebirth; with the cessation of rebirth, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair cease. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.' Being asked thus, venerable sir, I would answer in such a way."(Similar to 1 & 2)


25.Bhumija[]

At Savatthi.
(i)

Then, in the evening, the Venerable Bhumija emerged from seclusion and approached the Venerable Sariputta. 75 He exchanged greetings with the Venerable Sariputta and, when they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to him:

"Friend Sariputta, some ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma(karma), maintain that happiness and sorrow are created by oneself; some ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma, maintain that happiness and sorrow are created by another; some ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma, maintain that happiness and sorrow are created both by oneself and by another; some ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma, maintain that happiness and sorrow have arisen fortuitously, being created neither by oneself nor by another. 76 Now, friend Sariputta, what does the Lord (Buddha) say about this? What does he teach? How should we answer if we are to state what has been said by the Lord (Buddha) and not misrepresent him with what is contrary to fact? And how should we explain in accordance with the dhamma(path,law) so that no reasonable consequence of our assertion would give ground for criticism?"

"Friend, the Lord (Buddha) has said that happiness and sorrow are dependently arisen. Dependent on what? Dependent on contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh). If one were to speak thus one would be stating what has been said by the Lord (Buddha) and would not misrepresent him with what is contrary to fact; one would explain in accordance with the Dhamma, and no reasonable consequence of one's assertion would give ground for criticism.

"Therein, friend, in the case of those ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma, who maintain that happiness and sorrow are created by oneself, and those who maintain that happiness and sorrow are created by another, and those who maintain that happiness & sorrow are created both by oneself and by another, and those who maintain that happiness and sorrow have arisen fortuitously, being created neither by oneself nor by another - in each case that is caused(paccaya) by contact.

"Therein, friends, in the case of those ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma, who maintain that happiness and sorrow are created by oneself, and those who maintain that happiness and sorrow are created by another, and those who maintain that happiness and sorrow are created both by oneself and by another, and those who maintain that happiness and sorrow have arisen fortuitously, being created neither by oneself nor by another - in each case it is impossible that they will experience [anything] without contact(phassa/sparsh)."

(ii)

The Venerable Ananda heard this conversation between the Venerable Sariputta and the Venerable Bhumija. He then approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and reported to the Lord (Buddha) the entire conversation between the Venerable Sariputta and the Venerable Bhumija.

[The Lord (Buddha) said:]
"Good, good, Ananda! Anyone answering rightly would answer just as Sariputta has done. I have said, Ananda, that happiness and sorrow are dependently arisen. Dependent on what? Dependent on contact(phassa/sparsh). If one were to speak thus one would be stating what has been said by me and would not misrepresent me with what is contrary to fact; one would explain in accordance with the Dhamma, and no reasonable consequence of one's assertion would give ground for criticism.

"Therein, Ananda, in the case of those ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma, who maintain that happiness and sorrow are created by oneself . . . and those who maintain that happiness and sorrow have arisen fortuitously ... in each case that is caused(paccaya) by contact(phassa/sparsh).

"Therein, Ananda, in the case of those ascetics and brahmins, proponents of kamma, who maintain that happiness and sorrow are created by oneself . . . and those who maintain that happiness and sorrow have arisen fortuitously ... in each case it is impossible that they will experience [anything] without contact(phassa/sparsh).

(iii)

"Ananda, when there is the body, because of bodily cognitive-awareness happiness and sorrow arise internally; when there is speech, because of verbal cognitive-awareness happiness and sorrow arise internally; when there is the mind, because of mental cognitive-awareness happiness and sorrow arise internally - and with ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) as cause. 77

"Either on one's own initiative, Ananda, one generates that bodily sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) caused(paccaya) by which happiness and sorrow arise internally; or prompted by others one generates that bodily sankhara(behavior-conditioning) caused by which happiness and sorrow arise internally. Either deliberately, Ananda, one generates that bodily sankhara(behavior-conditioning) caused by which happiness and sorrow arise internally; or undeliberately one generates that bodily sankhara(behavior-conditioning) caused by which happiness and sorrow arise internally. 78

"Either on one's own initiative, Ananda, one generates that verbal sankhara(behavior-conditioning) caused(paccaya) by which happiness and sorrow arise internally; or prompted by others one generates that verbal sankhara(behavior-conditioning) caused by which happiness and sorrow arise internally. Either deliberately, Ananda, one generates that verbal sankhara(behavior-conditioning) caused by which happiness and sorrow arise internally; or undeliberately one generates that verbal sankhara(behavior-conditioning) caused by which happiness and sorrow arise internally.

"Either on one's own initiative, Ananda, one generates that mental sankhara(behavior-conditioning) 79 caused(paccaya) by which happiness and sorrow arise internally; or prompted by others one generates that mental sankhara(behavior-conditioning) caused by which happiness and sorrow arise internally. Either deliberately, Ananda, one generates that mental sankhara(behavior-conditioning) caused by which happiness and sorrow arise internally; or undeliberately one generates that mental sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) caused by which happiness and sorrow arise internally.

"Ignorance is comprised within these states. 80 But with the remainderless fading away and cessation(nirodha) of ignorance that body does not exist caused(paccaya) by which that happiness and sorrow arise internally; that speech does not exist caused by which that happiness and sorrow arise internally; that mind does not exist caused by which that happiness and sorrow arise internally. 81 That field does not exist, that site does not exist, that sense faculty does not exist, that foundation does not exist caused by which that happiness and sorrow arise internally." 82


26. Upavana[]

At Savatthi. Then the Venerable Upavana approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him: 83

"Venerable sir, some ascetics and brahmins maintain that suffering is created by oneself; some ascetics and brahmins maintain that suffering is created by another; some ascetics and brahmins maintain that suffering is created both by oneself and by another er; some ascetics and brahmins maintain that suffering has arisen en fortuitously, being created neither by oneself nor by another. Now, venerable sir, what does the Lord (Buddha) say about this? What does he teach? How should we answer if we are to state what has been said by the Lord (Buddha) and not misrepresent him with what is contrary to fact? And how should we explain in accordance with the dhamma(path,law) so that no reasonable consequence of our assertion would give ground for criticism?"

[Buddha:] "Upavana, I have said that suffering is dependently arisen. Dependent on what? Dependent on contact(phassa/sparsh). If one were to speak thus one would be stating what has been said by me and would not misrepresent me with what is contrary to fact; one would explain in accordance with the Dhamma, and no reasonable consequence of one's assertion would give ground for criticism.

"Therein, Upavana, in the case of those ascetics and brahmins who maintain that suffering is created by oneself, and those who maintain that suffering is created by another, and those who maintain that suffering is created both by oneself and by another, and those who maintain that suffering has arisen fortuitously, being created neither by oneself nor by another - in each case that is caused(paccaya) by contact(phassa/sparsh).

"Therein, Upavana, in the case of those ascetics and brahmins who maintain that suffering is created by oneself, and those who maintain that suffering is created by another, and those who maintain that suffering is created both by oneself and by another, er, and those who maintain that suffering has arisen fortuitously, being created neither by oneself nor by another - in each case it is impossible that they will experience [anything] without contact(phassa/sparsh)."


27. Causes (Paccaya Sans. Pratyaya)[]

At Savatthi. [Buddha:] "Bhikkhus(monks), with ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) as cause, sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) [come to be]; with sankhara(behavior-conditioning) as cause, consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) . ..(as in 1). . Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"And what, bhikkhus, is aging-and-death? The aging of the various beings ... (as in 2) ... thus this aging and this death are together called aging-and-death. With the arising of rebirth there is the arising of aging-and-death; with the cessation(nirodha) of rebirth there is the cessation of aging-and-death. Just this Noble Eightfold Path is the way leading to the cessation of aging-and-death; that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right meditation(sati), right samadhi(trance)state.

"And what, bhikkhus, is rebirth?... factor-of-existence(bhavo)?... clinging(upadana sans. asakti)?..... craving(tanha sans. trishna)?... sensation(vedana)?... contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh)?... the six sense faculties?... mind-and-bodyform(namarupa)?... consciousness?... sankhara(behavior-conditioning)? There are these three kinds of sankhara(behavior-conditioning): the bodily sankhara(behavior-conditioning), the verbal sankhara(behavior-conditioning), the mental sankhara(behavior-conditioning). With the arising of ignorance there is the arising of sankhara(behavior-conditioning). With the cessation of ignorance there is the cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning). Just this Noble Eightfold Path is the way leading to the cessation of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning); that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right meditation(sati), right samadhi(trance)state (see SN5.8).

"When, bhikkhus, a noble disciple thus understands the cause; thus understands the origin of the cause; thus understands the cessation of the cause; thus understands the way leading to the cessation of the cause, 84 he is then called a noble disciple who is accomplished in view, accomplished in vision, who has arrived at this true dhamma(path,law), who sees(in meditation,passati ref. Vipassana meditation) this true Dhamma, who possesses a trainee's knowledge, a trainee's true knowledge, who has entered the stream of the Dhamma, a noble one with penetrative illuminated-insight(panna), one who stands squarely before the door to the deathless-state(nirvana)." 85


28. Bhikkhu (Sans. Bhikshu, monk)[]

At Savatthi.
[Buddha:] "Herein, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu(monk) understands aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation(nirodha), and the way leading to its cessation. He understands rebirth ... factor-of-existence(bhavo) ... clinging(upadana sans. asakti) ... craving(tanha sans. trishna) . . . sensation(vedana) . . . contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) . . . the six sense faculties . . . mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) . . . consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) . . . sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), their origin, their cessation, and the way leading to their cessation.

"And what, bhikkhus, is aging-and-death?... (as in preceding sutta 27) ... Just this Noble Eightfold Path is the way leading to the cessation of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning); that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right meditation(sati), right samadhi(trance)state (see SN5.8).

"When, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu thus understands aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation; when he thus understands rebirth ... factor-of-existence(bhavo) ... clinging ... craving(tanha sans. trishna) ... sensation(vedana) ... contact(phassa/sparsh) ... the six sense faculties ... mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) . . . consciousness . . . sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), their origin, their cessation, and the way leading to their cessation, he is then called a bhikkhu who is accomplished in view, accomplished in vision, who has arrived at this true dhamma(path,law), who sees(in meditation,passati ref. Vipassana meditation) this true Dhamma, who possesses a trainee's knowledge, a trainee's true knowledge, who has entered the stream of the Dhamma, a noble one with penetrative illuminated-insight(panna), one who stands squarely before the door to the deathless-state(nirvana)."


29. Ascetics and Brahmins (1) (Samanabrahmana1)[]

At Savatthi.
[Buddha:] "Bhikkhus(monks), those ascetics or brahmins who do not fully understand aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation(nirodha), and the way leading to its cessation; 86 who do not fully understand rebirth . . . factor-of-existence(bhavo) . . . clinging(upadana sans. asakti) . . . craving(tanha sans. trishna) . . . sensation(vedana) . . . contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) . . . the six sense faculties . . . mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) . . . consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) . . . sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), their origin, their cessation, and the way leading to their cessation: these I do not consider to be ascetics among ascetics or brahmins among brahmins, and these venerable ones do not, by realizing it for themselves with divine-knowledge(abhinna), in this very life enter and dwell in the goal of asceticism or the goal of brahminhood.

"But, bhikkhus, those ascetics and brahmins who fully understand aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation; who fully understand rebirth . . . sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), their origin, their cessation, and the way leading to their cessation: these I consider to be ascetics among ascetics and brahmins among brahmins, and these venerable ones, by realizing it for themselves with divine-knowledge(abhinna), in this very life enter and dwell in the goal of asceticism and the goal of brahminhood."


30. Ascetics and Brahmins (2) (Samanabrahmana2)[]

At Savatthi.
[Buddha:] "Bhikkhus(monks), as to those ascetics or brahmins who do not understand aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation(nirodha), and the way leading to its cessation: it is impossible that they will dwell having transcended aging-and-death. As to those ascetics and brahmins who do not understand rebirth ... factor-of-existence(bhavo) ... clinging(upadana sans. asakti) ... craving(tanha sans. trishna) ... sensation(vedana) ... contact(phassa/sparsh) ... the six sense faculties ... mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) . . . consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) . . . sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), their origin, their cessation, and the way leading to their cessation: it is impossible that they will dwell having transcended sankhara(behavior-conditioning).

"But, bhikkhus, as to those ascetics or brahmins who understand aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation: it is possible that they will dwell having transcended aging-and-death. As to those ascetics and brahmins who understand rebirth . . . sankhara(behavior-conditioning), their origin, their cessation, and the way leading to their cessation: it is possible that they will dwell having transcended sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning)."



(iv) The Kalara Khattiya Section (Sans. Kalara-Kshatriya)[]

31. What Has Come to Be (Bhuta)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi....
There the Lord (Buddha) addressed the Venerable Sariputta thus:
"Sariputta, in The Questions of Ajita' of the Parayana it is said: 87

Those who have comprehended the dhamma(path,law); And the manifold trainees here:
Asked about their way of conduct; Being discreet, tell me, dear sir.' 88

How should the meaning of this, stated in brief, be understood in detail?"

When this was said, the Venerable Sariputta was silent. A second time and a third time the Lord (Buddha) addressed the Venerable Sariputta thus: "Sariputta, in The Questions of Ajita' in the Parayana it is said : 'Those who have ...tell me, dear sir; . . . How should the meaning of this, stated in brief, be understood in detail?" A second time and a third time the Venerable Sariputta was silent. 89

"Sariputta, do you see: This has come to be'? Sariputta, do you see: 'This has come to be'?"

[Sariputta:] "Venerable sir, one sees(in meditation,passati ref. Vipassana meditation) as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna):
'This has come to be.' Having seen as it really is with correct insight(panna); This has come to be,' one is practising for the purpose of revulsion(nibbida) towards what has come to be, for its fading away and cessation(nirodha). 90 One sees(in meditation) as it really is with correct insight(panna): 'Its origination occurs with that as nutriment.' 91 Having seen as it really is with correct insight(panna): 'Its origination occurs with that as nutriment,' one is practising for the purpose of revulsion towards its origination through nutriment, for its fading away and cessation. One sees(in meditation) as it really is with correct insight(panna): 'With the cessation of that nutriment, what has come to be is subject to cessation.' Having seen as it really is with correct insight(panna): 'With the cessation tion of that nutriment, what has come to be is subject to cessation,' one is practising for the purpose of revulsion towards what is subject to cessation, for its fading away and cessation. It is in such a way that one is a trainee.

"And how, venerable sir, has one comprehended the dhamma(path,law)? Venerable sir, one sees(in meditation) as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna):
'This has come to be'. Having seen as it really is with correct insight(panna): 'This has come to be' through revulsion(nibbida) towards what has come to be, through its fading away and cessation, one is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) by nonclinging. One sees(in meditation) as it really is with correct insight(panna): 'Its origination occurs with that as nutriment.' Having seen as it really is with correct insight(panna): 'Its origination occurs with that as nutriment,' through revulsion towards its origination through nutriment, through its fading away and cessation, one is liberated by nonclinging. One sees(in meditation) as it really is with correct insight(panna): 'With the cessation of that nutriment, what has come to be is subject to cessation.' Having seen as it really is with correct insight(panna): 'With the cessation of that nutriment, what has come to be is subject to cessation' through revulsion towards what is subject to cessation, through its fading away and cessation, one is liberated by nonclinging. 92 It is in such a way that one has comprehended the Dhamma.

"Thus, venerable sir, when it is said in 'The Questions of Ajita' of the Parayana:

'Those who have comprehended the Dhamma; And the manifold trainees here, Asked about their way of conduct; Being discreet, tell me, dear sir.'
it is in such a way that I understand in detail the meaning of this that was stated in brief."

"Good, good, Sariputta!... ( the Buddha repeats here the entire statement of the Venerable Sariputta as before)
It is in such a way that the meaning of this, stated in brief, should be understood in detail."


32. The Kalara[]

At Savatthi.

(i)

Then the bhikkhu(monk) Kalara the Khattiya approached the Venerable Sariputta and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to the Venerable Sariputta: "Friend Sariputta, the bhikkhu Moliyaphagguna has abandoned the training and returned to the lower life." 93
"Then surely that venerable did not find solace in this dhamma(path,law) and Discipline."
"Well then, has the Venerable Sariputta attained solace in this Dhamma and Discipline?"

[Sariputta:] "I have no perplexity, friend."

[Kalara:] "But as to the future, friend?"

[Sariputta:] "I have no doubt, friend."

Then the bhikkhu Kalara the Khattiya rose from his seat and approached the Lord (Buddha). Having approached, he paid homage to the Lord (Buddha), sat down to one side, and said to him:
"Venerable sir, the Venerable Sariputta has declared final knowledge thus: 'I understand: Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'" 94

Then the Lord (Buddha) addressed a certain bhikkhu thus: "Come, bhikkhu, tell Sariputta in my name that the Teacher calls him."

"Yes, venerable sir," that bhikkhu replied, and he went to the Venerable Sariputta and told him: "The Teacher calls you, friend Sariputta."

"Yes, friend," the Venerable Sariputta replied, and he approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord (Buddha) then said to him: "Is it true, Sariputta, that you have declared final knowledge thus: 'I understand: Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being'?"

"Venerable sir, I did not state the matter in those terms and phrases."

"In whatever way, Sariputta, a clansman declares final knowledge, what he has declared should be understood as such."

"Venerable sir, didn't I too speak thus: 'Venerable sir, I did not state the matter in those terms and phrases'?"

"If, Sariputta, they were to ask you: 95 'Friend Sariputta, how have you known, how have you seen, that you have declared final knowledge thus: 'I understand: Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being' - being asked thus, how would you answer?"

"If they were to ask me this, venerable sir, [52] I would answer thus: 'With the destruction(khaya\kshaya) of the source from which rebirth originates, I have understood: "When [the cause] is destroyed, [the effect] is destroyed." Having understood this, I understand: Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.' Being asked thus, venerable sir, I would answer in such a way." 96

"But, Sariputta, if they were to ask you: 'But, friend Sariputta, what is the source of rebirth, what is its origin, from what is it born and produced?' - being asked thus, how would you answer?"

"If they were to ask me this, venerable sir, I would answer thus: 'Rebirth, friends, has factor-of-existence(bhavo) has its source, factor-of-existence(bhavo) as its origin; it is born and produced from factor-of-existence(bhavo).' Being asked thus, venerable sir, I would answer in such a way."

"But, Sariputta, if they were to ask you: 'But, friend Sariputta, what is the source of factor-of-existence(bhavo)...?' - being asked thus, how would you answer?"

"If they were to ask me this, venerable sir, I would answer thus: 'factor-of-existence(bhavo), friends, has clinging(upadana sans. asakti) as its source....'"

"But, Sariputta, if they were to ask you: 'But, friend Sariputta, what is the source of clinging...? What is the source of craving(tanha sans. trishna), what is its origin, from what is it born and produced?' - being asked thus, how would you answer?"

"If they were to ask me this, venerable sir, I would answer thus: 'craving(tanha sans. trishna), friends, has sensation(vedana) as its source, sensation(vedana) as its origin; it is born and produced from sensation(vedana).' Being asked thus, venerable sir, I would answer in such a way."

"But, Sariputta, if they were to ask you: 'Friend Sariputta, how have you known, how have you seen, that delight(nandi\anand) in sensations(vedana) no longer remains present in you?' - being asked thus, how would you answer?" 97

"If they were to ask me this, venerable sir, I would answer thus: 'Friends, there are these three sensations(vedana). What three? Pleasant sensation(vedana), painful sensation(vedana), neither-painful-nor-pleasant sensation(vedana). These three sensations(vedana), friends, are impermanent; whatever is impermanent is suffering. When this was understood, delight(nandi\anand) in sensations(vedana) no longer remained present in me.' Being asked thus, venerable sir, I would answer in such a way."

"Good, good, Sariputta! This is another method of explaining in brief that same point: 'Whatever is felt is included within suffering.' 98 But, Sariputta, if they were to ask you: 'Friend Sariputta, through what kind of deliverance(vimokkkha\vimoksha) have you declared final knowledge thus: "I understand: Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being"?' - being asked thus, how would you answer?"

"If they were to ask me this, venerable sir, I would answer thus: [54] 'Friends, through an internal deliverance, through the destruction(khaya\kshaya) of all clinging(upadana sans. asakti), I dwell meditating(sato) in such a way that the defilements do not flow within me and I do not despise myself.' Being asked thus, venerable sir, I would answer in such a way." 99

"Good, good, Sariputta! This is another method of explaining in brief that same point: 'I have no. perplexity in regard to the defilements spoken of by the Ascetic; I do not doubt that they have been abandoned by me.'"

This is what the Lord (Buddha) said. Having said this, the Sublime One rose from his seat and entered his dwelling.

(ii)

Then, soon after the Lord (Buddha) had departed, the Venerable Sariputta addressed the bhikkhus thus:

"Friends, the first- question that the Lord (Buddha) asked me had not been previously considered by me: 100 thus I hesitated over it. But when the Lord (Buddha) approved of my answer, it occurred to me: 'If the Lord (Buddha) were to question me about this matter with various terms and with various methods for a whole day, for a whole day I would be able to answer him with various terms and with various methods. If he were to question me about this matter with various terms and with various methods for a whole night, for a day and night, [55] for two days and nights, for three, four, five, six, or seven days and nights - for seven days and nights I would be able to answer him with various terms and with various methods.'"

Then the bhikkhu(monk) Kalara the Khattiya rose from his seat and approached the Lord (Buddha). Having approached, he paid homage age to the Lord (Buddha), sat down to one side, and said to him:
"Venerable sir, the -Venerable Sariputta has roared his lion's roar thus: 'Friends, the first question that the Lord (Buddha) asked me had not been previously considered by me: thus I hesitated over it. But when the Lord (Buddha) approved of my answer, it occurred to me: "If the Lord (Buddha) were to question me about this matter for up to seven days and nights, [56] for up to seven days and nights I would be able to answer him with various terms and with various methods.'"

"Bhikkhu, the Venerable Sariputta has thoroughly penetrated that element(dhatu) of the dhamma(path,law) by the thorough penetration of which, if I were to question him about that matter with various terms and with various methods for up to seven days and nights, for up to seven days and nights he would be able to answer me with various terms and with various methods." 101


33. Cases of Knowledge (1) (Nanavatthu1 sans. Gyan-vastu)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you forty-four cases of knowledge. Listen to that and be mindful, I will speak."
"Yes, venerable sir,"those bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), what are the forty-four cases of knowledge? Knowledge of aging-and-death, knowledge of its origin, knowledge of its cessation, knowledge of the way leading to its cessation. Knowledge of rebirth ... Knowledge of factor-of-existence(bhavo) ... Knowledge of clinging(upadana sans. asakti) ... Knowledge of craving(tanha sans. trishna) ... Knowledge of sensation(vedana) . . . Knowledge of contact(phassa/sparsh) . . . Knowledge of the six sense faculties ... Knowledge of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) ... Knowledge of consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) . . . Knowledge of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), knowledge of their origin, knowledge of their cessation, knowledge of the way leading to their cessation. These, bhikkhus, are the forty-four cases of knowledge.

"And what, bhikkhus, is aging-and-death?... (definition as in 2) ... Thus this aging and this death are together called aging-and-death. With the arising of birth there is the arising of aging-and-death. With the cessation of rebirth there is the cessation of aging-and-death. This Noble Eightfold Path is the way leading to the cessation of aging-and-death; that is, right view ... right samadhi(trance)state.

"When, bhikkhus, a noble disciple thus understands aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation, this is his knowledge of the principle. 102 By means of this principle that is seen, understood, immediately attained, fathomed, 103 he applies the method to the past and to the future thus: 'Whatever ascetics and brahmins in the past directly knew aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation, all these directly knew it in the very same way that I do now. Whatever ascetics and brahmins in the future will directly know aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation, all these will directly know it in the very same way that I do now.' This is his knowledge of entailment. 104

"When, bhikkhus, a noble disciple has purified and cleansed these two kinds of knowledge - knowledge of the principle and knowledge of entailment - he is then called a noble disciple who is accomplished in view, accomplished in vision, who has arrived at this true dhamma(path,law), who knows this true Dhamma, who possesses a trainee's knowledge, a trainee's true knowledge, who has entered the stream of the Dhamma, a noble one with penetrative illuminated-insight(panna), one who stands squarely before the door to the deathless-state(nirvana).

"And what, bhikkhus, is rebirth?... What are the sankhara(behavior-conditioning)?... (definitions as in 2) ... This Noble Eightfold Path is the way leading to the cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning); that is, right view ... right samadhi(trance)state.

"When, bhikkhus, a noble disciple thus understands sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), their origin, their cessation, and the way leading to their cessation, this is his knowledge of the principle. By means of this principle that is seen, understood, immediately attained, fathomed, he applies the method to the past and to the future.... This is his knowledge of entailment.

"When, bhikkhus, a noble disciple has purified and cleansed these two kinds of knowledge - knowledge of the principle and knowledge of entailment - he is then called a noble disciple who is accomplished in view . . . one who stands squarely before the door to the deathless-state."


34. Cases of Knowledge (2) (Nanavatthu2)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you seventy-seven cases of knowledge. Listen to that and be mindful, I will speak."
"Yes, venerable sir," those bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), what are the seventy-seven cases of knowledge? The knowledge: 'Aging-and-death has rebirth as its cause.' The knowledge: 'When there is no rebirth, there is no aging-and-death.' The knowledge: 'In the past too aging-and-death had rebirth as its cause.' The knowledge: 'In the past too, had there been no rebirth, there would have been no aging-and-death.' The knowledge: 'In the future too aging-and-death will have birth as its cause.' The knowledge: 'In the future too, should there be no rebirth, there will be no aging-and-death.' The knowledge: 'That knowledge of the stability of the dhamma(path,law) is also subject to destruction(khaya\kshaya), decline, fading away, and cessation(nirodha).' 105

"The knowledge: 'Rebirth has factor-of-existence(bhavo) as its cause.'... The knowledge: 'sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) have ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) as their cause.' The knowledge: 'When there is no ignorance, there are no sankhara(behavior-conditioning).' The knowledge: 'In the past too sankhara(behavior-conditioning) had ignorance as their cause.' The knowledge: 'In the past too, had there been no ignorance, there would have been no sankhara(behavior-conditioning).' The knowledge: 'In the future too sankhara(behavior-conditioning) will have ignorance as their cause.' The knowledge: 'In the future too, should there be no ignorance, there will be no sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning).' The knowledge: 'That knowledge of the stability of the Dhamma is also subject to destruction(khaya\kshaya), decline, fading away, and cessation. '

"These, bhikkhus, are called the seventy-seven cases of knowledge."

Note : This is a very deep meaning Sutta. In essence it is to be understood that, in addition to previous sutta 33, even if supreme knowledge is gained, this 'knowledge' itself is subject to decay & destruction(khaya\kshaya). Therefore a person should be able to 'use' this gained knowledge to remove the fetters & chains and gain freedom from factor-of-existence(bhavo) in order not to get birth again , in other words, attain the nirvana state of eternal bliss.


35. With Ignorance as cause (1) (Avijjapaccaya1 sans. Avidya-Pratyaya)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), with ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) as cause, sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) [come to be]; with sankhara(behavior-conditioning) as cause, consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan). ... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering."

When he had said this, a certain bhikkhu(monk) said to the Lord (Buddha):
"Venerable sir, what now is aging-and-death, and for whom is there this aging-and-death?"

"Not a valid question," the Lord (Buddha) replied. 106
"Bhikkhu, whether one says, 'What now is aging-and-death, and for whom is there this aging-and-death?' or whether one says, 'Aging-and-death is one thing, the one for whom there is this aging-and-death is another' - both these assertions are identical in meaning; they differ only in the phrasing. If there is the view, 'The soul and the body are the same,' there is no living of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya); and if there is the view, 'The soul is one thing, the body is another' there is no living of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya). 107 Without veering towards either of these extremes, the Tathagata teaches the dhamma(path,law) as the middle(path,not extreme): 'With rebirth as cause, aging-and-death.'"

"Venerable sir, what now is rebirth, and for whom is there this rebirth?"

"Not a valid question," the Lord (Buddha) replied. "Bhikkhu, whether one says, 'What now is rebirth, and for whom is there this rebirth?' or whether one says, 'Rebirth is one thing, the one for whom there is this birth is another' - both these assertions are identical in meaning; they differ only in the phrasing.... Without veering towards either of these extremes, the Tathagata teaches the Dhamma as the middle(path,not extreme): 'With factor-of-existence(bhavo) as cause, birth.'"

"Venerable sir, what now is factor-of-existence(bhavo), and for whom is there this factor-of-existence(bhavo)?"

"Not a valid question," the Lord (Buddha) replied. "Bhikkhu, whether one says, 'What now is factor-of-existence(bhavo), and for whom is there this factor-of-existence(bhavo)?' or whether one says, 'factor-of-existence(bhavo) is one thing, the one for whom there is this factor-of-existence(bhavo) is another' - both these assertions are identical in meaning; they differ only in the phrasing ing.... Without veering towards either of these extremes, the Tathagata teaches the Dhamma as the middle(path,not extreme): 'With clinging(upadana sans. asakti) as cause, factor-of-existence(bhavo).... With craving(tanha sans. trishna) as cause, clinging.... With sensation(vedana) as cause, craving.... With contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) as cause, sensation(vedana).... With the six sense faculties as cause, contact(phassa/sparsh).... With mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as cause, the six sense faculties.... [62] With consciousness as cause, mind-and-bodyform(namarupa).... With sankhara(behavior-conditioning) as cause, consciousness.'"

"Venerable sir, what now are sankhara(behavior-conditioning), and for whom are there these sankhara(behavior-conditioning)?"

"Not a valid question," the Lord (Buddha) replied. "Bhikkhu, whether one says, 'What now are sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), and for whom are there these sankhara(behavior-conditioning)?' or whether one says, 'sankhara(behavior-conditioning) are one thing, the one for whom there are these sankhara(behavior-conditioning) is another' - both these assertions are identical in meaning; they differ only in the phrasing ing. If there is the view, 'The soul and the body are the same, there is no living of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya); and if there is the view, 'The soul is one thing, the body is another,' there is no living of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya). Without veering towards either of these extremes, the Tathagata teaches the Dhamma as the middle(path,not extreme): 'With ignorance as cause, sankhara(behavior-conditioning).'

"But with the remainderless fading away and cessation(nirodha) of ignorance, whatever kinds of contortions, manoeuvres, and vacillations there may be 108 - 'What now is aging-and-death, and for whom is there this aging-and-death?' or 'Aging-and-death is one thing, the one for whom there is this aging-and-death is another,' or The soul and the body are the same,' or The soul is one thing, the body is another' - all these are abandoned, cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so that they are no more subject to future arising. 109

"With the remainderless fading away and cessation of ignorance, whatever kinds of contortions, manoeuvres, and vacillations there may be - 'What now is rebirth, and for whom is there this rebirth?' . . . . . 'What now are sankhara(behavior-conditioning), and for whom are there these sankhara(behavior-conditioning)?' or 'sankhara(behavior-conditioning) sankhara([karma]sanskaras) are one thing, the one for whom there are these sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) is another,' or 'The soul and the body are the same,' or 'The soul is one thing, the body is another' - all these are abandoned, cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so that they are no more subject to future arising."


36. With Ignorance as cause (2) (Avijjapaccaya2 sans. Avidya-pratyaya)[]

(This sutta is identical with the preceding 35, differing only in that the bhikkhus are addressed collectively throughout, and there is no interlocutor who asks inappropriate questions. The Buddha simply cites the invalid types of assertions on his own.)


37. Not Yours (Natumha)[]

At Savatthi.
[Buddha:] "Bhikkhus(monks), this body is not yours, nor does it belong to others. 110 It is old kamma(karma), to be seen as generated and fashioned by cognitive-awareness, as something to be felt. 111 Therein, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple minds upon meditatively and closely to dependent origination(Paticcasamuppada) itself thus: 'When this exists, that comes to be; with the arising of this, that arises. When this does not exist, that does not come to be; with the cessation(nirodha) of this, that ceases. That is, with ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) as cause, sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) [come to be]; with sankhara(behavior-conditioning) as cause, consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan).... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. But with the remainderless fading away and cessation of ignorance comes cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning); with the cessation of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), cessation of consciousness.... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering."


38. With Awareness (1) (Cetana1)[]

At Savatthi.
[Buddha:] "Bhikkhus(monks), with awareness, and what one plans, and whatever one has a tendency towards: this becomes a basis for the maintenance of consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan). When there is a basis there is a support for the establishing of consciousness. When consciousness is established and has come to growth, there is the production of future renewed existence(rebirth cause). When there is the production of future renewed existence, future rebirth, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair come to be. Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. 112

"If, bhikkhus, one does not intend, and one does not plan, but one still has a tendency towards something, this becomes a basis for the maintenance of consciousness. When there is a basis, there is a support for the establishing of consciousness.... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. 113

"But, bhikkhus, when one does not intend, and one does not plan, and one does not have a tendency towards anything, no basis exists for the maintenance of consciousness. When there is no basis, there is no support for the establishing of consciousness. When consciousness is unestablished and does not come to growth, there is no production of future renewed existence(rebirth cause). When there is no production of future renewed existence, future rebirth, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair cease. Such is the cessation(nirodha) of this whole mass of suffering." 114


39. With Awareness (2) (Cetana2)[]

At Savatthi.
[Buddha:] "Bhikkhus(monks), with awareness, and what one plans, and whatever one has a tendency towards: this becomes a basis for the maintenance of consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan). When there is a basis, there is a support for the establishing of consciousness. When consciousness is established and has come to growth, there is a descent of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa). 115 With mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as cause, the six sense faculties [come to be]; with the six sense faculties as cause, contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh); with contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause, sensation(vedana) ... craving(tanha sans. trishna) ... clinging(upadana sans. asakti) ... factor-of-existence(bhavo) ... rebirth; with rebirth as cause, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair come to be. Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"If, bhikkhus, one does not intend, and one does not plan, but one still has a tendency towards something, this becomes a basis for the maintenance of consciousness. When there is a basis, there is a support for the establishing of consciousness. When consciousness is established and has come to growth, there is a descent of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa). With mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as cause, the six sense faculties [come to be] .... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"But, bhikkhus, when one does not intend, and one does not plan, and one does not have a tendency towards anything, no basis exists for the maintenance of consciousness. When there is no basis, there is no support for the establishing of consciousness. When consciousness is unestablished and does not come to growth, there is no descent of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa). With the cessation(nirodha) of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) comes cessation of the six sense faculties.... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering."


40. With Awareness (3) (Cetana3)[]

At Savatthi.
[Buddha:] "Bhikkhus(monks), what one intends, and what one plans, and whatever one has a tendency towards: this becomes a basis for the maintenance of consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan). When there is a basis, there is a support for the establishing of consciousness. When consciousness is established and has come to growth, there is inclination. When there is inclination, there is coming and going. When there is coming and going, there is passing away and being reborn. 116 When there is passing away and being reborn, future rebirth, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair come to be. Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"If, bhikkhus, one does not intend, and one does not plan, but one still has a tendency towards something, this becomes a basis for the maintenance of consciousness. When there is a basis, there is a support for the establishing of consciousness.... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"But, bhikkhus, when one does not intend, and one does not plan, and one does not have a tendency towards anything, no basis exists for the maintenance of consciousness. When there is no basis, there is no support for the establishing of consciousness. When consciousness is unestablished and does not come to growth, there is no inclination. When there is no inclination, there is no coming and going. When there is no coming and going, there is no passing away and being reborn. When there is no passing away and being reborn, future rebirth, aging-and-death death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair cease. Such is the cessation(nirodha) of this whole mass of suffering." 117



(v) Householder Section (Gahapativaggo sans. Grihapati-varg)[]

41. Five Fearful Animosities (1) (Pancaverabhaya1)[]

At Savatthi. Then the householder Anathapindika approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord (Buddha) then said to him:

"Householder, when five fearful animosities have subsided in a noble disciple, and he possesses the four factors of stream-entry(Sotapanna), and he has clearly seen and thoroughly penetrated with illuminated-insight(panna) the noble method, if he wishes he could by himself declare of himself: 'I am one finished with hell, finished with the animal realm, finished with the domain of ghosts, finished with the plane of misery, the bad destinations, the nether world. I am a stream-enterer, no longer bound to the nether world, fixed in destiny, with enlightenment as my destination.' 118

"What are the five fearful animosities that have subsided? Householder, one who destroys life engenders, on account of such behaviour, fearful animosity pertaining to the present life and fearful animosity pertaining to the future life, and he experiences mental pain and displeasure. 119 Thus for one who abstains from destroying life, this fearful animosity has subsided.

"One who takes what is not given . . . . . who engages in sexual misconduct . . . who speaks falsely . . . who indulges in wine, liquor, and intoxicants that are a basis for slothfulness(pamada) engenders, on account of such behaviour, fearful animosity pertaining to the present life and fearful animosity pertaining to the future life, and he experiences mental pain and displeasure. Thus for one who abstains from wine, liquor, and intoxicants that are a basis for slothfulness, this fearful animosity has subsided.

"These are the five fearful animosities that have subsided.

"What are the four factors of stream-entry(Sotapanna) that he possesses? 120 Here, householder, the noble disciple possesses confirmed confidence in the Buddha thus: The Lord (Buddha) is an arahant, perfectly enlightened, accomplished in true knowledge and conduct, fortunate, knower of the world, unsurpassed leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of devas(angels) and humans, the Enlightened One, the Lord (Buddha).'

"He possesses confirmed confidence in the dhamma(path,law) thus: The Dhamma is well expounded by the Lord (Buddha), directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise.'

"He possesses confirmed confidence in the Sangha(fraternity) thus: 'The Sangha of the Lord (Buddha)'s disciples is practising the good way, practising the straight way, practising the true way, practising the proper way; that is, the four pairs of persons, the eight types of individuals - this Sangha of the Lord (Buddha)'s disciples is worthy of donations, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of reverential salutation, the unsurpassed field of divine-merit(punya) for the world.'

"He possesses the virtues dear to the noble ones - unbroken, untorn unblemished, unmottled, freeing, praised by the wise, ungrasped, leading to samadhi(trance)state. 121

"These are the four factors of stream-entry(Sotapanna) that he possesses.

"And what is the noble method that he has clearly seen and thoroughly penetrated with illuminated-insight(panna)? 122 Here, householder, the noble disciple minds upon meditatively to dependent origination(Paticcasamuppada) itself thus: 'When this exists, that comes to be; with the arising of this, that arises. When this does not exist, that does not come to be; with the cessation(nirodha) of this, that ceases. That is, with ignorance as cause, sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) [come to be]; with sankhara(behavior-conditioning) as cause, consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan).... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. But with the remainderless fading away and cessation of ignorance comes cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning); with the cessation of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), cessation of consciousness .... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.'
"This is the noble method that he has clearly seen and thoroughly penetrated with illuminated-insight(panna).

"When, householder, these five fearful animosities have subsided in a noble disciple, and he possesses these four factors of stream-entry(Sotapanna), and he has clearly seen and thoroughly penetrated with illuminated-insight(panna) this noble method, if he wishes he could by himself declare of himself: I am one finished with hell, finished with the animal realm, finished with the domain of ghosts, finished with the plane of misery, the bad destinations, the nether world. I am a stream-enterer(Sotapanna), no longer bound to the nether world, fixed in destiny, with enlightenment as my destination.'"


42. Five Fearful Animosities (2) (Pancaverabhaya2)[]

(This sutta is identical with the preceding one except that it is addressed to "a number of bhikkhus.")


43. Suffering (Dukkha)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the origin and the passing away of suffering. Listen to that and be mindful, I will speak." 123

"Yes, venerable sir," the bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"And what, bhikkhus, is the origin of suffering? In dependence on the eye and forms, eye-consciousness arises. The meeting of the three is contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh). With contact as cause, sensation(vedana) [comes to be]; with sensation(vedana) as cause, craving(tanha sans. trishna). This is the origin of suffering.

"In dependence on the ear and sounds ... In dependence on the nose and odours ... In dependence on the tongue and tastes ... In dependence on the body and tactile objects ... In dependence on the mind and mental phenomena(dhamma), mind-consciousness arises. The meeting of the three is contact. With contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause, sensation(vedana) [comes to be]; with sensation(vedana) as cause, craving(tanha sans. trishna)[arises].... This is the origin of suffering.

"And what, bhikkhus, is the passing away of suffering? In dependence on the eye and forms, eye-consciousness arises. The meeting of the three is contact(phassa/sparsh). With contact as cause, sensation(vedana) [comes to be]; with sensation(vedana) as cause, craving(tanha sans. trishna).... But with the remainderless fading away and cessation(nirodha) of that same craving comes cessation of clinging(upadana sans. asakti); with the cessation of clinging, cessation of factor-of-existence(bhavo); with the cessation of factor-of-existence(bhavo), cessation of rebirth; with the cessation of rebirth, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair cease. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering. This is the passing away of suffering.

"In dependence on the ear and sounds ... In dependence on the mind and mental phenomena(dhamma), mind-consciousness arises. The meeting of the three is contact. With contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause, sensation(vedana) [comes to be]; with sensation(vedana) as cause, craving(tanha sans. trishna). But with the remainderless fading away and cessation of that same craving comes cessation of clinging . . . cessation of factor-of-existence(bhavo) . . . cessation of rebirth; with the cessation of rebirth, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair cease. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering. This is the passing away of suffering."


44. The World (Loka)[]

At Savatthi.
[Buddha:] "Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the origin and the passing away of the world. Listen to that and be mindful, I will speak." 124

"Yes, venerable sir," the bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"And what, bhikkhus, is the origin of the world? In dependence on the eye and forms, eye-consciousness arises. The meeting of the three is contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh). With contact as cause, sensation(vedana) [comes to be]; with sensation(vedana) as cause, craving(tanha sans. trishna); with craving as cause tion, clinging(upadana sans. asakti); with clinging as cause, factor-of-existence(bhavo); with factor-of-existence(bhavo) as cause, rebirth; with rebirth as cause, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair come to be. This, bhikkhus, is the origin of the world.

"In dependence on the ear and sounds ... In dependence on the nose and odours ... In dependence on the tongue and tastes ... In dependence on the body and tactile objects ... In dependence on the mind and mental phenomena(dhamma), mind-consciousness arises. The meeting of the three is contact. With contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause, sensation(vedana) [comes to be]; with sensation(vedana) as cause, craving; with craving as cause, clinging . . . factor-of-existence(bhavo) . . . rebirth; with rebirth as cause, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair come to be. This, bhikkhus, is the origin of the world,

"And what, bhikkhus, is the passing away of the world? In dependence on the eye and forms, eye-consciousness arises. The meeting of the three is contact. With contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause, sensation(vedana) [comes to be]; with sensation(vedana) as cause, craving(tanha sans. trishna). But with the remainderless fading away and cessation(nirodha) of that same craving comes cessation of clinging(upadana sans. asakti); with the cessation of clinging, cessation of factor-of-existence(bhavo); with the cessation of factor-of-existence(bhavo), cessation of rebirth; with the cessation of rebirth, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair cease. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering. This, bhikkhus, is the passing away of the world.

"In dependence on the ear and sounds . . ... In dependence on the mind and mental phenomena(dhamma), mind-consciousness arises. The meeting of the three is contact. With contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause, sensation(vedana) [comes to be]; with sensation(vedana) as cause, craving. But with the remainderless fading away and cessation of that same craving comes cessation of clinging . . . cessation of factor-of-existence(bhavo) . . . cessation of rebirth; with the cessation of rebirth, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair cease. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering. This, bhikkhus, is the passing away of the world."


45. At Natika[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Natika in the Brick Hall. Then, while the Lord (Buddha) was alone in seclusion, he uttered this dhamma(path,law) exposition: 125

"In dependence on the eye and forms, eye-consciousness arises. The meeting of the three is contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh). With contact as cause, sensation(vedana) [comes to be]; with sensation(vedana) as cause, craving(tanha sans. trishna); with craving as cause, clinging(upadana sans. asakti).... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"In dependence on the ear and sounds ... In dependence on the mind and mental phenomena(dhamma), mind-consciousness arises. The meeting of the three is contact. With contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause, sensation(vedana) [comes to be]; with sensation(vedana) as cause, craving; with craving as cause, clinging. . . . Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"In dependence on the eye and forms, eye-consciousness arises. The meeting of the three is contact. With contact as cause, sensation(vedana) [comes to be]; with sensation(vedana) as cause, craving. But with the remainderless fading away and cessation(nirodha) of that same craving comes cessation of clinging; with the cessation of clinging, cessation of factor-of-existence(bhavo).... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.

"In dependence on the ear and sounds ... In dependence on the mind and mental phenomena(dhamma), mind-consciousness arises. The meeting of the three is contact. With contact(phassa/sparsh) as cause, sensation(vedana) [comes to be]; with sensation(vedana) as cause, craving(tanha sans. trishna). But with the remainderless fading away and cessation of that same craving comes cessation of clinging(upadana sans. asakti); with the cessation of clinging, cessation of factor-of-existence(bhavo).... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering."
Now on that occasion a certain bhikkhu was standing listening in on the Lord (Buddha). The Lord (Buddha) saw him standing there listening in and said to him: "Did you hear that Dhamma exposition, bhikkhu?"

"Yes, venerable sir."

"Learn that Dhamma exposition, bhikkhu, master it and remember it. That Dhamma exposition is beneficial and relevant to the fundamentals of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya)."


46. A Certain Brahmin (Annatarabrahmana)[]

At Savatthi. Then a certain brahmin approached the Lord (Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to him:

"How is it. Master Gotama: is the one who acts the same as the one who experiences [the result]?" 126

"'The one who acts is the same as the one who experiences [the result]': this, brahmin, is one extreme." [76]

"Then, Master Gotama, is the one who acts one, and the one who experiences [the result] another?"

"'The one who acts is one, and the one who experiences [the result] is another': this, brahmin, is the second extreme. Without veering towards either of these extremes, the Tathagata teaches the dhamma(path,law) as the middle(path,not extreme): 'With ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) as cause, sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) [come to be]; with sankhara(behavior-conditioning) as cause, consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan).... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. But with the remainderless fading away and cessation(nirodha) of ignorance comes cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning); with the cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning), cessation of consciousness.... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.'"

When this was said, that brahmin said to the Lord (Buddha):
"Magnificent, Master Gotama!... I go for refuge to Master Gotama, and to the Dhamma, and to the bhikkhu(monk) Sangha(fraternity). From today let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone for refuge for life."


47. Janussoni[]

At Savatthi. Then the brahmin Janussoni approached the Lord (Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to him: 127

"How is it. Master Gotama: does all exist?"

"'All exists': this, brahmin, is one extreme."

"Then, Master Gotama, does all not exist?"

'"All does not exist': this, brahmin, is the second extreme. Without veering towards either of these extremes, the Tathagata teaches the dhamma(path,law) as the middle(path,not extreme)...(as in 46)."

When this was said, the brahmin Janussoni said to the Lord (Buddha):
"Magnificent, Master Gotama! . . . From today let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone for refuge for life."


48. A World-Existentialist (Lokayatika)[]

At Savatthi. Then a brahmin who was a world-existentialist 128 approached the Lord (Buddha) .. . and said to him:

"How is it. Master Gotama: does all exist?"

'"All exists': this, brahmin, is the oldest cosmology." 129
"Then, Master Gotama, does all not exist?"

"'All does not exist': this, brahmin, is the second cosmology."

"How is it. Master Gotama: is all a unity?" 130

"'All is a unity': this, brahmin, is the third cosmology."

"Then, Master Gotama, is all a plurality?" 131

"'All is a plurality': this, brahmin, is the fourth cosmology Without veering towards either of these extremes, the Tathagata teaches the dhamma(path,law) as the middle(path,not extreme)...."

When this was said, that brahmin said to the Lord (Buddha);
"Magnificent, Master Gotama!... From today let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone for refuge for life."


49. The Noble Disciple (1) (Ariyasavaka sans. Arya-shravak)[]

At Savatthi.
[Buddha:] "Bhikkhus(monks), an instructed noble disciple does not think: 'When what exists does what come to be? With the arising of what does what arise? [When what exists do sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) come to be? When what exists does consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) come to be?] 132 When what exists does mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) come to be?... When what exists does aging-and-death come to be?'

"Rather, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple has knowledge about this that is independent of others: 'When this exists, that comes to be; with the arising of this, that arises. [When there is ignorance(avijja sans. avidya), sankhara(behavior-conditioning) come to be. When there are sankhara(behavior-conditioning), consciousness comes to be.] When there is consciousness, mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) comes to be.... When there is rebirth, aging-and-death comes to be.' He understands thus: 'In such a way the world originates.'

"Bhikkhus, an instructed noble disciple does not think: 'When what does not exist does what not come to be? With the cessation(nirodha) of what does what cease? [When what does not exist do sankhara(behavior-conditioning) not come to be? When what does not exist does consciousness not come to be?] When what does not exist does mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) not come to be?... When what does not exist does aging-and-death not come to be?"'

"Rather, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple has knowledge about this that is independent of others: 'When this does not exist, that does not come to be; with the cessation of this, that ceases. [When there is no ignorance(in samadhi/jhana), sankhara(behavior-conditioning) do not come to be. When there are no sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), (ordinary) consciousness does not come to be.] When there is no consciousness, mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) does not come to be.... When there is no birth, aging-and-death does not come to be.' He understands thus: 'In such a way the world ceases.'

"Bhikkhus, when a noble disciple thus understands as they really are the origin and the passing away of the world, he is then called a noble disciple who is accomplished in view, accomplished in vision, who has arrived at this true dhamma(path,law), who knows this true Dhamma, who possesses a trainee's knowledge, a trainee's true knowledge, who has entered the stream of the Dhamma, a noble one with penetrative illuminated-insight(panna), one who stands squarely before the door to the deathless-state(nirvana)."


50 The Noble Disciple (2)[]

(This sutta is identical with the preceding one except that the passages enclosed in brackets there as absent in some editions are here clearly included in all editions.)



(vi) Suffering Section 133 (Dukkhavaggo sans. Dukkha-varg)[]

51. Thorough Investigation (Parivimamsa)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. There the Lord (Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus(monks)!"

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), when a bhikkhu(monk) is making a thorough investigation, in what way should he thoroughly investigate for the utterly complete destruction(khaya\kshaya) of suffering?" 134

"Venerable sir, our teachings are rooted in the Lord (Buddha), guided by the Lord (Buddha),take recourse in the Lord (Buddha). It would be good if the Lord (Buddha) would clear up the meaning of this statement. Having heard it from him, the bhikkhus will remember it."

"Then listen and be mindful(manasikaro), bhikkhus, I will speak."

"Yes, venerable sir," the bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"Here, bhikkhus, when he makes a thorough investigation, a bhikkhu thoroughly investigates thus: 'The many diverse kinds of suffering that arise in the world [headed by] aging-and-death: what is the source of this suffering, what is its origin, from what is it born and produced? When what exists does aging-and-death come to be? When what does not exist does aging-and-death not come to be?'

"As he thoroughly investigates he understands thus: The many diverse kinds of suffering that arise in the world [headed by] aging-and-death: this suffering has rebirth as its source, rebirth as its origin; it is born and produced from rebirth. When there is rebirth, aging-and-death comes to be; when there is no rebirth, aging-and-death does not come to be.'

"He understands aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation(nirodha), and the way leading on that is in conformity with its cessation. 135 He practises that way and conducts himself accordingly. This is called a bhikkhu who is practising for the utterly complete destruction(khaya\kshaya) of suffering, for the cessation of aging-and-death.

"Then, investigating further, he thoroughly investigates thus:
'What is the source of this rebirth, what is its origin, from what is it born and produced?... What is the source of this factor-of-existence(bhavo)?... this clinging(upadana sans. asakti)?... this craving?... this sensation(vedana)?... this contact(phassa/sparsh)?... these six sense faculties?... this mind-and-bodyform(namarupa)?... this consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan)? ... What is the source of these sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), what is their origin, from what are they born and produced? When what exists do sankhara(behavior-conditioning) come to be? When what does not exist do sankhara(behavior-conditioning) not come to be?'

"As he thoroughly investigates he understands thus:
'sankhara(behavior-conditioning) have ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) as their source, ignorance as their origin; they are born and produced from ignorance. When there is ignorance, sankhara(behavior-conditioning) come to be; when there is no ignorance(in samadhi/jhana), sankhara(behavior-conditioning) do not come to be.'

"He understands sankhara(behavior-conditioning), their origin, their cessation(nirodha), and the way leading on that is in conformity with their cessation. He practises that way and conducts himself accordingly. This is called a bhikkhu who is practising for the utterly complete destruction(khaya\kshaya) of suffering, for the cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning).

"Bhikkhus, if a person immersed in ignorance generates a meritorious(punya) sankhara(behavior-conditioning), consciousness goes on to the meritorious(punya); if he generates a demeritorious sankhara(behavior-conditioning), consciousness goes on to the demeritorious if he generates an imperturbable sankhara(behavior-conditioning), consciousness goes on to the imperturbable. 136 But when a bhikkhu has abandoned ignorance and aroused true knowledge, then, with the fading away of ignorance and the arising of true knowledge, he does not generate a meritorious(punya) sankhara(behavior-conditioning), or a demeritorious sankhara(behavior-conditioning), or an imperturbable sankhara(behavior-conditioning). Since he does not generate or fashion sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), he does not cling to anything in the world. Not clinging, he is not agitated. 137 Not being agitated, he personally attains Nibbana. He understands:
'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'

"If he feels a pleasant sensation(vedana), 138 he understands: 'It is impermanent'; he understands: 'It is not held to'; he understands: 'It is not [to be] delighted in.' If he feels a painful sensation(vedana), he understands: 'It is impermanent'; he understands: 'It is not held to'; he understands:
'It is not delighted in.' If he feels a neither-painful-nor-pleasant sensation(vedana), he understands: 'It is impermanent'; he understands:
'It is not held to'; he understands: 'It is not delighted in.'

"If he feels a pleasant sensation(vedana), he feels it detached; if he feels a painful sensation(vedana), he feels it detached; if he feels a neither-painful -nor-pleasant sensation(vedana), he feels it detached.

"When he feels a sensation(vedana) terminating with the body, he understands:
'I feel a sensation(vedana) terminating with the body.' When he feels a sensation(vedana) terminating with life, he understands: 'I feel a sensation(vedana) terminating with life.' 139 He understands: 'With the breakup of the body, following the exhaustion of life, all that is felt, not being delighted in, will become cool right here; mere bodily remains will be left.' 140

"Suppose, bhikkhus, a man would remove a hot clay pot from a potter's kiln and set it on smooth ground: its heat would be dissipated right there and potsherds would be left. So too, when he feels a sensation(vedana) terminating with the body ... terminating with life.... He understands: 'With the breakup of the body, following the exhaustion of life, all that is felt, not being delighted in, will become cool right here; mere bodily remains will be left.' 141

"What do you think, bhikkhus, can a bhikkhu(monk) whose defilements are destroyed generate a meritorious(punya) sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), or a demeritorious behavior-conditioning, or an imperturbable sankhara(behavior-conditioning)?"

"No, venerable sir."

"When there are utterly no sankhara(behavior-conditioning), with the cessation(nirodha) of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), would consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) be discerned?" 142

"No, venerable sir."

"When there is utterly no consciousness, with the cessation of consciousness, would mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) be discerned?"

"No, venerable sir."

"When there is utterly no mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) ... no six sense faculties ..... no contact(phassa/sparsh) ... no sensation(vedana) ... no craving(tanha sans. trishna) ... no clinging(upadana sans. asakti) ... no factor-of-existence(bhavo) ... no birth, with the cessation of rebirth, would aging -and-death be discerned?"

"No, venerable sir."

"Good, good, bhikkhus! It is exactly so and not otherwise! Place faith in me about this, bhikkhus, resolve on this. Be free from perplexity and doubt about this. Just this is the end of suffering." 143


52. Clinging (Upadana)[]

At Savatthi.
[Buddha:] "Bhikkhus(monks), when one dwells seeing enjoyment(assado sans. aswad) in Dhammas(law,path) that can be clung to, craving(tanha sans. trishna) increases. With craving as cause, clinging(upadana sans. asakti) [comes to be]; with clinging as cause, factor-of-existence(bhavo); with factor-of-existence(bhavo) as cause, rebirth; with birth as cause, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair come to be. Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, a great bonfire was burning, consuming ten, twenty, thirty, or forty loads of wood, and a man would cast dry grass, dry cowdung, and dry wood into it from time to time. Thus, sustained by that material, fuelled by it, that great bonfire would burn for a very long time. So too, when one lives seeing enjoyment(assado sans. aswad) in Dhammas that can be clung to, craving increases.... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"Bhikkhus, when one dwells seeing danger(adinav) in Dhammas that can be clung to, craving(tanha sans. trishna) ceases. With the cessation(nirodha) of craving comes cessation of clinging; with the cessation of clinging, cessation of factor-of-existence(bhavo) ... cessation of rebirth ... aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair cease. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering. 145

"Suppose,, bhikkhus, a great bonfire was burning, consuming ten, twenty, thirty, or forty loads of wood, and a man would not cast dry grass, dry cowdung, or dry wood into it from time to time. Thus, when the former supply of fuel is exhausted, that great bonfire, not being fed with any more fuel, lacking sustenance, would be extinguished. So too, when one lives seeing danger(adinav) in Dhammas that can be clung to, craving ceases.... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering." 146


53. Fetters (1) (Samyojana1)[]

At Savatthi.
[Buddha:] "Bhikkhus(monks), when one dwells seeing enjoyment(assado sans. aswad) in Dhammas(law,path) that can fetter, 147 craving(tanha sans. trishna) increases. With craving as cause, clinging(upadana sans. asakti) [comes to be]; with clinging as cause, factor-of-existence(bhavo); with factor-of-existence(bhavo) as cause, rebirth; with birth as cause, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair come to be. Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, an oil lamp was burning in dependence on oil and a wick, and a man would pour oil into it and adjust the wick from time to time. Thus, sustained by that oil, fuelled by it, that oil lamp would burn for a very long time. So too, when one lives seeing enjoyment(assado sans. aswad) in Dhammas that can fetter, craving increases.... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"Bhikkhus, when one dwells seeing danger(adinav) in Dhammas that can fetter, craving(tanha sans. trishna) ceases. With the cessation(nirodha) of craving comes cessation of clinging; with the cessation of clinging, cessation of factor-of-existence(bhavo) . . . cessation of rebirth ... aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair cease. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, an oil lamp was burning in dependence on oil and a wick, and the man would not pour oil into it or adjust the wick from time to time. Thus, when the former supply of fuel is exhausted, that oil lamp, not being fed with any more fuel, lacking sustenance, would be extinguished. So too, when one lives seeing danger(adinav) in Dhammas that can fetter, craving ceases.... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering."


54. Fetters (2) (Samyojana2)[]

(This sutta is identical with the preceding one except that in both the sections on origination and cessation(nirodha) the similes come first and their applications only afterwards.)


55. The Great Tree (1) (Maharukkha1 sans. Maha-vriksha)[]

At Savatthi.
[Buddha:] "Bhikkhus(monks), when one dwells seeing enjoyment(assado sans. aswad) in dhammas(path,law) that can be clung to, craving(tanha sans. trishna) increases. With craving as cause, clinging(upadana sans. asakti) [comes to be].... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, there was a great tree, and all its roots going downwards and across would send the sap upwards. Sustained by that sap, nourished by it, that great tree would stand for a very long time. So too, when one lives seeing enjoyment(assado sans. aswad) in Dhammas that can be clung to, craving(tanha sans. trishna) increases.... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. 148

"When, bhikkhus, one dwells seeing danger(adinav) in Dhammas that can be clung to, craving(tanha sans. trishna) ceases. With the cessation(nirodha) of craving comes cessation of clinging.... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, there was a great tree. Then a man would come along bringing a shovel and a basket. He would cut down the tree at its foot, dig it up, and pull out the roots, even the fine rootlets and root-fibre. He would cut the tree into pieces, split the pieces, and reduce them to slivers. Then he would dry the slivers in the wind and sun, burn them in a fire, and collect the ashes. Having done so, he would winnow the ashes in a strong wind or let them be carried away by the swift current of a river. Thus that great tree would be cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so that it is no more subject to future arising.

"So too, bhikkhus, when one dwells seeing danger(adinav) in Dhammas that can be clung to, craving ceases.... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering." 149


56. The Great Tree (2) (Maharukkha2 sans. Maha-vriksh)[]

(This sutta is identical with the preceding one except that in both the sections on origination and cessation(nirodha) the similes come first and their applications only afterwards.)


57. The Tree Sapling (Tarunarukkha sans. Tarun-vriksh)[]

At Savatthi.
[Buddha:] "Bhikkhus(monks), when one dwells seeing enjoyment(assado sans. aswad) cation in dhammas(path,law) that can fetter, craving(tanha sans. trishna) increases. With craving as cause, clinging(upadana sans. asakti) [comes to be].... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, there was a sapling, and from time to time a man would clear the area around the roots, from time to time provide it with good soil, from time to time water it. Sustained by that care, nourished by it, that sapling would attain to growth, increase, and expansion. So too, when one dwells seeing enjoyment(assado sans. aswad) in Dhammas that can fetter, craving increases.... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"When, bhikkhus, one dwells seeing danger(adinav) in Dhammas that can fetter, craving(tanha sans. trishna) ceases. With the cessation(nirodha) of craving comes cessation of clinging.... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, there was a sapling. Then a man would come along bringing a shovel and a basket. He would cut down the sapling at its foot ... (as in 55 ) ... he would winnow the ashes in a strong wind or let them be carried away by the swift current of a river. Thus that sapling would be cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so that it is no more subject to future arising.

"So too, bhikkhus, when one dwells seeing danger(adinav) in Dhammas that can fetter, craving ceases.... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering."


58. Mind-and-Bodyform(Namarupa)[]

At Savatthi.
[Buddha:] "Bhikkhus(monks), when one dwells seeing enjoyment(assado sans. aswad) in dhammas(path,law) that can fetter, there is a descent of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa). 150 With mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as cause, the six sense faculties [come to be].... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, there was a great tree, and all its roots going downwards and across would send the sap upwards. Sustained by that sap, nourished by it, that great tree would stand for a very long time. So too, when one lives seeing enjoyment(assado sans. aswad) in Dhammas that can fetter, there is a descent of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa).... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"When, bhikkhus, one dwells seeing danger(adinav) in Dhammas that can fetter, there is no descent of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa). With the cessation(nirodha) of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) comes cessation of the six sense faculties.... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, there was a great tree. Then a man would come along bringing a shovel and a basket. He would cut down the tree at its foot ..(as in 55).. he would winnow the ashes in a strong wind or let them be carried away by the swift current of a river. Thus that great tree would be cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so that it is no more subject to future arising.

"So too, bhikkhus, when one dwells seeing danger(adinav) in Dhammas that can fetter, there is no descent of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa).... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering."


59. Consciousness (Vinnana sans. Vigyan)[]

At Savatthi.
[Buddha:] "Bhikkhus(monks), when one dwells seeing enjoyment(assado sans. aswad) in dhammas(path,law) that can fetter, there is a descent of consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan). 151 With consciousness as cause, mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) [comes to be] .... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, there was a great tree, and all its roots going downwards and across would send the sap upwards. Sustained by that sap, nourished by it, that great tree would stand for a very long time. So too, when one lives seeing enjoyment(assado sans. aswad) in Dhammas that can fetter, there is a descent of consciousness.... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"When, bhikkhus, one dwells seeing danger(adinav) in Dhammas that can fetter, there is no descent of consciousness. With the cessation(nirodha) of consciousness comes cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa).... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, there was a great tree. Then a man would come along bringing a shovel and a basket. He would cut down the tree at its foot ..(as in 55).. he would winnow the ashes in a strong wind or let them be carried away by the swift current of a river. Thus that great tree would be cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so that it is no more subject to future arising.

"So too, bhikkhus, when one dwells seeing danger(adinav) in Dhammas that can fetter, there is no descent of consciousness.... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering."


60. Causation (Nidana)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling among the Kurus, where there was a town of the Kurus named Kammasadamma. Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

"It is wonderful, venerable sir! It is amazing, venerable sir! This dependent origination(Paticcasamuppada) is so deep and so deep in implications, yet to me it seems as clear as clear can be."

"Not so, Ananda! Not so, Ananda! This dependent origination is deep and deep in implications. It is because of not understanding and not penetrating this dhamma(path,law), Ananda, that this generation has become like a tangled skein, like a knotted ball of thread, like matted reeds and rushes, and does not pass beyond the plane of misery, the bad destinations, the nether world, samsara.

"Ananda, when one dwells seeing enjoyment(assado sans. aswad) in dhammas(path,law) that can be clung to, craving(tanha sans. trishna) increases. With craving as cause, clinging(upadana sans. asakti) [comes to be].... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"Suppose, Ananda, there was a great tree, and all its roots going downwards and across would send the sap upwards. Sustained by that sap, nourished by it, that great tree would stand for a very long time. So too, when one lives seeing enjoyment(assado sans. aswad) in Dhammas that can be clung to, craving increases.... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"When, Ananda, one dwells seeing danger(adinav) in Dhammas that can be clung to, craving ceases. With the cessation(nirodha) of craving(tanha sans. trishna) comes cessation of clinging. . . . Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.

"Suppose, Ananda, there was a great tree. Then a man would come along bringing a shovel and a basket. He would cut down the tree at its foot ..(as in 55). he would winnow the ashes in a strong wind or let them be carried away by the swift current of a river. Thus that great tree would be cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so that it is no more subject to future arising.

"So too, Ananda, when one dwells seeing danger(adinav) in Dhammas that can be clung to, craving ceases. With the cessation of craving comes cessation of clinging; with the cessation of clinging, cessation of factor-of-existence(bhavo); with the cessation of factor-of-existence(bhavo), cessation of rebirth; with the cessation of rebirth, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair cease. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering."



(vii) The Great Subchapter (Mahavaggo sans. Mahavarg)[]

61. Uninstructed (1) (Assutava1 sans. Ashrutavya)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park....

"Bhikkhus(monks), the uninstructed worldling might experience revulsion(nibbida) towards this body composed of the four great elements(dhatu); he might become dispassionate towards it and be liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) from it. For what reason? Because growth and loss is seen in this body composed of the four great elements, it is seen being taken up and laid aside. Therefore the uninstructed worldling might experience revulsion towards this body composed of the four great elements; he might become dispassionate towards it and be liberated from it.

"But, bhikkhus, as to that which is called 'mind' and 'mentality' and 'consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan)' 154 - the uninstructed worldling is unable to experience revulsion towards it, unable to become dispassionate towards it and be liberated from it. For what reason? Because for a long time this has been held to by him, appropriated, and grasped thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this is my self.' 155 Therefore the uninstructed worldling is unable to experience revulsion(nibbida) towards it, unable to become dispassionate towards it and be liberated from it.

"It would be better, bhikkhus, for the uninstructed worldling to take as self this body composed of the four great elements(dhatu) rather than the mind. For what reason? Because this body composed of the four great elements is seen standing for one year, for two years, for three, four, five, or ten years, for twenty, thirty, forty, or fifty years, for a hundred years, or even longer. 156 But that which is called 'mind' and 'mentality' and 'consciousness' arises as one thing and ceases as another by day and by night. Just as a monkey roaming through a forest grabs hold of one branch, lets that go and grabs another, then lets that go and grabs still another, so too that which is called 'mind' and 'mentality' and 'consciousness' arises as one thing and ceases as another by day and by night. 157

"Therein, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple minds-upon(manasi karoti) meditatively(yoniso) to dependent origination (Paticcasamuppada) itself thus: 158 'When this exists, that comes to be; with the arising of this, that arises.

When this does not exist, that does not come to be; with the cessation(nirodha) of this, that ceases. That is, with ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) as cause, sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) [come to be]; with sankhara(behavior-conditioning) as cause, consciousness.... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. But with the remainderless fading away and cessation of ignorance comes cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning); with the cessation of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), cessation of consciousness .... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.

"Seeing thus, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple experiences revulsion(nibbida) towards form, revulsion towards sensation(vedana), revulsion towards perception(sanna sans. sangya), revulsion towards sankhara(behavior-conditioning), revulsion towards consciousness. Experiencing revulsion, he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion [his mind] is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt). When it is liberated(vimutta) there comes the knowledge: 'It's liberated.' He understands: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'"


62. Uninstructed (2) (Assutava2 sans. Ashrutavya)[]

(This sutta is identical with the preceding one from the opening down to the monkey simile. It then omits the monkey simile and continues as follows:)

"Bhikkhus(monks), the uninstructed worldling might experience revulsion(nibbida) towards this body composed of the four great elements(dhatu); he might become dispassionate towards it and be liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) from it. For what reason? Because growth and loss is seen in this body composed of the four great elements, it is seen being taken up and laid aside. Therefore the uninstructed worldling might experience revulsion towards this body composed of the four great elements; he might become dispassionate towards it and be liberated from it.

"But, bhikkhus, as to that which is called 'mind' and 'mentality' and 'consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan)' 154 - the uninstructed worldling is unable to experience revulsion towards it, unable to become dispassionate towards it and be liberated from it. For what reason? Because for a long time this has been held to by him, appropriated, and grasped thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this is my self.' 155 Therefore the uninstructed worldling is unable to experience revulsion towards it, unable to become dispassionate towards it and be liberated from it.

"It would be better, bhikkhus, for the uninstructed worldling to take as self this body composed of the four great elements(dhatu) rather than the mind. For what reason? Because this body composed of the four great elements is seen standing for one year, for two years, for three, four, five, or ten years, for twenty, thirty, forty, or fifty years, for a hundred years, or even longer. But that which is called 'mind' and 'mentality' and 'consciousness' arises as one thing and ceases as another by day and by night."

[Buddha:] "Therein, bhikkhus(monks), the instructed noble disciple is meditative(yoniso) & mindful(mansikara) to dependent origination (Paticcasamuppada) itself thus: 'When this exists, that comes to be; with the arising of this, that arises. When this does not exist, that does not come to be; with the cessation(nirodha) of this, that ceases.' Bhikkhus, in dependence on a contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) to be experienced as pleasant, a pleasant sensation(vedana) arises. With the cessation of that contact to be experienced as pleasant, the corresponding sensation(vedana) - the pleasant sensation(vedana) that arose in dependence on that contact to be experienced as pleasant - ceases and subsides. In dependence on a contact to be experienced as painful, a painful sensation(vedana) arises. With the cessation of that contact to be experienced as painful, the corresponding sensation(vedana) - the painful sensation(vedana) that arose in dependence on that contact to be experienced rienced as painful - ceases and subsides. In dependence on a contact to be experienced as neither-painful-nor-pleasant, a neither-painful-nor-pleasant sensation(vedana) arises. With the cessation of that contact to be experienced as neither-painful-nor-pleasant. the corresponding sensation(vedana) - the neither-painful-nor-pleasant sensation(vedana) that arose in dependence on that contact(phassa/sparsh) to be experienced as neither-painful-nor-pleasant - ceases and subsides.

"Bhikkhus, just as heat is generated and fire is produced from the conjunction and friction of two fire-sticks, but with the separation and laying aside of the sticks 159 the resultant heat ceases and subsides; so too, in dependence on a contact to be experienced as pleasant ... a contact to be experienced as painful ... a contact to be experienced as neither-painful-nor-pleasant, a neither-painful-nor-pleasant sensation(vedana) arises.... With the cessation of that contact(phassa/sparsh) to be experienced as neither-painful-nor-pleasant, the corresponding sensation(vedana) . . . ceases and subsides.

"Seeing thus, bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple experiences revulsion(nibbida) towards contact, revulsion towards sensation(vedana), revulsion towards perception(sanna sans. sangya), revulsion towards sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), revulsion towards consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan). Experiencing revulsion, he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion [his mind] is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt). When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: 'It's liberated.' He understands: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'"


63. Son's Flesh Metaphor (Puttamamsupama sans. Putra-mans-upama)[]

(This is an important sutta where Buddha explains many phenomenon with this metaphor.)

At Savatthi. 160 Lord Buddha: "Bhikkhus(monks), there are these four kinds of nutriment for the maintenance of beings that have already come to be and for the assistance of those about to come to be. What four? The nutriment edible food, gross or subtle; second, contact(phassa/sparsh); third, mental cognitive-awareness; fourth, consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan). These are the four kinds of nutriment for the maintenance of beings that have already come to be and for the assistance of those about to come to be.

(1) Edible Food

"And how, bhikkhus, should the nutriment edible food be seen? Suppose a couple, husband and wife, had taken limited provisions and were travelling through a desert. They have with them their only son, dear and beloved. Then, in the middle of the desert, their limited provisions would be used up and exhausted, while the rest of the desert remains to be crossed. The husband and wife would think: 'Our limited provisions have been used up and exhausted, while the rest of this desert remains to be crossed. Let us kill our only son, dear and beloved, and prepare dried and spiced meat. By eating our son's flesh we can cross the rest of this desert. Let not all three of us perish!'

"Then, bhikkhus, the husband and wife would kill their only son, dear and beloved, prepare dried and roasted meat, and by eating their son's flesh they would cross the rest of the desert. While they are eating their son's flesh, they would beat their breasts and cry: 'Where are you, our only son? Where are you, our only son?'

"What do you think, bhikkhus? Would they eat that food for amusement or for enjoyment or for the sake of physical beauty and attractiveness?"

"No, venerable sir."

"Wouldn't they eat that food only for the sake of crossing the desert?"

"Yes, venerable sir."

"It is in such a way, bhikkhus, that I say the nutriment edible food should be seen. 161 When the nutriment edible food is fully understood, lust(raag) for the five cords of sensual pleasure is fully understood. 162 When lust for the five cords of sensual pleasure is fully understood, there is no fetter bound by which a noble disciple might come back again to this world. 163

(Note 1 : Here it is to be understood that want of edible food is for appeasement of desire, [I need to have good consumption],but in the path of Buddha it is not for enjoyment, rather it is to be considered with disdain and only as a means of nutriment to keeping body alive, whereas body is a means of crossing the desert , the world full of suffering. There also seems to be a hidden meaning in this. The food that gives life also comes from some life form. So when a meditative person in enlightenment feels unificaion with the source of all life then the food that person eats would also appear to be coming from that same source of life appearing as sons's flesh as metaphor)

(2) Contact (Phasso sans. Sparsh)

"And how, bhikkhus, should the nutriment contact be seen? Suppose there is a flayed cow(with sores). If she stands exposed to a wall, the creatures dwelling in the wall would nibble at her. If she stands exposed to a tree, the creatures dwelling in the tree would nibble at her. If she stands exposed to water, the creatures dwelling in the water would nibble at her. If she stands exposed to the open air, the creatures dwelling in the open air would nibble at her. Whatever that flayed cow(with sores) stands exposed to, the creatures dwelling there would nibble at her.

"It is in such a way, bhikkhus, that I say the nutriment contact should be seen. 164 When the nutriment contact is fully understood, the three kinds of sensations are fully understood. When the three kinds of sensations are fully understood, I say, there is nothing further that a noble disciple needs to do. 165

(Note 2 : Here it is to be understood that 'contact' of sense faculties with objects of world leading to arise of 3 types of 'sensations' 1. pleasant, 2.unpleasant & 3.neither pleasant nor unpleasant, leading to 'I experience', but these are not for enjoyment, it is a cause of decay & loss of meditative achievement within, away from samadhi/trance state, so the contact(phassa/sparsh) & resultant sensations are to be considered with detachment/equanimity. Another way to understand this is that the contact of world with sense faculties leads to sensations or currents in nerves that flow inwardly from outside to inside which create disturbance to the meditative awakened super-state. )

(3) Mental Cognitive-Awareness (Manosancetana)

"And how, bhikkhus, should the nutriment mental cognitive-awareness be seen? Suppose there is a charcoal pit deeper than a man's height, filled with glowing coals without flame or smoke. A man would come along wanting to live, not wanting to die, desiring happiness(sukh) and averse to suffering. Then two strong men would grab him by both arms and drag him towards the charcoal pit. The man's cognitive-awareness would be to get far away, his longing would be to get far away, his wish would be to get far away [from the charcoal pit]. For what reason? Because he knows: 'I will fall into this charcoal pit and on that account I will meet death or deadly suffering.'

"It is in such a way, bhikkhus, that I say the nutriment mental cognitive-awareness should be seen. 166 When the nutriment mental cognitive-awareness is fully understood, the three kinds of craving(tanha sans. trishna) (pleasant, unpleasant & neither pleasant nor unpleasant) are fully understood. When the three kinds of craving are fully understood, I say, there is nothing further that a noble disciple needs to do. 167

(Note 3 : Here it is to be understood that tendency of worldly mental cognitive-awareness leads to arisal of 'craving' i.e. 'I want to do this', this craving is not for appeasement, it is a cause of disaster, so it is to be avoided/removed because this also is a cause of decay & loss of meditative achievement within, away from rapt samadhi/trance state. Another way to understand this is that during mental cognitive-awareness the flow of current in nerves is outwardly from inside to outside with intensity according to one's craving formed in past as well as intention at present)

(4) Consciousness (Vinnanam sans. Vigyan)

"And how, bhikkhus, should the nutriment consciousness be seen? Suppose they were to arrest a bandit, a criminal, and bring him before the king, saying: 'Lord, this man is a bandit, a criminal. Impose on him whatever punishment you wish.' The king says to them: 'Go, men, in the morning strike this man with a hundred spears.' In the morning they strike him with a hundred spears. Then at noon the king asks: 'Men, how's that man?' - 'Still alive, Lord.' - 'Then go, and at noon strike him with a hundred spears.' At noon they strike him with a hundred spears. Then in the evening the king asks: 'Men, how's that man?' - 'Still alive, Lord.' - 'Then go, and in the evening strike him with a hundred spears.' In the evening they strike him with a hundred spears.

"What do you think, bhikkhus? Would that man, being struck with three hundred spears, experience pain and displeasure on that account?"

"Venerable sir, even if he were struck with one spear he would experience pain and displeasure on that account, not to speak of three hundred spears."

"It is in such a way, bhikkhus, that I say the nutriment consciousness should be seen. 168 When the nutriment consciousness is fully understood, mind-and-body is fully understood. When mind-and-body is fully understood, I say, there is nothing further that a noble disciple needs to do." 169

(Note 4 : Here it is to be understood that worldly(ordinary) consciousness leads to arise of 'mind & body awareness' [of I am, I exist] , this ordinary 'mind & body awareness' [of I am] starts at rebirth and is moving towards death where it ends, hence it is to be considered such, so as not to have attachment towards it, rather strive for attaining divine consciousness following the Dhamma[path] of Buddha using virtue[sheel], meditation/trance[samadhi] leading to divine illuminated-insight(panna) leading to the state of nibbana/liberation/salvation within, which is not perishable, ever present & pure bliss. This sutta is explained in detail in next sutta 64. Atthiraga )


64. If There Exists Lust(Atthiraga sans. Asthi-Raag)[]

(This sutta is a further explanation of previous sutta 63. This should be understood from 2 types of states of a person , i.e. worldly or medtative trance/samadhi )

At Savatthi.
[Buddha:] "Bhikkhus(monks), there are these four kinds of nutriment for the maintenance of beings that have already come to be and for the assistance of those about to come to be. What four? The nutriment edible food, gross or subtle; second, contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh); third mental cognitive-awareness; fourth, (worldly/ordinary) consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan). These are the four kinds of nutriment for the maintenance of beings that have already come to be and for the assistance of those seeking a new existence(rebirth).

"If, bhikkhus, there is lust(raag) for the nutriment edible food, if there is delight(nandi\anand), if there is craving(tanha sans. trishna), consciousness becomes established there and comes to growth. 170 Wherever consciousness becomes established and comes to growth, there is a descent of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa). 171 Where there is a descent of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) (from the high state of samadhi ), there is the growth of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning). 172 Where there is the growth of sankhara(behavior-conditioning), there is the production of future renewed existence(rebirth cause). Where there is the production of future renewed existence, there is future rebirth, aging, and death. Where there is future rebirth, aging, and death, I say that is accompanied by sorrow, anguish, and despair.

"If, bhikkhus, there is lust for the nutriment contact, or for the nutriment mental cognitive-awareness, or for the nutriment consciousness, if there is delight(nandi\anand), if there is craving, consciousness becomes established there and comes to growth. Wherever consciousness becomes established and comes to growth there is a descent of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) (from the high state of samadhi ). 171 Where there is a descent of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa), there is the growth of sankhara(behavior-conditioning). Where there is the growth of sankhara(behavior-conditioning), there is the production of future renewed existence(rebirth cause). Where there is the production of future renewed existence, there is future rebirth, aging, and death. Where there is future rebirth, aging, and death, I say that is accompanied by sorrow, anguish, and despair.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, an artist or a painter, using dye or lac or turmeric or indigo or crimson, would create the figure of a man or a woman complete in all its features on a well-polished plank or wall or canvas. So too, if there is lust for the nutriment edible food, or for the nutriment contact, or for the nutriment mental cognitive-awareness, or for the nutriment consciousness, if there is delight(nandi\anand), if there is craving, consciousness becomes established there and comes to growth. Wherever consciousness becomes established and comes to growth ... I say that is accompanied by sorrow, anguish, and despair. 173

"If, bhikkhus, there is no lust for the nutriment edible food, or for the nutriment contact(phassa/sparsh), or for the nutriment mental cognitive-awareness, or for the nutriment consciousness, if there is no delight(nandi\anand), if there is no craving(tanha sans. trishna), consciousness does not become established there and come to growth. Where consciousness does not become established and come to growth, there is no descent of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa). Where there is no descent of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa), there is no growth of sankhara(behavior-conditioning). Where there is no growth of sankhara(behavior-conditioning), there is no production of future renewed existence(rebirth cause). Where there is no production of future renewed existence, there is no future rebirth, aging, and death. Where there is no future rebirth, aging, and death, I say that is without sorrow, anguish, and despair.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, there was a house or a hall with a peaked roof, with windows on the northern, southern, and eastern sides. When the sun rises and a beam of light enters through a window, where would it become established?"

"On the western wall, venerable sir."

"If there were no western wall, where would it become established?"

"On the earth, venerable sir."

"If there were no earth, where would it become established?"

"On the water, venerable sir."

"If there were no water, where would it become established?"

"It would not become established anywhere, venerable sir."

"So too, bhikkhus, if there is no lust(raag) for the nutriment edible food, or for the nutriment contact, or for the nutriment mental cognitive-awareness, or for the nutriment consciousness, if there is no delight(nandi\anand) (for worldly) , if there is no craving(tanha sans. trishna), (worldly/ordinary) consciousness does not become established there and come to growth. Where (worldly)consciousness does not become established and come to growth, there is no descent of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) (from the high state of samadhi ). Where there is no descent of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa), there is no growth of sankhara(behavior-conditioning). Where there is no growth of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), there is no production of future renewed existence(rebirth cause). Where there is no production of future renewed existence, there is no future rebirth, aging, and death. Where there is no future rebirth, aging, and death, I say that is without sorrow, anguish, and despair . 174

(Note : Here Lord Buddha gives a simile of Sun and its rays projecting into a house. Similarly the super state of consciousness is experienced when a person's attention is not not caught up in worldly e.g. sensual-contact(phassa/sparsh), mental cognition , in ordinary consciousness, likings & desires. Then it remains self contained in samadhi state & self-illuminated without tarnish & thus fit for redemption/Nirvana ).


65. The City (Nagara)[]

(Buddha's path is the ancient path leading to liberation(vimutti sans. vimukti).) At Savatthi.
[Buddha:] "Bhikkhus(monks), before my enlightenment, while I was still a bodhisatta, not yet fully enlightened, it occurred to me:
'Alas, this world has fallen into trouble, in that it is born, ages, and dies, it passes away and is reborn, yet it does not understand the escape from this suffering [headed by] aging-and-death. When now will an escape be discerned from this suffering [headed by] aging-and-death?' 175

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'When what exists does aging-and-death come to be? By what is aging-and-death caused(paccaya)?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is birth, aging-and-death comes to be; aging-and-death has birth as its cause.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'When what exists does rebirth come to be?. . . factor-of-existence(bhavo)?. . . clinging(upadana sans. asakti)? . . . craving(tanha sans. trishna)? . . . sensation(vedana)? . . . contact(phassa/sparsh)?... the six sense faculties?... mind-and-bodyform(namarupa)? By what is mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) caused?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna):
'When there is consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan), mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) comes to be; mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) has consciousness as its cause.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'When what exists does consciousness come to be? By what is consciousness caused?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is mind-and-bodyform(namarupa), consciousness comes to be; consciousness has mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as its cause.' 176

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'This consciousness turns back; it does not go further than mind-and-bodyform(namarupa). 177 It is to this extent that one may be born and age and die, pass away and be reborn, that is, when there is consciousness with mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as its cause, and mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) with consciousness as its cause. 178 With mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as cause, the six sense faculties; with the six sense faculties as cause, contact(phassa/sparsh).... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.'

"'Origination, origination' - thus, bhikkhus, in regard to things unheard before there arose in me vision, knowledge, illuminated-insight(panna), true knowledge, and light(alok).

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'When what does not exist does aging-and-death not come to be? With the cessation(nirodha) of what does the cessation of aging-and-death come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is no rebirth, aging-and-death does not come to be; with the cessation of rebirth comes cessation of aging-and-death.'

"It occurred to me: 'When what does not exist does rebirth not come to be?... factor-of-existence(bhavo)?... clinging(upadana sans. asakti)?... craving(tanha sans. trishna)?... sensation(vedana)? contact(phassa/sparsh)?... the six sense faculties?... mind-and-bodyform(namarupa)? With the cessation of what does the cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna): 'When there is no consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan), mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) does not come to be; with the cessation of consciousness comes cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa).'

"It occurred to me: "When what does not exist does consciousness not come to be? With the cessation of what does the cessation of consciousness come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), there took place in me a breakthrough by illuminated-insight(panna):'When there is no mind-and-bodyform(namarupa), consciousness does not come to be; with the cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) comes cessation of consciousness.'

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'I have discovered this path to enlightenment, that is, with the cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) comes cessation of consciousness; with the cessation of consciousness comes cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa); with the cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa), cessation of the six sense faculties; with the cessation of the six sense faculties, cessation of contact(phassa/sparsh).... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.' 179

"'Cessation, cessation' - thus, bhikkhus, in regard to things unheard before there arose in me vision, knowledge, illuminated-insight(panna), true knowledge, and light(alok).

"Suppose, bhikkhus, a man wandering through a forest would see an ancient path, an ancient road travelled upon by people in the past. He would follow it and would see an ancient city, an ancient capital that had been inhabited by people in the past, with parks, groves, ponds, and ramparts, a delightful place. Then the man would inform the king or a royal minister: 'Lord, know that while wandering through the forest I saw an ancient path, an ancient road travelled upon by people in the past. I followed it and saw an ancient city, an ancient capital that had been inhabited by people in the past, with parks, groves, ponds, and ramparts, a delightful place. Renovate that city, Lord!' Then the king or the royal minister would renovate the city, and some time later that city would become successful and prosperous, well populated, filled with people, attained to growth and expansion.

"So too, bhikkhus, I saw the ancient path, the ancient road travelled by the Perfectly Enlightened Ones of the past. 180 And what is that ancient path, that ancient road? It is just this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right meditation(sati), right samadhi(trance)state. I followed that path and by doing so I have directly known aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation. I have directly known birth ... factor-of-existence(bhavo) ... clinging(upadana sans. asakti) ... craving(tanha sans. trishna) ... sensation(vedana) ... contact(phassa/sparsh) ... the six sense faculties ... mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) ... consciousness ... sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), their origin, their cessation, and the way leading to their cessation. 181 Having directly known them, I have explained them to the bhikkhus, the bhikkhunis, the male lay followers, and the female lay followers. This holy celibate life(brahmacariya), bhikkhus, has become successful and prosperous, extended, popular, widespread, well proclaimed among devas(angels) and humans." 182


66. Exploration (Sammasa)[]

(Buddha's Path is the path of inward exploration to search for super state of consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan)) Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling among the Kurus, where there was a town of the Kurus named Kammasadamma. There the Lord (Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus(monks)!" 183

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"Do you engage in inward exploration, bhikkhus?" 184

When this was said, one bhikkhu(monk) said to the Lord (Buddha):
"Venerable sir, I engage in inward exploration."

"How do you engage in inward exploration, bhikkhu?"

The bhikkhu then explained but the way he explained did not satisfy the Lord (Buddha). 185 Then the Venerable Ananda said:
"Now is the time for this. Lord (Buddha)! Now is the time for this. Fortunate One(Sugato)! Let the Lord (Buddha) explain inward exploration. Having heard it from the Lord (Buddha), the bhikkhus will remember it."

"Then listen and be mindful(manasikaro), Ananda, I will speak."

"Yes, venerable sir," the bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"Here, bhikkhus, when engaged in inward exploration, a bhikkhu explores thus: 'The many diverse kinds of suffering that arise in the world [headed by] aging-and-death: what is the source of this suffering, what is its origin, from what is it born and produced? When what exists does aging-and-death come to be? When what does not exist does aging-and-death not come to be?' 186

"As he explores he understands thus: 'The many diverse kinds of suffering that arise in the world [headed by] aging-and-death: this suffering has acquisition(upadhi) as its source, acquisition as its origin; it is born and produced from acquisition. 187 When there is acquisition, aging-and-death comes to be; when there is no acquisition, aging-and-death does not come to be.'

"He understands aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation(nirodha), and the way leading on that is in conformity with its cessation. 188 He practises in that way and conducts himself accordingly. This is called a bhikkhu who is practising for the utterly complete destruction(khaya\kshaya) of suffering, for the cessation of aging-and-death.

"Then, engaging further in inward exploration, he explores thus: 'What is the source of this acquisition(upadhi), what is its origin, from what is it born and produced? When what exists does acquisition come to be? When what is absent does acquisition not come to be?'

"As he explores he understands thus: 'acquisition(upadhi) has craving(tanha sans. trishna) as its source, craving as its origin; it is born and produced from craving. When there is craving, acquisition comes to be; when there is no craving, acquisition does not come to be.'

"He understands acquisition, its origin, its cessation, and the way leading on that is in conformity with its cessation. He practises in that way and conducts himself accordingly. This is called a bhikkhu who is practising for the utterly complete destruction(khaya\kshaya) of suffering, for the cessation of acquisition.

"Then, engaging further in inward exploration, he explores thus: 'When this craving arises, where does it arise? When it settles down, upon what does it settle?'

"As he explores he understands thus: 'Whatever in the world has a pleasant and agreeable nature: it is here that this craving(tanha sans. trishna) arises when it arises; it is here that it settles when it settles down.' 189 And what in the world has a pleasant and agreeable nature? The eye has a pleasant and agreeable nature in the world: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it settles when it settles down. So too the ear, the nose, the tongue, the body, and the mind have a pleasant and agreeable nature: it is here that this craving arises when it arises; it is here that it settles when it settles down.

"Bhikkhus, whatever ascetics and brahmins in the past regarded that in the world with a pleasant and agreeable nature as permanent, as happiness(sukh), as self, as healthy, as secure: they nurtured craving. In nurturing craving(tanha sans. trishna) they nurtured acquisition(upadhi). In nurturing acquisition they nurtured suffering. In nurturing suffering they were not freed from rebirth, aging, and death; they were not freed from sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair; they were not freed from suffering, I say.

"Whatever ascetics and brahmins in the future will regard that in the world with a pleasant and agreeable nature as permanent, as happiness, as self, as healthy, as secure: they will nurture craving. In nurturing craving they will nurture acquisition. In nurturing acquisition they will nurture suffering. In nurturing suffering they will not be freed from rebirth, aging, and death; they will not be freed from sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair; they will not be freed from suffering, I say.

"Whatever ascetics and brahmins at present regard that in the world with a pleasant and agreeable nature as permanent, as happiness, as self, as healthy, as secure: they are nurturing craving(tanha sans. trishna). In nurturing craving they are nurturing acquisition. In nurturing acquisition they are nurturing suffering. In nurturing suffering they are not freed from rebirth, aging, and death; they are not freed from sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair; they are not freed from suffering, I say.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, there was a bronze cup of a beverage having a fine colour, aroma, and taste, but it was mixed with poison. Then a man would come along, oppressed and afflicted by the heat, tired, parched, and thirsty. They would tell him: 'Good man, this beverage in the bronze cup has a fine colour, aroma, and taste, but it is mixed with poison. Drink it if you wish. If you drink it, it will please you with its colour, aroma, and taste, but by drinking it you will meet death or deadly suffering.' Suddenly, without thinking, he would drink the beverage - he would not reject it - and thereby he would meet death or deadly suffering. 190

"So too, bhikkhus, whatever ascetics and brahmins in the past ...in the future ... at present regard that in the world with a pleasant and agreeable nature as permanent, as happiness, as self, as healthy, as secure: they are nurturing craving. In nurturing craving ... they are not freed from suffering, I say. 191

"Bhikkhus, whatever ascetics and brahmins in the past regarded that in the world with a pleasant and agreeable nature as impermanent, as suffering, as nonself, as a disease, as fearful; they abandoned craving. In abandoning craving they abandoned acquisition(upadhi). In abandoning acquisition they abandoned suffering. In abandoning suffering they were freed from rebirth, aging, and death; they were freed from sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair; they were freed from suffering, I say.

"Whatever ascetics and brahmins in the future ' will regard that in the world with a pleasant and agreeable nature as impermanent, as suffering, as nonself, as a disease, as fearful: they will abandon craving(tanha sans. trishna). In abandoning craving ... they will be freed from suffering, I say.

"Whatever ascetics and brahmins at present regard that in the world with a pleasant and agreeable nature as impermanent, as suffering, as nonself, as a disease, as fearful: they are abandoning craving. In abandoning craving ... they are freed from suffering, I say.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, there was a bronze cup of a beverage having a fine colour, aroma, and taste, but it was mixed with poison. Then a man would come along, oppressed and afflicted by the heat, tired, parched, and thirsty. They would tell him:
'Good man, this beverage in the bronze cup has a fine colour, aroma, and taste, but it is mixed with poison. Drink it if you wish. If you drink it, it will please you with its colour, aroma, and taste, but by drinking it you will meet death or deadly suffering.' Then the man would think: 'I can quench my thirst with water, whey, porridge, or soup, but I should not drink that beverage, since to do so would lead to my harm and suffering for a long time.' Having thought, he would not drink the beverage but would reject it, and thereby he would not meet death or deadly suffering.

"So too, bhikkhus, whatever ascetics and brahmins in the past ...in the future ... at present regard that in the world with a pleasant and agreeable nature as impermanent, as suffering, as nonself, as a disease, as fearful: they are abandoning craving. In abandoning craving ... they are freed from suffering, I say." 192


67 The Sheaves of Reeds (Nalakalapi)[]

On one occasion the Venerable Sariputta and the Venerable Mahakotthita were dwelling at Baranasi in the Deer-Park(Migdaye) at Isipatana. 193 Then, in the evening, the Venerable Mahakotthita emerged from seclusion and approached the Venerable Sariputta. He exchanged greetings with the Venerable Sariputta and, when they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to him:

"How is it, friend Sariputta: Is aging-and-death created by oneself, or is it created by another, or is it created both by oneself and by another, or has it arisen fortuitously, being created neither by oneself nor by another?" 194

"Friend Kotthita, aging-and-death is not created by oneself, nor is it created by another, nor is it created both by oneself and by another, nor has it arisen fortuitously, being created neither by oneself nor by another. But rather, with birth as cause aging-and-death [comes to be]."

"How is it, friend Sariputta: Is birth created by oneself ... Is factor-of-existence(bhavo) ... clinging(upadana sans. asakti) ... craving(tanha sans. trishna) ... sensation(vedana) ... contact(phassa/sparsh) ... the six sense faculties . . . mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) created by oneself, or is it created by another, or is it created both by oneself and by another, or has it arisen fortuitously, being created neither by oneself nor by another?"

"Mind-and-bodyform(namarupa), friend Kotthita, is not created by oneself, nor is it created by another, nor is it created both by oneself and by another, nor has it arisen fortuitously, being created neither by oneself nor by another; but rather, with consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) as cause, mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) [comes to be]."

"How is it, friend Sariputta: Is consciousness created by oneself, or is it created by another, or is it created both by oneself and by another, or has it arisen fortuitously, being created neither by oneself nor by another?"

"Consciousness, friend Kotthita, is not created by oneself, nor is it created by another, nor is it created both by oneself and by another, nor has it arisen fortuitously, being created neither by oneself nor by another; but rather, with mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as cause, consciousness [comes to be]." 195

"Now we understand the Venerable Sariputta's statement thus: 'Mind-and-bodyform(namarupa), friend Kotthita, is not created by oneself ... but rather, with consciousness as cause, mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) [comes to be].' Now we also understand the Venerable Sariputta's [other] statement thus: 'Consciousness, friend Kotthita, is not created by oneself . . . but rather, with mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as cause, consciousness [comes to be].' But how, friend Sariputta, should the meaning of this statement be seen?"

"Well then, friend, I will make up a simile for you, for some intelligent people here understand the meaning of a statement by means of a simile. Just as two sheaves of reeds might stand leaning ing against each other, so too, with mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as cause, consciousness [comes to be]; with consciousness as cause. mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) [comes to be]. With mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as cause, the six sense faculties [come to be]; with the six sense faculties as cause, contact(phassa/sparsh). ... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"If, friend, one were to remove one of those sheaves of reeds, the other would fall, and if one were to remove the other sheaf, the first would fall. So too, with the cessation(nirodha) of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) comes cessation of consciousness; with the cessation of consciousness comes cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa). With the cessation of mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) comes cessation of the six sense faculties; with the cessation of the six sense faculties, cessation of contact(phassa/sparsh).... Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering."

"It is wonderful, friend Sariputta! It is amazing, friend Sariputta! How well this has been stated by the Venerable Sariputta. We rejoice in the Venerable Sariputta's statement on these thirty-six grounds; 196 If, friend, a bhikkhu(monk) teaches the dhamma(path,law) for the purpose of revulsion(nibbida) towards aging-and-death, for its fading away and cessation, he can be called a bhikkhu who is a speaker on the Dhamma. If a bhikkhu is practising for the purpose of revulsion towards aging-and-death, for its fading away and cessation, he can be called a bhikkhu who is practising in accordance with the Dhamma. If through revulsion towards aging-and-death, through its fading away and cessation, a bhikkhu is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) by nonclinging, he can be called a bhikkhu who has attained Nibbana in this very life.

"If, friend, a bhikkhu teaches the Dhamma for the purpose of revulsion(nibbida) towards rebirth ... factor-of-existence(bhavo) ... clinging(upadana sans. asakti) ... craving(tanha sans. trishna) ... sensation(vedana) ... contact(phassa/sparsh) ... the six sense faculties ... mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) ... consciousness ... sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) ... ignorance(avijja sans. avidya), for its fading away and cessation, he can be called a bhikkhu who is a speaker on the Dhamma. If a bhikkhu is practising for the purpose of revulsion towards ignorance, for its fading away and cessation, he can be called a bhikkhu who is practising in accordance with the Dhamma. If through revulsion towards ignorance, through its fading away and cessation, a bhikkhu is liberated by nonclinging, he can be called a bhikkhu who has attained Nibbana in this very life."


68. Kosambi[]

On one occasion the Venerable Musila, the Venerable Pavittha, the Venerable Narada, and the Venerable Ananda were living at Kosambi in Ghosita's Park. 197

Then the Venerable Pavittha said to the Venerable Musila:
"Friend Musila, apart from faith, apart from personal preference, apart from oral tradition, apart from reasoned thought, apart from acceptance of a view after pondering it, 198 does the Venerable Musila have personal knowledge thus: 'With birth as cause, aging-and-death [comes to be]'?"

"Friend Pavittha, apart from faith, apart from personal preference, apart from oral tradition, apart from reasoned thought, apart from acceptance of a view after pondering it, I know this, I see this: 'With birth as cause, aging-and-death [comes to be]."'

"Friend Musila, apart from faith . . . apart from acceptance of a view after pondering it, does the Venerable Musila have personal knowledge thus: 'With factor-of-existence(bhavo) as cause, birth'?... 'With ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) as cause, sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) [come to be]'?"

"Friend Pavittha, apart from faith . . . apart from acceptance of a view after pondering it, I know this, I see this: 'With ignorance as cause, sankhara(behavior-conditioning) [come to be].'"

"Friend Musila, apart from faith ... apart from acceptance of a view after pondering it, does the Venerable Musila have personal knowledge: 'With the cessation(nirodha) of rebirth comes cessation of aging-and-death'?..... 'With the cessation of ignorance comes cessation of sankhara(behavior-conditioning)'?"

"Friend Pavittha, apart from faith ... apart from acceptance of a view after pondering it, I know this, I see this: 'With the cessation of rebirth comes cessation of aging-and-death.'... 'With the cessation of ignorance comes cessation of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning).'"

"Friend Musila, apart from faith, apart from personal preference, apart from oral tradition, apart from reasoned thought, apart from acceptance of a view after pondering it, does the Venerable Musila have personal knowledge thus: 'Nibbana is the cessation of factor-of-existence(bhavo)'?" 199

"Friend Pavittha, apart from faith, apart from personal preference, apart from oral tradition, apart from reasoned thought, apart from acceptance of a view after pondering it, I know this, I see this: 'Nibbana is the cessation of factor-of-existence(bhavo).'"

"Then the Venerable Musila is an arahant, one whose defilements are destroyed."

When this was said, the Venerable Musila kept silent. 200

Then the Venerable Narada said to the Venerable Pavittha:
"Friend Pavittha, it would be good if I were asked that series of questions. Ask me that series of questions and I will answer you." 201

"Then let the Venerable Narada get to answer that series of questions. I will ask the Venerable Narada that series of questions, and let him answer me."

(Here the Venerable pavittha asks the Venerable Narada the same series of questions as were addressed to the Venerable Musila, and he answers in exactly the same way.)

"Then the Venerable Narada is an arahant, one whose defilements are destroyed."

"Friend, though I have clearly seen as it really is with correct insight(panna), 'Nibbana is the cessation(nirodha) of factor-of-existence(for rebirth),' I am not an arahant, one whose defilements are destroyed. 202 Suppose, friend, there was a well along a desert road, but it had neither a rope nor a bucket. Then a man would come along, oppressed and afflicted by the heat, tired, parched, and thirsty. He would look down into the well and the knowledge would occur to him. There is water,' but he would not be able to make bodily contact(phassa/sparsh) with it. 203 So too, friend, though I have clearly seen as it really is with correct insight, 'Nibbana is the cessation of factor-of-existence(bhavo)', I am not an arahant, one whose defilements are destroyed." 204

When this was said, the Venerable Ananda asked the Venerable pavittha: "When he speaks in such a way, friend pavittha, what would you say about the Venerable Narada?"

"When he speaks in such a way, friend Ananda, I would not say anything about the Venerable Narada except what is good and favourable." 205


69. The Surge (Upayanti)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. There the Lord (Buddha) said:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), the ocean surging causes the rivers to surge; the rivers surging cause the streams to surge; the streams surging cause the lakes to surge; the lakes surging cause the pools to surge. So too, ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) surging causes sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) to surge; sankhara(behavior-conditioning) surging cause consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) to surge; consciousness surging causes mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) to surge; mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) surging causes the six sense faculties to surge; the six sense faculties surging cause contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) to surge; contact(phassa/sparsh) surging causes sensation(vedana) to surge; sensation(vedana) surging causes craving(tanha sans. trishna) to surge; craving surging causes clinging(upadana sans. asakti) to surge; clinging surging causes factor-of-existence(bhavo) to surge; factor-of-existence(bhavo) surging causes birth to surge; birth surging causes aging-and-death to surge.

"Bhikkhus, the ocean receding causes the rivers to recede; the rivers receding cause the streams to recede; the streams receding cause the lakes to recede; the lakes receding cause the pools to recede. So too, ignorance receding (due to experience of samadhi state) causes sankhara(behavior-conditioning) to recede; sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) receding cause consciousness to recede ... rebirth receding causes aging-and-death to recede."


70. Susima[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap).

(i)
Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha) was honoured, respected, esteemed, venerated, and revered, and he obtained robes, almsfood, lodgings, and medicinal requisites. The bhikkhu(monk) Sangha(fraternity) too was honoured, respected, esteemed, venerated, and revered, and the bhikkhus too obtained robes, almsfood, lodgings, and medicinal requisites. But the ascetics of other sects were not honoured, respected, esteemed, venerated, and revered, and they did not obtain robes, almsfood, lodgings, and medicinal requisites.
Now on that occasion the ascetic Susima was residing in Rajagaha along with a large company of ascetics. Then his company said to the ascetic Susima: "Come, friend Susima, lead the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) under the ascetic Gotama. Master his dhamma(path,law) and teach it to us. We will master his Dhamma and preach it to the lay people. Thus we too will be honoured, respected, esteemed, venerated, and revered, and we too will obtain robes, almsfood, lodgings, and medicinal requisites."

"All right, friends," the ascetic Susima replied. He then approached the Venerable Ananda and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to him: "Friend Ananda, I wish to lead the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) in this Dhamma and Discipline."

Then the Venerable Ananda took the ascetic Susima and approached the Lord (Buddha). He paid homage to the Lord (Buddha), and then he sat down to one side and said to him:
"Venerable sir, this ascetic Susima says that he wishes to lead the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) in this Dhamma and Discipline."

"Well then, Ananda, give him the going-forth(initiation,pabajja)." The ascetic Susima then received the going-forth(initiation,pabajja) and the higher ordination(upsampada) under the Lord (Buddha). 206

(ii)
Now on that occasion a number of bhikkhus had declared final knowledge in the presence of the Lord (Buddha), saying: "We understand: Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being." The Venerable Susima heard about this, so he approached those bhikkhus, exchanged greetings with them, and then sat down to one side and said to them: "Is it true that you venerable ones have declared final knowledge in the presence of the Lord (Buddha), saying: 'We understand: Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being'?" 207

"Yes, friend."

"Then knowing and seeing thus, do you venerable ones wield the various kinds of spiritual-power(iddhi\riddhi), such that: having been one, you become many; having been many, you become one; you appear and vanish; you go unhindered through a wall, through a rampart, through a mountain as though through space; you dive in and out of the earth as though it were water; you walk on water without sinking as though it were earth; seated crosslegged, you travel in space like a bird; with your hand you touch and stroke the moon and sun so powerful and mighty; you exercise mastery with the body as far as the brahma(arch-angel) world?"

"No, friend."

"Then knowing and seeing thus, do you venerable ones, with the divine ear element(dhatu), which is purified and surpasses the human, hear both kinds of sounds, the divine and human, those that are far as well as near?"

"No, friend."

"Then knowing and seeing thus, do you venerable ones understand the minds of other beings and persons, having encompassed them with your own minds? Do you understand a mind with lust(raag) as a mind with lust(raag); a mind without lust(raag) as a mind without lust(raag); a mind with hatred(dosa\dvesh) as a mind with hatred(dosa\dvesh); a mind without hatred(dosa\dvesh) as a mind without hatred(dosa\dvesh); a mind with delusion(moha) as a mind with delusion(moha); a mind without delusion(moha) as a mind without delusion(moha); a contracted mind as contracted and a distracted mind as distracted; an exalted mind as exalted and an unexalted mind as unexalted; a surpassable mind as surpassable and an unsurpassable mind as unsurpassable; a samadhi(trance)state mind as in samadhi(trance)state and an not-in-samadhi(trance)state mind as not-in-samadhi(trance)state; a liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) mind as liberated and an unliberated mind as unliberated?"

"No, friend."

"Then knowing and seeing thus, do you venerable ones recollect your manifold past abodes, that is, one past-birth, two past-births, three past-births, four past-births, five past-births, ten past-births, twenty past-births, thirty past-births, forty past-births, fifty past-births, a hundred past-births, a thousand past-births, a hundred thousand births, many aeons(kappa\kalpa) of world-contraction, many aeons of world-expansion, many aeons of world-contraction and expansion thus: There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my food, such my experience of happiness and sorrow, such my life span; passing away from there, I was reborn elsewhere, and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my food, such my experience of happiness and sorrow, such my life span; passing away from there, I was reborn here'? Do you thus recollect your manifold past abodes with their modes and details?"

"No, friend."

"Then knowing and seeing thus, do you venerable ones, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, see beings passing away and being reborn, inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and understand how beings go on in accordance with their kamma(karma) thus: 'These beings who engaged in misconduct of body, speech, and mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong view, and undertook actions based on wrong view, with the breakup of the body, after death, have been reborn in a state of misery, in a bad destination, in the nether world, in hell; but these beings who engaged in good conduct of body, speech, and mind, who did not revile the noble ones, who held right view, and undertook action based on right view, with the breakup of the body, after death, have been reborn in a good destination(sugati), in a heavenly world? Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, do you see beings passing away and being reborn, inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and understand how beings go on in accordance with their kamma?"

"No, friend."

"Then knowing and seeing thus, do you venerable ones dwell in those peaceful deliverances(vimokkho) that transcend forms, the formless attainments, having touched them with the body?" 208

"No, friend."

"Here now, venerable ones: this answer and the nonattainment of those states, how could this be, friends?" 209

"We are liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) by illuminated-insight(panna), friend Susima." 210

"I do not understand in detail, friends, the meaning of what has been stated in brief by the venerable ones. It would be good if the venerable ones would explain to me in such a way that I could understand in detail what has been stated in brief."

"Whether or not you understand, friend Susima, we are liberated(vimutta) by illuminated-insight(panna)."

(iii)

Then the Venerable Susima rose from his seat and approached the Lord (Buddha). Having approached, he paid homage to the Lord (Buddha), sat down to one side, and reported to the Lord (Buddha) the entire conversation he had had with those bhikkhus.

[The Lord (Buddha) said:]
"First, Susima, comes knowledge of the stability of the dhamma(path,law), afterwards knowledge of Nibbana." 211

"I do not understand in detail, venerable sir, the meaning of what was stated in brief by the Lord (Buddha). It would be good if the Lord (Buddha) would explain to me in such a way that I could understand in detail what has been stated in brief."

"Whether or not you understand, Susima, first comes knowledge of the stability of the Dhamma, afterwards knowledge of Nibbana. 212

"What do you think, Susima, is form permanent or impermanent?" - "Impermanent, venerable sir." 213 - "Is what is impermanent suffering or happiness(sukh)?" - "Suffering, venerable sir."
"Is what is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change fit to be regarded thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this is my self'?" - "No, venerable sir."

"Is sensation(vedana) permanent or impermanent?... Is perception(sanna sans. sangya) permanent or impermanent?... Are sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) permanent or impermanent?... Is consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) permanent or impermanent?" ; - "Impermanent, venerable sir." - "Is what is impermanent suffering or happiness?" - "Suffering, venerable sir." - "Is what is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change fit to be regarded thus: 'This is mine, this I am, this is my self'?" - "No, venerable sir."

"Therefore, Susima, any kind of form whatsoever, whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near, all form should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.'

"Any kind of sensation(vedana) whatsoever ... Any kind of perception whatsoever ... Any kind of sankhara(behavior-conditioning) whatsoever ... Any kind of consciousness whatsoever, whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near, all consciousness should be seen as it really is with correct illuminated-insight(panna) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.'

"Seeing thus, Susima, the instructed noble disciple experiences revulsion(nibbida) towards form, revulsion towards sensation(vedana), revulsion towards perception, revulsion towards sankhara(behavior-conditioning), revulsion towards consciousness. Experiencing revulsion, he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion [his mind] is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt). When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: 'It's liberated.' He understands: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.'

"Do you see, Susima: 'With rebirth as cause, aging-and-death [comes to be]'?"

"Yes, venerable sir."

"Do you see, Susima: 'With factor-of-existence(bhavo) as cause, birth(happens)'?.. 'With clinging(upadana sans. asakti) as cause, factor-of-existence(bhavo)'?..... 'With craving(tanha sans. trishna) as cause, clinging'?... 'With sensation(vedana) as cause, craving'?..

'With contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh) as cause, sensation(vedana)'?... 'With the six sense faculties as cause, contact(phassa/sparsh)'?... 'With mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) as cause, the six sense faculties'?... 'With consciousness as cause, mind-and-bodyform(namarupa)?' ... 'With sankhara(behavior-conditioning) as cause, consciousness'? ... 'With ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) as cause, sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning) [come to be]'?"

"Yes, venerable sir."

"Do you see, Susima: 'With the cessation(nirodha) of rebirth comes cessation of aging-and-death'?"

"Yes, venerable sir."

"Do you see, Susima: 'With the cessation of factor-of-existence(bhavo) comes cessation of rebirth'?... 'With the cessation of clinging comes cessation of factor-of-existence(bhavo)'?... 'With the cessation of ignorance comes cessation of sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning)'?"

"Yes, venerable sir."

"Knowing and seeing thus, Susima, do you wield the various kinds of spiritual-power(iddhi\riddhi), such that: having been one, you become many ... and exercise bodily mastery as far as the brahma world?" 214

"No, venerable sir."

"Then knowing and seeing thus, Susima, do you, with the divine ear element, which is purified and surpasses the human, hear both kinds of sounds, the divine and human, those that are far as well as near?"

"No, venerable sir."

"Then knowing and seeing thus, Susima, do you understand the minds of other beings and persons, having encompassed them with your own mind?"

"No, venerable sir."

"Then knowing and seeing thus, Susima, do you recollect your manifold past abodes with their modes and details?"

"No, venerable sir."

"Then knowing and seeing thus, Susima, do you, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, see beings passing away and being reborn and understand how beings go on in accordance with their kamma(karma)?"

"No, venerable sir."

"Then knowing and seeing thus, Susima, do you dwell in those peaceful deliverances(vimokkho) that transcend forms, the formless attainments, having touched them with the body?"

"No, venerable sir."

"Here now, Susima: this answer and the nonattainment of those states, how could this be, Susima?"

(iv)

Then the Venerable Susima prostrated himself with his head at the Lord (Buddha)'s feet and said: "Venerable sir, I have committed a transgression in that I was so childish(unwise), so confused, so inept that I went forth as a thief of the dhamma(path,law) in such a well-expounded Dhamma and Discipline as this. Venerable sir, may the Lord (Buddha) pardon me for my transgression seen as a transgression for the sake of future restraint."

"Surely, Susima, you have committed a transgression in that you were so childish(unwise), so confused, so inept that you went forth as a thief of the Dhamma in such a well-expounded Dhamma and Discipline as this. 215 Suppose, Susima, they were to arrest a bandit, a criminal, and bring him before the king, saying: 'Lord, this man is a bandit, a criminal. Impose on him whatever punishment you wish.' The king would say to them: 'Come, men, bind this man's arms tightly behind his back with a strong rope, shave his head, and lead him around from street to street and from square to square, beating a drum. Then take him out through the southern gate and to the south of the city cut off his head.' What do you think, Susima, would that man experience pain and displeasure on that account?"

"Yes, venerable sir."

"Although that man would experience pain and displeasure on that account, going-forth(initiation,pabajja) as a thief of the Dhamma in such a well expounded Dhamma and Discipline as this has results that are far more painful, far more bitter, and further, it leads to the nether world. But since you see your transgression as a transgression and make amends for it in accordance with the Dhamma, we pardon you for it. For it is growth in the Noble One's Discipline when one sees one's transgression as a transgression, makes amends for it in accordance with the Dhamma, and undertakes future restraint."



(viii) Ascetics and Brahmins (Samanabrahmana)[]

71. Aging-and-Death (Jaramarana)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. There the Lord (Buddha) said:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), those ascetics or brahmins who do not understand aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation(nirodha), and the way leading to its cessation: these I do not consider to be ascetics among ascetics or brahmins among brahmins, and these venerable ones do not, by realizing it for themselves with divine-knowledge(abhinna), in this very life enter and dwell in the goal of asceticism or the goal of brahminhood.

"But, bhikkhus, those ascetics and brahmins who understand aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation: these I consider to be ascetics among ascetics and brahmins among brahmins, and these venerable ones, by realizing it for themselves with divine-knowledge(abhinna), in this very life enter and dwell in the goal of asceticism and the goal of brahminhood."


72 Birth, Etc. (Jati adi)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), those ascetics or brahmins who do not understand (as before as in 71. for each and similar to 1 & 2)
birth ...
factor-of-existence(bhavo) ...
clinging(upadana sans. asakti) ...
craving(tanha sans. trishna) ...
sensation(vedana) ...
contact(phassa/sparsh) ...
the six sense faculties ...
mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) ...
consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan)...
sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), their origin, their cessation(nirodha), and the way leading to their cessation: these I do not consider to be ascetics among ascetics or brahmins among brahmins, and these venerable ones do not, by realizing it for themselves with divine-knowledge(abhinna), in this very life enter and dwell in the goal of asceticism or the goal of brahminhood.

"But, bhikkhus, those ascetics and brahmins who understand these things: these I consider to be ascetics among ascetics and brahmins among brahmins, and these venerable ones, by realizing it for themselves with divine-knowledge(abhinna), in this very life enter and dwell in the goal of asceticism and the goal of brahminhood."



(ix) With Incorporated Repetition Series (Antarapeyyalam)[]

73. A Teacher (Satthu)[]

At Savatthi.
[Buddha:] "Bhikkhus(monks), one who does not know and see as it really is aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation(nirodha), and the way leading to its cessation, should search for a teacher in order to know this as it really is. 217

"Bhikkhus, one who does not know and see as it really is (as before as in 72. for each & similar to 1 & 2)
birth ...
factor-of-existence(bhavo) ...
clinging(upadana sans. asakti) ...
craving(tanha sans. trishna) ...
sensation(vedana) ...
contact(phassa/sparsh) ...
the six sense faculties ...
mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) ...
consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) ...
sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning),
their origin, their cessation, and the way leading to their
cessation, should search for a teacher in order to know this as it
really is."

"Bhikkhus, one who does not know and see as it really is aging-and-death . . . sankhara(behavior-conditioning), their origin, their cessation, and the way leading to their cessation, should practise the training in order to know this as it really is."

"Bhikkhus, one who does not know and see as it really is aging and-death ... sankhara(compulsive-behavior-conditioning), their origin, their cessation, and the way leading to their cessation, should make an exertion ... arouse a desire ... arouse enthusiasm ... be unremitting ... arouse ardour ... apply energetic-strength(viriya) ... practise perseverance ... practise meditation(sati) ... practise complete comprehension (sampajanna) ... practise alertfulness(appamada) in order to know this as it really is."


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