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SN1-The Book With Verses

(This is First Book of Samyutta Nikaya(Connected Discourses).This is version 2, a modified version of Bhikkhu Bodhi.)
In this book discussions with various divine & other beings are recorded.
Important Suttas:
12,196: Acuisitions
41: Donations
102: Shiv Deva Consults with Lord Buddha
124: Moderation in food
155: Kassaka - Evil controls the world
159: Godhika - Nirvana is true freedom from evil & rebirth
161: Maradhitu - How Buddha won over temptation(of sensuality)
181: Kokalika - Wise should not insult the spiritual ones
212: How to control sexual passion
213: Subhasita - what kind of speech should be spoken
251: Subhasitajaya - Battle of words between gods & demons
252: Kulavaka - Victory of devas by Dhamma
269: Sambarimaya - Evil magic/Tantra leads to hell


Note : 'c' of Pali words is pronounced as 'ch' as in 'China'


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Contents

Samyutta Nikaya:I.Sagathavagga-With Verses[]



Namo Tassya Bhagavato, Arahato, Samma-Sam-Buddhassya

Homage to that Bhagavato(Lord) , Evil Vanquisher(Arahato) ,
the Rightly and Perfectly Enlightened(Awakened) One



Samyutta 1 : Connected Discourses with Divine beings/Angels (Devatasamyutta )[]

(i) Reed Section(Nala vagga)[]

1. Crossing the Flood(Oghatarana)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Then, when the night had advanced, a certain devata(angel) of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), approached the Lord (Buddha). Having approached, he paid homage to the Lord (Buddha), stood to one side, and said to him:

"How, dear sir, did you cross the flood?" 1

[Buddha:]
"By not halting, friend, and by not straining I crossed the flood. "2

[Devata:]
"But how is it, dear sir, that by not halting and by not straining you crossed the flood?"

[Buddha:]
"When I came to a standstill, friend, then I sank; but when I struggled, then I got swept away. It is in this way, friend, that by not halting and by not straining I crossed the flood." 3

[The devata:]
"After a long time at last I see; A brahmin who is fully quenched. Who by not halting, not straining; Has crossed over attachment to the world." 4

This is what that devata said. 5 The Teacher approved. Then that devata, thinking, "The Teacher has approved of me," paid homage to the Lord (Buddha) and, keeping him on the right, disappeared right there.


2. Emancipation (Nimokkha)[]

At Savatthi. Then, when the night had advanced, a certain devata(angel) of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), approached the Lord (Buddha). Having approached, he paid homage to the Lord (Buddha), stood to one side, and said to him:

"Do you know, dear sir, emancipation, release(mokkha/moksha), seclusion for beings?" 6

[Buddha:]
"I know, friend, emancipation, release(mokkha/moksha), seclusion for beings."

[Devata:]
"But in what way, dear sir, do you know emancipation, release(mokkha/moksha), seclusion for beings?"

[Buddha:]
"By the utter destruction(khaya\kshaya) of delight(nandi\anand) in existence;
By the extinction of perception(sanna sans. sangya) and consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan).
By the cessation(nirodha) and quenching(upasaman) of sensations(vedana);
It is thus, friend, that I know for beings : Emancipation, release(mokkha/moksha), seclusion." 8


3. Reaching (Upaniya)[]

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata(angel) recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Life is swept along, short is the life span;
No shelters exist for one who has reached old age.
Seeing clearly this danger in death.
One should do deeds of divine-merit(punya) that bring happiness(sukh)." 9

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Life is swept along, short is the life span;
No shelters exist for one who has reached old age.
Seeing clearly this danger in death,
A seeker of peace should drop the world's bait." 10


4. Time Flies By(Accenti)[]

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata(angel) recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Time flies by, the nights swiftly pass;
The stages of life successively desert us. 11
Seeing clearly this danger in death,
One should do deeds of divine-merit(punya) that bring happiness(sukh)."

[The Lord (Buddha):]

"Time flies by, the nights swiftly pass;
The stages of life successively desert us.
Seeing clearly this danger in death,
A seeker of peace should drop the world's bait."


5. How Many Must One Cut? (Katichinda)[]

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata(angel) recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"How many must one cut, how many abandon; And how many further must one develop?
When a bhikkhu(monk) has broken how many chains; Is he called a crosser of the flood?"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"One must cut off five, abandon five; And must develop a further five.
A bhikkhu who has broken five chains; Is called a crosser of the flood." 12


6. Awake (Jagara)[]

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata(angel) recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"How many are asleep when [others] are awake? How many are awake when [others] sleep?
By how many does one gather dust? By how many is one purified?"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Five are asleep when [others] are awake; Five are awake when [others] sleep.
By five things one gathers dust; By five things one is purified." 13


7. Not Penetrated (Appatividita)[]

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata(angel) recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Those who have not penetrated Dhammas(laws,path); Who may be led into others' doctrines.
Fast asleep, they have not yet awakened; It is time for them to awaken." 14

[The Lord (Buddha):]

"Those who have penetrated Dhammas well; Who cannot be led into others' doctrines,
Those awakened ones, having rightly known; remain evenly in the uneven." 15


8. Utterly Muddled (Susammuttha)[]

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata(angel) recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Those who are utterly muddled about Dhammas(laws,path); Who may be led into others' doctrines,
Fast asleep, they have not yet awakened; It is time for them to awaken."

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Those who aren't muddled about Dhammas; Who cannot be led into others' doctrines,
Those awakened ones, having rightly known; remain evenly in the uneven."


9. One Prone to Conceit (Manakama)[]

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata(angel) recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"There is no taming here for one fond of conceit.
Nor is there sagehood for those not-in-samadhi(trance)state
Though dwelling alone in the forest, slothful(in pamada),
One cannot cross beyond the realm of Death." 16

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Having abandoned conceit, well in-samadhi(trance)state,
With lofty mind, everywhere released(in mokkha/moksha)
While dwelling alone in the forest, alertful(appamada).
One can cross beyond the realm of Death." 17


10. Forest (Aranna sans. Aranya)[]

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata(angel) recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Those who dwell deep in the forest; Peaceful, leading the holy celibate life(brahmacariya).
Eating but a single meal a day; Why is their complexion so serene?" 18

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"They do not sorrow over the past; Nor do they hanker for the future.
They maintain themselves with what is present; Hence their complexion is so serene.

"Through hankering for the future; Through sorrowing over the past.
Unwise(bala) dry up and wither away; Like a green reed cut down."



(ii) Nandanavaggo (Heavenly Garden Section)[]

11. Nandana (Heavenly Garden)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. There the Lord (Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus thus:
"Bhikkhus(Monks)!"

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:
"Once in the past, bhikkhus, a certain devata(angel) of the Tavatimsa heaven was revelling in Nandana Grove(Nandanvana), supplied and endowed with the five cords of celestial sensual pleasure, accompanied by a retinue of celestial nymphs. On that occasion he spoke this verse:

'They do not know happiness ; Who have not seen Nandana,
The abode of the glorious devas(angels); Belonging to the heaven of Thirty.' 19

"When this was said, bhikkhus, a certain devata replied to that devata in verse:

'Don't you know, you unwise; That maxim of the arahants?
Impermanent are all sankhara([karma]sanskaras, compulsive-behavior-conditioning); Their nature is to arise and vanish.
Having arisen, they cease, Their quenching(upasaman) is blissful' " 20


12. Delight (Nandati)[]

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata(angel) recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"One who has sons, delights in sons.
One with cattle, delights in cattle.
acquisitions(upadhi) truly are a man's delight(nandi\anand);
Without acquisitions one does not delight(nandi\anand)." 21

[The Lord (Buddha):]

"One who has sons, sorrows over sons,
One with cattle, sorrows over cattle.
acquisitions(upadhi) truly are a man's sorrows;
Without acquisitions one does not sorrow."


13. None Equal to a Son (Natthiputtasama)[]

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata(angel) spoke this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"There is no affection like that for a son;No wealth equal to cattle.
There is no light like the sun;Among the waters the ocean is supreme." 22

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"There is no affection like that for oneself;No wealth equal to grain.
There is no light like illuminated-insight(panna sans. pragya); Among the waters the rain is supreme."


14. Rulers(Khattiya Sans. Kshatriya)[]

(Devata:)
"The khattiya(ruler/fighter) is the best of bipeds; The ox, the best of quadrupeds;
A maiden(virgin) is the best of wives;The first born, the best of sons." 23

(Buddha:)
"The Buddha is the best of bipeds; A horse, the best of quadrupeds;
An obedient woman is the best of wives; A dutiful boy, the best of sons."


15. Murmuring (Sanamana)[]

(Devata:)
"When the noon hour sets in; and the birds have settled down,
The mighty forest itself murmurs; How fearful that appears to me!" 24

(Buddha:)
"When the noon hour sets in; And the birds have settled down,
The mighty forest itself murmurs; How delightful that appears to me!"


16. Drowsiness and Lethargy(Niddda-tandi sans. Nidra-tandra)[]

(Devata:)
"Drowsiness, lethargy, lazy stretching; Discontent, torpor after meals;
Because of this, here among beings; The noble path does not appear."

(Buddha:)
"Drowsiness, lethargy, lazy stretching; Discontent, torpor after meals;
With energetic-strength(viriya) one dispels these; then the noble path is cleared." 25


17. Difficult to Practise(Dukkara sans. Dushkar)[]

(Devata:)
"The ascetic life is hard to practise
And hard for the inept to endure.
For many are the obstructions there
In which the unwise(bala) founders."

(Buddha:)
"How many days can one practise the ascetic life
If one does not rein in one's mind?
One would fail with each step
Under the control of one's intentions. 26
As a tortoise draws its limbs into its shell,
Independent, not harassing others, fully quenched,
A bhikkhu(monk) would not blame anyone." 27


18. Sense of Shame (Hiri)[]

(Devata:)
"Is there a person somewhere in the world; Who is restrained by a sense of shame.
One who draws back from blame; As a good horse does from the whip?" 28

(Buddha:)
"Few are those restrained by a sense of shame; Who remain always meditative(satima);
Few, having reached the end of suffering; remain evenly in the uneven."


19. A Little Hut (Kutika)[]

(Devata:)
"Don't you have a little hut? Don't you have a little nest?
Don't you have any lines extended? Are you free from bondage?"

(Buddha:)
"Surely I have no little hut; Surely I have no little nest,
Surely I have no lines extended; Surely I'm free from bondage." 29

"What do you think I call a little hut? What do you think I call a little nest?
What do you think I call lines extended? What do you think I call bondage?" 30

"It's a mother that you call a little hut; A wife that you call a little nest,
Sons that you call lines extended; craving(tanha sans. trishna) that you tell me is bondage."

"It's good that you have no little hut; Good that you have no little nest,
Good that you have no lines extended; Good that you are free from bondage."


20. Samiddhi[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Hot Springs Park. Then the Venerable Samiddhi, having risen at the first flush of dawn, went to the hot springs to bathe. Having bathed in the hot springs and come back out, he stood in one robe drying his limbs.

Then, when the night had advanced, a certain devata(angel) of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire hot springs, approached the Venerable Samiddhi. Having approached, she stood in the air and addressed the Venerable Samiddhi in verse: 31

"Without having enjoyed you seek alms; bhikkhu(monk), You don't seek alms after you've enjoyed
First enjoy, bhikkhu, then seek alms; Don't let the time pass you by!"

(Samiddhi:)
"I do not know what the time might be; The time is hidden and cannot be seen.
Hence, without enjoying, I seek alms; Don't let the time pass me by!" 32

Then that devata alighted on the earth and said to the Venerable Samiddhi: "You have gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit) while young, bhikkhu, a lad with black hair, endowed with the blessing of youth, in the prime of life, without having dallied with sensual pleasures. Enjoy human sensual pleasures, bhikkhu; do not abandon what is directly visible in order to pursue what takes time."

(Samiddhi:)
"I have not abandoned what is directly visible, friend, in order to pursue what takes time. I have abandoned what takes time in order to pursue what is directly visible. For the Lord (Buddha), friend, has stated that sensual pleasures are subject to time-decay, full of suffering, full of despair, and the danger in them is still greater, while this Dhamma(law,path) is directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise." 33

(Devata:)
"But how is it, bhikkhu, that the Lord (Buddha) has stated that sensual pleasures are subject to time-decay, full of suffering, full of despair, and the danger in them is still greater? How is it that this Dhamma is directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise?"

(Samiddhi:)
"I am newly ordained, friend, not long gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit), just recently come to this Dhamma and Discipline. I cannot explain it in detail. But that Lord (Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, is dwelling at Rajagaha in the Hot Springs Park. Approach that Lord (Buddha) and ask him about this matter. As he explains it to you, so you should remember it."

(Devata:)
"It isn't easy for us to approach that Lord (Buddha), bhikkhu, as he is surrounded by other devatas(angels) of great influence. 34 If you would approach him and ask him about this matter, we will come along too in order to hear the Dhamma."

(Samiddhi:)
"Very well, friend," the Venerable Samiddhi replied. Then he approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and reported his entire discussion with that devata, ( earlier verses repeated) adding: "If that devata's statement is true, venerable sir, then that devata should be close by."

When this was said, that devata said to the Venerable Samiddhi: "Ask, bhikkhu! Ask, bhikkhu! For I have arrived."

Then the Lord (Buddha) addressed that devata in verse:

"Beings who perceive what can be expressed; Become established in what can be expressed.
Not fully understanding what can be expressed;They come under the yoke of Death. 35

"But having fully understood what can be expressed;One does not conceive 'one who expresses.'
For that does not exist for him; By which one could describe him. 36
"If you understand, spirit, speak up."

(Devata:)
"I do not understand in detail, venerable sir, the meaning of what was stated in brief by the Lord (Buddha). Please, venerable sir, let the Lord (Buddha) explain it to me in such a way that I might understand in detail the meaning of what he stated in brief."

[The Lord (Buddha):]
48 "One who conceives 'I am equal, better, or worse,'
Might on that account engage in disputes.
But one not shaken in the three discriminations
Does not think, 'I am equal or better.' 37

"If you understand, spirit, speak up."

(Devata:)
"In this case too, venerable sir, I do not understand in detail . . . let the Lord (Buddha) explain it to me in such a way that I might understand in detail the meaning of what he stated in brief."

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"He abandoned reckoning, did not assume conceit; 38
He cut off craving(tanha sans. trishna) here for mind-and-bodyform(namarupa).
Though devas(angels) and humans search for him
Here and beyond, in the heavens and all abodes,
They do not find the one whose knots are cut,
The one untroubled, free of longing.

"If you understand, spirit, speak up."

(Devata:)
"I understand in detail, venerable sir, the meaning of what
was stated in brief by the Lord (Buddha) thus:

"One should do no evil in all the world,
Not by speech, mind, or body.
Having abandoned sense pleasures.
meditative(satima) and completely comprehending (sampajano).
One should not pursue a course
That is painful and harmful." 39



(iii) Sword Section (Sattivaggo)[]

21. A Sword (Satti)[]

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata(angel) recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"As if smitten by a sword; As if his head were on fire,
A bhikkhu(monk) should remain meditative(sati); To abandon sensual(kaam/sexual) lust(raag)."

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"As if smitten by a sword; As if his head were on fire,
A bhikkhu should remain meditative(sati); To abandon body-identity-view(sakkaya-ditthi)." 40


22. It Touches (Phusati)[]

(Devata:)
"It does not touch one who does not touch; But then will touch the one who touches.
Therefore it touches the one who touches; The one who wrongs an innocent man." 41

(Buddha:)
"If one wrongs an innocent man,
A pure person without blemish.
The evil falls back on the unwise himself
Like fine dust thrown against the wind." 42


23. Tangle (Jata)[]

(Devata:)
"A tangle inside, a tangle outside; This generation is entangled in a tangle.
I ask you this, O Gotama; Who can disentangle this tangle?" 43

(Buddha:)
"A man established on virtue(sheel), wise; Developing the mind(citta) and illuminated-insight(panna),
A bhikkhu(monk) ardent and discreet; He can disentangle this tangle. 44

"Those for whom lust(raag) & hatred(dosa/dvesh); Along with ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) have been expunged.
The arahants with defilements destroyed; For them the tangle is disentangled. 45

"Where mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) ceases(in samadhi/trance state); Stops (functioning) without remainder.
And also impingement(patigha) and perception(sanna sans. sangya) of form; It is here this tangle is cut." 46

Note : While in meditation blissful transcendental states are experienced called samadhi/jhana/zen/trance. In the higher states, due to intense bliss, one ceases experiencing the reports of body. Also, secondly, when one learns to remain in this inner bliss, one does not want the attractions based on forms(gender etc.).


24. Reining in the Mind (Mano-nivarana)[]

(Devata:)
"From whatever one reins in the mind.
From that no suffering comes to one.
Should one rein in the mind from everything,
One is freed from all suffering."

(Buddha:)
"One need not rein in the mind from everything
When the mind has come under control.
From whatever it is that evil comes,
From this one should rein in the mind." 47


25 The Arahant[]

(Devata:)
"If a bhikkhu(monk) is an arahant.
With defilements destroyed one who bears his final body.
Would he still say, 'I speak'?
And would he say, 'They speak to me'?" 48

(Buddha:)
"If a bhikkhu is an arahant,
With defilements destroyed, one who bears his final body.
He might still say, 'I speak,'
And he might say, 'They speak to me.'
Skilful, knowing the world's parlance,
He uses such terms as mere expressions." 49

"When a bhikkhu is an arahant,
With defilements destroyed,one who bears his final body.
Is it because he has come upon conceit
That he would say, 'I speak,'
That he would say, 'They speak to me'?" 50

"No knots exist for one with conceit abandoned;
For him all knots of conceit are consumed.
Though the wise one has transcended the conceived, [15]
He still might say, 'I speak,'
He might say too, 'They speak to me.'
Skilful, knowing the world's parlance,
He uses such terms as mere expressions." 51

Note : The Arahant state is achieved in the highest (9th) state of samadhi/jhana/zen/trance and it is the state equal to Buddha. In this state a person loses the sense of 'I' since it becomes universal , infinite & transcendental (probably equivalent to the state of 'dark energy' concept of science).


26. Sources of Light (Pajjota sans. Prajwalit)[]

(Devata:)
65 "How many sources of light are in the world; By means of which the world is illumined?
We have come to ask the Lord (Buddha) this; How are we to understand it?"

(Buddha:)
"There are four sources of light in the world; A fifth one is not found here.
The sun shines by day; The moon glows at night,

And fire flares up here and there ; Both by day and at night.
But the Buddha is the best of those that shine; He is the light unsurpassed."

Note: Here shine related to Buddha is in divine terms, transendental in nature and experienced by awakened ones i.e. those who experience samadhi/jhana/zen/trance.


27 Streams (Saraa)[]

(Devata:)
"From where do the streams turn back? Where does the round no longer revolve?
Where does mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) cease; Stop without remainder?"

(Buddha:)
"Where water, earth, fire, and air; Do not gain a footing;
It is from here that the streams turn back; Here that the round no longer revolves;
Here mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) ceases; Stops without remainder." 52

Note: Here stream is about life stream and is suspended/transcended by awakened ones i.e. those who experience samadhi/jhana/zen/trance which is the superconsciousness state.


28 Those of Great Wealth (Mahaddhana)[]

(Devata:)
"Those of great wealth and property; Even khattiyas who rule the country
Look at each other with greedy eyes; Insatiable in sensual pleasures.

(Buddha:)
Among these who have become so desirous.
Flowing along in the stream of existence(bhavo).
Who here have abandoned craving(tanha sans. trishna)?
Who in the world are no longer desirous?"

"Having left their homes and gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit); Having left their dear sons and cattle,
Having left behind lust(raag) & hatred(dosa/dvesh); Having expunged ignorance(avijja sans. avidya)
The arahants with defilements destroyed; Are those in the world no longer desirous."

Note: This is about arahants i.e. awakened ones.


29. Four Wheels (Catucakka)[]

(Devata:)
"Having four wheels and nine doors; Filled up and bound with greed.
Born from a bog, O greatly brave(mahavir)! How does one escape from it?" 55

(Buddha:)
"Having cut the thong and the strap; Having cut off evil desire and greed.
Having drawn out craving(tanha sans. trishna) with its root; Thus one escapes from it." 56

Note: 2 hands and 2 feet are the 4 wheels; 9 doors are the openings of body i.e. eyes, ears, nose, mouth & 2 lower ones; escape is from rebirth; And only by removing craving(tanha sans. trishna) of world's attractions, one can escape.


30 Antelope Calves (Enijangha)[]

(Devata:)
"Having approached you, we ask a question; Of the slender one brave(vir) with antelope calves,
Greedless, subsisting on little food; Wandering alone like a lion or naga.
Without concern for sensual pleasures; How is one released(in mokkha/moksha) from suffering?" 57

(Buddha:)
"Five cords of sensual pleasure in the world; With mind declared to be the sixth;
Having expunged desire here; One is thus released(in mokkha/moksha) from suffering." 58

Note: Five cords are eyes, ears, nose, tongue & touch.



(iv) The Satullapa Host[]

31. With the Good (Sabbhi)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Then, when the night had advanced, a number of devatas(angels) belonging to the Satullapa host, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), approached the Lord (Buddha). 59 Having approached, they paid homage to the Lord (Buddha) and stood to one side.

Then one devata(angel), standing to one side, recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"One should associate only with the good;With the good one should foster intimacy.
Having learnt the true Dhamma(path,law) of the good;One becomes better, never worse."

Then five other devatas in turn recited their verses in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

(Devata1:)
"One should associate only with the good;With the good one should foster intimacy.
Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good;illuminated-insight(panna) is gained, but not from another." 60

(Devata2:)
"One should associate only with the good;With the good one should foster intimacy.
Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good;One does not sorrow in the midst of sorrow."

(Devata3:)
"One should associate only with the good;With the good one should foster intimacy.
Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good;One shines among one's relations."

(Devata4:)
"One should associate only with the good;With the good one should foster intimacy.
Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good;Beings go(rebirth) on to a good destination(sugati, heaven etc.)."

(Devata5:)
"One should associate only with the good; With the good one should foster intimacy.
Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good; Beings dwell comfortably." 61

Then another devata said to the Lord (Buddha): "Which one,
Lord (Buddha), has spoken well?"

(Buddha:)
"You have all spoken well in a way. 62 But listen to me too:

"One should associate only with the good;With the good one should foster intimacy.
Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good; One is released(in mokkha/moksha) from all suffering."

This is what the Lord (Buddha) said. Elated, those devatas(angels) paid homage to the Lord (Buddha) and, keeping him on the right, they disappeared right there.

Note: Here released(in mokkha/moksha) from suffering means nirvana i.e. free from rebirths & the eternal state.


32. Stinginess (Macchari)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Then, when the night had advanced, a number of devatas(angels) belonging to the Satullapa host, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), approached the Lord (Buddha). Having approached, they paid homage to the Lord (Buddha) and stood to one side.

Then one devata(angel), standing to one side, recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Through stinginess and slothfulness(pamada); A donation is not given.
One who knows, desiring divine-merit(punya); Should surely give a donation."

Then another devata recited these verses in the presence of the
Lord (Buddha):

"That which the miser fears when he does not give (donation);Is the very danger that comes to the nongiver.
The hunger and thirst that the miser fears; Afflict that childish(unwise) in this world and the next.

"Therefore, having removed stinginess; The conqueror of the stain should give a donation. 63
Deeds of divine-merit(punya) are the support for living beings; (When they arise) in the other world."

Then another devata recited these verses in the presence of the
Lord (Buddha):

"They do not die among the dead; Who, like fellow travellers on the road.
Provide though they have but a little; This is an ancient principle. 64

"Some provide from the little they have; Others who are affluent don't like to give donation.
An offering donated from what little one has; Is worth a thousand times its value."

Then another devata recited these verses in the presence of the
Lord (Buddha):

"The bad do not emulate the good; Who donate what is hard to donate
And do deeds hard to do; The Dhamma(path,law) of the good is hard to follow.

"Therefore their destination after death; Differs for the good and the bad,
The bad go to hell; The good are bound for heaven."

Then another devata said to the Lord (Buddha): "Which one, Lord (Buddha), has spoken well?"

"You have all spoken well in a way. But listen to me too: "

(Buddha:)
"If one practises the Dhamma; Though living in poverty,
If while one supports one's wife; One gives from the little one has,
Then a hundred thousand donations; Of those who donate a thousand
Are not worth even a fraction ; (Of the donation) of one like him." 65

Then another devata addressed the Lord (Buddha) in verse:

"Why does their donation, vast and grand,
Not share the value of the righteous one's donation?
Why are a hundred thousand donations Of those who donate a thousand
Not worth even a fraction (Of the donation) of one like him?"

Then the Lord (Buddha) answered that devata in verse:

(Buddha:)
"Since they give while settled in unrighteousness,
Having slain and killed, causing sorrow.
Their offering - tearful, fraught with violence
Shares not the value of the righteous one's donation.

That is why a hundred thousand offerings; Of those who donate a thousand
Are not worth even a fraction; (Of the donation) of one like him."


33 Good (Sadhu)[]

At Savatthi. Then, when the night had advanced, a number of devatas(angels) belonging to the Satullapa host, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), approached the Lord (Buddha). Having approached, they paid homage to the Lord (Buddha) and stood to one side.

Then one devata(angel), standing to one side, uttered this inspired utterance in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Good is giving donation, dear sir!
"Through stinginess and slothfulness(pamada) ; A donation is not given.
One who knows, desiring divine-merit(punya); Should surely give a donation."

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the
presence of the Lord (Buddha):

Good is giving donation, dear sir!

And further:

Even when there's little, giving donation is good.
"Some provide from what little they have.
Others who are affluent don't like to give donation.
An offering donated from what little one has
Is worth a thousand times its value."

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the
presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Good is giving donation, dear sir!
Even when there's little, giving donation is good.

And further:

When done with faith too, giving donation is good.
"Giving donation and warfare are similar, they say
A few good ones conquer many.
If one with faith gives even a little.
He thereby becomes happy in the other world." 66

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the
presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Good is giving donation, dear sir!
Even when there's little, giving donation is good.
When done with faith too, giving donation is good.

And further:

The donation of a righteous gain is also good.
"When he gives a donation of a righteous gain
Obtained by exertion and energetic-strength(viriya),
Having passed over Yama's Vetarani River,
That mortal arrives at celestial states." 67

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the
presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Good is giving donation, dear sir!
Even when there's little, giving donation is good.
When done with faith too, giving donation is good;
The donation of a righteous gain is also good.

And further:

Donating discriminately too is good. 68
"Donating discriminately is praised by the Fortunate One(Sugato) -
To those worthy of offerings
Here in the world of the living.
What is donated to them bears great fruit
Like seeds sown in a fertile field."

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the
presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Good is giving donation, dear sir!
Even when there's little, giving donation is good.
When done with faith too, giving donation is good;
The donation of a righteous gain is also good.
Giving donation with discretion too is good.

And further:

Restraint towards living beings is also good.
"One who dwells harming no living beings
Does no evil from fear of others' rejection.
In that they praise the timid, not the brave,
For out of fear the good do no evil."

Then another devata said to the Lord (Buddha): "Which one, Lord (Buddha), has spoken well?"

"You have all spoken well in a way. But listen to me too:

"Surely giving donation is praised in many ways.
But the path of Dhamma(laws,truth) surpasses giving of donation.
For in the past and even long ago.
The good and wise ones attained Nibbana." 69


34 There Are No (Nasanti)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Then, when the night had advanced, a number of devatas(angels) belonging to the Satullapa host, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), approached the Lord (Buddha). Having approached, they paid homage to the Lord (Buddha) and stood to one side.

Then one devata(angel), standing to one side, recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"There are among humans No permanent sensual pleasures;
Here there are just desirable things;When a person is bound to these,
Slothful(pamada) in their midst;From Death's realm he does not reach
The state of no-more-coming-back(no-rebirth/nibbana)" 70

[Another devata:]
"Misery is born of desire; suffering is born
of desire. By the removal of desire, misery is removed; by the
removal of misery, suffering is removed." 71

(Buddha:)
"They are not sense pleasures, the world's pretty things,
Man's sensuality is the intention of lust.
The pretty things remain as they are in the world
But the wise remove the desire for them. 72

"One should discard anger, cast off conceit.
Transcend all the fetters.
No sufferings torment one who has nothing.
Who does not adhere to mind-and-bodyform(namarupa). 73

"He abandoned reckoning, did not assume conceit;
He cut off craving(tanha sans. trishna) here for mind-and-bodyform(namarupa).
Though devas and humans search for him
Here and beyond, in the heavens and all abodes,
They do not find the one whose knots are cut,
The one untroubled, free of longing."

(Venerable Mogharaja:)
"If devas and humans have not seen
The one thus liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) here or beyond,"
"Are they to be praised who venerate him.
The best of men, living for the good of humans?" 74

("Mogharaja," said the Lord (Buddha):)
"Those bhikkhus too become worthy of praise,
"Who venerate him, the one thus liberated(vimutta).
But having known Dhamma(path,law) and abandoned doubt,
Those bhikkhus become even breakers of chains." 75


35. Faultfinders (Ujjhanasanni)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Then, when the night had advanced, a number of "faultfinding" devatas(angels), of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), approached the Lord (Buddha) and stood in the air 76 [24]

Then one devata(angel), standing in the air, recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"If one shows oneself in one way; While actually being otherwise,
What one enjoys is obtained by theft; Like the gains of a cheating gambler." 77

(Another devata:)
"One should speak as one would act;Don't speak as one wouldn't act.
The wise clearly discern the person ; Who does not practise what he preaches."

(Buddha:)
"Not by mere speech ; nor solely by listening;
Can one advance on this firm path of practice
By which the wise ones, the meditators, Are released(in mokkha/moksha) from the bondage of Mara(Satan).

"Truly, the wise do not pretend; For they have understood the way of the world.
By knowledge the wise attain nibbana; They have crossed over attachment to the world."

Then those devatas(angels), having alighted on the earth, prostrated themselves with their heads at the Lord (Buddha)'s feet and said to the Lord (Buddha): "A transgression overcame us, venerable sir, being so childish(unwise), so stupid, so unskilful that we imagined we could assail the Lord (Buddha). Let the Lord (Buddha) pardon us for our transgression seen as such for the sake of restraint in the future."

Then the Lord (Buddha) displayed a smile. 78 Those devatas, finding fault to an even greater extent, then rose up into the air. One devata(angel) recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"If one does not grant pardon; To those who confess transgression,
Angry at heart, intent on hate; One strongly harbours enmity."

(Buddha:)
"If there was no transgression; If here there was no going astray.
And if enmities ended; Then one would be faultless here." 79

(A devata:)
"For whom are there no transgressions? For whom is there no going astray?
Who has not fallen into confusion? And who is the wise one, ever meditative(satima)?"

(The Lord (Buddha):)
"The Tathagata, the Enlightened One, Full of compassion for all beings:
For him there are no transgressions, For him there is no going astray;
He has not fallen into confusion, And he is the wise one, ever meditative(satima).

"If one does not grant pardon; To those who confess transgression,
Angry at heart, intent on hate, One strongly harbours enmity.
In that enmity I do not delight(nandi\anand);Thus I pardon your transgression."


36 Faith (Saddha sans. Shraddha)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Then, when the night had advanced, a number of devatas(angels) belonging to the Satullapa host, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), approached the Lord (Buddha). Having approached, they paid homage to the Lord (Buddha) and stood to one side.

Then one devata(angel), standing to one side, recited this verse in the
presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Faith is a person's partner;
If lack of faith does not persist.
Fame and renown thereby come to him,
And he goes to heaven on leaving the body."

Then another devata recited these verses in the presence of the
Lord (Buddha): 80

"One should discard anger, cast off conceit.
Transcend all the fetters.
No bonds torment one who has nothing,
Who does not adhere to mind-and-bodyform(namarupa)." 81

(Another devata:)

"Childish(unwise) people devoid of illuminated-insight(panna); Devote themselves to slothfulness(pamada).
But the wise man guards alertfulness(appamada); As his foremost treasure.

"Do not yield to slothfulness; Don't be intimate with sensual delight(nandi\anand).
For the alertful ones, meditating; Attain supreme happiness(sukh)."


37 Concourse (Samaya)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling among the Sakyans at Kapilavatthu in the Great Wood together with a great Sangha of bhikkhus(monks), with five hundred bhikkhus all of whom were arahants. 82 And the devatas(angels) from ten-world-systems(dasa-loka-dhatu) had for the most part assembled in order to see the Lord (Buddha) and the bhikkhu(monk) Sangha(fraternity). Then the thought occurred to four devatas(angels) of the host from the Pure-Abodes(suddhavasa): 83
"The Lord (Buddha) is dwelling among the Sakyans at Kapilavatthu in the Great Wood together with a great Sangha of bhikkhus, with five hundred bhikkhus all of whom are arahants. And the devatas from ten-world-systems have for the most part assembled in order to see the Lord (Buddha) and the Bhikkhu Sangha. Let us also approach the Lord (Buddha) and, in his presence, each speak our own verse."

Then, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn in arm or draw in his extended arm, those devatas disappeared from among the devas(angels) of the Pure-Abodes(suddhavasa) and reappeared before the Lord (Buddha). Then those devatas paid homage to the Lord (Buddha) and stood to one side. Standing to one side, one devata(angel) recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"A great concourse takes place in the woods; The deva(angel) hosts have assembled.
We have come to this dhamma(path,law) concourse; To see the invincible Sangha."

Then another devata recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"The bhikkhus there are in-samadhi(trance)state; They have straightened their own minds.
Like a charioteer who holds the reins; The wise ones guard their faculties."

Then another devata recited this verse in the presence of the
Lord (Buddha):

"Having cut through barrenness, cut the cross-bar; Having uprooted senses' pillar, unstirred.
They wander about pure and stainless;Young nagas well tamed by the One with Vision." 84

Then another devata recited this verse in the presence of the
Lord (Buddha):

"Those who have gone to the Buddha for refuge; Will not go to the plane of misery.
On discarding the human body; They will fill the hosts of devas." 85


38 The Stone Splinter (Sakalika)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Maddakucchi Deer-Park(Migdaye). Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha)'s foot had been cut by a stone splinter. 86 Severe pains assailed the Lord (Buddha) - bodily sensations(vedana) that were painful, racking, sharp, piercing, harrowing, disagreeable. But the Lord (Buddha) endured them, meditative(satima) and completely comprehending (sampajano), without becoming distressed. Then the Lord (Buddha) had his outer robe folded in four, and he lay down on his right side in the lion posture with one leg overlapping the other, meditative(satima) and completely comprehending (sampajano).

Then, when the night had advanced, seven hundred devatas(angels) belonging to the Satullapa host, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Maddakucchi Deer-Park(Migdaye), approached the Lord (Buddha). Having approached, they paid homage to the Lord (Buddha) and stood to one side.

Then one devata(angel), standing to one side, uttered this inspired
utterance in the presence of the Lord (Buddha): "The ascetic
Gotama is indeed a naga, sir! And when bodily sensations(vedana) have
arisen that are painful, racking, sharp, piercing, harrowing,
disagreeable, through his naga-like manner he endures them,
meditative(satima) and completely comprehending (sampajano), without becoming
distressed." 87

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the
presence of the Lord (Buddha): "The ascetic Gotama is indeed a
lion, sir! And when bodily sensations(vedana) have arisen that are painful,
racking, sharp, piercing, harrowing, disagreeable, through his
lion like manner he endures them, meditative(satima) and completely comprehending (sampajano),
without becoming distressed."

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the
presence of the Lord (Buddha): "The ascetic Gotama is indeed a
thoroughbred, sir! And when bodily sensations(vedana) have arisen that
are painful ... disagreeable, through his thoroughbred manner
he endures them, meditative(satima) and completely comprehending (sampajano), without
becoming distressed."

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the
presence of the Lord (Buddha): "The ascetic Gotama is indeed a
chief bull, sir! And when bodily sensations(vedana) have arisen that
are painful ... disagreeable, through his chief bull's manner he
endures them, meditative and completely comprehending (sampajano), without
becoming distressed."

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the
presence of the Lord (Buddha): "The ascetic Gotama is indeed a
beast of burden, sir! And when bodily sensations(vedana) have arisen that
are painful ... disagreeable, through his beast-of-burden's manner he endures them, meditative and completely comprehending (sampajano), without becoming distressed."

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the
presence of the Lord (Buddha): "The ascetic Gotama is indeed
tamed, sir! And when bodily sensations(vedana) have arisen that are
painful, racking, sharp, piercing, harrowing, disagreeable,
through his tamed manner he endures them, meditative(satima) and
completely comprehending (sampajano), without becoming distressed."

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the
presence of the Lord (Buddha): "See his samadhi(trance)state well
developed and his mind well liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) - not bent forward and not
bent back, and not blocked and checked by forceful suppression!88
If anyone would think such a one could be violated
such a naga of a man, such a lion of a man, such a thoroughbred
of a man, such a chief bull of a man, such a beast of
burden of a man, such a tamed man - what is that due to apart
from lack of vision?"

Though brahmins learned in the five Vedas; Practise austerities for a hundred years,
Their minds are not rightly liberated; Those of low nature do not reach the far shore. 89

They are within control of the cravings(tanha sans. trishna), bound to vows and rules;Practising hard austerity(tapa) for a hundred years.
But their minds are not rightly liberated; Those of low nature do not reach the far shore.

There is no taming here for one fond of conceit; Nor is there sagehood for the not-in-samadhi(trance)state:
Though dwelling alone in the forest, slothful(pamada); One cannot cross beyond the realm of Death.

Having abandoned conceit, well in-samadhi(trance)state; With lofty mind, everywhere released(in mokkha/moksha),
While dwelling alone in the forest, alertful(appamada); One can cross beyond the realm of Death.


39 Pajjunna's Daughter (1) (Pajjunnadhitu1)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling ing at Vesali in the Great Wood in the Hall with the Peaked Roof. Then, when the night had advanced, Kokanada, Pajjunna's daughter, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Great Wood, approached the Lord (Buddha). 90 Having approached, she paid homage to the Lord (Buddha), stood to one side, and recited these verses in the presence of the Lord (Buddha): 91

"Dwelling in the woods at Vesali; I worship the Buddha, the best of beings;
Kokanada am I, Kokanada, Pajjunna's daughter. 92

"Earlier I had only heard that the dhamma(path,law); Has been realized by the One with Vision;
But now I know it as a witness; While the Sage, the Fortunate One(Sugato), teaches.

"Those ignorant people who go about; Criticizing the noble Dhamma
Pass on to the terrible Roruva hell; And experience suffering for a long time. 93

"But those who have peace and acquiescence; In regard to the noble Dhamma,
On discarding the human body; Will fill the host of devas(angels)." 94


40 Pajjunna's Daughter (2)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Vesali in the Great Wood, in the Hall with the Peaked Roof. Then, when the night had advanced, Culakokanada, Pajjunna's (younger) daughter, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Great Wood, approached the Lord (Buddha). Having approached, she paid homage to the Lord (Buddha), stood to one side, and recited these verses in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Here came Kokanada, Pajjunna's daughter.
Beautiful as the gleam of lightning.
Venerating the Buddha and the dhamma(path,law),
She spoke these verses full of meaning.

"Though the Dhamma is of such a nature
That I might analyse it in many ways,
I will state its meaning briefly
To the extent I have learnt it by heart. 95

"One should do no evil, Not by speech, mind,
or by body in the all world;
Having abandoned sense pleasures; meditative(satima) and completely comprehending (sampajano).
One should not pursue a course; That is painful and harmful."



(v) Ablaze Section (Adittavaggo)[]

41 Ablaze (Aditta)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Then, when the night had advanced, a certain devata(angel) of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), approached the Lord (Buddha). Having approached, he paid homage to the Lord (Buddha), stood to one side, and recited these verses in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"When one's house is ablaze; The vessel taken out
Is the one that is useful; Not the one left burnt inside.

"So when the world is ablaze; With [the fires of] aging and death.
One should take out [one's wealth] by giving donations; What is donated is well salvaged.

"What is donated yields pleasant fruit; But not so what is not donated.
Thieves take it away, or kings; It gets burnt by fire or is lost.

"Then in the end one leaves the body; Along with one's possessions.
Having understood this, the wise person; Should enjoy himself but also give donation.
Having given donation and enjoyed as fits his means;
Blameless he goes to the heavenly state."


42. Giving What (Donation)? (Kimdada)[]

[A devata:]

141 "Giving what (donation) does one give strength? Giving what (donation) does one give beauty?
Giving what does one give ease? Giving what (donation) does one give sight?
Who is the giver of all? Being asked, please explain to me."

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Donating food, one gives strength; Donating clothes, one gives beauty;
Donating a vehicle, one gives ease; Donating a lamp, one gives sight.

"The one who donates a residence ; Is the giver of all.
But the one who teaches the dhamma(path,law); is the donor of the deathless-state/eternal(Amrita)."

Note : The donation of dhamma is the path of morality & meditation leading to divine knowledge & eternal life i.e. nirvana/moksha.


43 (3) Food/Grain(Anna)[]

(Devata:)
"They always take delight(nandi\anand) in food; Both devas(angels) and human beings.
So what sort of spirit could it be; That does not take delight(nandi\anand) in food?" 97

(Buddha:)
"When they give donation out of faith; With a heart of confidence,
Food accrues to [the giver] himself; Both in this world and the next.

"Therefore, having removed stinginess; The conqueror of the stain should give a donation.
Divine-merits(punya) are the support for living beings; [When they arise] in the other world."


44. One Root (Ekamula)[]

[A devata:]
"The saint has crossed over the abyss; With its one root, two whirlpools.
Three stains, five extensions; An ocean with twelve eddies." 98


45 Perfect (Anoma)[]

[A devata:]
148 "Look at him of perfect name; The seer of the subtle goal;
The giver of illuminated-insight(panna), unattached , To the lair of sensual pleasures.
Look at the wise one, all-knowing; The great saint treading the noble path." 99


46 Nymphs (Acchara sans. Apsara)[]

(Devata:)
"Resounding with a host of nymphs; Haunted by a host of demons!
This grove is to be called 'Deluding', How does one escape from it?" 100

(Buddha:)
"The straight way' that path is called; And 'fearless' is its destination.
The chariot is called unrattling; Fitted with wheels of beneficial(kusala sans. kushal) states.

"The sense of shame is its leaning board; meditation(sati) its upholstery;
I call the dhamma(path,law) the charioteer; With right view running out in front. 101

"One who has such a vehicle; Whether a woman or a man
Has, by means of this vehicle; Drawn close to Nibbana." 102

Note : The devata/angel is referring to the world.


47 Planters of Groves(Vanaropa)[]

(Devata:)
"For whom does divine-merit(punya) always increase; Both by day and by night?
Who are the people going to heaven; Established in dhamma(path,law), endowed with virtue?"

(Buddha:)
"Those who set up a park or a grove; The people who construct a bridge,
A place to drink and a well; Those who donate a residence 103

"For them divine-merit(punya) always increases; Both by day and by night;
Those are the people going to heaven; Established in Dhamma, endowed with virtue(sheel)."


48. Jeta's-Grove(Jetavana)[]

[The devata Anathapindika:]
"This indeed is that Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana); The resort of the Order of saints(ishis sans. rishis).
Dwelt in by the Dhamma(laws,path) King; A place that gives me bliss. 104

"Action(Kamma/karma), knowledge, righteousness; Virtue(sheel), an excellent life,
By this are mortals purified; Not by clan or wealth.

"Therefore a person who is wise; Out of regard for his own good.
Should meditatively(yoniso) examine the dhamma(path,law); Thus he is purified in it.

"Sariputta truly is endowed with illuminated-insight(panna); With virtue and with inner peace.
Even a bhikkhu(monk) who has gone beyond; At best can only equal him." 105


49 Stingy (Macchari)[]

[A devata:]
160 "Those who are stingy here in the world; miserly folk, revilers.
People who create obstacles; For others engaged in donating alms,

What kind of result do they reap? What kind of future destiny?
We've come to ask the Lord (Buddha) this; How are we to understand it?"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
162 "Those who are stingy here in the world; miserly folk, revilers.
People who create obstacles; For others engaged in donating alms,

They might be reborn in hell; In the animal realm or Yama's world. 106
"If they come back to the human state; They are born in a poor family

Where clothes, food, pleasures, and sport; Are obtained only with difficulty.
"Whatever the childish(unwise) may expect from others; Even that they do not obtain.
This is the result in this very life; And in the future a bad destination."

[A devata:]
"We understand thus what you have said; We ask, O Gotama, another question,
Those here who, on gaining the human state; Are amiable and generous.

Confident in the Buddha and the dhamma(path,law); And deeply respectful towards the Sangha
What kind of result do they reap? What kind of future destiny?
We've come to ask the Lord (Buddha) this; How are we to understand it?"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Those here who, on gaining the human state; Are amiable and generous.
Confident in the Buddha and the Dhamma; And deeply respectful towards the Sangha,
These brighten up the heavens; Where they've been reborn. 107

"If they come back to the human state; They are reborn in a rich family
Where clothes, food, pleasures, and sport; Are obtained without difficulty.

"They rejoice like the devas(angels) who control; The goods amassed by others. 108
This is the result in this very life; And in the future a good destination(sugati)."


50 Ghatikara[]

(A friend of Buddha in past life, now anagami (non-rebirther), in Brahma/Archangel world)

[The devata Ghatikara:]
"Seven bhikkhus reborn in Aviha (hell); Have been fully liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt).
With lust(raag) & hatred(dosa/dvesh) utterly destroyed; They have crossed over attachment to the world." 109

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"And who are those who crossed the swamp; The realm of Death so hard to cross?
Who, having left the human body; Have overcome the celestial bond?" 110

[Ghatikara:]
"Upaka and Palaganda; With Pukkusati - these are three.
Then Bhaddiya and Khandadeva, And Bahudraggi and Singiya.
These, having left the human body; Have overcome the celestial bond." 111

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Good is the word you speak of them; Of those who have abandoned Mara(Satan)'s snares.
Whose dhamma(path,law) was it that they understood to cut through the bondage of existence(bhavo)?" 112

[Ghatikara:]
"It was not apart from the Lord (Buddha)! It was not apart from your Teaching!
By having understood your Dhamma; They cut through the bondage of existence(bhavo).

"Where mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) ceases; Stops without remainder,
By understanding that Dhamma here; They cut through the bondage of existence(bhavo)." 113

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Deep is the speech you utter; Hard to understand, very hard to grasp.
Having understood whose Dhamma; Do you utter such speech?"

[Ghatikara:]
"In the past I was the potter; Ghatikara in Vekalinga.
I supported my mother and father then; As a lay follower of the Buddha Kassapa.

"I abstained from sexual intercourse; I was celibate, free from carnal chains.
I was your fellow villager; In the past I was your friend.

"I am the one who knows; These seven liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) bhikkhus.
Who with lust(raag) & hatred(dosa/dvesh) utterly destroyed; Have crossed over attachment to the world."

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Just so it was at that time.

[Ghatikara:]
As you say, O Bhaggava(Lord) 114

[Buddha:]
In the past you were the potter, Ghatikara in Vekalinga.
You supported your mother and father then; As a lay follower of the Buddha Kassapa,

who abstained from sexual intercourse; You were celibate, free from carnal chains.
You were my fellow villager; In the past you were my friend."

Such was the meeting that took place; Between those friends from the past.
Both now inwardly developed; Bearers of their final bodies. 115



(vi) Old Age Section (Jaravaggo)[]

51 Old Age (Jara)[]

[A devata:]
"What is good for old age? What is good when established?
What is the precious gem of humans? What is hard for thieves to steal?"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Virtue(sheel) is good for old age; Faith is good when established;
Illuminated-insight(panna) is the precious gem of humans; Divine-merit(punya) is hard for thieves to steal."


52 Undecaying (Ajarasa)[]

[Devata:]
185 "What is good by not decaying? What is good when made secure?
What is the precious gem of humans? What cannot be stolen by thieves?" 116

[Buddha:]
"virtue(sheel) is good by not decaying; Faith is good when made secure;
illuminated-insight(panna) is the precious gem of humans; Divine-merit(punya) cannot be stolen by thieves."


53 The Friend (Mitta sans. Mitra)[]

[Devata:]
187 "What is the friend of one on a journey? What is the friend in one's own home?
What is the friend of one in need? What is the friend in the future life?" 117

[Buddha:]
188 "A caravan is the friend of one on a journey; A mother is the friend in one's own home;
A comrade when the need arises; Is one's friend again and again.
The deeds of divine-merit(punya) one has done; That is the friend in the future life."


54 Support (Vatthu)[]

[Devata:]
"What is the support of human beings? What is the best companion here?
The creatures who dwell on the earth; By what do they sustain their life?"

[Buddha:]
"Sons are the support of human beings; A wife the best companion;
The creatures who dwell on the earth; Sustain their life by rain." 118


55. Person (1) (Jana1)[]

[Devata:]
191 "What is it that produces a person? What does he have that runs around?
What enters upon samsara? What is his greatest fear?"

[Buddha:]
"It is craving(tanha sans. trishna) that produces a person; His mind is what runs around;
A being enters upon samsara; Suffering is his greatest fear."


56. Person (2) (Jana2)[]

[Devata:]
"What is it that produces a person? What does he have that runs around?
What enters upon samsara? From what is he not yet freed?"

[Buddha:]
"craving(tanha sans. trishna) is what produces a person; His mind is what runs around;
A being enters upon samsara; He is not freed from suffering." [38]


57. Person (3) (Jana3)[]

[Devata:]
"What is it that produces a person? What does he have that runs around?
What enters upon samsara? What determines his destiny?"

[Buddha:]
"craving(tanha sans. trishna) is what produces a person; His mind is what runs around;
A being enters upon samsara; kamma(karma) determines his destiny."


58. The Deviant Path(Uppatha)[]

[Devata:]
"What is declared the deviant path? What undergoes destruction(khaya\kshaya) night and day?
What is the stain of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya)? What is the bath without water?"

[Buddha:]
"Lust is declared the deviant path; Life undergoes destruction(khaya\kshaya) night and day;
Women are the stain of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya); Here menfolk are enmeshed.
Austerity and the holy celibate life(brahmacariya); That is the bath without water." 119


59. Partner (Dutiya)[]

[Devata:]
"What is a person's partner? What is it that instructs him?
Taking delight(nandi\anand) in what is a mortal; released(in mokkha/moksha) from all suffering?"

[Buddha:]
"Faith is a person's partner, And illuminated-insight(panna) is what instructs him.
Taking delight(nandi\anand) in Nibbana, a mortal; Is released(in mokkha/moksha) from all suffering."


60 Poet (Kavi)[]

[Devata:]
"What is the scaffolding of verses? What constitutes their phrasing?
On what base do verses rest? What is the abode of verses?"

[Buddha:]
"Metre is the scaffolding of verses; Syllables constitute their phrasing;
Verses rest on a base of names; The poet is the abode of verses." 120



(vii) Weighed Down (Addhavaggo)[]

61 Naam (Mind)[]

[Devata:]
"What has weighed down everything?What is most extensive?
What is the one Dhamma(quality,law) that has ; All under its control?"

[Buddha:]
"Naam(mind) has weighed down everything; Nothing is more extensive than naam(mind).
Naam(mind) is the one dhamma that has; All under its control." 121


62 Mind (Citta/Consciousness)[]

[Devata:]
"By what is the world led around? By what is it dragged here and there?
What is the one dhamma(quality,law) that has; All under its control?"

[Buddha:]
"The world is led around by mind; By mind it's dragged here and there.
Mind is the one dhamma that has; All under its control." 122


63 Craving(Tanha sans. Trishna)[]

[Devata:]
"By what is the world led around? By what is it dragged here and there? <88>
What is the one dhamma(quality,law) that has; All under its control?"

[Buddha:]
"The world is led around by craving(tanha sans. trishna); By craving it is dragged here and there.
craving(tanha sans. trishna) is the one dhamma that has; All under its control."


64 Fetter (Samyojana)[]

[Devata:]
"By what is the world tightly fettered? What is its means of travelling about(vicaranam)?
What is it that one must forsake; In order to say, 'Nibbana'?"

[Buddha:]
210 "The world is tightly fettered by delight(nandi\anand);Thought is its means of travelling about(vicaranam).
craving(tanha sans. trishna) is what one must forsake; In order to say, 'Nibbana.'" 123


65 Bondage (Bandhana)[]

[Devata:]
"By what is the world held in bondage? What is its means of travelling about(vicaranam)?
What is it that one must forsake; To cut off all bondage?" [40]

[Buddha:]
"The world is held in bondage by delight(nandi\anand);Thought is its means of travelling about(vicaranam).
craving(tanha sans. trishna) is what one must forsake; To cut off all bondage."


66 Afflicted (Attahata)[]

[Devata:]
"By what is the world afflicted? By what is it enveloped?
By what dart has it been wounded? With what is it always burning?" 124

[Buddha:]
214 "The world is afflicted with death; Enveloped by old age;
Wounded by the dart of craving(tanha sans. trishna); It is always burning with desire."


67 Ensnared (Uditta)[]

[Devata:]
"By what is the world ensnared? By what is it enveloped?
By what is the world shut in? On what is the world established?"

[Buddha:]
"The world is ensnared by craving(tanha sans. trishna); It is enveloped by old age;
The world is shut in by death; The world is established on suffering." 125


68 Shut In (Pihita)[]

[Devata:]
"By what is the world shut in? On what is the world established?
By what is the world ensnared? By what is it enveloped?"

[Buddha:]
"The world is shut in by death; The world is established on suffering;
The world is ensnared by craving(tanha sans. trishna); It is enveloped by old age."


69 Desire (Iccha)[]

[Devata:]
"By what is the world bound? By the removal of what is it freed?
What is it that one must forsake; To cut off all bondage?"

[Buddha:]
"By desire is the world bound; By the removal of desire it is freed.
Desire is what one must forsake; To cut off all bondage." [41]


70 World (Loka)[]

[Devata:]
"In what has the world arisen? In what does it form intimacy?
By clinging(upadana sans. asakti) to what is the world; Harassed in regard to what?"

[Buddha:]
"In six has the world arisen;(eyes,ear,nose,taste,touch & mind)
In six it forms intimacy;
By clinging(upadana sans. asakti) to six the world; Is harassed in regard to six." 126



(viii) Killing (Chetvavaggo )[]

71 Killing (Chetva)[]

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata(angel) addressed the Lord (Buddha) in verse:

"Having killed what does one sleep soundly?Having killed what does one not sorrow?
What is the one dhamma(quality,law), O Gotama,; Whose killing you approve?" 127

[Buddha:]
"Having killed anger, one sleeps soundly; Having killed anger, one does not sorrow;
The killing of anger, O devata.With its poisoned root and honeyed tip;
This is the killing the noble ones praise, For having killed that, one does not sorrow." 128


72 Chariot (Ratha)[]

[Devata:]
"What is the token of a chariot? What, the token of a fire?
What is the token of a country? What, the token of a woman?" 129 [42]

[Buddha:]
"A standard(flag) is the token of a chariot; Smoke, the token of a fire;
The king is a country's token; A husband, the token of a woman."


73 (3) Wealth (Vitta)[]

[Devata:]
"What here is a man's best wealth? What practised well brings happiness(sukh)?
What is really the sweetest of tastes? How lives the one whom they say lives best?"

[Buddha:]
"Faith is here a man's best wealth; dhamma(path,law) practised well brings happiness;
Truth is really the sweetest of tastes; One living by illuminated-insight(panna) they say lives best." 130


74 Rain (Vutthi, sans. Vrishti)[]

[A devata:]
"What is the best of things that rise up?What excels among things that fall down?
What is the best of things that go forth?Who is the most excellent of speakers?"

[Another devata:]
"A seed is the best of things that rise up;Rain excels among things that fall down;
Cattle are the best of things that go forth;A son is the most excellent of speakers." 131

[Buddha:]
"Knowledge is the best of things that rise up;ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) excels among things that fall down;
Sangha(fraternity) is the best of things that go forth;most excellent of speakers is the Buddha." 132


75 Afraid (Bhita)[]

[Devata:]
"Why are so many people here afraid
When the path has been taught with many organs? 133
I ask you, O Gotama, broad of illuminated-insight(panna);
On what should one take a stand; To have no fear of the other world?"

[Buddha:]
"Having directed speech and mind rightly;
Doing no evil deeds with the body,
Dwelling at home with ample food and drink;
Faithful, gentle, generous, amiable;
When one stands on these four Dhammas;
Standing firmly on the dhamma(path,law); One need not fear the other world." 134


76 Does Not Decay (Najirati sans. Najirnati)[]

[Devata:]
"What decays, what does not decay? What is declared the deviant path?
What is the impediment to (beneficial) states? What undergoes destruction(khaya\kshaya) night and day?
What is the stain of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya)? What is the bath without water?

"How many fissures are there in the world;Wherein the mind does not stand firm?
We've come to ask the Lord (Buddha) this; How are we to understand it?"

[Buddha:]
"The physical form of mortals decays; Their name and clan does not decay.
Lust is declared the deviant path;

Greed the impediment to [beneficial] states; "Life undergoes destruction(khaya\kshaya) night and day;
Women are the stain of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya); Here's where people are enmeshed.
Austerity and the holy celibate life(brahmacariya); That is the bath without water."

"There are six fissures in the world;Wherein the mind does not stand firm:
Laziness and slothfulness(pamada); Indolence, lack of self-control.
Drowsiness and lethargy; Avoid these fissures completely." 135


77 Sovereignty (Issariya)[]

[Devata:]
"What is sovereignty in the world?What ranks as the best of goods?
What in the world is a rusty sword?What in the world is considered a plague?

240 "Whom do they arrest when he takes away? And who, when he takes away, is dear?
In whom do the wise take delight(nandi\anand); When he rebirths again and again?"

[Buddha:]
"Mastery is sovereignty in the world 136; A woman ranks as the best of goods;
In the world anger is a rusty sword;Thieves in the world are considered a plague. 137

"They arrest a thief when he takes away; But an ascetic who takes away is dear.
The wise take delight(nandi\anand) in an ascetic; When he rebirths again and again."


78 Love (Kama)[]

[Devata:]
"What should he not give who loves the good?What should a mortal not relinquish?
What should one release(mokkha/moksha) when it's good; But not release(mokkha/moksha) when it's bad?"

[Buddha:]
"A person should not give himself away; He should not relinquish himself. 138
One should utter speech that is good; But not speech that is bad."


79 Provisions for a Journey (Patheyya)[]

[Devata:]
"What secures provisions for a journey?What is the abode of wealth?
What drags a person around?What in the world is hard to discard?
By what are many beings bound; Like birds caught in a snare?"

[Buddha:]
"Faith secures provisions for a journey;Fortune is the abode of wealth;
Desire drags a person around;Desire is hard to discard in the world.
By desire many beings are bound;Like birds caught in a snare."


80 Source of Light (Pajjota sans. Prajyot)[]

[Devata:]
"What is the source of light in the world? What in the world is the wakeful one?
What are [the colleagues] of those living by work?What is one's course of movement?

"What nurtures both the slack and active; Just as a mother nurtures her child?
The creatures who dwell on the earth;By what do they sustain their life?"

[Buddha:]
"Illuminated-insight(panna) is the light in the world;meditation(sati) in the world, is the wakefulness;
Cows for those living by work; One's course of movement is the furrow. 139

"Rain nurtures both the slack and active;Just as a mother nurtures her child.
Those creatures who dwell on the earth; Sustain their life by rain."


81 Without Conflict (Arana)[]

[Devata:]
"Who here in the world are placid? Whose mode of life is not squandered?
Who here fully understand desire? Who enjoy perpetual freedom?

"Whom do parents and brothers worship; When he stands firmly established?
Who is the one of humble birth; That even khattiyas here salute?"

[Buddha:]
"Ascetics are placid in the world; The ascetic life is not squandered;
Ascetics fully understand desire; They enjoy perpetual freedom.

"Parents and brothers worship an ascetic; When he stands firmly established. 140
Though an ascetic be of humble birth;Even khattiyas here salute him."



Samyutta 2 : Connected Discourses with Young Devas (Devaputtasamyutta)[]

(i) The First Subchapter (Suriya)[]

82. Kassapa(1)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Then, when the night had advanced, the young deva(angel) Kassapa, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), approached the Lord (Buddha). 141 Having approached, he paid homage to the Lord (Buddha), stood to one side, and said to the Lord (Buddha):

"The Lord (Buddha) has revealed the bhikkhu(monk) but not the
instruction to the bhikkhu." 142

[Buddha:]
"Well then, Kassapa, clear up this point yourself." 143

[Devata:]
"He should train in well-spoken counsel,
And in the exercise of an ascetic,
In a solitary seat, alone,
And in the calming of the mind." 144

This is what the young deva Kassapa said. The Teacher approved. Then the young deva Kassapa, thinking, "The Teacher has approved of me," paid homage to the Lord (Buddha) and, keeping him on the right, he disappeared right there.


83. Kassapa (2)[]

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, the young deva Kassapa recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"A bhikkhu(monk) should be a meditator,One who is liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) in mind,
If he desires the heart's attainment.
Bent on that as his advantage; Having known the world & rise and fall(udaya-bbya).
Let him be lofty in mind and unattached." 145


84. Magha[]

[Devata:]
At Savatthi. Then, when the night had advanced, the young deva(angel) Magha, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), approached the Lord (Buddha). Having approached, he paid homage to the Lord (Buddha), stood to one side, and addressed the Lord (Buddha) in verse: 146

"Having killed what does one sleep soundly?Having killed what does one not sorrow?
What is the one dhamma(quality,law), O Gotama; Whose killing you approve?"

[Buddha:]
"Having killed anger, one sleeps soundly;Having killed anger, one does not sorrow;
The killing of anger, O Vatrabhu(Indra); With its poisoned root and honeyed tip;
This is the killing the noble ones praise; For having killed that, one does not sorrow."


85. Magadha[]

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, the young deva(angel) Magadha addressed the Lord (Buddha) in verse:

"How many sources of light are in the world; By means of which the world is illumined?
We've come to ask the Lord (Buddha) this; How are we to understand it?"

[Buddha:]
"There are four sources of light in the world; A fifth one is not found here.
The sun shines by day; The moon glows at night,

And fire flares up here and there;Both by day and at night.
But the Buddha is the best of those that shine; He is the light unsurpassed."


86. Damali[]

At Savatthi. Then, when the night had advanced, the young deva(angel) Damali, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), approached the Lord (Buddha). Having approached, he paid homage to the Lord (Buddha), stood to one side, and recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

[Devata:]
"This should be done by the brahmin; Striving without weariness,
That by his abandoning of sensual desires; He does not yearn for existence(bhavo)." 147

[Buddha:]
"For the brahmin there is no task to be done, [O Damali," said the Lord (Buddha)],
"For the brahmin has done what should be done.

While he has not gained a footing in the river,
A man will strain with all his limbs;
But a footing gained, standing on the ground,
He need not strain for he has gone beyond.

"This is a simile for the brahmin, O Damali,
For the defilement-free one, the discreet meditator.
Having reached the end of rebirth and death.
He need not strain for he has gone beyond." 148


87. Kamada[]

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, the young deva(angel) Kamada said to the Lord (Buddha): "Hard to do. Lord (Buddha)! Very hard to do. Lord (Buddha)!"

[Buddha:]
"They do even what is hard to do, [O Kamada," said the Lord (Buddha),]
"The trainees endowed with virtue(sheel), steadfast.
For one who has entered the hermit life
Contentment brings along happiness(sukh)."

[Devata:]
"That is hard to gain. Lord (Buddha), namely, contentment."

[Buddha:]
"They gain even what is hard to gain,
[O Kamada," said the Lord (Buddha),]
"Who delight(nandi\anand) in calming the mind.
Whose minds, day and night
Take delight(nandi\anand) in development."

[Devata:]
"That is hard to samadhify(in trance). Lord (Buddha), namely, the mind."

[Buddha:]
"They samadhify(in trance) even what is hard to samadhify(in trance),[O Kamada," said the Lord (Buddha),]
"Who delight(nandi\anand) in calming the faculties.
Having cut through the net of Death,
The noble ones, O Kamada, go their way."

[Devata:]
"The path is impassable and uneven. Lord (Buddha)." 150

[Buddha:]
"Though the path is impassable and uneven; The noble ones walk it, Kamada.
The ignoble ones fall down head first; Right there on the uneven path.
But the path of the noble ones is even; For the noble are even among the uneven."


88. Pancalacanda[]

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, the young deva(angel) Pancalacanda recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"The one of broad illuminated-insight(panna) has indeed found;The opening in the midst of confinement;
The Buddha who discovered jhana.
The withdrawn chief bull, the sage." 151

[Buddha:]
"Even in the midst of confinement they find it, [O Pancalacanda," said the Lord (Buddha),]
"The dhamma(path,law) for the attainment of Nibbana
Those who have acquired meditation(sati).
Those remain perfectly well in-samadhi(trance)state." 152


89. Tayana[]

At Savatthi. Then, when the night had advanced, the young deva(angel) Tayana, formerly the founder of a religious sect, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), approached the Lord (Buddha). 153 Having approached, he paid homage to the Lord (Buddha), stood to one side, and recited these verses in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Having exerted oneself, cut the stream!Dispel sensual desires, O brahmin!
Without having abandoned sensual desires; A sage does not reach unity. 154

"If one would do what should be done; One should firmly exert oneself. <112>
For a slack ascetic's life; Only scatters more dust.

"Better left undone is the misdeed; A deed that later brings repentance.
Better done is the good deed; Which when done is not repented.

"As kusa-grass, wrongly grasped; Only cuts one's hand.
So the ascetic life, wrongly taken up; Drags one down to hell.

"Any deed that is slackly done; Any corrupted vow,
A holy celibate life(brahmacariya) that breeds suspicion; Does not yield great fruit." 155

This is what the young deva Tayana said. Having said this, he
paid homage to the Lord (Buddha) and, keeping him on the right,
he disappeared right there.

Then, when the night had passed, the Lord (Buddha) addressed
the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus(monks), last night, when the night had
advanced, the young deva Tayana, formerly the founder of a
religious sect ... approached me ... and in my presence
recited these verses:

"Having exerted oneself, cut the stream! . . . Does not yield great fruit."

"This is what the young deva Tayana said. Having said this,
he paid homage to me and, keeping me on the right, he disappeared right there. Learn Tayana's verses, bhikkhus. Master
Tayana's verses, bhikkhus. Remember Tayana's verses,
bhikkhus. Tayana's verses are beneficial, bhikkhus, they pertain
to the fundamentals of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya)."


90. Candima[]

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion the young deva(angel) Candima had been seized by Rahu, lord of the asuras(demons). 156 Then, recollecting the Lord (Buddha), the young deva Candima on that occasion recited this verse:

"Let homage be to you, the Buddha! O Brave(vir) one, you are everywhere released(in mokkha/moksha).
I have fallen into captivity; So please be my refuge."

Then, referring to the young deva Candima, the Lord (Buddha) addressed Rahu, lord of the asuras, in verse:

"Candima has gone for refuge; To the Tathagata, the Arahant.
release(mokkha/moksha) Candima, O Rahu; Buddhas have compassion for the world."

Then Rahu, lord of the asuras, released(in mokkha/moksha) the young deva Candima and hurriedly approached Vepacitti, lord of the asuras. 157 Having approached, shocked and terrified, he stood to one side. Then, as he stood there, Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, addressed him in verse:

"Why, Rahu, did you come in a hurry? Why did you release(mokkha/moksha) Candima?
Having come as if in shock; Why do you stand there frightened?"

"My head would have split in seven parts; While living I would have found no ease.
If, when chanted over by the Buddha's verse; I had not let go of Candima." [51]


91. Suriya[]

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion the young deva(angel) Suriya had been seized by Rahu, lord of the asuras(demons). 158 Then, recollecting the Lord (Buddha), the young deva Suriya on that occasion recited this verse:

"Let homage be to you, the Buddha! O Brave(vir) one, you are everywhere released(in mokkha/moksha).
I have fallen into captivity; So please be my refuge."

Then, referring to the young deva Suriya, the Lord (Buddha) addressed Rahu, lord of the asuras, in verse:

"Suriya has gone for refuge; To the Tathagata, the Arahant.
release(mokkha/moksha) Suriya, O Rahu; Buddhas have compassion for the world.

"While moving across the sky, O Rahu;
Do not swallow the radiant one;
The maker of light in darkness;
The disk of fiery might in the gloom.
Rahu, release(mokkha/moksha) my child Suriya." 159

Then Rahu, lord of the asuras, released(in mokkha/moksha) the young deva Suriya and hurriedly approached Vepacitti, lord of the asuras. Having approached, shocked and terrified, he stood to one side. Then, as he stood there, Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, addressed him in verse:

"Why, Rahu, did you come in a hurry? Why did you release(mokkha/moksha) Suriya?
Having come as if in shock; Why do you stand there frightened?"

"My head would have split in seven parts;While living I would have found no ease.
If, when chanted over by the Buddha's verses; I had not let go of Suriya."



(ii) Anathapindika[]

92. Candimasa[]

At Savatthi. Then, when the night had advanced, the young deva(angel) Candimasa, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), approached the Lord (Buddha). Having approached, he paid homage to the Lord (Buddha), stood to one side, and recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"They will surely reach to safety; Like deer in a mosquito-free marsh.
Who, having attained the jhanas; Are unified, discreet, meditative(satima)." 160

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"They will surely reach the far shore; Like a fish when the net is cut.
Who, having attained the jhanas; Are alertful(appamada), with flaws discarded." 161


93. Vendu (sans. Vishnu)[]

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, the young deva Vendu (Vishnu) recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha): 162

"Happy indeed are those human beings; Attending on the Fortunate One(Sugato),
Applying themselves to Gotama's Teaching; Who train in it with alertfulness(appamada)." 163

[Buddha:]
"When the course of teaching is proclaimed by me,[O Vendu," said the Lord (Buddha),]
"Those meditators who train therein.
Being alertful(appamada) at the proper time.
Will not come under Death's control."


94. Dighalatthi[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). Then, when the night had advanced, the young deva(angel) Dighalatthi, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), approached the Lord (Buddha). Having approached, he paid homage to the Lord (Buddha), stood to one side, and recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"A bhikkhu(monk) should be a meditator;liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) in mind,
If he desires the heart's attainment; Bent on that as his advantage.
Having known the world & rise and fall(udaya-bbya),
Let him be lofty in mind and unattached."


95. Nandana[]

Standing to one side, the young deva(angel) Nandana addressed the Lord (Buddha) in verse:

"I ask you, Gotama, broad of illuminated-insight(panna)
Unobstructed is the Lord (Buddha)'s knowledge and vision;
What is he like whom they call virtuous?
What is he like whom they call wise?
What is he like who has passed beyond suffering?
What is he like whom the devatas(angels) worship?"

[Buddha:]
"One virtuous, wise, of developed mind.
in-samadhi(trance)state, meditative(satima), enjoying jhana.
For whom all sorrows are gone, abandoned,
A defilement-destroyer bearing his final body;

It is such a one that they call virtuous,
Such a one that they call wise.
Such a one has passed beyond suffering.
Such a one the devatas worship."


96. Candana[]

Standing to one side, the young deva(angel) Candana addressed the Lord (Buddha) in verse:

"Who here crosses over the flood; Unwearying by day and night?
Who does not sink in the deep; Without support, without a hold?" 164

[Buddha:]
"One always perfect in virtue(sheel); Endowed with illuminated-insight(panna), well in-samadhi(trance)state.
One energetic and resolute; Crosses the flood so hard to cross.
"One who desists from sensual perception(sanna sans. sangya); Who has overcome the fetter of form,
Who has destroyed delight(nandi\anand) in existence(bhavo); He does not sink in the deep." 165


97. Vasudatta[]

Standing to one side, the young deva(angel) Vasudatta recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"As if smitten by a sword; As if his head were on fire,
A bhikkhu(monk) should remain meditative(sati); To abandon sensual(kaam/sexual) lust(raag)."

[Buddha:]
"As if smitten by a sword; As if his head were on fire,
A bhikkhu should remain meditative(sati); To abandon body-identity-view(sakkaya-ditthi)."


98. Subrahma[]

Standing to one side, the young deva(angel) Subrahma addressed the Lord (Buddha) in verse: 166

"Always frightened is this mind;The mind is always agitated
About unarisen problems; And about arisen ones.
If there exists release(mokkha/moksha) from fear; Being asked, please declare it to me." 167

[Buddha:]
"Not apart from enlightenment and austerity(tapa); Not apart from restraint of the sense faculties.
Not apart from relinquishing all; Do I see any safety for living beings." 168

This is what the Lord (Buddha) said.... He [the young deva] disappeared right there.


99. Kakudha[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was
dwelling at Saketa in the Anjana-Grove(Anjanvana), the Deer-Park(Migdaye). Then,
when the night had advanced, the young deva(angel) Kakudha,
of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Anjana-Grove(Anjanvana),
approached the Lord (Buddha). Having approached, he paid homage
to the Lord (Buddha), stood to one side, and said to him:

"Do you delight(nandi\anand), ascetic?" ;"

[Buddha:]
Having gained what, friend?"

[Devata:]
"Then, ascetic, do you sorrow?" ;

[Buddha:]
"What has been lost, friend?"

[Devata:]
"Then, ascetic, do you neither delight(nandi\anand) nor sorrow?"

[Buddha:]
"Yes, friend."

[Devata:]
"I hope that you're untroubled, bhikkhu(monk).
I hope no delight(nandi\anand) is found in you.
I hope that when you sit all alone
Discontent doesn't spread over you." 169

[Buddha:]
"Truly, I'm untroubled, spirit.
Yet no delight is found in me.
And when I'm sitting all alone
Discontent doesn't spread over me."

[Devata:]
"How are you untroubled, bhikkhu?
How is no delight found in you?
How come, when you sit all alone.
Discontent doesn't spread over you?"

[Buddha:]
"delight(nandi\anand) comes to one who is miserable.
Misery to one filled with delight.
As a bhikkhu undelighted, untroubled;
That's how you should know me, friend."

[Devata:]
"After a long time at last I see
A brahmin who is fully quenched,
A bhikkhu undelighted, untroubled.
Who has crossed over attachment to the world." 170


100. Uttara[]

At Rajagaha. Standing to one side, the young deva(angel) Uttara recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Life is swept along, short is the life span;
No shelters exist for one who has reached old age.
Seeing clearly this danger in death,
One should do deeds of divine-merit(punya) that bring happiness(sukh)."

[Buddha:]
"Life is swept along, short is the life span;
No shelters exist for one who has reached old age.
Seeing clearly this danger in death,
A seeker of peace should drop the world's bait."


101. Anathapindika[]

Standing to one side, the young deva(angel) Anathapindika recited these verses in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"This indeed is that Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana);The resort of the Order of saints(ishis sans. rishis),
Dwelt in by the Dhamma King; A place that gives me joy.

"Action, knowledge, righteousness(dhamma);Virtue(sheel), an excellent life;
By this are mortals purified; Not by clan or wealth.

"Therefore a person who is wise;Out of regard for his own good,
Should meditatively(yoniso) examine the dhamma(path,law); Thus he is purified in it.

"Sariputta truly is endowed with illuminated-insight(panna); With virtue(sheel) and with inner peace.
Even a bhikkhu(monk) who has gone beyond; At best can only equal him."

This is what the young deva Anathapindika said. Having said
this, he paid homage to the Lord (Buddha) and, keeping him on
the right, he disappeared right there.

Then, when the night had passed, the Lord (Buddha) addressed
the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus(monks), last night, when the night had
advanced, a certain young deva ... approached me ... and in my
presence recited these verses:

"This indeed is that Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), ...
At best can only equal him."

"This is what that young deva said. Having said this, he paid
homage to me and, keeping me on the right, he disappeared
right there."

When this was said, the Venerable Ananda said to the Lord (Buddha) :
"Venerable sir, that young deva must surely have been
Anathapindika. For Anathapindika the householder had full
confidence in the Venerable Sariputta."

"Good, good, Ananda! You have drawn the right inference by
reasoning. 171 That young deva was Anathapindika."



(iii) Various Sectarians[]

102 Siva (sans. Shiv)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Then, when the night had advanced, the young deva(angel) Siva, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), approached the Lord (Buddha). Having approached, he paid homage to the Lord (Buddha), stood to one side, and recited these verses in the presence of the Lord (Buddha): 172

"One should associate only with the good;With the good one should foster intimacy.
Having learnt the true dhamma(path,law) of the good,One becomes better, never worse.

"One should associate only with the good;With the good one should foster intimacy.
Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good,illuminated-insight(panna) is gained, but not from another.

"One should associate only with the good;With the good one should foster intimacy.
Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good, One does not sorrow in the midst of sorrow.

"One should associate only with the good;With the good one should foster intimacy.
Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good, One shines among one's relations.

"One should associate only with the good;With the good one should foster intimacy.
Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good,Beings go(rebirth) on to a good destination(sugati, heaven etc).

"One should associate only with the good; With the good one should foster intimacy.
Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good, Beings dwell comfortably."

Then the Lord (Buddha) replied to the young deva Siva in verse:

"One should associate only with the good; With the good one should foster intimacy.
Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good, One is released(in mokkha/moksha) from all suffering."


103. Khema[]

Standing to one side, the young deva(angel) Khema recited these verses in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Unwise(bala) people devoid of illuminated-insight(panna), Behave like enemies towards themselves.
They go about doing evil deeds,Which yield only bitter fruit.

"That deed is not well performed, Which, having been done, is then repented.
The result of which one experiences , Weeping with a tearful face.

"But that deed is well performed, Which, having been done, is not repented.
The result of which one experiences, Joyfully with a happy mind." 173

[The Lord (Buddha):]

"One should promptly do the deed, One knows leads to one's own welfare;
The thinker, the wise one, should not advance; With the example of the carter.

"As the carter who left the highway, A road with an even surface.
And entered upon a rugged bypath; Broods mournfully with a broken axle

"So the childish(unwise), having left the dhamma(path,law); To follow a way opposed to Dhamma,
When he falls into the mouth of Death; Broods like the carter with a broken axle." 174


104 Seri[]

Standing to one side, the young deva(angel) Seri addressed the Lord (Buddha) in verse:

"They always take delight(nandi\anand) in food; Both devas(angels) and human beings.
So what sort of spirit could it be; That does not take delight in food?"

[Buddha:]
"When they give donation out of faith; With a heart of confidence.
Food accrues to [the giver] himself; Both in this world and the next.

"Therefore, having removed stinginess; The conqueror of the stain should give a donation.
Divine-merits(punya) are the support for living beings;[When they arise] in the other world."

[Devata:]
"It is wonderful, venerable sir! It is amazing, venerable sir!
How well this was stated by the Lord (Buddha):

"When they give donation out of faith ... [When they arise] in the other world.'

"Once in the past, venerable sir, I was a king named Seri, a donor, a philanthropist, one who spoke in praise of giving donation. At the four gates I had donations given to ascetics, brahmins, paupers, wayfarers, mendicants, and beggars. Then, venerable sir, the harem women came to me and said: 'Your majesty gives donations, but we do not give donations. It would be good if, with your majesty's assistance, we too might give donations and do meritorious(punya) deeds.' It occurred to me: 'I am a donor, a philanthropist, one who speaks in praise of giving donation. So when they say, "Let us give donations," what am I to say to them?' So, venerable sir, I gave the first gate to the harem women. There the harem women gave donations, and my donations returned to me.

"Then, venerable sir, my khattiya vassals came to me and said:
'Your majesty gives donations, the harem women give donations, but we do not give donations. It would be good if, with your majesty's assistance, we too might give donations and do meritorious(punya) deeds.' It occurred to me: 'I am a donor....' So, venerable sir, I gave the second gate to the khattiya vassals. There the khattiya vassals gave donations, and my donations returned to me.

"Then, venerable sir, my troops came to me ...... So, venerable sir, I gave the third gate to the troops. There the troops gave donations, and my donations returned to me.

"Then, venerable sir, the brahmins and householders came to me ... So, venerable sir, I gave the fourth gate to the brahmins and householders. There the brahmins and householders gave donations, and my donations returned to me.

"Then, venerable sir, my men came to me and said: 'Now your majesty is not giving donations anywhere.' 175 When this was said, I told those men: 'Well then, I say, send half of the revenue generated in the outlying provinces from there to the palace. There itself give half as donations to ascetics, brahmins, paupers, wayfarers, mendicants, and beggars.'

"I did not reach any limit, venerable sir, to the meritorious(punya) deeds that I did for such a long time, to the beneficial(kusala sans. kushal) deeds that I did for such a long time, such that I could say:
'There is just so much divine-merit(punya)' or 'There is just so much result of divine-merit(punya)' or 'For just so long am I to dwell in heaven' It is wonderful, venerable sir! It is amazing, venerable sir! How well this was stated by the Lord (Buddha):

"When they donate out of faith; With a heart of confidence.
Food accrues to [the donor] himself; Both in this world and the next.

"Therefore, having removed stinginess;The conqueror of the stain should give a donation.
Deeds of divine-merit(punya) are the support for living beings;[When they arise] in the other world."


105. Ghatikara[]

Standing to one side, the young deva(angel) Ghatikara recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Seven bhikkhus reborn in Aviha(hell);
....Have been fully liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt)...."( verses same as in 1:50)
Both now inwardly developed; Bearers of their final bodies. "


106. Jantu[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion a number of bhikkhus were dwelling among the Kosalans in a little forest hut on a slope of the Himalayas - restless, puffed up, personally vain, roughtongued, rambling in their talk, muddle-minded, without complete comprehension (sampajanna), not-in-samadhi(trance)state, scatter-brained, loose in their sense faculties. 176

Then, on the Uposatha day of the fifteenth, the young deva(angel) Jantu approached those bhikkhus and addressed them in verses: 177

"In the past the bhikkhus lived happily;The disciples of Gotama.
Without wishes they sought their alms;Without wishes they used their lodgings.
Having known the world's impermanence(anicca sans. anitya);They made an end to suffering.

"But now like headmen in a village;They make themselves hard to maintain.
They eat and eat and then lie down;Infatuated in others' homes. 178

"Having reverently saluted the Sangha(fraternity);I here speak only about some;
They are rejected, without protector;Become just like the dead. 179

"My statement is made with reference;To those who dwell in slothfulness(pamada).
As for those who dwell in alertfulness(appamada);To them I humbly pay homage."


107. Rohitassa[]

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, the young deva(angel) Rohitassa said to the Lord (Buddha):

"Is it possible, venerable sir, by travelling to know or to see or
to reach the end of the world, where one is not born, does not
age, does not die, does not pass away, and is not reborn?" <143>

[Buddha:]
"As to that end of the world, friend, where one is not born,
does not age, does not die, does not pass away, and is not
reborn - I say that it cannot be known, seen, or reached by travelling." 1811

[Devata:]
"It is wonderful, venerable sir! It is amazing, venerable sir!
How well this was stated by the Lord (Buddha): 'As to that end of
the world, friend, ... I say that it cannot be known, seen, or
reached by travelling.'

"Once in the past, venerable sir, I was a hermit named Rohitassa, son of Bhoja, possessed of spiritual-power(iddhi\riddhi), able to travel through the sky. My speed was such, venerable sir, that I could move just as swiftly as a firm-bowed archer - trained, skilful, practised, experienced - could easily shoot past the shadow of a palmyra tree with a light arrow. 181 My stride was such, venerable sir, that it seemed to reach from the eastern ocean to the western ocean. Then, venerable sir, the wish arose in me: 'I will reach the end of the world by travelling.' Possessing such speed and such a stride, and having a life span of a hundred years, living for a hundred years, I travelled for a hundred years, without pausing except to eat, drink, take meals and snacks, to defecate and urinate, to sleep and dispel fatigue; yet I died along the way without having reached the end of the world.

"It is wonderful, venerable sir! It is amazing, venerable sir! How well this was stated by the Lord (Buddha): 'As to that end of the world (nirvana), friend, where one is not born, does not age, does not die, does not pass away, and is not reborn - I say that it cannot be known, seen, or reached by travelling."

[Buddha:]
"However, friend, I say that without having reached the end of the world(nirvana) there is no making an end to suffering. It is, friend, in just this fathom-high carcass(body) endowed with perception(sanna sans. sangya) and mind that I make known the world, the origin of the world, the cessation(nirodha) of the world(nirvana), and the way leading to the cessation of the world. (note: Here cessation a a state of meditation)

"The world's end can never be reached;By means of travelling [through the world],
Yet without reaching the world's end;There is no release(mokkha/moksha) from suffering.

"Therefore, truly, the world-knower, the wise one;
Gone to the world's end, fulfiller of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya).
Having known the world's end, at peace,
Longs not for this world or another."


108. Nanda[]

Standing to one side, the young deva(angel) Nanda recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Time flies by, the nights swiftly pass,
The stages of life successively desert us;
Seeing clearly this danger in death,
One should do deeds of divine-merit(punya) that bring happiness(sukh)."

[Buddha:]
"Time flies by, the nights swiftly pass;
The stages of life successively desert us.
Seeing clearly this danger in death,
A seeker of peace should drop the world's bait."


109. Nandivisala[]

Standing to one side, the young deva(angel) Nandivisala addressed the Lord (Buddha) in verse:

"Having four wheels and nine doors; Filled up and bound with greed.
Born from a bog, O greatly brave(mahavir)! How does one escape from it?"

[Buddha:]
"Having cut the thong and the strap; Having cut off evil desire and greed.
Having drawn out craving(tanha sans. trishna) with its root; Thus one escapes from it."


110. Susima[]

At Savatthi. Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord (Buddha) then said to him: "Do you too, Ananda, approve of Sariputta?" 183

[Ananda:]
"Indeed, venerable sir, who would not approve of the Venerable Sariputta, unless he were childish(unwise), full of hatred(dosa\dvesh), deluded, or mentally deranged? The Venerable Sariputta, venerable sir, is wise, one of great illuminated-insight(panna sans. pragya), of wide illuminated-insight(panna), of joyous illuminated-insight(panna), of swift illuminated-insight(panna), of sharp illuminated-insight(panna), of penetrative illuminated-insight(panna). 184 The Venerable Sariputta, venerable sir, has few wishes; he is content, secluded, aloof, energetic. The Venerable Sariputta, venerable sir, is one who gives advice, one who accepts advice, a reprover, one who censures evil. Indeed, venerable sir, who would not approve of the Venerable Sariputta, unless he were childish(unwise), full of hatred(dosa\dvesh), deluded, or mentally deranged?"

[Buddha:]
"So it is, Ananda, so it is! Indeed, Ananda, who would not approve of Sariputta, unless he were childish(unwise), full of hatred(dosa\dvesh), deluded, or mentally deranged? Sariputta, Ananda, is wise . . . (as above) ... unless he were mentally deranged?"

Then, while this praise of the Venerable Sariputta was being spoken, the young deva(angel) Susima, accompanied by a great assembly of young devas(angels), approached the Lord (Buddha). 185 Having approached, he paid homage to the Lord (Buddha), stood to one side, and said to him: "So it is. Lord (Buddha)! So it is. Fortunate One(Sugato)! Indeed, venerable sir, who would not approve of the Venerable Sariputta ... ( all as above)... unless he were mentally deranged? In my case too, venerable sir, no matter what assembly of young devas I have approached, I have often heard this same report: The Venerable Sariputta is wise ... one who censures evil. Indeed, who would not approve of the Venerable Sariputta, unless he were childish(unwise), full of hatred(dosa\dvesh), deluded, or mentally deranged?"'

Then, while this praise of the Venerable Sariputta was being spoken, the young devas in Susima's assembly - elated, gladdened, full of bliss(piti/preeti) and joy - displayed diverse lustrous colours. 186 Just as a beryl gem - beautiful, of fine quality, eightfaceted, of excellent workmanship - when placed on a brocade cloth, shines and beams and radiates, so too the young devas in Susima's assembly ... displayed diverse lustrous colours.

And just as an ornament of finest gold - very skilfully burnished in a furnace by an adroit goldsmith - when placed on a brocade cloth, shines and beams and radiates, so too the young devas in Susima's assembly ... displayed diverse lustrous colours.

And just as, when the night is fading, the morning star shines and beams and radiates, so too the young devas in Susima's assembly ... displayed diverse lustrous colours. 187

And just as in the autumn, when the sky is clear and cloudless, the sun, ascending in the sky, dispels all darkness from space as it shines and beams and radiates, 188 so too the young devas in Susima's assembly - elated, gladdened, full of bliss(piti/preeti) and joy - displayed diverse lustrous colours.

Then, with reference to the Venerable Sariputta, the young deva Susima recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"He is widely known to be a wise man; Sariputta, who is free of anger;
Of few wishes, gentle, tamed; The hermit adorned by the Teacher's praise."

Then the Lord (Buddha), with reference to the Venerable Sariputta,
replied to the young deva Susima in verse:

"He is widely known to be a wise man; Sariputta, who is free of anger;
Of few wishes, gentle, tamed; Developed, well tamed(mind of), he awaits the time." 189


111. Various Sectarians(Nanatitthiyas)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). Then, when the night had advanced, a number of young devas(angels), disciples of various sectarian teachers - Asama and Sahali and Ninka and Akotaka and Vetambari and Manavagamiya - of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), approached the Lord (Buddha). Having approached, they paid homage to the Lord (Buddha) and stood to one side. 190

Then, standing to one side, the young deva(angel) Asama spoke this verse referring to Purana Kassapa in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"In injuring and killing here;In beating to death Kassapa
did not recognize evil; Nor see any divine-merit(punya) for oneself.
He indeed taught what is worthy of trust;That teacher deserves esteem." 191

Then the young deva Sahali spoke this verse referring to
Makkhali Gosala in the presence of the Lord (Buddha): 192

"By austerity(tapa) and scrupulousness; He attained complete self-restraint.
He abandoned contentious talk with people;
Refrained from falsehood, a speaker of truth.
Surely such a one does no evil." 193

Then the young deva Ninka spoke this verse referring to
Nigantha Nataputta in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"A scrupulous discerning bhikkhu(monk); Well restrained by the four controls.
Explaining what is seen and heard; Surely, he could not be a sinner." 194

Then the young deva Akotaka spoke this verse referring to
various sectarian teachers in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Pakudhaka Katiyana and the Nigantha;
Along with Makkhali and Purana;
Teachers of many, attained to ascetic stature;
They were surely not far from superior men." 195

Then the young deva Vetambari replied to the young deva Akotaka in verse:

"Even by howling along the wretched jackal;
Remains a vile beast, never the lion's peer;
So though he be the teacher of a group;
The naked ascetic, speaker of falsehood;
Arousing suspicion by his conduct;
Bears no resemblance to superior men." 196

Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One took possession of the young deva Vetambari and recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha): 197

"Those engaged in austerity(tapa) and scrupulousness; Those protecting their solitude.
And those who have settled on form; Delighting in the world of devas;
Indeed, these mortals teach rightly; In regard to the other world."

Then the Lord (Buddha), having understood, "This is Mara the
Evil One," replied to Mara the Evil One in verse:

"Whatever forms exist here or beyond;
And those of luminous beauty in the sky.
All these, indeed, you praise, Namuci,
Like bait thrown out for catching fish." 198

Then, in the Lord (Buddha)'s presence, the young deva Manavagamiya recited these verses referring to the Lord (Buddha):

"Vipula is called the best of mountains; Among the hills of Rajagaha,
Seta, the best of snow-clad(Himalaya) mountains;The sun, the best of travellers in the sky.

"The ocean is the best body of water; The moon, the best of nocturnal lights,
But in this world together with its devas; The Buddha is declared supreme."



Samyutta 3 : Connected Discourses with the Kosalan (Kosalasamyutta)[]

(i) The First Subchapter ((Bondage)[]

112. Young (Dahara)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Then King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala approached the Lord (Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to the Lord (Buddha): "Does Master Gotama too claim, 'I have awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment?" 199

[Buddha:]
"If, great king, one speaking rightly could say of anyone, 'He has awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment' it is of me that one might rightly say this. For I, great king, have awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment."

[King Pasenadi(Prasenjit):]
"Master Gotama, even those ascetics and brahmins who are the heads of orders and companies, the teachers of companies, well known and famous founders of sects considered by the multitude to be holy men - that is, Purana Kassapa, Makkhali Gosala, Nigantha Nataputta, Sanjaya Belatthiputta, Pakudha Kaccayana, Ajita Kesakambali - even these, when I asked them whether they had awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment, did not claim to have done so. 200 So why then should Master Gotama [make such a claim] when he is so young in years and has newly gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit)?".

[Buddha:]
"There are four things, great king, that should not be despised and disparaged as 'young.' 201 What four? A khattiya, great king should not be despised and disparaged as 'young'; a snake should not be despised and disparaged as 'young'; a fire should not be despised and disparaged as 'young'; and a bhikkhu(monk) should not be despised and disparaged as 'young.' These are the four."

This is what the Lord (Buddha) said. Having said this, the
Fortunate One(Sugato), the Teacher(Sattha), further said this:

"One should not despise as 'young'; A khattiya of noble birth,
A high-born prince of glorious fame; A man should not disparage him.

For it may happen that this lord of men; This khattiya, shall gain the throne.
And in his anger thrash one harshly; With a royal punishment.
Therefore guarding one's own life; One should avoid him.

"One should not despise as 'young';A serpent one may see by chance,
In the village or a forest; A man should not disparage it.

For as that fierce snake glides along; Manifesting in diverse shapes, 202
It may attack and bite the unwise(bala), Whether a man or a woman.
Therefore guarding one's own life, One should avoid it.

"One should not despise as 'young';A blazing fire that devours much,
A conflagration with blackened trail;A man should not disparage it.

For if it gains a stock of fuel; Having become a conflagration.
It may attack and burn the unwise(bala); Whether a man or a woman.
Therefore guarding one's own life; One should avoid it.

"When a fire burns down a forest; That conflagration with blackened trail.
The shoots there spring to life once more; As the days and nights pass by.

But if a bhikkhu(monk) of perfect virtue(sheel);Burns one with [his virtue's] fire.
One does not gain sons and cattle; Nor do one's heirs acquire wealth.
Childless and heirless they become; Like stumps of palmyra trees. 203

"Therefore a person who is wise; Out of regard for his own good,
Should always treat properly these : fierce serpent,blazing fire,famous khattiya,
And a bhikkhu of perfect virtue.

When this was said. King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, venerable sir! Magnificent, venerable sir! The dhamma(path,law) has been made clear in many ways by the Lord (Buddha), as though he were turning upright what had been turned upside down, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. I go for refuge to the Lord (Buddha), and to the Dhamma, and to the Bhikkhu Sangha(fraternity). From today let the Lord (Buddha) remember me as a lay follower who has gone for refuge for life."


113 A Person (Purisa sans. Purush)[]

At Savatthi. Then King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

"Venerable sir, how many Dhammas(attributes,laws) are there which, when they arise within a person, arise for his harm, suffering, and discomfort?"

[Buddha:]
"There are, great king, three Dhammas which, when they arise within a person, arise for his harm, suffering, and discomfort. What are the three? Greed(raag), hatred(dosa\dvesh), and delusion(moha). These are the three Dhammas which, when they arise within a person, arise for his harm, suffering, and discomfort.

"Greed(raag), hatred(dosa\dvesh), and delusion(moha); within the person of evil mind
Arisen from within self; Injure, as its own fruit destroys the reed." 204 [71]


114 Aging and Death (Jaramarana)[]

At Savatthi. Sitting to one side. King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala said to the Lord (Buddha): "Venerable sir, for one who has taken birth, is there anything other [to expect] than aging and death?" 205

[Buddha:]
"For one who has taken birth, great king, there is nothing other [to expect] than aging and death. Even in the case of those affluent khattiyas - rich, with great wealth and property, with abundant gold and silver, abundant treasures and commodities, abundant wealth and grain - because they have taken birth, there is nothing other [to expect] than aging and death. Even in the case of those affluent brahmins ... affluent householders -rich ... with abundant wealth and grain - because they have taken birth, there is nothing other [to expect] than aging and death. Even in the case of those bhikkhus who are arahants, whose defilements are destroyed, who have lived the holy celibate life(brahmacariya), done what had to be done, laid down the burden, reached their own goal, utterly destroyed the fetters of existence(bhavo), and are completely liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) through knowledge: even for them this body is subject to breaking up, subject to being laid down. 206

"The beautiful chariots of kings wear out.
This body too undergoes decay.
But the dhamma(path,law) of the good does not decay;
So the good proclaim along with the good." 207


115 Dear (Piya sans. Priya )[]

At Savatthi. Sitting to one side. King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala said to the Lord (Buddha): "Here, venerable sir, while I was alone in seclusion, a thought arose in my mind thus: 'Who now treat themselves as dear, and who treat themselves as a foe?' Then, venerable sir, it occurred to me: Those who engage in misconduct of body, speech, and mind treat themselves as a foe. Even though they may say, "We regard ourselves as dear," still they treat themselves as a foe. For what reason? Because of their own accord they act towards themselves in the same way that a foe might act towards a foe; therefore they treat themselves as a foe. But those who engage in good conduct of body, speech, and mind treat themselves as dear. Even though they may say, "We regard ourselves as a foe," still they treat themselves selves as dear. For what reason? Because of their own accord they act towards themselves in the same way that a dear person might act towards one who is dear; therefore they treat themselves as dear."'

"So it is, great king! So it is, great king!"

(The Buddha then repeats the entire statement of King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) and adds the following verses :)

"If one regards oneself as dear; One should not yoke oneself to evil.
For happiness(sukh) is not easily gained; By one who does a wrongful deed.

"When one is seized by the End-maker; As one discards the human state.
What can one call truly one's own? What does one take when one goes?
What follows one along; Like a shadow that never departs? 208

"Both the divine-merits(punya) and the evil; That a mortal does right here:
This is what is truly one's own; This one takes when one goes;
This is what follows one along; Like a shadow that never departs.

"Therefore one should do what is good; As a collection for the future life.
Divine-merits(punya) are the support for living beings; [When they arise] in the other world."


116. Self-Protected (Attarakkhita sans. Atm-rakshit)[]

At Savatthi. Sitting to one side. King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala said to the Lord (Buddha): "Here, venerable sir, while I was alone in seclusion, a thought arose in my mind thus: 'Who now protect themselves and who leave themselves unprotected?' Then, venerable sir, it occurred to me: 'Those who engage in misconduct of body, speech, and mind leave themselves unprotected. Even though a company of elephant troops may protect them, or a company of cavalry, or a company of chariot troops, or a company of infantry, still they leave themselves unprotected. For what reason? Because that protection is external, not internal; therefore they leave themselves unprotected. But those who engage in good conduct of body, speech, and mind protect themselves. Even though no company of elephant troops protects them, nor a company of cavalry, nor a company of charioteers, nor a company of infantry, still they protect themselves. For what reason? Because that protection is internal, not external; therefore they protect themselves.'"

[Buddha:]
"So it is, great king! So it is, great king!"

(The Buddha then repeats the entire statement of King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) and adds the following verse:)

"Good is restraint with the body; Restraint by speech is also good;
Good is restraint with the mind; Restraint everywhere is good.
Conscientious, everywhere restrained; One is said to be protected."


117. Few (Appaka sans. Alpa)[]

At Savatthi. Sitting to one side. King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala said to the Lord (Buddha): "Here, venerable sir, while I was alone in seclusion, a thought arose in my mind thus: 'Few are those people in the world who,when they obtain superior possessions, do not become intoxicated and slothful(in pamada), yield to greed for sensual pleasures, and mistreat other beings. Far more numerous are those people in the world who, when they obtain superior possessions, become intoxicated and slothful, yield to greed for sensual pleasures, and mistreat other beings.'"

"So it is, great king! So it is, great king!"

(The Buddha then repeats the entire statement of King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) and adds the following verse: )

"Enamoured with their pleasures and wealth; Greedy, dazed by sensual pleasures.
They do not realize they have gone too far; Like deer that enter the trap laid out.
Afterwards the bitter fruit is theirs; For bad indeed is the result." 209


118. The Judgement Hall (Addakarana)[]

At Savatthi. Sitting to one side. King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala said to the Lord (Buddha): "Here, venerable sir, when I am sitting in the judgement hall, 210 I see even affluent khattiyas, affluent brahmins, and affluent householders - rich, with great wealth and property, with abundant gold and silver, abundant treasures and commodities, abundant wealth and grain - speaking deliberate lies for the sake of sensual pleasures, with sensual pleasures as the cause, on account of sensual pleasures. Then, venerable sir, it occurs to me: 'I've had enough now with the judgement hall! Now it is Good Face who will be known by his judgements.'" 211

"So it is, great king! So it is, great king! Even affluent khattiyas, affluent brahmins, and affluent householders ... speak deliberate lies for the sake of sensual pleasures, with sensual pleasures as the cause, on account of sensual pleasures. That will lead to their harm and suffering for a long time to come.

"Enamoured with their pleasures and wealth; Greedy, dazed by sensual pleasures.
They do not realize they have gone too far; Like fish that enter the net spread out.
Afterwards the bitter fruit is theirs; For bad indeed is the result of sin(paap)."


119. Mallika[]

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala had gone together with Queen Mallika to the upper terrace of the palace. Then King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala said to Queen Mallika: "Is there, Mallika, anyone more dear to you than yourself?" 212
"There is no one, great king, more dear to me than myself. But is there anyone, great king, more dear to you than yourself?"
"For me too, Mallika, there is no one more dear than myself."

Then King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala descended from the palace and approached the Lord (Buddha). Having approached, he paid homage to the Lord (Buddha), sat down to one side, and related to tht Lord (Buddha) his conversation with Queen Mallika.

Then the Lord (Buddha), having understood the meaning of this, on that occasion recited this verse:

"Having traversed all quarters with the mind.
One finds none anywhere dearer than oneself.
Likewise, each person holds himself most dear;
Hence one who loves himself should not harm others."


120. Sacrifice-Ceremony (Yanna sans. Yagna)[]

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion a great sacrifice ceremony(yagna) had been set up for King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala. Five hundred bulls, five hundred bullocks, five hundred heifers, five hundred goats, and five hundred rams had been led to the pillar for the sacrifice ceremony. And his slaves, servants, and workers, spurred on by punishment and fear, were busy making the preparations, wailing with tearful faces. 213

Then, in the morning, a number of bhikkhus dressed and, taking their bowls and robes, entered Savatthi for alms. When they had walked for alms in Savatthi and had returned from their alms round, after the meal they approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said:
"Here, venerable sir, a great sacrifice ceremony has been set up for King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala. Five hundred bulls ... have been led to the pillar for the sacrifice ceremony. And his slaves ... are busy making preparations, wailing with tearful faces."

Then the Lord (Buddha), having understood the meaning of this,
on that occasion recited these verses:

"The horse sacrifice(ashvamedh), human sacrifice,
Sammapasa, vajapeyya, niraggala ;
These great sacrifices, fraught with violence.
Do not bring great fruit. 214

"The great saints(ishis sans. rishis) of right conduct
Do not attend that sacrifice
Where goats, sheep, and cattle
Of various kinds are killed.

"But when yagna ceremonies free from violence
Are always offered by family custom, 215
Where no goats, sheep, or cattle
Of various kinds are killed;
The great saints(ishis sans. rishis) of right conduct
Attend a yagna ceremony like this.

"The wise person should offer this,
A yagna ceremony bringing great fruit.
For one who makes such yagna
It is indeed better, never worse.
Such a yagna ceremony is truly great
And the devatas(gods/angels) too are pleased."


121 Bondage (Bandhana)[]

Now on that occasion a great mass of people had been put in bondage by King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala - some with ropes, some with clogs, some with chains. 216

Then, in the morning, a number of bhikkhus dressed up & went to Savatthi city for alms. Coming back from collection os alms from Savatthi city and said to the Lord (Buddha): "Here, venerable sir, a great mass of people have been put in bondage by King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala, some with ropes, some with clogs, some with chains."

Then the Lord (Buddha), having understood the meaning of this, on that occasion recited these verses:

"That bond, the wise say, is not strong
Made of iron, wood, or rope;
But infatuation with jewellery and earrings.
Anxious concern for wives and children.

This, the wise say, is the strong bond.
Degrading, supple, hard to escape.
But even this they cut and wander forth,
Unconcerned, having abandoned sensual pleasures." 217



(ii) The Second Subchapter (Childless)[]

122. Seven Jatilas (Sattajatila)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in the Eastern Park in the Mansion of Migara's Mother. 218 Now on that occasion, in the evening, the Lord (Buddha) had emerged from seclusion and was sitting by the outer gateway. Then King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side.
Now on that occasion seven jatilas, seven niganthas, seven naked ascetics, seven one-robed ascetics, and seven ascetics with hairy armpits, long fingernails and long body hairs, carrying their bundles of requisites - passed by not far from the Lord (Buddha). 219 Then King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala rose from his seat, arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, knelt down with his right knee on the ground, and, raising his joined hands in reverential salutation towards the seven jatilas, seven niganthas, seven naked ascetics, seven one-robed ascetics, and seven ascetics, he announced his name three times: "I am the king, venerable sirs, Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala!... I am the king, venerable sirs, Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala!"

Then, not long after those seven jatilas .... and seven ascetics had departed. King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to the Lord (Buddha): "Those, venerable sir, are to be included among the men in the world who are arahants or who have entered upon the path to arahantship." 220

[Buddha:]
"Great king, being a layman who enjoys sensual pleasures, dwelling in a home crowded with children, enjoying the use of Kasian sandalwood, wearing garlands, scents, and unguents, receiving gold and silver, it is difficult for you to know: 'These are arahants or these have entered upon the path to arahantship.'

"It is by living together with someone, great king, that his
virtue(sheel) is to be known, and that after a long time, not after a short
time; by one who is mindful, not by one who is not mindful; by
one who is wise, not by wicked.
"It is by dealing with someone, great king, that his honesty is
to be known, and that after a long time, not after a short time; by
one who is mindful, not by one who is not mindful; by one who
is wise, not by wicked.
"It is in adversities, great king, that a person's strength is to
be known, and that after a long time, not after a short time; by
one who is mindful, not by one who is not mindful; by one who
is wise, not by wicked.
"It is by discussion with someone, great king, that his panna(insight)
is to be known, and that after a long time, not after a short time;
by one who is mindful, not by one who is not mindful; by one
who is wise, not by wicked." 221

[King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) sans. Prasenjit:]
"It is wonderful, venerable sir! It is amazing, venerable sir! How well this has been stated by the Lord (Buddha): 'Great king, being a layman ... it is difficult for you to know ... (as above) ... by one who is wise, not by wicked.'

"These, venerable sir, are my spies, undercover agents, coming back after spying out the country. 222 First information is gathered by them and afterwards I will make them disclose it. 223 Now, venerable sir, when they have washed off the dust and dirt and are freshly bathed and groomed, with their hair and beards trimmed, clad in white garments, they will enjoy themselves supplied and endowed with the five cords of sensual pleasure."

Then the Lord (Buddha), having understood the meaning of this, on that occasion recited these verses:

"A man is not easily known by outward form
Nor should one trust a quick appraisal.
For in the guise of the well controlled
Uncontrolled men move in this world.

"Like a counterfeit earring made of clay.
Like a bronze half-pence coated with gold.
Some move about in disguise;
Inwardly impure, outwardly beautiful."


123. Five Kings (Pancaraja)[]

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion five kings headed by King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) were enjoying themselves supplied and endowed with the five cords of sensual pleasure when this conversation arose among them: "What is the chief of sensual pleasures?" 224 Some among them said: "Forms are the chief of sensual pleasures." Some said: "Sounds are the chief." Some: "Odours are the chief." Some: "Tastes are the chief." Some: "Tactile objects are the chief." 225

Since those kings were unable to convince one another, King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala said to them: "Come, dear sirs, let us approach the Lord (Buddha) and question him about this matter. As the Lord (Buddha) answers us, so we should remember it."

"All right, dear sir," those kings replied. Then those five kings, headed by King Pasenadi(Prasenjit), approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) then reported their entire discussion to the Lord (Buddha), asking:
"What now, venerable sir, is the chief of sensual pleasures, whether forms or whether odours or whether sounds or whether taste or whether touch? "

[Buddha:]
"Great king, I say that what is chief among the five cords of sensual pleasure is determined by whatever is most agreeable. 226 Those same forms that are agreeable to one person, great king, are disagreeable to another. When one is pleased and completely satisfied with certain forms, then one does not yearn for any other form higher or more sublime that those forms. For him those forms are then supreme; for him those forms are unsurpassed.

"Those same sounds ...........for him those sounds are unsurpassed.

Those same odours ...........for him those odours are unsurpassed.

Those same tastes ...........for him those tastes are unsurpassed.

Those same tactile objects that are agreeable to one person, great king, are disagreeable to another. When one is pleased and completely satisfied with certain tactile objects, then one does not yearn for any other tactile object higher or more sublime that those tactile objects. For him those tactile objects are then supreme; for him those tactile objects are unsurpassed."

Now on that occasion the lay follower Candanangalika was sitting in that assembly. Then the lay follower Candanangalika rose from his seat, arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, and, raising his joined hands in reverential salutation towards the Lord (Buddha), said to him: "An inspiration has come to me, Lord (Buddha)! An inspiration has come to me. Fortunate One(Sugato)!"
[Buddha:] "Then express your inspiration, Candanangalika," the Lord (Buddha) One said. 227

Then the lay follower Candanangalika, in the presence of the Lord (Buddha), praised him with an appropriate verse:

"As the fragrant red lotus Kokanada
Blooms in the morning, its fragrance unspent.
Look at Angirasa(Buddha), the Radiant One,
Like the sun beaming in the sky." 228

Then those five kings bestowed five upper robes upon the lay
follower Candanangalika. But the lay follower Candanangalika
bestowed those five upper robes upon the Lord (Buddha).


124 A Bucket Measure of Food (Donapaka)[]

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala had eaten a bucket measure of rice and curries 229 Then, while still full, huffing and puffing, the king approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side.

Then the Lord (Buddha), having understood that King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) was full and was huffing and puffing, on that occasion recited this verse:

"When a man is always meditative(satima).
Knowing moderation in the food he eats.
His ailments then diminish;
He ages slowly, guarding his life."

Now on that occasion the brahmin youth Sudassana was standing behind King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala. The king then addressed him thus: "Come now, dear Sudassana, learn this verse from the Lord (Buddha) and recite it to me whenever I am taking my meal. I will then present you daily with a hundred kahapanas as a perpetual grant." 230
"Yes, Lord," the brahmin youth Sudassana replied. Having learned this verse from the Lord (Buddha), whenever King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) was taking his meal the brahmin youth Sudassana recited:

"When a man is always meditative(satima).
Knowing moderation in the food he eats.
His ailments then diminish;
He ages slowly, guarding his life."

Then King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala gradually reduced his intake of food to at most a pint-pot measure of boiled rice. 231 At a later time, when his body had become quite slim. King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala stroked his limbs with his hand and on that occasion uttered this inspired utterance: "The Lord (Buddha) showed compassion towards me in regard to both kinds of good - the good pertaining to the present life and that pertaining to the future life." 232


125 Battle (1) (Sangama1 sans. Sangram)[]

At Savatthi. Then King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the Videhan son, mobilized a four-division(foot soldiers, on horsebacks, on chariots & on elephants) army and marched in the direction of Kasi against King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala. 233 King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) heard this report, mobilized a four-division army, and launched a counter-march in the direction of Kasi against King Ajatasattu. Then King Ajatasattu of Magadha and King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala fought a battle. In that battle King Ajatasattu defeated King Pasenadi(Prasenjit), and King Pasenadi(Prasenjit), defeated, retreated to his own capital of Savatthi.

Then, in the morning, a number of bhikkhus dressed and, taking their bowls and robes, entered Savatthi for alms. When they had walked for alms in Savatthi and had returned from their alms round, after the meal they approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and reported what had happened. [The Lord (Buddha) said:]

"Bhikkhus(monks), King Ajatasattu of Magadha has evil friends, evil
companions, evil comrades. King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala has good
friends, good companions, good comrades. Yet for this day,
bhikkhus, King Pasenadi(Prasenjit), having been defeated, will sleep badly
tonight. 234

"Victory breeds enmity; The defeated one sleeps badly.
The peaceful one sleeps at ease; Having abandoned victory and defeat." 235


126 Battle (2) (Sangama2 sans. Sangram)[]

(Opening as in previous sutta)

In that battle King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) defeated King Ajatasattu and captured him alive. Then it occurred to King Pasenadi(Prasenjit): "Although this King Ajatasattu of Magadha has transgressed against me while I have not transgressed against him, still, he is my nephew. Let me now confiscate all his elephant troops, all his cavalry, all his chariot troops, and all his infantry, and let him go with nothing but his life."

Then King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) confiscated all King Ajatasattu's elephant troops, all his cavalry, all his chariot troops, and all his infantry, and let him go with nothing but his life.

Then, in the morning, a number of bhikkhus dressed and, taking their bowls and robes, entered Savatthi for alms. When they had walked for alms in Savatthi and had returned from their alms round, after the meal they approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and reported what had happened. Then the Lord (Buddha), having understood the meaning of this, on that occasion recited these verses:

"A man will go on plundering;So long as it serves his ends,
But when others plunder him;The plunderer is plundered. 236

"The childish(unwise) thinks fortune is on his side;So long as his evil does not ripen.
But when the evil ripens; The childish(unwise) incurs suffering.

"The killer begets a killer; One who conquers, a conqueror.
The abuser begets abuse; The reviler, one who reviles.
Thus by the unfolding of kamma(karma);The plunderer is plundered." 237


127 Mallika[]

At Savatthi. Then King Pasenadi(sans. Prasenjit) of Kosala approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. Then a certain man approached King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) and informed him in a whisper: "Lord, Queen Mallika has given birth to a daughter." When this was said, King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) was displeased. 238

Then the Lord (Buddha), having understood that King
Pasenadi(Prasenjit) was displeased, on that occasion recited these verses:

"A woman, O lord of the people; May turn out better than a man;
She may be wise and virtuous; A devoted wife, revering her mother-in-law. 239

"The son to whom she gives birth; May become a brave-one, O lord of the land.
The son of such a blessed woman; May even rule the realm." 240


128 Alertfulness (1) (Appamada sans. Apramad)[]

At Savatthi. Sitting to one side. King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala said to the Lord (Buddha): "Is there, venerable sir, one dhamma(quality,law) which secures both kinds of good, the good pertaining to the present life and that pertaining to the future life?"

[Buddha:]
"There is one dhamma, great king, which secures both kinds of good, the good pertaining to the present life and that pertaining to the future life."

[King:]
"But what, venerable sir, is that one dhamma?"

[Buddha:]
"Alertfulness, great king. Just as the footprints of all living beings that walk fit into the footprint of the elephant, and the elephant's footprint is declared to be their chief by reason of its size, so alertfulness is the one dhamma which secures both kinds of good, the good pertaining to the present life and that pertaining to the future life. 241

"For one who desires long life and health;Beauty, heaven, and noble birth,
[A variety of] lofty delights; Following in succession.

The wise praise alertfulness; In doing deeds of divine-merit(punya).
"The wise person who is alertful;Secures both kinds of good

The good visible in this very life;And the good of the future life.
The steadfast one, by attaining the good; Is called a person of illuminated-insight(panna)." 242


129 Beneficent Friend (Kalyanamitta sans. Kalyanmitra)[]

At Savatthi. Sitting to one side. King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala said to the Lord (Buddha): "Here, venerable sir, while I was alone in seclusion, the following thought arose in my mind: 'The dhamma(path,law) has been well expounded by the Lord (Buddha), and that is for one with good friends, good companions, good comrades, not for one with bad friends, bad companions, bad comrades.'" 243

[Buddha:]
"So it is, great king! So it is, great king! The Dhamma has been well expounded by me, and that is for one with good friends, good companions, good comrades, not for one with bad friends, bad companions, bad comrades.

"On one occasion, great king, I was living among the Sakyans, where there is a town of the Sakyans named Nagaraka. 244 Then the bhikkhu(monk) Ananda approached me, paid homage to me, sat down to one side, and said: 'Venerable sir, this is half of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya), that is, good friendship, good companionship, good comradeship.'

"When this was said, great king, I told the bhikkhu Ananda:
'Not so, Ananda! Not so, Ananda! This is the entire holy celibate life(brahmacariya), Ananda, that is, good friendship, good companionship, good comradeship. When a bhikkhu has a good friend, a good companion, a good comrade, it is to be expected that he will develop and cultivate the Noble Eightfold Path. And how, Ananda, does a bhikkhu who has a good friend, a good companion, a good comrade, develop and cultivate the Noble Eightfold Path? Here, Ananda, a bhikkhu develops right view, which is based upon seclusion, dispassion, and cessation(nirodha), maturing in release(mokkha/moksha). He develops right intention ... right speech . . . right action . . . right livelihood . . . right effort . . . right meditation(sati) ... right samadhi(trance)state, which is based upon seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, maturing in release(mokkha/moksha). It is in this way, Ananda, that a bhikkhu who has a good friend, a good companion, a good comrade, develops and cultivates the Noble Eightfold Path.

"By the following method too, Ananda, it may be understood how the entire holy celibate life(brahmacariya) is good friendship, good companionship, good comradeship: by relying upon me as a good friend, Ananda, beings subject to rebirth are freed from rebirth; beings subject to aging are freed from aging; beings subject to illness are freed from illness; beings subject to death are freed from death; beings subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair are freed from sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair. By this method, Ananda, it may be understood how the entire holy celibate life(brahmacariya) is good friendship, good companionship, good comradeship.'

"Therefore, great king, you should train yourself thus: 'I will be one who has good friends, good companions, good comrades.' It is in such a way that you should train yourself.

"When, great king, you have good friends, good companions, good comrades, you should dwell with one dhamma(quality,law) for support: alertfulness(appamada) in beneficial(kusala sans. kushal) dhamma states.

"When, great king, you are dwelling alertful, with alertfulness
for support, your retinue of harem women will think thus: 'The
king dwells alertful, with alertfulness for support. Come now,
let us also dwell alertful, with alertfulness for support.'

"When, great king, you are dwelling alertful, with alertfulness
for support, your retinue of khattiya vassals will think thus ...

your troops will think thus ...

your subjects in town and countryside will think thus:
'The king dwells alertful, with
alertfulness for support. Come now, let us also dwell alertful,
with alertfulness for support.'

"When, great king, you are dwelling alertful, with alertfulness
for support, you yourself will be guarded and protected, your
retinue of harem women will be guarded and protected, your
treasury and storehouse will be guarded and protected.

"For one who desires lofty riches; Following in succession.
The wise praise alertfulness,In doing deeds of divine-merit(punya),

The alertful is the wise person; Secures both kinds of good;
The good visible in this very life;And the good of the future life;
The steadfast one, by attaining the good; Is called a person of illuminated-insight(panna)."


130 Childless (1) (sans. Aputtaka1)[]

At Savatthi. Then King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord (Buddha) then said to him: "Where are you coming from, great king, in the middle of the day?"

"Here, venerable sir, a financier householder in Savatthi has died. I have come after conveying his heirless fortune to the palace, as he died intestate. 245 There were eighty lakhs of gold, not to speak of silver, and yet, venerable sir, that financier householder's meals were like this: he ate red rice along with sour gruel. His clothes were like this: he wore a three-piece hempen garment. His vehicle was like this: he went about in a dilapidated little cart with a leaf awning." 246

"So it is, great king! So it is, great king! When an inferior man gains abundant wealth, he does not make himself happy and pleased, nor does he make his mother and father happy and pleased, nor his wife and children, nor his slaves, workers, and servants, nor his friends and colleagues; nor does he establish an offering for ascetics and brahmins, one leading upwards, of heavenly fruit, resulting in happiness(sukh), conducive to heaven. Because his wealth is not being used properly, kings take it away, or thieves take it away, or fire burns it, or water carries it away, or unloved heirs take it. Such being the case, great king, that wealth, not being used properly, goes to waste, not to utilization.

"Suppose, great king, in a place uninhabited by human beings, there was a lotus pond with clear, cool, sweet, clean water, with good fords, delightful; but no people would take that water, or drink it, or bathe in it, or use it for any purpose In such a case, great king, that water, not being used properly would go to waste, not to utilization. So too, great king, when an inferior man gains abundant wealth ... that wealth, not being used properly, goes to waste, not to utilization.

"But, great king, when a superior man gains abundant wealth, he makes himself happy and pleased, and he makes his mother and father happy and pleased, and his wife and children, and his slaves, workers, and servants, and his friends and colleagues; and he establishes an offering for ascetics and brahmins, one leading upwards, of heavenly fruit, resulting in happiness, conducive to heaven. Because his wealth is being used properly, kings do not take it away, thieves do not take it away, fire does not burn it, water does not carry it away, and unloved heirs do not take it. Such being the case, great king, that wealth, being used properly, goes to utilization, not to waste.

"Suppose, great king, not far from a village or a town, there was a lotus pond with clear, cool, sweet, clean water, with good fords, delightful; and people would take that water, and drink it, and bathe in it, and use it for their purposes. In such a case, great king, that water, being used properly, would go to utilization, not to waste. So too, great king, when a superior man gains abundant wealth ... that wealth, being used properly, goes to utilization, not to waste.

"As cool water in a desolate place
Evaporates without being drunk.
So when a scoundrel acquires wealth
He neither enjoys himself nor gives.

"But when the wise man obtains wealth
He enjoys himself and does his duty.
Having supported his kin, free from blame.
That noble man goes to a heavenly state."


131. Childless (2) (sans. Aputtaka2)[]

Then King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord (Buddha) then said to him: "Where are you coming from, great king, in the middle of the day?"

"Here, venerable sir, a financier householder in Savatthi has died. I have come after conveying his heirless fortune to the palace, as he died intestate. There were hundred lakhs of gold, not to speak of silver, and yet, venerable sir, that financier householder's meals were like this: he ate red rice along with sour gruel. His clothes were like this: he wore a three-piece hempen garment. His vehicle was like this: he went about in a dilapidated little cart with a leaf awning."

"So it is, great king! So it is, great king! Once in the past, great king, that financier householder provided a paccekabuddha named Tagarasikhi with almsfood. Having said, 'Give alms to the ascetic', he rose from his seat and departed. But after giving donation, he later felt regret and thought: 'It would have been better if the slaves or workers had eaten that almsfood!' Moreover, he murdered his brother's only son for the sake of his fortune. 247

"Because that financier householder provided the paccekabuddha Tagarasikhi with almsfood,as a result of that kamma(karma) he was reborn seven times in a good destination(sugati), in the heavenly world. As a residual result of that same kamma, he obtained the position of financier seven times in this same city of Savatthi. But because that financier householder later felt regret about giving donation, as a result of that kamma his mind did not incline to the enjoyment of excellent food, excellent clothing, and excellent vehicles, nor to the enjoyment of excellent items among the five cords of sensual pleasure. And because that financier householder murdered his brother's only son for the sake of his fortune, as a result of that kamma he was tormented in hell for many years, for many hundreds of years, for many thousands of years, for many hundreds of thousands of years. As a residual result of that same kamma, he has furnished the royal treasury with this seventh heirless fortune.

"The old divine-merit(punya) of that financier householder has been utterly exhausted, and he had not accumulated any fresh divine-merit(punya). But today, great king, the financier householder is being roasted in the Great Roruva Hell." 248

[King:]"So, venerable sir, that financier householder has been reborn in the Great Roruva Hell?"

[Buddha:] "Yes, great king, that financier householder has been reborn in the Great Roruva Hell.

"Grain, wealth, silver, gold; Or whatever other possessions there are,
Slaves, workers, messengers, And those who live as one's dependants:

Without taking anything one must go; Everything must be left behind
"But what one has done by body; Or by speech or mind

This is what is truly one's own; This one takes when one goes;
This is what follows one along; Like a shadow that never departs.

"Therefore one should do what is good; as a collection for the future life.
Divine-merits(punya) are the support for living beings;[When they arise] in the other world."



(iii) The Third Subchapter(The Kosalan Pentad)[]

132. Persons (Puggala)[]

At Savatthi. Then King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord (Buddha) then said to him:
"Great king, there are these four kinds of persons found existing in the world. What four? The one heading from darkness to darkness, the one heading from darkness to light, the one heading from light to darkness, the one heading from light to light. 249

"And how, great king, is a person one heading from darkness to darkness? Here some person has been reborn in a low family - a family of candalas, bamboo workers, hunters, Cart makers, or flower-scavengers - a poor family in which there is little food and drink and which subsists with difficulty, one where food and clothing are obtained with difficulty; and he is ugly, unsightly, deformed, chronically ill - purblind or cripple-handed or lame or paralyzed. 250 He is not one who gains food, drink, clothing, and vehicles; garlands, scents, and unguents; bedding, housing, and lighting. He engages in misconduct of body, speech, and mind. Having done so, with the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the nether world, in hell.

"Suppose, great king, a man would go from darkness to darkness, or from gloom to gloom, or from stain to stain: this person, I say, is exactly similar. It is in this way, great king, that a person is one heading from darkness to darkness.

"And how, great king, is a person one heading from darkness to light? Here some person has been reborn in a low family ... one where food and clothing are obtained with difficulty; and he is ugly ... or paralyzed. He is not one who gains food ... and lighting. He engages in good conduct of body, speech, and mind. Having done so, with the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in a good destination(sugati), in a heavenly world.

"Suppose, great king, a man would climb from the ground on to a palanquin, or from a palanquin on to horseback, or from horseback to an elephant mount, or from an elephant mount to a mansion: this person, I say, is exactly similar. It is in this way, great king, that a person is one heading from darkness to light.

"And how, great king, is a person one heading from light to darkness? Here some person has been reborn in a high family, an affluent khattiya family, an affluent brahmin family, or an affluent householder family - one which is rich, with great wealth and property, [95] with abundant gold and silver, abundant treasures and commodities, abundant wealth and grain; and he is handsome, attractive, graceful, possessing supreme beauty of complexion. He is one who gains food, drink, clothing, and vehicles; garlands, scents, and unguents; bedding, housing, and lighting. He engages in misconduct of body, speech, and mind. Having done so, with the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the nether world, in hell.

"Suppose, great king, a man would descend from a mansion to an elephant mount, or from an elephant mount to horseback, or from horseback to a palanquin, or from a palanquin to the ground, or from the ground to underground darkness: this person, I say, is exactly similar. It is in this way, great king, that a person is one heading from light to darkness.

"And how, great king, is a person one heading from light to light? Here some person has been reborn in a high family ... with abundant wealth and grain; and he is handsome, attractive, graceful, possessing supreme beauty of complexion. He is one who gains food . . . and lighting. He engages in good conduct of body, speech, and mind. Having done so, with the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in a good destination(sugati), in a heavenly world.

"Suppose, great king, a man would cross over from palanquin to palanquin, or from horseback to horseback, or from elephant mount to elephant mount, or from mansion to mansion: this person, I say, is exactly similar. It is in this way, great king, that a person is one heading from light to light.
"These, great king, are the four kinds of persons found existing in the world.

(i) "The person, O king, who is poor; Lacking in faith, stingy.
miserly, with bad intentions; Wrong in views, disrespectful,

Who abuses and reviles ascetics, Brahmins, and other mendicants;
A nihilist, a scoffer, who hinders another donating food to beggars:

When such a person dies,
O lord of the people, He goes
To the terrible hell; Heading from darkness to darkness.

(ii) "The person, O king, who is poor; endowed with faith, generous.
One who gives, with best intentions, A person with unscattered mind

Who rises up and venerates ascetics; Brahmins, and other mendicants;
One who trains in righteous conduct; Who hinders none donating food to beggars.

When such a person dies, O king,
He goes, lord of the people.
To the triple heaven; Heading from darkness to light.

(iii) "The person, O king, who is rich; Lacking in faith, stingy.
miserly, with sinful intentions; Wrong in views, disrespectful,

Who abuses and reviles ascetics; Brahmins, and other mendicants;
A nihilist, a scoffer, who hinders others doing donation of food

When such a person dies, O king.
He goes, lord of the people.
To the terrible hell; Heading from light to darkness.

(iv) "The person, O king, who is rich; Endowed with faith, generous.
One who gives, with best intentions, A person with unscattered mind

Who rises up and venerates ascetics; brahmins, and other mendicants;
One who trains in righteous conduct; Who hinders none giving donation of food

When such a person dies, O king
He goes, lord of the people.
To the triple heaven, Heading from light to light."


133. Grandmother (Ayyika)[]

At Savatthi. Then, in the middle of the day. King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala approached the Lord (Buddha).... The Lord (Buddha) said to him as he was sitting to one side: "Where are you coming from, great king, in the middle of the day?"

"Venerable sir, my grandmother has died. She was old, aged, burdened with years, advanced in life, come to the last stage, 120 years from birth. Venerable sir, my grandmother was dear and beloved to me. If, venerable sir, by means of the elephant gem I could have redeemed her from death, I would have given away even the elephant-gem so that she would not have died. 251 If by means of the horse-gem I could have redeemed her from death ... If by a prize village I could have redeemed her from death ... If by means of the country I could have redeemed her from death, I would have given away even the country so that she would not have died." [Buddha:]"All beings, great king, are subject to death, terminate in death, and cannot escape death." [King:] "It is wonderful, venerable sir! It is amazing, venerable sir! How well this has been stated by the Lord (Buddha): 'All beings, great king, are subject to death, terminate in death, and cannot escape death."

[Buddha:]
"So it is, great king! So it is, great king! All beings, great king,
are subject to death, terminate in death, and cannot escape
death. Just as all the potter's vessels, whether unbaked or
baked, are subject to a breakup, terminate in their breakup, and
cannot escape their breakup, so all beings are subject to death,
terminate in death, and cannot escape death.

"All beings will die; For life ends in death.
They will go on according to their deeds;Reaping the fruits of their divine-merit(punya) and evil:
The doers of evil go to hell;The doers of divine-merit(punya) to a happy realm.

"Therefore one should do what is good; As a collection for the future life.
Divine-merits(punya) are the support for living beings;[When they arise] in the other world."


134 World (Loka)[]

At Savatthi. Sitting to one side. King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala said to the Lord (Buddha): "Venerable sir, how many Dhammas(attributes,law) are there in the world which, when they arise, arise for one's harm, suffering, and discomfort?" 252 [Buddha:] "There are, great king, three Dhammas in the world which, when they arise, arise for one's harm, suffering, and discomfort. What are the three? Greed(raag), hatred(dosa\dvesh), and delusion(moha). These are the three Dhammas in the world which, when they arise, arise for one's harm, suffering, and discomfort.

"Greed(raag), hatred(dosa\dvesh), and delusion(moha); Arisen from within oneself.
Injure the person of evil mind; As its own fruit destroys the reed."


135 Archery (Issatta)[]

At Savatthi. Sitting to one side. King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala said to the Lord (Buddha): "Venerable sir, where should a donation be given?" 253
[Buddha:] "Wherever one's mind has confidence, great king." 254
[King:] "But, venerable sir, where does what is given become of great fruit?"
[Buddha:] "This is one question, great king, 'Where should a donation be given?' and this another, 'Where does what is given become of great fruit?' What is given to one who is virtuous, great king, is of great fruit, not so what is given to an immoral person. Now then, great king, I will question you about this same point. Answer as you see fit. What do you think, great king? Suppose you are at war and a battle is about to take place. Then a khattiya youth would arrive, one who is untrained, unskilful, unpractised, inexperienced, timid, petrified, frightened, quick to flee. Would you employ that man, and would you have any use for such a man?" [King:] "Surely not, venerable sir."
[Buddha:] "Then a brahmin youth would arrive ... a vessa youth ... a sudda youth ... who is untrained ... quick to flee. Would you employ that man, and would you have any use for such a man?"
[king:] "Surely not, venerable sir."
[Buddha:] "What do you think, great king? Suppose you are at war and a battle is about to take place. Then a khattiya youth would arrive, one who is well trained, skillful, practised, experienced, brave, courageous, bold, ready to stand his place. Would you employ that man, and would you have any use for such a man?"
[King:] "Surely I would, venerable sir."
[Buddha:] "Then a brahmin youth would arrive ... a vessa youth ... a
sudda youth ... who is trained ... ready to stand his place.
Would you employ that man, and would you have any use for
such a man?"
[King:] "Surely I would, venerable sir."
[Buddha:] "So too, great king, when a person has gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit) from the household life into hermit life, no matter from what clan, if he has abandoned five factors and possesses five factors, then what is given to him is of great fruit. What five factors have been abandoned? Sensual desire has been abandoned; ill will has been abandoned; sloth and torpor have been abandoned; restlessness and remorse have been abandoned; doubt has been abandoned. What five factors does he possess? He possesses the aggregate(khandha sans. skandha) of virtue(sheel) of one beyond training, the aggregate of samadhi(trance)state of one beyond training, the aggregate of illuminated-insight(panna) of one beyond training, [100] the aggregate of liberation(vimutti sans. vimukti) of one beyond training, the aggregate of the knowledge and vision of liberation of one beyond training. He possesses these five factors. Thus what is given to one who has abandoned five factors and who possesses five factors is of great fruit. 255

"As a king intent on waging war ; Would employ a youth skilled with the bow.
One endowed with strength and vigour; But not the coward on account of his birth

So even though he be of low birth, One should honour the person of noble conduct,
The sagely man in whom are established, The virtues of patience and gentleness. 256

"One should build delightful hermitages; And invite the learned to dwell in them;
One should build water tanks in the forest; And causeways over rough terrain.

"Donate food and drink and things to eat, Clothing to wear and beds and seats.
Donate with a confident heart ; To those awakened with insight(vipassana) meditation

"For as the rain-cloud, thundering; Wreathed in lightning, with a hundred crests.
Pours down its rain upon the earth; Flooding both the plain and valley

So the wise man, faithful, learned; Having had a meal prepared.
Satisfies with food and drink; The mendicants who live on alms.

Rejoicing, he distributes donations; And proclaims, 'Give, give donations.'
"For that is his thundering; Like the sky when it rains.
That shower of divine-merit(punya), so vast; Will pour down on the donations giver."


136 Mountain Like (Pabbatupama)[]

At Savatthi. Then, in the middle of the day. King Pasenadi(Prasenjit) of Kosala approached the Lord (Buddha).... The Lord (Buddha) said to him as he was sitting to one side: "Now where are you coming from, great king, in the middle of the day?"
[King:] "Just now, venerable sir, I have been engaged in those affairs of kingship typical for head-anointed khattiya kings, who are intoxicated with the intoxication of sovereignty, who are obsessed by greed for sensual pleasures, who have attained stable control in their country, and who rule having conquered a great sphere of territory on earth." 257
[Buddha:] "What do you think, great king? Here, a man would come to you from the east, one who is trustworthy and reliable; having approached, he would tell you: 'For sure, great king, you should know this: I am coming from the east, and there I saw a great mountain high as the clouds coming this way, crushing all living beings. Do whatever you think should be done, great king.' Then a second man would come to you from the west . . . Then a third man would come to you from the north ... ... Then a fourth man would come to you from the south, one who is trustworthy and reliable; having approached, he would tell you: 'For sure, great king, you should know this: I am coming from the south, and there I saw a great mountain high as the clouds coming this way, crushing all living beings. Do whatever you think should be done, great king. If, great king, such a great peril should arise, such a terrible destruction(khaya\kshaya) of human life, the human state being so difficult to obtain, what should be done?"

[King:] "If, venerable sir, such a great peril should arise, such a terrible destruction(khaya\kshaya) of human life, the human state being so difficult to obtain, what else should be done but to live by the dhamma(path,law), to live righteously, and to do beneficial(kusala sans. kushal) and meritorious(punya) deeds?" 258

[Buddha:] "I inform you, great king, I announce to you, great king: aging and death are rolling in on you. When aging and death are rolling in on you, great king, what should be done?"
[King:] "As aging and death are rolling in on me, venerable sir, what else should be done but to live by the Dhamma, to live righteously, and to do beneficial(kusala) and meritorious(punya) deeds?
"There are, venerable sir, elephant battles [fought by] head anointed khattiya kings, who are intoxicated with the intoxication of sovereignty, who are obsessed by greed for sensual pleasures, who have attained stable control in their country, and who rule having conquered a great sphere of territory on earth; but there is no place for those elephant battles, no scope for them, when aging and death are rolling in. 259 There are, venerable sir, cavalry battles [fought by] head-anointed khattiya kings ... There are chariot battles ... infantry battles ... but there is no place for those infantry battles, no scope for them, when aging and death are rolling in. In this royal court, venerable sir, there are counsellors who, when the enemies arrive, are capable of dividing them by subterfuge; but there is no place for those battles of subterfuge, no scope for them, when aging and death are rolling in. In this royal court, venerable sir, there exists abundant bullion and gold stored in vaults and depositories, and with such wealth we are capable of mollifying the enemies when they come; but there is no place for those battles of wealth, no scope for them, when aging and death are rolling in. As aging and death are rolling in on me, venerable sir, what else should be done but to live by the Dhamma, to live righteously, and to do beneficial(kusala) and meritorious(punya) deeds?"

[Buddha:]"So it is, great king! So it is, great king! As aging and death are rolling in on you, what else should be done but to live by the Dhamma, to live righteously, and to do beneficial(kusala) and meritorious(punya) deeds?" This is what the Lord (Buddha) said. Having said this, the Fortunate One(Sugato), the Teacher(Sattha), further said this:

"Just as mountains of solid rock; Massive, reaching to the sky.
Might draw together from all sides; Crushing all in the four quarters

So aging and death come; Rolling over living beings
Khattiyas, brahmins, vessas, suddas; Candalas and scavengers:
They spare none along the way; But come crushing everything.

"There's no ground there for elephant troops; For chariot troops and infantry.
One can't defeat them by subterfuge;Or buy them off by means of wealth.

"Therefore a person of wisdom here; Out of regard for his own good.
Steadfast, should settle faith; In the Buddha, dhamma(path,law), and Sangha(monks fraternity).

"When one conducts oneself by Dhamma; With body, speech, and mind.
They praise one here in the present life; And after death one rejoices in heaven."



Samyutta 4 : Connected Discourses with Mara the Deathlord (Marasamyutta)[]

(i) The First Subchapter (Life Span)[]

137. Austere Practice (Tapokamma sans. Tapo-karma)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Uruvela on the bank of the river Neranjara at the foot of the Goatherd's Banyan Tree just after he had become fully enlightened. 260 Then, while the Lord (Buddha) was alone in seclusion, a thought arose in his mind thus: "I am indeed freed from that gruelling asceticism! It is good indeed that I am freed from that useless gruelling asceticism! It is good that, steady and meditative(satima), I have attained enlightenment!" 261

Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One, having known with his own mind the thought in the Lord (Buddha)'s mind, approached the Lord (Buddha) and addressed him in verse:

"Having deviated from the austere(tapa) practice; By which men purify themselves.
Being impure, you think you're pure; You have missed the path to purity." 262

Then the Lord (Buddha), having understood, "This is Mara the Evil One," replied to him in verses:

"Having known as useless any [hard] austerity(tapa); Aimed at the immortal state, 263
That all such penances are futile; Like oars and rudder on dry land, 264

Virtue(sheel), samadhi(trance)state, and illuminated-insight(panna); By developing the path to enlightenment
I have attained supreme purity; You're defeated. End-maker!" 265

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The Lord (Buddha) knows me, the Fortunate One(Sugato) knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.


138. The King Elephant (Hatthirajavanna sans. Hasti-raj-varna)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Uruvela on the bank of the river Neranjara at the foot of the Goatherd's Banyan Tree just after he had become fully enlightened. Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha) was sitting out in the open air in the thick darkness of the night while it was drizzling. 266 Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One, wishing to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror in the Lord (Buddha), manifested himself in the form of a giant king elephant and approached the Lord (Buddha). His head was like a huge block of steatite; his tusks were like pure silver; his trunk was like a huge plough pole. Then the Lord (Buddha), having understood, "This is Mara the Evil One," addressed him in verse:

"You've wandered through the long course; Creating beautiful and hideous shapes.
Enough, Evil One, with that trick of yours; You're defeated. End-maker!" 267

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The Lord (Buddha) knows
me, the Fortunate One(Sugato) knows me," sad and disappointed,
disappeared right there.


3 (3) Beautiful (Subha sans. Shubh)[]

While dwelling at Uruvela. Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha) was sitting out in the open air in the thick darkness of the night while it was drizzling. Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One, wishing to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror in the Lord (Buddha), approached the Lord (Buddha) and, not far from him, displayed diverse lustrous shapes, both beautiful and hideous. Then the Lord (Buddha), having understood, "This is Mara the Evil One," addressed him in verses:

"You've wandered on through the long course; Creating beautiful and hideous shapes.
Enough, Evil One, with that trick of yours; You're defeated. End-maker!

"Those who are well restrained; In body, speech, and mind.
Do not come under Mara's control; Nor become Mara's henchmen." 268

Then Mara the Evil One . . . disappeared right there. [105]


140 Mara's Snare (1) (Marapasa1 sans. Maar-pash)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Baranasi in the Deer-Park(Migdaye) at Isipatana. There the Lord (Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus(monks)!" 269
"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), by meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), by meditative(yoniso) right striving, I have arrived at unsurpassed liberation(vimutti sans. vimukti), I have realized unsurpassed liberation. You too, bhikkhus, by meditative(yoniso) mindfulness(mansikara), by meditative(yoniso) right striving, must arrive at unsurpassed liberation, must realize unsurpassed liberation." 270 Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One approached the Lord (Buddha) and addressed him in verse: 271

"You are bound by Mara's snare; Both celestial and human;
You are bound by Mara's bondage;You won't escape me, ascetic!" 272

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"I am freed from Mara's snare; Both celestial and human;
I am freed from Mara's bondage; You're defeated. End-maker!"

Then Mara the Evil One . . . disappeared right there.


141. Mara's Snare (2) (Marapasa2 sans. Maar-pash)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Baranasi in the Deer-Park(Migdaye) at Isipatana. There the Lord (Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus(monks)!"
"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), I am freed from all snares, both celestial and human. You too, bhikkhus, are freed from all snares, both celestial and human. Wander forth, O bhikkhus, for the welfare of the multitude, for the happiness(sukh) of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the good, welfare, and happiness of devas(angels) and humans. Let not two go the same way. Teach, O bhikkhus, the Dhamma that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing. Reveal the perfectly complete and purified holy celibate life(brahmacariya). There are beings with little dust in their eyes who are falling away because they do not hear the dhamma(path,law). There will be those who will understand the Dhamma. I too, bhikkhus, will go to Senanigama in Uruvela in order to teach the Dhamma." 273 Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One approached the Lord (Buddha) and addressed him in verse: 274

"You are bound by all the snares; Both celestial and human;
You are bound by the great bondage; You won't escape me, ascetic!"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"I am freed from all the snares; Both celestial and human;
I am freed from the great bondage; You're defeated. End-maker!"

Then Mara the Evil One . . . disappeared right there.


142. Serpent (Sappa sans. Sarp)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha) was sitting out in the open in the thick darkness of the night while it was drizzling.

Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One . . . manifested himself in the form of a giant king serpent and approached the Lord (Buddha). Its body was like a huge boat made from a single tree trunk; its hood, like a large brewer's sieve; its eyes, like the large bronze dishes of Kosala; its tongue darting out from its mouth, like flashes of lightning emitted when the sky thunders; the sound of its breathing in and out, like the sound of a smith's bellows filling with air.

Then the Lord (Buddha), having understood, "This is Mara the Evil One," addressed Mara the Evil One in verses:

"He who resorts to empty huts for lodging
He is the sage, self-controlled.
He should live there, having relinquished all;
That is proper for one like him. 275

"Though many creatures crawl about,
Many terrors, flies, serpents,
he stirs not a hair because of them
gone to his empty hut, he is a great sage

[Buddha:]
"Though the sky might split, the earth quake.
And all creatures be stricken with terror.
Though men brandish a dart at their breast,
The enlightened take no shelter in acquisitions(upadhi)." 276

Then Mara the Evil One . . . disappeared right there.


143. Sleep (Supati sans. Sushupti)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). Then, when the night was fading, the Lord (Buddha), having spent much of the night walking back and forth in the open, washed his feet, entered his dwelling, and lay down on his right side in the lion's posture, with one leg overlapping the other, meditative(satima) and completely comprehending (sampajano), having thought to the idea of rising.
Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One approached the Lord (Buddha) and addressed him in verse:

"What, you sleep? Why do you sleep?
What's this, you sleep like a unfortunate? 277
you sleep in empty hut
What's this, you sleep when the sun has risen?"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Within him craving(tanha sans. trishna) no longer lurks.
Entangling and binding, to lead him anywhere;
With the destruction(khaya\kshaya) of all acquisitions(upadhi)
The Awakened One sleeps,
Why should this concern you, Mara?" 278

Then Mara the Evil One . . . disappeared right there.


144. Delights (Nandati sans. Anandati)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One approached the Lord (Buddha) and recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"One who has sons delights in sons; One with cattle delights in cattle.
acquisitions(upadhi) truly are a man's delight(nandi\anand); Without acquisitions one does not delight."

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"One who has sons sorrows over sons; One with cattle sorrows over cattle.
Acquisitions truly are a man's sorrow; Without acquisitions one does not sorrow."

Then Mara the Evil One . . . disappeared right there.


145 Life Span (1) (Ayu1)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). There the Lord (Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus(monks)!"
"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), this life span of human beings is short. One has to
go on to the future life. One should do what is beneficial(kusala sans. kushal) and
lead the holy celibate life(brahmacariya); for one who has taken birth there is no avoiding
death. One who lives long, bhikkhus, lives a hundred years
or a little longer."

Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One approached the Lord (Buddha) and addressed him in verse:

"Long is the life span of human beings; The good man should not disdain it.
One should live like a milk-sucking baby;[till] Death has not made its arrival." 279

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Short is the life span of human beings; The good man should disdain it.
One should live like one with head aflame; There is no avoiding Death's arrival."

Then Mara the Evil One . . . disappeared right there.


146 Life Span (2) (Ayu2)[]

(Opening as in preceding sutta:)

Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One approached the Lord (Buddha) and addressed him in verse:

"The days and nights do not fly by; Life does not come to a stop.
The life span of mortals rolls along; Like the chariot's wheel round the hub." 280 <243>

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"The days and nights go flying by; Life comes to a stop.
The life span of mortals is depleted; Like the water in rivulets."

Then Mara the Evil One . . . disappeared right there.



(ii) The Second Subchapter(Rulership)[]

147. The Boulder (Pasana sans Pashan)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha on Mount Vulture Peak. Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha) was sitting out in the open in the thick darkness of the night while it was drizzling. Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One, wishing to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror in the Lord (Buddha), shattered a number of huge boulders not far away from him.

Then the Lord (Buddha), having understood, "This is Mara the
Evil One," addressed Mara the Evil One in verse:

467 "Even if you make this Vulture Peak; Quake all over in its entirety.
The enlightened are not perturbed; For they are are fully liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt)."

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The Lord (Buddha) knows
me, the Fortunate One(Sugato) knows me," sad and disappointed,
disappeared right there.


148. Lion (Kinnusiha)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha) was teaching the dhamma(path,law) while surrounded by a large assembly.

Then it occurred to Mara(Satan) the Evil One: "This ascetic Gotama is teaching the Dhamma while surrounded by a large assembly. Let me approach the ascetic Gotama in order to confound them." 281 Then Mara the Evil One approached the Lord (Buddha) and addressed him in verse:

"Why now do you roar like a lion; Confident in the assembly?
For there is one who's a match for you; So why think yourself the victor?"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"The great heroes(mahavira) roar their lion's roar; Confident in the assemblies
The Tathagatas endowed with the powers; Have crossed over attachment to the world." 282

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The Lord (Buddha) knows me, the Fortunate One(Sugato) knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.


149. The Splinter (Sakalika)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Maddakucchi Deer-Park(Migdaye). Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha)'s foot had been cut by a stone splinter. Severe pains assailed the Lord (Buddha) - bodily sensations(vedana) that were painful, racking, sharp, piercing, harrowing, disagreeable. But the Lord (Buddha) endured them, meditative(satima) and completely comprehending (sampajano), without becoming distressed. Then the Lord (Buddha) had his outer robe folded in four, and he lay down on his right side in the lion posture with one leg overlapping the other, meditative(satima) and completely comprehending (sampajano). 283 Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One approached the Lord (Buddha) and addressed him in verse:

"Do you lie down in a daze or drunk on poetry?
Don't you have sufficient goals to meet?
Alone in a secluded lodging
Why do you sleep with a drowsy face?" 284

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"I do not lie in a daze or drunk on poetry;
Having reached the goal, I am rid of sorrow.
Alone in a secluded lodging
I lie down full of compassion for all beings.

"Even those with a dart stuck in the breast
Piercing their heart moment by moment
Even these here, stricken, get to sleep;
So why should I not get to sleep; When my dart has been drawn out? 285

"I do not lie awake in dread;Nor am I afraid to sleep.
The nights and days do not afflict me,
I see for myself no loss in the world.
Therefore I can sleep in peace.
Full of compassion for all beings."

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The Lord (Buddha) knows me, the Fortunate One(Sugato) knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.


14 (4) Suitable (Patirupa)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling among the Kosalans at the brahmin village of Ekasala. Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha) was teaching the dhamma(path,law) surrounded by a large assembly of laypeople.

Then it occurred to Mara(Satan) the Evil One: "This ascetic Gotama is teaching the Dhamma while surrounded by a large assembly of laypeople. Let me approach the ascetic Gotama in order to confound them."
Then Mara the Evil One approached the Lord (Buddha) and addressed him in verse:

"This is not suitable for you; That you instruct others.
When so engaged don't get caught; In attraction and repulsion[of world]." 286

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Compassionate for their welfare;The Buddha instructs others.
The Tathagata is fully released(in mokkha/moksha); from attraction and repulsion[of world]."

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The Lord (Buddha) knows me, the Fortunate One(Sugato) knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.


151. Mental (Manas)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One approached the Lord (Buddha) and addressed him in verse: 287

"There is a snare moving in the sky; Something mental which moves about 288
By means of which I'll catch you yet; You won't escape me, ascetic!"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Forms, sounds, tastes, odours;And delightful tactile objects
Desire for these has vanished in me; You're defeated. End-maker!"

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The Lord (Buddha) knows me, the Fortunate One(Sugato) knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.


152. Almsbowls (Patta sans. Patra)[]

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha) was instructing, instructing, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus(monks) with a Dhamma talk concerning the five aggregates(khandha sans. skandha) subject to clinging(upadana sans. asakti). And those bhikkhus were listening to the dhamma(path,law) with eager ears, mindful to it as a matter of vital concern, applying their whole attention to it.

Then it occurred to Mara(Satan) the Evil One: "This ascetic Gotama is instructing, instructing, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus ... who are applying their whole minds to it. Let me approach the ascetic Gotama in order to confound them."
Now on that occasion a number of almsbowls had been put out in the open. Then Mara the Evil One manifested himself in the form of an ox and approached those almsbowls. Then one bhikkhu(monk) said to another: "Bhikkhu, bhikkhu! That ox may break the almsbowls." When this was said, the Lord (Buddha) said to that bhikkhu: "That is not an ox, bhikkhu. That is Mara the Evil One, who has come here in order to confound you." Then the Lord (Buddha), having understood, "This is Mara the Evil One," addressed Mara the Evil One in verses:

"Form, sensation(vedana), and perception(sanna sans. sangya); consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan), and sankhara([karma]sanskaras, compulsive-behavior-conditioning)
'I am not this, this isn't mine'; Thus one is detached from it. 289

"Though they seek him everywhere; Mara and his army do not find him
The one thus detached, secure; Who has gone beyond all fetters." 290

Then Mara the Evil One , realizing, "The Lord (Buddha) knows me, the Fortunate One(Sugato) knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.


153. Six Spheres for Contact (Chaphassayatana sans. Chah-sparsh-ayatana)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Vesali in the Great Wood in the Hall with the Peaked Roof. Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha) was instructing, instructing, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus with a Dhamma talk concerning the six spheres for contact(of sense with objects;phassa/sparsh). And those bhikkhus were listening to the dhamma(path,law) with eager ears, attending to it as a matter of vital concern, applying their whole minds to it.

Then it occurred to Mara(Satan) the Evil One: "This ascetic Gotama is instructing, instructing, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus ... who are applying their whole minds to it. Let me approach the ascetic Gotama in order to confound them." Then Mara the Evil One approached the Lord (Buddha) and, not far from him, made a loud noise, frightful and terrifying, as though the earth were splitting open. 291 Then one bhikkhu(monk) said to another: "Bhikkhu, bhikkhu! It seems as though the earth is splitting open." When this was said, the Lord (Buddha) said to that bhikkhu: "The earth is not splitting open, bhikkhu. That is Mara the Evil One, who has come here in order to confound you." Then the Lord (Buddha), having understood, "This is Mara the Evil One," addressed Mara the Evil One in verses:

"Forms, sounds, tastes, odours; Tactiles, and all mental objects;
This is the terrible bait of the world; With which the world is infatuated.

"But when he has rightly transcended this; The meditative(satima) disciple of the Buddha
Having surmounted Mara's realm; Shines radiantly like the sun." 292

Then Mara the Evil One , realizing, "The Lord (Buddha) knows me, the Fortunate One(Sugato) knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.


154. Alms (Pinda)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling among the Magadhans at the brahmin village of Pancasala. Now on that occasion the donation-festival of the young people was being held at the brahmin village of Pancasala. 293 Then, in the morning, the Lord (Buddha) dressed and, taking bowl and robe, entered Pancasala for alms. Now on that occasion Mara(Satan) the Evil One had taken possession of the brahmin householders of Pancasala, [inciting in them the thought,] "Don't let the ascetic Gotama get alms."

Then the Lord (Buddha) left Pancasala with his bowl just as cleanly washed as it was when he entered it for alms. Then Mara the Evil One approached the Lord (Buddha) and said to him:
"Maybe you got alms, ascetic?"
[Buddha:]"Was it you. Evil One, who saw to it that I didn't get alms?"
[Mara:] "Then, venerable sir, let the Lord (Buddha) enter Pancasala a second time for alms. I will see to it that the Lord (Buddha) gets alms." 294

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"You have produced demerit, Mara; Having assailed the Tathagata.
Do you really think, O Evil One; 'My evil does not ripen'?

"Happily indeed we live, We who own nothing at all.
We shall dwell feeding on bliss(piti/preeti); Like the devas(angels) of Streaming Radiance." 295

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The Lord (Buddha) knows me, the Fortunate One(Sugato) knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.


155. The Farmer (Kassaka sans. Krishak)[]

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha) was instructing, instructing, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus with a Dhamma talk concerning Nibbana. And those bhikkhus were listening to the dhamma(path,law) with eager ears, attending to it as a matter of vital concern, applying their whole minds to it.

Then it occurred to Mara(Satan) the Evil One: "This ascetic Gotama is instructing, instructing, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus ... who are applying their whole minds to it. Let me approach the ascetic Gotama in order to confound them." Then Mara the Evil One manifested himself in the form of a farmer, carrying a large plough on his shoulder, holding a long goad stick, his hair dishevelled, wearing hempen garments, his feet smeared with mud. He approached the Lord (Buddha) and said to him: "Maybe you've seen oxen, ascetic?"
[Buddha:] "What are oxen to you. Evil One?"
[Mara:] "The eye is mine, ascetic, forms are mine, eye-contact(of sense with objects;phassa/sparsh) and its
sphere of consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) are mine. 296 Where can you go, ascetic, to
escape from me? The ear is mine, ascetic, sounds are mine ...
The nose is mine, ascetic, odours are mine ... The tongue is
mine, ascetic, tastes are mine . . . The body is mine, ascetic, tactile
objects are mine . . . The mind is mine, ascetic, mental phenomena(dhamma)
are mine, mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) and its sphere of consciousness are
mine. Where can you go, ascetic, to escape from me?"

"The eye is yours. Evil One, forms are yours, eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) and
its sphere of consciousness are yours; but, Evil One, where there is
no eye, no forms, no eye-contact(phassa/sparsh) and its sphere of
consciousness - there is no place for you there. Evil One. 297 The ear
is yours. Evil One, sounds are yours, ear-contact(phassa/sparsh) and its sphere of
consciousness are yours; but. Evil One, where there is no ear, no
sounds, no ear-contact(phassa/sparsh) and its sphere of consciousness - there is no
place for you there. Evil One. The nose is yours, Evil One,
odours are yours, nose-contact(phassa/sparsh) and its sphere of consciousness are
yours; but. Evil One, where there is no nose, no odours, no nose
contact(phassa/sparsh) and its sphere of consciousness - there is no place for you
there, Evil One. The tongue is yours. Evil One, tastes are
yours, tongue-contact(phassa/sparsh) and its sphere of consciousness are yours;
but. Evil One, where there is no tongue, no tastes, no tongue
contact(phassa/sparsh) and its sphere of consciousness - there is no place for you
there, Evil One. The body is yours. Evil One, tactile objects are
yours, body-contact(phassa/sparsh) and its sphere of consciousness are yours; but,
Evil One, where there is no body, no tactile objects, no body
contact(phassa/sparsh) and its sphere of consciousness - there is no place for you
there, Evil One. The mind is yours, Evil One, mental phenomena(dhamma)
are yours, mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) and its sphere of consciousness are yours;
but Evil One, where there is no mind, no mental phenomena(dhamma),
no mind-contact(phassa/sparsh) and its sphere of consciousness - there is no place
for you there. Evil One."

[Mara:]
"That of which they say 'It's mine,';And those who speak in terms of 'mine'
If your mind exists among these; You won't escape me, ascetic."

[Buddha:]
"That which they speak of is not mine;I'm not one of those who speak [of mine].
You should know thus, O Evil One;Even my path you will not see."

Then Mara the Evil One , realizing, "The Lord (Buddha) knows me, the Fortunate One(Sugato) knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.


156. Rulership (Rajja sans. Rajya)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling among the Kosalans in a small forest hut in the Himalayan region. Then, when the Lord (Buddha) was alone in seclusion, a thought arose in his mind thus "Is it possible to exercise rulership righteously; without killing and without instigating others to kill, without confiscating and without instigating others to confiscate, without sorrowing and without causing sorrow?" 298

Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One, having known with his own mind the thought in the Lord (Buddha)'s mind, approached the Lord (Buddha) and said to him: "Venerable sir, let the Lord (Buddha) exercise rulership righteously: without killing and without instigating others to kill, without confiscating and without instigating others to confiscate, without sorrowing and without instigating others to cause sorrow."
[Buddha:]
"But what do you see. Evil One, that you speak thus to me?"
[Mara:]
"Venerable sir, the Lord (Buddha) has developed and cultivated the four faculties of spiritual-power(iddhi\riddhi), made them a vehicle, made them a basis, stabilized them, exercised himself in them, and fully perfected them. And, venerable sir, if the Lord (Buddha) wishes, he need only resolve that the Himalayas, the king of mountains, should become gold, and it would turn to gold." 299

[Buddha:]
"If there were a mountain made of gold; made entirely of solid gold.
Not double this would suffice for one;Having known this, dwell equanimous. 300

"How could a person incline to sensual pleasures
Who has seen the source, from where suffering originates?
Having known (material)acquisition(upadhi) as bondage in the world,
A person should train for its removal." 301

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The Lord (Buddha) knows me, the Fortunate One(Sugato) knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.



(iii) The Third Subchapter(The Mara Pentad)[]

157. Many Number (Sambahula)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling among the Sakyans at Silavati. Now on that occasion many number of bhikkhus were dwelling not far from the Lord (Buddha) - alertful(appamada), ardent, and resolute. Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One manifested himself in the form of a brahmin, with a large matted topknot, clad in an antelope hide, old, crooked like a roof bracket, wheezing, holding a staff of udumbara wood. 302 He approached those bhikkhus and said to them: "You, sirs, have gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit) while young, lads with black hair, endowed with the blessing of youth, in the prime of life, without having dallied with sensual pleasures. Enjoy human sensual pleasures, sirs; do not abandon what is directly visible in order to pursue what takes time." 303
[Bhikkhus:]
"We have not abandoned what is directly visible, brahmin, in order to pursue what takes time. We have abandoned what takes time in order to pursue what is directly visible. For the Lord (Buddha), brahmin, has stated that sensual pleasures are time-consuming, full of suffering, full of despair, and the danger in them is still greater, while this dhamma(path,law) is directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise."
When this was said, Mara the Evil One shook his head, lolled his tongue, knit his brow into three furrows, and departed leaning on his staff. 304
Then those bhikkhus approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and reported everything in full.

[The Lord (Buddha) said:] "That was not a brahmin, bhikkhus. That was Mara the Evil One, who had come in order to confound you."

Then the Lord (Buddha), having understood the meaning of this, on that occasion recited this verse:

"How could a person incline to sensual pleasures
Who has seen the source, from where suffering originates?
Having known (material) acquisition(upadhi) as a bondage in the world,
A person should train for its removal."


158. Samiddhi[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling among the Sakyans at Silavati. Now on that occasion the Venerable Samiddhi was dwelling not far from the Lord (Buddha) - alertful(appamada), ardent, and resolute. 305 Then, while the Venerable Samiddhi was alone in seclusion, a thought arose in his mind thus: "It is indeed a gain for me, it is well gained by me, that my teacher is the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One! It is indeed a gain for me, it is well gained by me, that I have gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit) in this well-expounded Dhamma and Discipline! It is indeed a gain for me, it is well gained by me, that my companions in the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) are virtuous, of good character!"
Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One, having known with his own mind the thought in the mind of the Venerable Samiddhi, approached him and, not far from him, made a loud noise, frightful and terrifying, as though the earth were splitting open. 306 Then the Venerable Samiddhi approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and reported what had happened.

[The Lord (Buddha) said:] "That was not the earth splitting open, Samiddhi. That was Mara the Evil One, who had come in order to confound you. Go back, Samiddhi, and dwell alertful, ardent, and resolute."
[Samiddhi:]
"Yes, venerable sir," the Venerable Samiddhi replied.
Then he rose from his seat, paid homage to the Lord (Buddha), and departed, keeping him on the right.
A second time, while the Venerable Samiddhi was alone in seclusion, a thought arose in his mind . . . And a second time Mara the Evil One ..... made a loud noise, frightful and terrifying, as though the earth were splitting open. Then the Venerable Samiddhi, having understood, "This is Mara the Evil One," addressed him in verse:

"I have gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit) out of faith; From the homely to the hermit life.
My meditation(sati) and illuminated-insight(panna) are mature; And my mind well in-samadhi(trance)state.
Conjure up whatever forms you wish; But you will never make me tremble." 307

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhu Samiddhi knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.


159 Godhika[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). Now on that occasion the Venerable Godhika was dwelling on the Black Rock on the Isigili Slope. Then, while the Venerable Godhika was dwelling alertful(appamada), ardent, and resolute, he reached temporary liberation(vimutti sans. vimukti) of mind, but he fell away from that temporary liberation of mind. 308 A second time, while the Venerable Godhika was dwelling alertful, ardent, and resolute, he reached temporary liberation of mind, but he fell away from that temporary liberation of mind. A third time ... A fourth time ... A fifth time ... A sixth time, while the Venerable Godhika was dwelling alertful, ardent, and resolute, he reached temporary liberation of mind, but he fell away from that temporary liberation of mind. A seventh time, while the Venerable Godhika was dwelling alertful, ardent, and resolute, he reached temporary liberation of mind.

Then it occurred to the Venerable Godhika: "Six times already I have fallen away from temporary liberation(vimutti sans. vimukti) of mind. Let me use the knife." 309 Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One, having known with his own mind the thought in the Venerable Godhika's mind, approached the Lord (Buddha) and addressed him with these verses: 310

"O greatly brave(mahavir), great in illuminated-insight(maha-panna); Blazing forth with power and glory!
Who has overcome all enmity and fear; I worship your feet, One with Vision,

"O greatly brave(mahavir) who has vanquished death; Your disciple is longing for death.
He intends [to take his own life]; Restrain him from this, O luminous one!

"How, O Lord (Buddha), can your disciple; One delighting in the Teaching,
A trainee seeking his mind's ideal; Take his own life, O widely famed?" 311
Now on that occasion the Venerable Godhika had just used the knife. 312 Then the Lord (Buddha), having understood, "This is Mara the Evil One," addressed him in verse:

"Such indeed is how the steadfast act; They are not attached to life.
Having drawn out craving(tanha sans. trishna) with its root; Godhika has attained final Nibbana."

Then the Lord (Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Come, bhikkhus, let us go to the Black Rock on the Isigili Slope, where the clansman Godhika has used the knife."

"Yes, venerable sir," those bhikkhus replied. Then the Lord (Buddha), together with a number of bhikkhus, went to the Black Rock on the Isigili Slope. The Lord (Buddha) saw in the distance the Venerable Godhika lying on the bed with his shoulder turned. 313 Now on that occasion a cloud of smoke, a swirl of darkness, was moving to the east, then to the west, to the north, to the south, upwards, downwards, and to the intermediate quarters.
The Lord (Buddha) then addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Do you see, bhikkhus, that cloud of smoke, that swirl of darkness, moving to the east, then to the west, to the north, to the south, upwards, downwards, and to the intermediate quarters?"
[Bhikkhus:]
"Yes, venerable sir."
[Buddha:]
"That, bhikkhus, is Mara the Evil One searching for the consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan) of the clansman Godhika, wondering: 'Where now has the consciousness of the clansman Godhika been established?' However, bhikkhus, with consciousness unestablished, the clansman Godhika has attained final Nibbana." 314
Then Mara the Evil One, taking a lute of yellow velva-wood, approached the Lord (Buddha) and addressed him in verse:

"Above, below, and across;In the four quarters and in between,
I have been searching but do not find; Where Godhika has gone."

[Buddha:]
"That steadfast man was resolute;A meditator always rejoicing in meditation.
Applying himself day and night; Without attachment even to life.

"Having conquered the army of Death; Not rebirthing to renewed life.
Having drawn out craving(tanha sans. trishna) with its root;Godhika has attained final Nibbana."

"So much was he stricken with sorrow; That his lute dropped from his armpit.
Thereupon that disappointed spirit; Disappeared right on the spot." 315


160. Seven Years of Pursuit(Sattavassanubandha)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Uruvela on the bank of the river Neranjara at the foot of the Goatherd's Banyan Tree. Now on that occasion Mara(Satan) the Evil One had been following the Lord (Buddha) for seven years, seeking to gain access to him but without success. 316 Then Mara the Evil One approached the Lord (Buddha) and addressed him in verse:

"Is it because you are sunk in sorrow,That you meditate in the woods?
Because you've lost wealth or pine for it.
Or committed some crime in the village?
Why don't you make friends with people?
Why don't you form any intimate bonds?"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Having dug up entirely the root of sorrow.
Guiltless, I meditate free from sorrow.
Having cut off all greedy urge for existence(bhavo), 317
I meditate defilement-free, O kinsman of the slothful(in pamada)!"

[Mara:]
"That of which they say 'It's mine,';And those who speak in terms of 'mine'
If your mind exists among these; You won't escape me, ascetic."

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"That which they speak of is not mine;I'm not one of those who speak [of mine].
You should know thus, O Evil One;Even my path you will not see."

[Mara:]
"If you have discovered the path; The secure way leading to the deathless-state(nirvana),
Be off and walk that path alone; What's the point of instructing others?"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Those people going to the far shore;Ask what lies beyond Death's realm.
When asked, I explain to them; The truth without acquisitions(upadhi)." 318

[Mara:] "Suppose, venerable sir, not far from a village or a town there was a lotus pond in which a crab was living. 319 Then a group of boys and girls would leave the village or town and go to the pond. They would pull the crab out from the water and set it down on high ground. Then, whenever that crab would extend one of its claws, those boys and girls would cut it off, break it, and smash it to bits with sticks and stones. Thus, when all its claws have been cut off, broken, and smashed to bits, that crab would be unable to return to that pond. So too, venerable sir, all those distortions, manoeuvres, and contortions of mine have been cut off, broken, and smashed to bits by the Lord (Buddha). Now, venerable sir, I am unable to approach the Lord (Buddha) again seeking to gain access to him."
Then Mara the Evil One, in the presence of the Lord (Buddha), recited these verses of disappointment: 320

"There was a crow that walked around;A stone that looked like a lump of fat.
'Let's find something tender here,'[it thought,];'Perhaps there's something nice and tasty.'

But because he found nothing tasty there; The crow departed from that spot.
Just like the crow that attacked the stone; We leave Gotama, disappointed."


161. Mara's Daughters(Maradhitu)[]

Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One, having spoken these verses of disappointment in the presence of the Lord (Buddha), went away from that spot and sat down cross-legged on the ground not far from the Lord (Buddha), silent, dismayed, with his shoulders drooping, downcast, brooding, unable to speak, scratching the ground with a stick. 321
Then Mara's daughters - Tanha, Arati, and Raga - approached Mara the Evil One and addressed him in verse: 322

"Why are you despondent, father? Who's the man for whom you grieve? We'll catch him with the snare of lust; As they catch the forest elephant. We'll bind him tightly and bring him back; And he'll be under your control." 323

[Mara(Satan):]
"The Arahant, the Fortunate One(Sugato) in the world;Is not easily drawn by means of lust. He has gone beyond Mara's realm; Therefore I sorrow so bitterly."

Then Mara's daughters - Tanha, Arati, and Raga - approached the Lord (Buddha) and said to him: "We serve at your feet, ascetic." But the Lord (Buddha) paid no attention, as he was liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) in the unsurpassed extinction of acquisitions(upadhi). 324

Then Mara's daughters - Tanha, Arati, and Raga - went off to the side and took counsel: "Men's tastes are diverse. Suppose we each manifest ourselves in the form of a hundred maidens." Then Mara's three daughters, each manifesting herself in the form of a hundred maidens, approached the Lord (Buddha) and said to him: "We serve at your feet, ascetic." But the Lord (Buddha) paid no attention, as he was liberated(vimutta) in the unsurpassed extinction of acquisitions.

Then Mara's daughters went off to the side and again took counsel: "Men's tastes are diverse. Suppose we each manifest ourselves in the form of a hundred women who have never given birth." Then Mara's three daughters, each manifesting herself in the form of a hundred women who have never given birth ... in the form of a hundred women who have given birth once ... .. in the form of a hundred women who have given birth twice ... in the form of a hundred women of middle age ... in the form of a hundred old women, approached the Lord (Buddha) and said to him: "We serve at your feet, ascetic." But the Lord (Buddha) paid no attention, as he was liberated in the unsurpassed extinction of acquisitions.

Then Mara's daughters - Tanha, Arati, and Raga - went off to the side and said: "What our father told us is true:

"'The Arahant, the Fortunate One(Sugato) in the world ...
Therefore I sorrow so bitterly.'

"If we had assailed with such tactics any ascetic or brahmin
who was not devoid of lust, either his heart would have burst,
or he would have vomited hot blood from his mouth, or he
would have gone mad or become mentally deranged; or else he
would have dried up and withered away and become
shrivelled, just as a green reed that has been mowed down would dry
up and wither away and become shrivelled."

Then Mara's daughters - Tanha, Arati, and Raga - approached the Lord (Buddha) and stood to one side. Standing to one side, Mara's daughter Tanha addressed the Lord (Buddha) in verse:

"Is it because you are sunk in sorrow,That you meditate in the woods?
Because you have lost wealth or pine for it.
Or committed some crime in the village?
Why don't you make friends with people?
Why don't you form any intimate bonds?"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Having conquered the army of the pleasant and agreeable.
Meditating alone, I discovered happiness.
The attainment of the goal, the peace of the heart. 325
Therefore I don't make friends with people.
Nor will I form any intimate bonds."

Then Mara's daughter Arati addressed the Lord (Buddha) in
verse:

511 "How does a monk here often dwell
That, five floods crossed, he here has crossed the sixth?
How does he meditate so sensual perceptions(sanna sans. sangya)
Are kept at bay and fail to grip him?" 326

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Tranquil in body, in mind well liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt).
Not generating, meditative(satima), hermit,
Knowing dhamma(path,law), meditating thought-free.
He does not erupt, or drift, or stiffen. 327

"When a bhikkhu(monk) here often dwells thus.
With five floods crossed, he here has crossed the sixth.
When he meditates thus, sensual perceptions
Are kept at bay and fail to grip him."

Then Mara's daughter Raga addressed the Lord (Buddha) in
verse:

"He has cut off craving(tanha sans. trishna), staying with his group and order;
Surely many other beings will cross.
Alas, this hermit will snatch many people
And lead them away beyond the King of Death." 328

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Truly the Tathagatas, the great heroes(mahavira); Lead by means of the true Dhamma.
When they are leading by means of the Dhamma; What envy can there be in those who understand?" 329

Then Mara's daughters - Tanha, Arati, and Raga - approached
Mara the Evil One. Mara saw them coming in the distance and
addressed them in verses: 330

"Childish(unwise)! You tried to batter a mountain; With the stalks of lotus flowers.
To dig up a mountain with your nails; To chew iron with your teeth.

"As if, having lifted a rock with your head; You sought a foothold in the abyss;
As if you struck a stump with your breast; You part from Gotama disappointed."

They had come to him glittering with beauty; Tanha, Arati, and Raga
But the Teacher swept them away right there; As the wind, a fallen cotton tuft.



Samyutta 5 : Connected Discourses with Bhikkhunis/Nuns (Bhikkhunisamyutta)[]

162 Alavika[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Then, in the morning, the bhikkhuni(nun) Alavika dressed and, taking bowl and robe, entered Savatthi for alms. 331 When she had walked for alms in Savatthi and had returned from her alms round, after her meal she went to the Blind men's grove(Andhavana) seeking seclusion. 332
Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One, desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror in the bhikkhuni Alavika, desiring to make her fall away from seclusion, approached her and addressed her in verse:

"There is no escape in the world; So what will you do with seclusion?
Enjoy the delights of sensual pleasure; Don't be remorseful later!"

Then it occurred to the bhikkhuni Alavika: "Now who is it that recited the verse - a human being or a nonhuman being?" Then it occurred to her: "This is Mara the Evil One, who has recited the verse desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror in me, desiring to make me fall away from seclusion." Then the bhikkhuni Alavika, having understood, "This is Mara the Evil One," replied to him in verses:

"There is an escape in the world; Which I have closely touched with illuminated-insight(panna).
O Evil One, kinsman of the slothful(in pamada); You do not know that state. 333

"Sensual pleasures are like swords and stakes; The aggregates(khandha sans. skandha) like their chopping block.
What you call sensual delight(nandi\anand); Has become for me nondelight." 334

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhuni(nun) Alavika knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.


163 Soma[]

At Savatthi. Then, in the morning, the bhikkhuni(nun) Soma dressed and, taking bowl and robe, entered Savatthi for alms. 335 When she had walked for alms in Savatthi and had returned from her alms round, after her meal she went to the Blind men's grove(Andhavana) for the day's abiding. Having plunged into the Blind men's grove(Andhavana), she sat down at the foot of a tree for the day's abiding. Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One, desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror in the bhikkhuni Soma, desiring to make her fall away from samadhi(trance)state, approached her and addressed her in verse:

"That state so hard to achieve; Which is to be attained by the saints(ishis sans. rishis).
Can't be attained by a woman; With her two-fingered panna(insight)." 336

Then it occurred to the bhikkhuni : "Now who is this that recited the verse - a human being or a nonhuman being?" Then it occurred to her: "This is Mara the Evil One, who has recited the verse desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror in me, desiring to make me fall away from samadhi(trance)state." Then the bhikkhuni , having understood, "This is Mara the Evil One," replied to him in verses:

"What does womanhood matter at all;When the mind is in-samadhi(trance)state well.
When knowledge flows on steadily; As one sees(vipassato, in meditation) correctly into dhamma(path,law). 337

"One to whom it might occur; 'I'm a woman' or 'I'm a man'
Or 'I'm anything at all' ; Is fit for Mara to address." 338

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhuni Soma
knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.


164 Kisagotami[]

At Savatthi. Then, in the morning, the bhikkhuni(nun) Kisagotami dressed and, taking bowl and robe, entered Savatthi for alms. 339 When she had walked for alms in Savatthi and had returned from her alms round, after her meal she went to the Blind men's grove(Andhavana) for the day's abiding. Having plunged into the Blind men's grove(Andhavana), she sat down at the foot of a tree for the day's abiding.
Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One, desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror in the bhikkhuni Kisagotami, desiring to make her fall away from samadhi(trance)state, approached her and addressed her in verse:

"Why now, when your son is dead;Do you sit alone with tearful face?
Having entered the woods all alone;Are you on the lookout for a man?"

Then it occurred to the bhikkhuni : "Now who is this that recited the verse - a human being or a nonhuman being?" Then it occurred to her: "This is Mara the Evil One, who has recited the verse desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror in me, desiring to make me fall away from samadhi(trance)state."

Then the bhikkhuni Kisagotami, having understood, "This is Mara the Evil One," replied to him in verses:

"I've gotten past the death of sons; With this, the search for men has ended.
I do not sorrow, I do not weep; Nor do I fear you, friend. 340

"delight(nandi\anand) everywhere has been destroyed; The mass of darkness has been defeated.
Having conquered the army of Death; I dwell without defiling defilements." 341

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhuni Kisagotami
knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.


165 Vijaya[]

At Savatthi. Then, in the morning, the bhikkhuni(nun) Vijaya dressed . . . she sat down at the foot of a tree for the day's abiding. 342 Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One, desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror in the bhikkhuni Vijaya, desiring to make her fall away from samadhi(trance)state, approached her and addressed her in verse:

"You are so young and beautiful; And I too am a youth in my prime.
Come, noble lady, let us rejoice; With the music of a fivefold ensemble." 343

Then it occurred to the bhikkhuni Vijaya: "Now who is this...? This is Mara the Evil One ... desiring to make me fall away from samadhi(trance)state."
Then the bhikkhuni Vijaya, having understood, "This is Mara the Evil One," replied to him in verses:

"Forms, sounds, tastes, odours; And delightful tactile objects
I offer them right back to you; For I, O Mara, do not need them.

"I am repelled and humiliated; By this foul, putrid body.
Subject to break up, fragile; I've uprooted sensual craving(tanha sans. trishna). 344

"As to those beings who dwell in form; And those who have faith in formless.
And those peaceful attainments too; Everywhere darkness has been destroyed." 345

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing "The bhikkhuni Vijaya knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.


166. Uppalavanna[]

At Savatthi. Then, in the morning, the bhikkhuni(nun) Uppalavanna dressed ... she stood at the foot of a Sal tree in full flower. 346
Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One, desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror in the bhikkhuni Uppalavanna, desiring to make her fall away from samadhi(trance)state, approached her and addressed her in verse:

"Having gone to a Sal tree with flowering top, bhikkhuni;
You stand at its foot all alone;
There is none whose beauty rivals yours;
Childish(unwise) girl, aren't you afraid of rogues?" 347

Then it occurred to the bhikkhuni Uppalavanna: "Now
who is this...? This is Mara the Evil One ... desiring to make me
fall away from samadhi(trance)state."
Then the bhikkhuni Uppalavanna, having understood, "This
is Mara the Evil One," replied to him in verses:

"Though a hundred thousand rogues;
Just like you might come here,

I stir not a hair, I feel no terror;
Even alone, Mara, I don't fear you. 348

"I can make myself disappear;Or I can enter inside your belly.
I can stand between your eyebrows; Yet you won't catch a glimpse of me.

"I am the master of my mind; The faculties of spiritual-power(iddhi\riddhi) are well developed;
I am freed from all bondage; Therefore I don't fear you, friend." 349

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhuni Uppalavanna knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.


167. Cala[]

At Savatthi. Then, in the morning, the bhikkhuni(nun) Cala dressed . . . she sat down at the foot of a tree for the day's abiding. 350 Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One approached the bhikkhuni Cala and said to her: "What don't you approve of, bhikkhuni?"
[Nun:] "I don't approve of rebirth, friend."

[Mara:]
"Why don't you approve of rebirth? Once born, one enjoys sensual pleasures.
Who now has persuaded you of this; 'Bhikkhuni, don't approve of rebirth'?"

[The bhikkhuni Cala:]
537 "For one who is born there is death; Once born, one encounters sufferings
Bondage, murder, affliction ; Hence one shouldn't approve of rebirth. 351

"The Buddha has taught the dhamma(path,law); The transcendence from rebirth;
For the abandoning of all suffering; He has settled me in the truth.

"As to those beings who dwell in form; And those who have faith in formless
Not having understood cessation(nirodha); They come again to renewed life(rebirth)." 352

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhuni Cala knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.


168. Upacala[]

At Savatthi. Then, in the morning, the bhikkhuni(nun) Upacala dressed . . . she sat down at the foot of a tree for the day's abiding. Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One approached the bhikkhuni Upacala and said to her: "Where do you wish to be reborn, bhikkhuni?"
[Nun:] "I do not wish to be reborn anywhere, friend."

[Mara:]
"There are Tavatimsa and Yama devas(angels);And devatas(angels) of the Tusita heaven,
Devas who take delight(nandi\anand) in creating; And devas who exercise control.
Direct your mind there [to those heavens]; And you'll experience delight." 353

[The bhikkhuni Upacala:]
"There are Tavatimsa and Yama devas; And devatas of the Tusita heaven,
Devas who take delight in creating; And devas who exercise control.
They are still bound by sensual bondage; They come again under Mara's control.

"All the worlds are on fire;All the worlds are burning.
All the worlds are ablaze; All the worlds are quaking.

"That which does not quake or blaze; That to which worldlings do not resort.
Where there is no place for Mara; That is where my mind delights." 354

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhuni Upacala knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.


169. Sisupacala[]

At Savatthi Then, in the morning, the bhikkhuni(nun) Sisupacala dressed ... she sat down at the foot of a tree for the day's abiding. Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One approached the bhikkhuni Sisupacala and said to her: "Whose creed do you approve of, bhikkhuni?"
[Nun:] "I don't approve of anyone's creed, friend."

[Mara:]
"Under whom have you shaved your head?; You do appear to be an ascetic.
Yet you don't approve of any creed; So why wander as if bewildered?" 355

[The bhikkhuni Sisupacala:]
"Outside here the followers of creeds; Place their confidence in views.
I don't approve of their teachings; They are not skilled in the dhamma(path,law). [134]

"But there's one born in the Sakyan clan; The Enlightened One, without an equal,
Conqueror of all, Mara's subduer; Who everywhere is undefeated.

Everywhere freed and unattached; The One with (divine)vision who sees(passato, in meditation) all(worlds heaven, hell etc).
"Attained to the end of all kamma(karma);liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) in the extinction of acquisitions(upadhi).
That Lord (Buddha) is my Teacher; His is the teaching I approve." 356

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhuni Sisupacala knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.


170. Sela[]

At Savatthi. Then, in the morning, the bhikkhuni(nun) Sela dressed . . . she sat down at the foot of a tree for the day's abiding. 357 Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One, desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror in the bhikkhuni Sela, desiring to make her fall away from samadhi(trance)state, approached her and addressed her in verse:

"By whom has this puppet been created? Where is the maker of the puppet?
Where has the puppet arisen? Where does the puppet cease?" 358

Then it occurred to the bhikkhuni Sela: "Now who is this that recited the verse - a human being or a nonhuman being?" Then it occurred to her: "This is Mara the Evil One, who has recited the verse desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror in me, desiring to make me fall away from samadhi(trance)state."
Then the bhikkhuni Sela , having understood, "This is Mara the Evil One," replied to him in verses:

"This puppet is not made by itself; Nor is this misery made by another.
It has come to be dependent on a cause; With the cause's breakup it will cease.

"As when a seed is sown in a field; It grows depending on a pair of factors:
It requires both the soil's nutrients; And a steady supply of moisture:

"Just so the aggregates(khandha sans. skandha) and elements(dhatu); And these six spheres of sensory contact(of sense with object;phassa/sparsh).
Have come to be dependent on a cause; With the cause's breakup they will cease." 359

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhuni Sela knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.


171. Vajira[]

At Savatthi. Then, in the morning, the bhikkhuni(nun) Vajira dressed and, taking bowl and robe, entered Savatthi for alms. 360 When she had walked for alms in Savatthi [135] and had returned from her alms round, after her meal she went to the Blind men's grove(Andhavana) for the day's abiding. Having plunged into the Blind men's grove(Andhavana), she sat down at the foot of a tree for the day's abiding.
Then Mara(Satan) the Evil One, desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror in the bhikkhuni Vajira, desiring to make her fall away from samadhi(trance)state, approached her and addressed her in verse:

"By whom has this being been created? Where is the maker of the being?
Where has the being arisen? Where does the being cease?"

Then it occurred to the bhikkhuni Vajira: "Now who is this that recited the verse - a human being or a nonhuman being?" Then it occurred to her: "This is Mara the Evil One, who has recited the verse desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror in me, desiring to make me fall away from samadhi(trance)state." Then the bhikkhuni Vajira, having understood, "This is Mara the Evil One," replied to him in verses:

"Why now do you assume 'a being'? Mara, is that your speculative view?
This is a heap of sheer sankhara([karma]sanskaras, compulsive-behavior-conditioning); Here no being is found.

"Just as, with an assemblage of parts; The word 'chariot' is used.
So, when the aggregates(khandha sans. skandha) exist; There is the convention 'a being.'

"It's only suffering that comes to be; Suffering that stands and falls away.
Nothing but suffering comes to be; Nothing but suffering ceases." 361

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhuni Vajira knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there.



Samyutta 6 : Connected Discourses with Brahmas/Archangels (Brahmasamyutta)[]

(i) The First Subchapter(The Request)[]

172. Brahma's Request[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). 362 On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Uruvela on the bank of the river Neranjara at the foot of the Goatherd's Banyan Tree just after he had become fully enlightened. Then, while the Lord (Buddha) was alone in seclusion, a thought arose in his mind thus: "This dhamma(path,law) that I have discovered is deep, hard to see, hard to understand, peaceful and sublime, not within the sphere of reasoning, subtle, to be experienced by the wise. But this generation delights in adhesion, takes delight(nandi\anand) in adhesion, rejoices in adhesion. 363 For such a generation this state is hard to see, that is, specific causation, dependent origination(Paticcasamuppada). And this state too is hard to see, that is, the stilling of all sankhara([karma]sanskaras, compulsive-behavior-conditioning), the relinquishment of all acquisitions(upadhi), the destruction(khaya\kshaya) of craving(tanha sans. trishna), dispassion, cessation(nirodha), Nibbana. 364 If I were to teach the Dhamma and if others would not understand me, that would be wearisome for me, that would be troublesome."
Thereupon these astounding verses, not heard before in the past, occurred to the Lord (Buddha): 365

"What I found with so much hardship; Enough now with trying to teach;
To those oppressed by lust(raag) & hate(dosa/dvesh);This Dhamma cannot be easily understood;

"Going against the stream; Deep, hard to see, subtle;
Those fired by lust, obscured by darkness; Will never see this serious matter."

As the Lord (Buddha) thought thus, his mind inclined to living at ease, not to teaching the Dhamma. 366

Then Brahma(arch-angel) Sahampati, having known with his own mind the thought in the Lord (Buddha)'s mind, thought: "Alas, the world is lost! Alas, the world is to perish, in that the mind of the Tathagata, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, inclines to living at ease, not to teaching the Dhamma." 367 Then, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn-in arm or draw in his extended arm, Brahma Sahampati disappeared from the Brahma world and reappeared before the Lord (Buddha). He arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, knelt down with his right knee on the ground, raised his joined hands in reverential salutation towards the Lord (Buddha), and said to him: "Venerable sir, let the Lord (Buddha) teach the Dhamma; let the Fortunate One(Sugato) teach the Dhamma. There are beings with little dust in their eyes who are falling away because they do not hear the Dhamma. There will be those who will understand the Dhamma."

This is what Brahma Sahampati said. Having said this, he
further said this:

"In the past there appeared among the Magadhans
An impure dhamma(path,law) devised by those still stained.
Throw open this door to the deathless-state(nirvana)! Let them hear
The Dhamma that the Stainless One discovered. 368

"Just as one standing on a mountain peak
Might see below the people all around.
Ascend the palace made of the Dhamma.
So, O wise one, with universal eye.
Being yourself free from sorrow, Look at the people
Submerged in sorrow, oppressed by rebirth and decay.

"Rise up, O brave(vir), victor in battle!
O caravan leader, debt-free one, wander in the world.
Teach the Dhamma, O Lord (Buddha):
There will be those who will understand." 369

Then the Lord (Buddha), having understood Brahma's request, out of compassion for beings surveyed the world with the eye of a Buddha. 370 As he did so, the Lord (Buddha) saw beings with little dust in their eyes and with much dust in their eyes, with keen faculties and with dull faculties, with good qualities and with bad qualities, easy to teach and difficult to teach, and a few who dwelt seeing blame and fear in the other world. 371 Just as in a pond of blue or red or white lotuses, some lotuses might be born in the water, grow up in the water, and thrive while submerged in the water, without rising up from the water; some lotuses might be born in the water, grow up in the water, and stand at an even level with the water; some lotuses might be born in the water and grow up in the water, but would rise up from the water and stand without being soiled by the water - so too, surveying the world with the eye of a Buddha, the Lord (Buddha) saw beings with little dust in their eyes and with much dust in their eyes, with keen faculties and with dull faculties, with good qualities and with bad qualities, easy to teach and hard to teach, and a few who dwelt seeing blame and fear in the other world.
Having seen this, he answered Brahma Sahampati in verse:
"Open to them are the doors to the deathless-state(nirvana);
Let those who have ears release(mokkha/moksha) faith.
Foreseeing trouble, I did not speak
The refined, sublime Dhamma among human beings, O Brahma."

Then Brahma Sahampati, thinking, "The Lord (Buddha) has given his consent [to my request] regarding the teaching of the dhamma(path,law)," paid homage to the Lord (Buddha) and disappeared right there. 372


173. Reverence[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). 373 On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Uruvela on the bank of the river Neranjara at the foot of the Goatherd's Banyan Tree just after he had become fully enlightened. Then, while the Lord (Buddha) was alone in seclusion, a thought arose in his mind thus: "One dwells in suffering if one is without reverence. Now what ascetic or brahmin can I honour and respect and dwell in dependence on?"

Then it occurred to the Lord (Buddha): "It would be for the sake of fulfilling an unfulfilled aggregate(khandha sans. skandha) of virtue(sheel) that I would honor, respect, and dwell in dependence on another ascetic or brahmin. However, in this world with its devas(angels), Mara(Satan), and Brahma(arch-angel), in this generation with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas and humans, I do not see another ascetic or brahmin more perfect in virtue than myself, whom I could honour and respect and dwell in dependence on.

"It would be for the sake of fulfilling an unfulfilled aggregate of samadhi(trance)state that I would honour, respect, and dwell in dependence on another ascetic or brahmin. However ... I do not see another ascetic or brahmin more perfect in samadhi(trance)state than myself. . . .

"It would be for the sake of fulfilling an unfulfilled aggregate of illuminated-insight(panna) that I would honour, respect, and dwell in dependence on another ascetic or brahmin. However ... I do not see another ascetic or brahmin more perfect in illuminated-insight(panna) than myself....

"It would be for the sake of fulfilling an unfulfilled aggregate of liberation(vimutti sans. vimukti) that I would honour, respect, and dwell in dependence on another ascetic or brahmin. However ... I do not see another ascetic or brahmin more perfect in liberation than myself....

"It would be for the sake of fulfilling an unfulfilled aggregate of the knowledge and vision of liberation that I would honour, respect, and dwell in dependence on another ascetic or brahmin. However ... I do not see another ascetic or brahmin more perfect in the knowledge and vision of liberation than myself, whom I could honour and respect, and on whom I could dwell in dependence. 374
"Let me then honour, respect, and dwell in dependence on this very dhamma(path,law) to which I have fully awakened."

Then, having known with his own mind the thought in the Lord (Buddha)'s mind, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn-in arm or draw in his extended arm, Brahma Sahampati disappeared from the Brahma world and reappeared before the Lord (Buddha). He arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, raised his joined hands in reverential salutation towards the Lord (Buddha), and said to him: "So it is. Lord (Buddha)! So it is. Fortunate One(Sugato)! Venerable sir, those who were the Arahants, the Perfectly Enlightened Ones in the past - those Lord (Buddha)s too honoured, respected, and dwelt in dependence just on the Dhamma itself. Those who will be the Arahants, the Perfectly Enlightened Ones in the future - those Lord (Buddha)s too will honour, respect, and dwell in dependence just on the Dhamma itself. Let the Lord (Buddha) too, who is at present the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, honour, respect, and dwell in dependence just on the Dhamma itself." This is what Brahma Sahampati said. Having said this, he further said this:

"The Buddhas of the past; The future Buddhas,
And he who is the Buddha now; Removing the sorrow of many -

"Deeply revering the true dhamma(path,law); All have dwelt, will dwell;
and dwell; For the Buddhas ; This is a natural law.

"Therefore one desiring his own good; Aspiring for spiritual greatness.
Should deeply revere the true Dhamma; Recollecting the Buddhas' Teaching." 375


174. Brahmadeva[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Now on that occasion a certain brahmin lady had a son named Brahmadeva who had gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit) from the household life into hermit life under the Lord (Buddha).

Then, dwelling alone, withdrawn, alertful(appamada), ardent, and resolute, the Venerable Brahmadeva, by realizing it for himself, vested with divine-knowledge(abhinna), in this very life entered and dwelt in that unsurpassed goal of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the household life into hermit life. He directly knew: "Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being." And the Venerable Brahmadeva became one of the arahants. 376

Then, in the morning, the Venerable Brahmadeva dressed and, taking bowl and robe, entered Savatthi for alms. Walking on continuous alms round in Savatthi, he came to his own mother's residence. 377 Now on that occasion the brahmin lady, the Venerable Brahmadeva's mother, had been offering a constant oblation [of food] to Brahma. 378 Then it occurred to Brahma(arch-angel) Sahampati:
"This brahmin lady, the Venerable Brahmadeva's mother, has been offering a constant oblation [of food] to Brahma. Let me approach her and stir up a sense of urgency in her." Then, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn-in arm or draw in his extended arm, Brahma Sahampati disappeared from the Brahma world and reappeared in the residence of the Venerable Brahmadeva's mother. Then, standing in the air, Brahma Sahampati addressed the brahmin lady in verse:

"Far from here, brahmani, is the Brahma world;
To which you offer a constant oblation [of food].
Brahma does not eat such food, lady;
So why mumble, not knowing the path to Brahma? 379

"This Brahmadeva, brahmani.
Without acquisitions(upadhi), has surpassed the devas(angels).
Owning nothing, nourishing no other.
The bhikkhu(monk) has entered your house for alms. 380

"Donation-worthy, knowledge-master, inwardly developed,
He deserves offerings from humans and devas.
Having expelled all evil, unsullied.
Cooled at heart, he comes seeking alms.

"For him there is nothing behind or in front
Peaceful, smokeless, untroubled, wishless;
He has laid down the rod towards frail and firm;
Let him eat your donation [of food], the choicest alms. 381

"Aloof from the crowd, with peaceful mind.
Like a naga he lives, tamed, unstirred.
A bhikkhu of pure virtue(sheel), well liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) in mind;
Let him eat your donation [of food], the choicest alms. 382

"With confidence in him, free from wavering,
Present your offering to one who deserves it.
make divine-merit(punya) leading to future happiness."
Having seen a sage, o brahmani, who has crossed the flood.

With confidence in him, free from wavering.
She presented her offering to one who deserved it.
Having seen a sage who has crossed the floods
The lady made divine-merit(punya) leading to future happiness. 384


175. Brahma Baka[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). 385 On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Now on that occasion the following evil speculative view had arisen in Brahma(arch-angel) Baka: "This is permanent, this is stable, this is eternal, this is complete, this is imperishable. Indeed, this is where one is not born, does not age, does not die, does not pass away, and is not reborn; and there is no other escape superior to this." 386

Then, having known with his own mind the thought in Brahma Baka's mind, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn-in arm or draw in his extended arm, the Lord (Buddha) disappeared from Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana) and reappeared in that Brahma world. Brahma Baka saw the Lord (Buddha) coming in the distance and said to him: "Come, dear sir! Welcome, dear sir! It has been a long time, dear sir, since you took the opportunity of coming here. Indeed, dear sir, this is permanent, this is stable, this is eternal, this is complete, this is imperishable. Indeed, this is where one is not born, does not age, does not die, does not pass away, and is not reborn; and there is no other escape superior to this."

When this was said, the Lord (Buddha) said to Brahma Baka:
"Alas, sir, Brahma Baka is immersed in ignorance(avijja sans. avidya)! Alas, sir, Brahma Baka is immersed in ignorance, in so far as he will say of what is actually impermanent that it is permanent; and will say of what is actually unstable that it is stable; and will say of what is actually noneternal that it is eternal; and will say of what is actually incomplete that it is complete; and will say of what is actually perishable that it is imperishable; and with reference to [a realm] where one is born, ages, dies, passes away, and is reborn, will say thus: 'Indeed, this is where one is not born, does not age, does not die, does not pass away, and is not reborn'; and when there is another escape superior to this, will say, 'There is no other escape superior to this.'"

[Brahma Baka:]
"We seventy-two, Gotama, were divine-merit(punya)-makers;
Now we wield power, beyond rebirth and aging.
This, knowledge-master, is our final attainment of Brahma.
Many are the people who yearn for us." 387

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"The life span here is short, not long.
Though you, Baka, imagine it is long.
I know, O Brahma, your life span to be
A hundred thousand nirabbudas." 388

[Brahma Baka:]
"O Lord (Buddha), [you say]: 'I am the one of infinite vision'
Who has overcome rebirth, aging, and sorrow,
What was my ancient practice of vow and virtue(sheel)?
Tell me this so I might understand." 389

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"You gave drink to many people;
Who were thirsty, afflicted by heat;
That was your ancient practice of vow and virtue,
Which I recollect as if just waking up. 390

"When people were abducted at Antelope Bank,
You released(in mokkha/moksha) the captives being led away.
That was your ancient practice of vow and virtue.
Which I recollect as if just waking up.

"When a ship was seized on the river Ganges
By a fierce naga longing for human flesh.
You freed it forcefully by a valiant act;
That was your ancient practice of vow and virtue,
Which I recollect as if just waking up. [144]

"I was your apprentice named Kappa;
You thought him intelligent and devout;
That was your ancient practice of vow and virtue,
Which I recollect as if just waking up." 391

[Brahma Baka:]
"Surely you know this life span of mine;
The others too you know, thus you're the Buddha.
Thus this blazing majesty of yours
Illumines even the Brahma world."


176. A Certain Brahma (Annatarabrahma)[]

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion the following evil speculative view had arisen in a certain Brahma(arch-angel): "There is no ascetic or brahmin who can come here." Then, having known with his own mind the thought in that Brahma's mind, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn-in arm or draw in his extended arm, the Lord (Buddha) disappeared from Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana) and reappeared in that Brahma world. The Lord (Buddha) sat cross-legged in the air above that Brahma, having entered into meditation on the fire element(dhatu). 392

Then it occurred to the Venerable Mahamoggallana: "Where now is the Lord (Buddha) dwelling at present?" With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, the Venerable Mahamoggallana saw the Lord (Buddha) sitting cross-legged in the air above that Brahma, having entered into meditation on the fire element. Having seen this, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn-in arm or draw in his extended arm, the Venerable Mahamoggallana disappeared from Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana) and reappeared in that Brahma world. Then the Venerable Mahamoggallana stationed himself in the eastern quarter and sat cross-legged in the air above that Brahma - though lower than the Lord (Buddha) - having entered into meditation on the fire element.

Then it occurred to the Venerable Mahakassapa: "Where now is the Lord (Buddha) dwelling at present?" With the divine eye ... the Venerable Mahakassapa saw the Lord (Buddha) sitting crosslegged in the air above that Brahma.... Having seen this, ... the Venerable Mahakassapa disappeared from Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana) and reappeared in that Brahma world. Then the Venerable Mahakassapa sapa stationed himself in the southern quarter and sat crosslegged in the air above that Brahma - though lower than the Lord (Buddha) - having entered into meditation on the fire element.

Then it occurred to the Venerable Mahakappina: "Where now is the Lord (Buddha) dwelling at present?" With the divine eye ... the Venerable Mahakappina saw the Lord (Buddha) sitting crosslegged in the air above that Brahma.... Having seen this, ... the Venerable Mahakappina disappeared from Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana) and reappeared in that Brahma world. Then the Venerable Mahakappina stationed himself in the western quarter and sat cross-legged in the air above that Brahma - though lower than the Lord (Buddha) - having entered into meditation on the fire element.

Then it occurred to the Venerable Anuruddha: "Where now is the Lord (Buddha) dwelling at present?" With the divine eye ... the Venerable Anuruddha saw the Lord (Buddha) sitting cross-legged in the air above that Brahma.... Having seen this, ... the Venerable Anuruddha disappeared from Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana) and reappeared in that Brahma world. Then the Venerable Anuruddha stationed himself in the northern quarter and sat cross-legged in the air above that Brahma - though lower than the Lord (Buddha) - having entered into meditation on the fire element.

Then the Venerable Mahamoggallana addressed that Brahma in verse:

"Today, friend, do you still hold that view; The view that you formerly held?
Do you see the radiance ; Surpassing that in the Brahma world?" 393

"I no longer hold that view, dear sir; The view that I formerly held.
Indeed I see the radiance ; Surpassing that in the Brahma world.
Today how could I maintain; 'I am permanent and eternal'?" 394

Then, having stirred up a sense of urgency in that Brahma, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn-in arm or draw in his extended arm, the Lord (Buddha) disappeared from that Brahma world and reappeared in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana).

Then that Brahma addressed one member of his assembly thus: "Come now, dear sir, approach the Venerable Mahamoggallana and say to him: 'Sir Moggallana, are there any other disciples of the Lord (Buddha) that are as powerful and mighty as Masters Moggallana, Kassapa, Kappina, and Anuruddha?"'

"Yes, dear sir," that member of Brahma's assembly replied. Then he approached the Venerable Mahamoggallana and asked him: "Sir Moggallana, are there any other disciples of the Lord (Buddha) that are as powerful and mighty as Masters Moggallana, Kassapa, Kappina, and Anuruddha?"

Then the Venerable Mahamoggallana addressed that member of Brahma's assembly in verse:

"Triple-knowledge bearers with spiritual powers(iddhi\riddhi);Skilled in knowing others' minds." 395
Many are the disciples of the Buddha; Who are arahants with defilements destroyed"

Then that member of Brahma's assembly, having delighted and rejoiced in the Venerable Mahamoggallana's statement, approached that Brahma and told him: "Dear sir, the Venerable Mahamoggallana speaks thus:

"Triple-knowledge bearers........with defilements destroyed"

This is what that member of Brahma's assembly said. Elated, that Brahma delighted in his statement.


177. A Brahma World (Brahmaloka)[]

(On Slothfulness(pamada))

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha) had gone for his day's abiding and was in seclusion. Then the independent Brahmas Subrahma and Suddhavasa approached the Lord (Buddha) and stood one at each doorpost. 396 Then the independent Brahma(arch-angel) Subrahma said to the independent Brahma Suddhavasa:
"It is not the right time, dear sir, to visit the Lord (Buddha). The Lord (Buddha) has gone for his day's abiding and is in seclusion. Such and such a Brahma world is rich and prosperous, and the Brahma there is dwelling in slothfulness. Come, dear sir, let us go to that Brahma world and stir up a sense of urgency in that Brahma."
"Yes, dear sir," the independent Brahma Suddhavasa replied.

Then, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn-in arm or draw in his extended arm, the independent Brahmas Subrahma and Suddhavasa disappeared in front of the Lord (Buddha) and reappeared in that Brahma world. That Brahma saw those Brahmas coming in the distance and said to them: "Now where are you coming from, dear sirs?"

"We have come, dear sir, from the presence of the Lord (Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One. Dear sir, you should go to attend upon that Lord (Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One."

When this was said, that Brahma refused to accept their advice. Having created a thousand transformations of himself, he said to the independent Brahma Subrahma: "Do you see, dear sir, how much power and might I have?"
[Subrahma:] "I see, dear sir, that you have so much power and might."
[That Brahma:] "But, dear sir, when I am so powerful and mighty, what other ascetic or brahmin should I go to attend upon?"

Then the independent Brahma Subrahma, having created two thousand transformations of himself, said to that Brahma: "Do you see, dear sir, how much power and might I have?"
[that Brahma:] "I see, dear sir, that you have so much power and might."
[Subrahma:]"That Lord (Buddha), dear sir, is still more powerful and mighty than both you and I. You should go, dear sir, to attend upon that Lord (Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One."
Then that Brahma addressed the independent Brahma Subrahma in verse:

"Three [hundred] supannas, four [hundred] swans,
And five hundred falcons:
This [my]palace, O Brahma, of the meditator shines
Illuminating the northern quarter." 397

[The independent Brahma Subrahma:]
"Even though that palace of yours shines
Illuminating the northern quarter,
Having seen form's flaw, its chronic trembling.
The wise one takes no delight(nandi\anand) in form." 398

Then the independent Brahmas Subrahma and Suddhavasa,
having stirred up a sense of urgency in that Brahma,
disappeared right there. And on a later occasion that Brahma went to
attend upon the Lord (Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly
Enlightened One.


178. Kokalika (1)[]

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha) had gone for his day's abiding and was in seclusion. Then the independent Brahmas Subrahma and Suddhavasa approached the Lord (Buddha) and stood one at each doorpost. Then, referring to the bhikkhu(monk) Kokalika, the independent Brahma(arch-angel) Subrahma recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha): 399

"What wise man here would seek to define;An immeasurable one by taking his measure?
He who would measure an immeasurable one; Must be, I think, an obstructed worldling." 400


179. Katamodakatissaka[]

At Savatthi.... (as above) ... Then, referring to the bhikkhu(monk) Katamodakatissaka, the independent Brahma(arch-angel) Suddhavasa recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha): 401

"What wise man here would seek to define; An immeasurable one by taking his measure?
He who would measure an immeasurable one; Must be, I think, an obstructed moron."


180. Turu Brahma[]

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion the bhikkhu(monk) Kokalika(who rebelled against chief disciples) was sick, afflicted, gravely ill. Then, when the night had advanced, the independent Brahma(Archangel) Turu, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), approached the bhikkhu Kokalika. 402 Having approached, he stood in the air and said to the bhikkhu Kokalika: "Place confidence in Sariputta and Moggallana, Kokalika. Sariputta and Moggallana are well behaved."
[Kokalika :]
"Who are you, friend?"
[Turu Brahma]:
"I am the independent Brahma Tudu."
[Kokalika :]
"Didn't the Lord (Buddha) declare you to be a non-rebirther,
friend? Then why have you come back here? See how far you
have transgressed." 403

[Brahma Tudu:]
"When a person has taken birth,An axe is born inside his mouth
With which the childish(unwise) cuts himself, Uttering defamatory speech.

"He who praises one deserving blame;
Or blames one deserving praise.
Casts with his mouth an unlucky throw
By which he finds no happiness(sukh) 404

"Trifling is the unlucky throw
That brings the loss of wealth at dice,
[The loss] of all, oneself included;
Worse by far - this unlucky throw
Of harbouring hate against the Fortunate One(Sugato)s 405

"For a hundred thousand nirabbudas
And thirty-six more, and five abbudas,
The maligner of noble ones goes to hell.
Having set evil speech and mind against them." 406


181. Kokalika (2)[]

At Savatthi. 407 Then the bhikkhu(monk) Kokalika approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said: "Venerable sir, Sariputta and Moggallana have evil wishes; they have come under the control of evil wishes." When this was said, the Lord (Buddha) said to the bhikkhu Kokalika: "Do not speak thus, Kokalika! Do not speak thus, Kokalika! Place confidence in Sariputta and Moggallana, Kokalika. Sariputta and Moggallana are well behaved."
A second time the bhikkhu Kokalika said to the Lord (Buddha):
"Venerable sir, although the Lord (Buddha) has my faith and trust, all the same I say that Sariputta and Moggallana have evil wishes; they have come under the control of evil wishes." And a second time the Lord (Buddha) said to the bhikkhu Kokalika: "Do not speak thus, Kokalika!... Sariputta and Moggallana are well behaved."
A third time the bhikkhu Kokalika said to the Lord (Buddha):
"Venerable sir, although the Lord (Buddha) has my faith and trust, all the same I say that Sariputta and Moggallana have evil wishes; they have come under the control of evil wishes." And a third time the Lord (Buddha) said to the bhikkhu Kokalika: "Do not speak thus, Kokalika!... Sariputta and Moggallana are well behaved."

Then the bhikkhu Kokalika rose from his seat, paid homage to the Lord (Buddha), and departed, keeping him on his right. Not long after the bhikkhu Kokalika had left, his entire body became covered with boils the size of mustard seeds. These then grew to the size of mung beans; then to the size of chickpeas; then to the size of jujube stones; then to the size of jujube fruits; then to the size of myrobalans; then to the size of unripe beluva fruits; then to the size of ripe beluva fruits. When they had grown to the size of ripe beluva fruits, they burst open, exuding pus and blood. Then, on account of that illness, the bhikkhu Kokalika died, and because he had harboured animosity towards Sariputta and Moggallana, after his death he was reborn in the Paduma hell. 408

Then, when the night had advanced, Brahma(arch-angel) Sahampati, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, stood to one side, and said to him: "Venerable sir, the bhikkhu Kokalika has died, and because he harboured animosity towards Sariputta and Moggallana, after his death he has been reborn in the Paduma hell." This is what Brahma Sahampati said. Having said this, he paid homage to the Lord (Buddha) and, keeping him on his right, he disappeared right there.

Then, when the night had passed, the Lord (Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus(monks), last night, when the night had advanced, Brahma Sahampati approached me and said to me:... (as above ) ... Having said this, he paid homage to me and, keeping me on his right, he disappeared right there."

When this was said, a certain bhikkhu said to the Lord (Buddha):
"Venerable sir, how long is the life span in the Paduma hell?"
[Buddha:]"The life span in the Paduma hell is long, bhikkhu. It is not easy to count it and say it is so many years, or so many hundreds of years, or so many thousands of years, or so many hundreds of thousands of years."
[Bhikkhu:]"Then is it possible to give a simile, venerable sir?" [152]

[Buddha:]"It is possible, bhikkhu. Suppose, bhikkhu, there was a Kosalan cartload of twenty measures of sesamum seed. At the end of every hundred years a man would remove one seed from there. That Kosalan cartload of twenty measures of sesamum seed might by this effort be depleted and eliminated more quickly than a single Abbuda hell would go by. Twenty Abbuda hells are the equivalent of one Nirabbuda hell; twenty Nirabbuda hells are the equivalent of one Ababa hell; twenty Ababa hells are the equivalent of one Atata hell; twenty Atata hells are the equivalent of one Ahaha hell; twenty Ahaha hells are the equivalent of one Kumuda hell; twenty Kumuda hells are the equivalent of one Sogandhika hell; twenty Sogandhika hells are the equivalent of one Uppala hell; twenty Uppala hells are the equivalent of one Pundarika hell; and twenty Pundarika hells are the equivalent of one Paduma hell. Now, bhikkhu, the bhikkhu Kokalika has been reborn in the Paduma hell because he harboured animosity towards Sariputta and Moggallana." 409
This is what the Lord (Buddha) said. Having said this, the Fortunate One(Sugato), the Teacher(Sattha), further said this:

"When a person has taken birth,An axe is born inside his mouth
With which the childish(unwise) cuts himself, Uttering defamatory speech.

"He who praises one deserving blame;
Or blames one deserving praise.
Casts with his mouth an unlucky throw
By which he finds no happiness(sukh) 404

"Trifling is the unlucky throw
That brings the loss of wealth at dice,
[The loss] of all, oneself included;
Worse by far - this unlucky throw
Of harbouring hate against the Fortunate One(Sugato)s 405

"For a hundred thousand nirabbudas
And thirty-six more, and five abbudas,
The maligner of noble ones goes to hell.
Having set evil speech and mind against them."



(ii) The Second Subchapter(Brahma Pentad)[]

182. Sanankumara[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha on the bank of the river Sappini. Then, when the night had advanced, Brahma(arch-angel) Sanankumara, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire bank of the river Sappini, approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, and stood to one side. 410 Standing to one side, he recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"The khattiya is the best among people; For those whose sign is the clan.
But one accomplished in knowledge and conduct; Is best among devas(angels) and humans."

This is what Brahma Sanankumara said. The Teacher approved. Then Brahma Sanankumara, thinking, "The Teacher has approved of me," paid homage to the Lord (Buddha) and, keeping him on his right, he disappeared right there.


183. Devadatta[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha on Mount Vulture Peak not long after Devadatta had left. 411 Then, when the night had advanced, Brahma(arch-angel) Sahampati, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Mount Vulture Peak, approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, and stood to one side. Standing to one side, referring to Devadatta, he recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"As its own fruit brings destruction(khaya\kshaya); To the plantain, bamboo, and reed.
So do honours destroy the bad person; As its embryo destroys the mule, " 412


184. Andhakavinda[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling among the Magadhans at Andhakavinda. Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha) was sitting out in the open in the thick darkness of the night while it was drizzling. Then, when the night had advanced, Brahma(arch-angel) Sahampati ... approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, and stood to one side. Standing to one side, he recited these verses in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"One should resort to remote lodgings.
Practise for release(mokkha/moksha) from the fetters.
But if one does not find delight(nandi\anand) there.
Guarded and meditative(satima), dwell in the Sangha(fraternity). 413

"Walking for alms from family to family.
Faculties guarded, discreet, meditative.
One should resort to remote lodgings.
Freed from fear, liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) in the fearless. 414

"Where terrible serpents glide.
Where lightning flashes and the sky thunders.
In the thick darkness of the night
There sits a bhikkhu(monk) devoid of terror. 415

"For this has actually been seen by me; It is not merely hearsay:
Within a single celibate life; A thousand [Arihants] have left Death behind. 416

"There are five hundred more trainees; And ten times a tenfold ten:
All have entered the stream[of nibbana ie. sotapana]; Never rebirthing to the animal realm.

"As for the other people who remain; Who, to my mind, partake of divine-merit(punya)
I cannot even number them; From dread of speaking falsely." 417


185. Arunavati[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi.... There the Lord (Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus(monks)!"
"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), once in the past there was a king name Arunava whose capital was named Arunavati. The Lord (Buddha) Sikhi, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, dwelt in dependence on the capital Arunavati. 418 The chief pair of disciples of the Lord (Buddha) Sikhi were named Abhibhu and Sambhava, an excellent pair.
Then the Lord (Buddha) Sikhi addressed the bhikkhu(monk) Abhibhu: 'Come, brahmin, let us go to a certain Brahma(arch-angel) world until it is time for our meal.' -'Yes, venerable sir,' the bhikkhu(monk) Abhibhu replied.
"Then, bhikkhus, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn-in arm or draw in his extended arm, so the Lord (Buddha) Sikhi, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, and the bhikkhu Abhibhu disappeared from the capital Arunavati and reappeared in that Brahma world.

Then the Lord (Buddha) Sikhi addressed the bhikkhu Abhibhu thus: 'Give a Dhamma talk, brahmin, to Brahma and to Brahma's retinue and to Brahma's assembly.' - 'Yes, venerable sir,' the bhikkhu Abhibhu replied. Then, by means of a Dhamma talk, he instructed, inspired, and gladdened Brahma and Brahma's retinue and Brahma's assembly. Thereupon Brahma and Brahma's retinue and Brahma's assembly found fault with this, grumbled, and complained about it, saying: 'It is wonderful indeed, sir! It is amazing indeed, sir! How can a disciple teach the dhamma(path,law) in the very presence of the Teacher?'

"Then, bhikkhus, the Lord (Buddha) Sikhi addressed the bhikkhu Abhibhu thus: 'Brahmin, Brahma and Brahma's retinue and Brahma's assembly deplore this, saying, "It is wonderful indeed, sir! It is amazing indeed, sir! How can a disciple teach the Dhamma in the very presence of the Teacher?" Well then, brahmin, stir up an even greater sense of urgency in Brahma and in Brahma's retinue and in Brahma's assembly.' - 'Yes, venerable sir,' the bhikkhu Abhibhu replied. Then he taught the Dhamma with his body visible, and with his body invisible, and with the lower half of his body visible and the upper half invisible, and with the upper half of his body visible and the lower half invisible. 419 Thereupon, bhikkhus, Brahma and Brahma's retinue and Brahma's assembly were struck with wonder and amazement, saying: 'It is wonderful indeed, sir! It is amazing indeed, sir! How the ascetic has such great power and might!'

"Then, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu Abhibhu said to the Buddha Sikhi, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One: 'I recall, venerable sir, having made such a statement as this in the midst of the Bhikkhu Sangha(fraternity): "Friends, while standing in the Brahma world I can make my voice heard throughout the thousandfold world system."' - 'Now is the time for that, brahmin!
Now is the time for that, brahmin! While standing in the Brahma world you should make your voice heard throughout the thousandfold world system.' - 'Yes, venerable sir,' the bhikkhu Abhibhu replied. Then, while standing in the Brahma world, he recited these verses: 420

"'Arouse your energetic-strength(viriya), strive on! Exert yourself in the Buddha's Teaching.
Sweep away the army of Death; As an elephant does a hut of reeds.

"'In this dhamma(path,law) and Discipline, One who dwells alertful(appamada);
Will make an end to suffering; Having abandoned the wandering on in rebirths. "

"Then, bhikkhus, having stirred up a sense of urgency in Brahma and in Brahma's retinue and in Brahma's assembly, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn-in arm or draw in his extended arm, the Lord (Buddha) Sikhi, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, and the bhikkhu Abhibhu disappeared from that Brahma world and reappeared in the capital Arunavati. Then the Lord (Buddha) Sikhi addressed the bhikkhus thus: 'Bhikkhus, did you hear the verses that the bhikkhu Abhibhu recited while he was standing in the Brahma world?' - 'We did, venerable sir.' - 'What were the verses that you heard, bhikkhus?' - 'We heard the verses of the bhikkhu Abhibhu thus:

"'Arouse your energetic-strength(viriya), strive on! Exert yourself in the Buddha's Teaching.
Sweep away the army of Death; As an elephant does a hut of reeds.

"'In this Dhamma and Discipline, One who dwells alertful;
Will make an end to suffering; Having abandoned the wandering on in rebirths. "

Such were the verses that we heard the bhikkhu Abhibhu recite while he was standing in the Brahma world.' [Buddha Sikhi:] 'Good, good, bhikkhus! It is good that you heard the verses that the bhikkhu Abhibhu recited while he was standing in the Brahma world.'"

This is what the Lord (Buddha) said. Elated, those bhikkhus delighted in the Lord (Buddha)'s statement.


186. Final Nibbana (Parinibbana)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Kusinara in Upavattana, the Sal-tree-grove(Salvana) of the Mallians, between the twin sal trees, on the occasion of his final Nibbana. 421 Then the Lord (Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Now I address you, bhikkhus: sankhara([karma]sanskaras, compulsive-behavior-conditioning) are bound to vanish. Strive to attain the goal by alertfulness(appamada)." This was the last utterance of the Tathagata.

Then the Lord (Buddha) attained the first jhana. Having emerged from the first jhana, he attained the second jhana. Having emerged from the second jhana, he attained the third jhana. Having emerged from the third jhana, he attained the fourth jhana. Having emerged from the fourth jhana, he attained the faculty of the infinity of space. Having emerged from the faculty of the infinity of space, he attained the faculty of the infinity of consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan). Having emerged from the faculty of the infinity of consciousness(vinnana sans. vigyan), he attained the faculty of nothingness. Having emerged from the faculty of nothingness, he attained the faculty of neither-perception-nor-nonperception. Having emerged from the faculty of neither-perception-nor-nonperception, he attained the cessation(nirodha) of perception(sanna sans. sangya) and sensation(vedana).
[reverse]Having emerged from the cessation of perception and sensation(vedana), he attained the faculty of neither-perception-nor-nonperception. Having emerged from the faculty of neither-perception-nor-nonperception, he attained the faculty of nothingness. Having emerged from the faculty of nothingness, he attained the faculty of the infinity of consciousness. Having emerged from the faculty of the infinity of consciousness, he attained the faculty of the infinity of space. Having emerged from the faculty of the infinity of space, he attained the fourth jhana. Having emerged from the fourth jhana, he attained the third jhana. Having emerged from the third jhana, he attained the second jhana. Having emerged from the second jhana, he attained the first jhana. Having emerged from the first jhana, he attained the second jhana. Having emerged from the second jhana, he attained the third jhana. Having emerged from the third jhana, he attained the fourth jhana. Having emerged from the fourth jhana, immediately after this the Lord (Buddha) attained final Nibbana. 422 When the Lord (Buddha) attained final Nibbana, simultaneously with his final Nibbana Brahma(arch-angel) Sahampati recited this verse:

"All beings in the world; Will finally lay the body down.
Since such a one as the Teacher; The peerless person in the world.
The Tathagata endowed with the powers;The Buddha, has attained final Nibbana." 423

When the Lord (Buddha) attained final Nibbana, simultaneously
with his final Nibbana Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, recited this verse:

"Impermanent indeed are sankhara([karma]sanskaras, compulsive-behavior-conditioning); Their nature is to arise and vanish.
Having arisen, they cease: Their quenching(upasaman) is blissful." 424

When the Lord (Buddha) attained final Nibbana, simultaneously
with his final Nibbana the Venerable Ananda recited this
verse: 425

"Then there was terror; Then there was trepidation.
When the one perfect in all excellent qualities; The Buddha, attained final Nibbana."

When the Lord (Buddha) attained final Nibbana, simultaneously
with his final Nibbana the Venerable Anuruddha recited these verses:

"There was no more in-and-out breathing; In the Stable One of steady mind
When unstirred, bent on peace; The One with Vision attained final Nibbana. 426

"With unshrinking mind He endured the pain;
Like the quenching of a lamp; Was the deliverance(vimokkkho\vimoksha) of the mind." 427



Samyutta 7 : Connected Discourses with Brahmins/Priests (Brahmanasamyutta)[]

(i) The Arahants Section (Arahantavaggo)[]

187. Dhananjani[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). Now on that occasion the wife of a certain brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan, a brahmin lady named Dhananjani, had full confidence in the Buddha, the dhamma(path,law), and the Sangha(fraternity). 428 Once, while the brahmin lady Dhananjani was bringing the brahmin his meal, she stumbled, whereupon she uttered three times this inspired utterance:

"Homage to the Lord (Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One!
Homage to the Lord (Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One!
Homage to the Lord (Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One!" 429

When this was said, the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan said to her: "For the slightest thing this wretched woman spouts out praise of that shaveling ascetic! Now, wretched woman, I am going to refute the doctrine of that teacher of yours." 430
"I do not see anyone, brahmin, in this world with its devas(angels), Mara(Satan), and Brahma(Archangel), in this generation with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas and humans, who could refute the doctrine of the Lord (Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One. But go, brahmin. When you have gone, you will understand."

Then the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan, angry and displeased, approached the Lord (Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and addressed the Lord (Buddha) in verse: 431

"Having killed what does one sleep soundly? Having killed what does one not sorrow?
What is the one dhamma(quality,law), O Gotama; Whose killing you approve?"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Having killed anger, one sleeps soundly; Having killed anger, one does not sorrow;
The killing of anger, O brahmin; With its poisoned root and honeyed tip:
This is the killing the Noble ones praise;For having killed that, one does not sorrow."

When this was said, the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! The dhamma(path,law) has been made clear in many ways by Master Gotama, as though he were turning upright what had been turned upside down, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. I go for refuge to Master Gotama, and to the Dhamma, and to the bhikkhu(monk) Sangha(fraternity). May I receive the going-forth(initiation,pabajja) under Master Gotama, may I receive the higher ordination(upsampada)?"

Then the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan received the going-forth(initiation,pabajja) under the Lord (Buddha), he received the higher ordination. And soon, not long after his higher ordination, dwelling alone, withdrawn, alertful, ardent, and resolute, the Venerable Bharadvaja, by realizing it for himself, vested with divine-knowledge(abhinna), in this very life entered and dwelt in that unsurpassed goal of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the household life into hermit life. He directly knew:
"Destroyed is rebirth, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being." 432 And the Venerable Bharadvaja became one of the arahants.


188. Abuse (Akkosa)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). The brahmin Akkosaka Bharadvaja, Bharadvaja the Abusive, heard: 433 "It is said that the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan has gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit) from the household life into hermit life under the ascetic Gotama." Angry and displeased, he approached the Lord (Buddha) and abused and reviled him with rude, harsh words.

When he had finished speaking, the Lord (Buddha) said to him:
"What do you think, brahmin? Do your friends and colleagues, kinsmen and relatives, as well as guests come to visit you?"
[Bharadvaja:] "Sometimes they come to visit. Master Gotama."
[Buddha:]"Do you then offer them some food or a meal or a snack?"
[Bharadvaja:] "Sometimes I do. Master Gotama."
[Buddha:] "But if they do not accept it from you, then to whom does the food belong?"
[Bharadvaja:] "If they do not accept it from me, then the food still belongs to us."
[Buddha:]"So too, brahmin, we - who do not abuse anyone, who do not scold anyone, who do not rail against anyone - refuse to accept from you the abuse and scolding and tirade you let loose at us. It still belongs to you, brahmin! It still belongs to you, brahmin!

"Brahmin, one who abuses his own abuser, who scolds the one who scolds him, who rails against the one who rails at him - he is said to partake of the meal, to enter upon an exchange. But we do not partake of your meal; we do not enter upon an exchange. It still belongs to you, brahmin! It still belongs to you, brahmin!"
[Bharadvaja:] "The king and his retinue understand the ascetic Gotama to be an arahant, yet does Master Gotama still gets angry ?." 434

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"How can anger arise in one who is angerless;In the tamed one of righteous living,
In one liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) by perfect knowledge; In the Stable One who remains in peace? 435

"One who repays an angry man with anger; Thereby makes things worse for himself.
Not repaying an angry man with anger; One wins a battle hard to win.

"He practises for the welfare of both; His own and the other's.
When, knowing that his foe is angry; He meditative(sato) maintains his peace.

"When he achieves the cure of both;His own and the other's,
The people who consider him childish(unwise); Are unskilled in the dhamma(path,law)." 436

When this was said, the brahmin Akkosaka Bharadvaja said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, Master Gotama!...(as in 187) I go for refuge to Master Gotama, and to the Dhamma, and to the bhikkhu(monk) Sangha(fraternity). May I receive the going-forth(initiation,pabajja) under Master Gotama, may I receive the higher ordination(upsampada)?"

Then the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan received the going-forth(initiation,pabajja) under the Lord (Buddha), he received the higher ordination. And soon, not long after his higher ordination, dwelling alone ...(as in 187) the Venerable Bharadvaja became one of the arahants.


189. Asurindaka[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). The brahmin Asurindaka Bharadvaja heard: 437 "It is said that the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan has gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit) from the household life into hermit life under the ascetic Gotama." Angry and displeased, he approached the Lord (Buddha) and abused and reviled him with rude, harsh words.
When he had finished speaking, the Lord (Buddha) remained silent. Then the brahmin Asurindaka Bharadvaja said to the Lord (Buddha): "You're beaten, ascetic! You're beaten, ascetic!"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"The childish(unwise) thinks victory is won; When, by speech, he bellows harshly;
But for one who understands; Patient endurance is the true victory. 438

"One who repays an angry man with anger; Thereby makes things worse for himself.
Not repaying an angry man with anger; One wins a battle hard to win.

"He practises for the welfare of both; His own and the other's.
When, knowing that his foe is angry; He meditative(sato) maintains his peace.

"When he achieves the cure of both;His own and the other's,
The people who consider him childish(unwise); Are unskilled in the dhamma(path,law)."

When this was said, the brahmin Asurindaka Bharadvaja said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, Master Gotama!...(as in 187)" And the Venerable Bharadvaja became one of the arahants.


190 Bilangika[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). The brahmin Bilangika Bharadvaja heard: 439 "It is said that the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan has gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit) from the household life into hermit life under the ascetic Gotama." Angry and displeased, he approached the Lord (Buddha) and silently stood to one side. 440 Then the Lord (Buddha), having known with his own mind the thought in the brahmin Bilangika Bharadvaja's mind, addressed him in verse:

"If one wrongs an innocent man,
A pure person without blemish,
The evil falls back on the childish(unwise) himself
Like fine dust thrown against the wind."

When this was said, the brahmin Bilangika Bharadvaja said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, Master Gotama!...(as in 187)" And the Venerable Bharadvaja became one of the arahants.


191. Ahimsaka[]

At Savatthi. Then the brahmin Ahimsaka Bharadvaja, Bharadvaja the Harmless, approached the Lord (Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. 441 When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to the Lord (Buddha): "I am Ahimsaka the Harmless, Master Gotama. I am Ahimsaka the Harmless, Master Gotama."

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"If one were as one's name implies ; You would be a harmless one.
But it is one who does no harm at all ; By body, speech, or mind.
Who really is a harmless one; As he does not harm others."

When this was said, the brahmin Ahimsaka Bharadvaja said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, Master Gotama!...(as in 187)" And the Venerable Ahimsaka Bharadvaja became one of the arahants.


192. Tangle (Jata)[]

At Savatthi. Then the brahmin Jata Bharadvaja, Bharadvaja of the Tangle, approached the Lord (Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and addressed the Lord (Buddha) in verse:

"A tangle inside, a tangle outside;This generation is entangled in a tangle.
I ask you this, O Gotama; Who can disentangle this tangle?"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"A man established on virtue(sheel), wise; Developing the mind and illuminated-insight(panna),
A bhikkhu(monk) ardent and discreet; He can disentangle this tangle.

"Those for whom lust(raag) & hatred(dosa/dvesh); Along with ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) have been expunged.
The arahants with defilements destroyed; For them the tangle is disentangled.

"Where mind-and-bodyform(namarupa) ceases; Stops without remainder.
And also impingement(patigha) and perception(sanna sans. sangya) of form;It is here this tangle is cut."

When this was said, the brahmin Jata Bharadvaja said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, Master Gotama!...(as in 187)" And the Venerable Bharadvaja became one of the arahants.


193. Suddhika[]

At Savatthi. Then the brahmin Suddhika Bharadvaja approached the Lord (Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side gnd recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"In the world no brahmin is ever purified; Though he be virtuous and austere(tapa) in practice;
One accomplished in knowledge and conduct is purified;Not the others, the common folk." 442

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Even though one mutters many chants; One does not become a brahmin by birth;
If one is rotten within and defiled; Supporting oneself by fraudulent means.

"Whether khattiya, brahmin, vessa, sudda; Candala or scavenger,
If one is energetic and resolute; Always firm in exertion,
One attains the supreme purity; Know, O brahmin, that this is so."

When this was said, the brahmin Suddhika Bharadvaja said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, Master Gotama!"...(as in 187) And the Venerable Bharadvaja became one of the arahants.


194. Aggika[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). Now on that occasion milk-rice with ghee had been set out for the brahmin Aggika Bharadvaja, who had thought: "I will offer a fire ceremony, I will perform the fire oblation (yagna & food)." 443

Then, in the morning, the Lord (Buddha) dressed and, taking bowl and robe, entered Rajagaha for alms. Walking for alms on uninterrupted alms round in Rajagaha, the Lord (Buddha) approached the residence of the brahmin Aggika Bharadvaja and stood to one side. The brahmin Aggika Bharadvaja saw the Lord (Buddha) standing for alms and addressed him in verse:

"One endowed with the triple knowledge; Of proper birth, of ample learning.
Accomplished in knowledge and conduct; Might partake of this milk-rice meal." 444

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Even though one mutters many chants;One does not become a brahmin by birth
If one is rotten within and defiled; With followers gained by fraudulent means.

"One who has known his past abodes; Who sees(passato,in meditation) heaven and the plane of woe.
Who has reached the destruction(khaya\kshaya) of rebirths; A sage perfect in divine-knowledge(abhinna) 445

"By means of these three kinds of knowledge; One is a triple-knowledge brahmin.
This one accomplished in knowledge and conduct; Might partake of this milk-rice meal." <358>

[The brahmin Aggika Bharadvaja:] "Let Master Gotama eat; The worthy is a brahmin."

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Food over which verses have been sung;Is not fit to be eaten by me.
This, brahmin, is not the principle Observed by those who see.
The Enlightened Ones reject such food Over which verses have been sung.
As such a principle exists, O brahmin This is their rule of conduct.

"To the Perfect one, the great saint
With defilements destroyed and remorse stilled,
"Serve with other food and drink
For he is the field for one seeking divine-merit(punya)." 446

When this was said, the brahmin Aggika Bharadvaja said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, Master Gotama!"...(as in 187) And the Venerable Aggika Bharadvaja became one of the arahants.


195 Sundarika[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling among the Kosalans on the bank of the river Sundarika. Now on that occasion the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja was offering a fire ceremony and performing the fire donation on the bank of the river Sundarika. Then the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja, having offered the fire ceremony and performed the fire donation (yagna & food), rose from his seat and surveyed the four quarters all around, wondering: "Who now might eat this fire-ceremony cake?" 447
The brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja saw the Lord (Buddha) sitting at the foot of a tree with his head covered. Having seen him, he took the fire-ceremony cake in his left hand and the waterpot in his right hand and approached the Lord (Buddha). When the Lord (Buddha) heard the sound of the brahmin's footsteps, he uncovered his head. Then the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja, thinking, "This worthy is shaven-headed, this worthy is a shaveling," wanted to turn back; but it occurred to him:
"Some brahmins here are also shaven-headed. Let me approach him and inquire about his birth."

Then the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja approached the
Lord (Buddha) and said to him: "What is the worthy one's birth?"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Ask not of birth but ask of conduct:
Fire is indeed produced from any wood.
A resolute sage, though from low family.
Is a thoroughbred restrained by a sense of shame. 448

"The ceremony-holder should invoke this one:
One tamed by truth, perfect by taming.
Who has reached the end of knowledge,
A fulfiller of the holy celibate life(brahmacariya).

Then he makes a timely donation
To one worthy of offerings." 449

[The brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja:]
"Surely my ceremony is well performed
As I have seen such a knowledge-master.
Because I had not seen those like yourself
Other people ate the fire-ceremony cake.

"Let Master Gotama eat. The worthy is a brahmin."

[The Lord (Buddha):](as in 194)
"Food over which verses have been sung;Is not fit to be eaten by me.
This, brahmin, is not the principle Observed by those who see.
The Enlightened Ones reject such food Over which verses have been sung.
As such a principle exists, O brahmin This is their rule of conduct.

" To the Perfect one, the great saint
With defilements destroyed and remorse stilled,
Serve with food and drink
For he is the field for one seeking divine-merit(punya)."

[Sundarika Bharadvaja:] "Then, Master Gotama, should I donate this fire-ceremony cake to someone else?" "I do not see anyone, brahmin, in this world with its devas(angels), Mara(Satan), and Brahma(arch-angel), in this generation with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas and humans, who could eat and properly digest this fire-ceremony cake except the Tathagata or a disciple of the Tathagata. 450 Therefore, brahmin, throw away the fire-ceremony cake in a place where there is sparse vegetation or dispose of it in water where there are no living beings."

Then the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja disposed of that fire-ceremony cake in water where there were no living beings. When it was disposed of in the water, that fire-ceremony cake sizzled and hissed and gave off steam and smoke. 451 Just as a ploughshare, heated all day, sizzles and hisses and gives off steam and smoke if placed in water, so too that fire-ceremony cake, when disposed of in the water, sizzled and hissed and gave off steam and smoke.

Then the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja, shocked and terrified,
approached the Lord (Buddha) and stood to one side. The
Lord (Buddha) then addressed him with verses:

"When kindling wood, brahmin, do not imagine
This external deed brings purity;
For experts say no purity is gained
By one who seeks it outwardly.

"Having given up the fire made from wood,
I kindle, O brahmin, the inner light alone.
Always ablaze, my mind always in-samadhi(trance)state,
I am an arahant living the holy celibate life(brahmacariya).

"Conceit, O brahmin, is your shoulder-load,
Anger the smoke, false speech the ashes;
The tongue is the ladle, the heart the altar,
A well-tamed self is the light of a man.

"The dhamma(path,law) is a lake with fords of virtue(sheel)
Limpid, praised by the good to the good
Where the knowledge-masters go to bathe.
And, dry-limbed, cross, to the far shore. 453

"Truth, Dhamma, restraint, the holy celibate life(brahmacariya).
Attainment of Brahma based on the middle(path):
Pay homage, O brahmin, to the upright ones;
I call that person one impelled by Dhamma." 454

When this was said, the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, Master Gotama!"...(as in 187) And the Venerable Sundarika Bharadvaja became one of the arahants.


196. Many Daughters (Bahudhita)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling among the Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Now on that occasion fourteen oxen belonging to a certain brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan had gotten lost. Then the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan, while searching for those oxen, went to the woodland thicket where the Lord (Buddha) was staying. There he saw the Lord (Buddha) sitting with his legs folded crosswise, holding his body erect, having set up meditation(sati) in front of face of him. Having seen him, he approached the Lord (Buddha) and recited these verses in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Surely this ascetic does not have, Fourteen oxen [that have gotten lost].
Not seen now for the past six days; Hence this ascetic is happy. 455

"Surely this ascetic does not have; A field of blighted sesamum plants.
Some with one leaf, some with two, Hence this ascetic is happy. <366>

"Surely this ascetic does not have; Rats inside an empty barn
Dancing around merrily; Hence this ascetic is happy.

"Surely this ascetic does not have; A blanket that for seven months
Has been covered with swarms of vermin; Hence this ascetic is happy.

"Surely this ascetic does not have; Seven daughters left for widows.
Some with one son, some with two; Hence this ascetic is happy. 456

"Surely this ascetic does not have; A tawny wife with pockmarked face
Who wakes him up with a kick; Hence this ascetic is happy.

"Surely this ascetic does not have; Creditors who call at dawn.
Chiding him, 'Pay up! Pay up!'; Hence this ascetic is happy."

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Surely, brahmin, I do not have; Fourteen oxen [that have gotten lost].
Not seen now for the past six days; Hence, O brahmin, I am happy.

"Surely, brahmin, I do not have; A field of blighted sesamum plants.
Some with one leaf, some with two; Hence, O brahmin, I am happy.

"Surely, brahmin, I do not have; Rats inside an empty barn
Dancing around merrily; Hence, O brahmin, I am happy.

"Surely, brahmin, I do not have; A blanket that for seven months
Has been covered with swarms of vermin; Hence, O brahmin, I am happy.

"Surely, brahmin, I do not have; Seven daughters left for widows.
Some with one son, some with two; Hence, O brahmin, I am happy.

"Surely, brahmin, I do not have; A tawny wife with pockmarked face
Who wakes me up with a kick; Hence, O brahmin, I am happy.

"Surely, brahmin, I do not have; Creditors who call at dawn.
Chiding me, 'Pay up! Pay up!'; Hence, O brahmin, I am happy."

When this was said, the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, Master Gotama!"...(as in 187) And the Venerable Bharadvaja became one of the arahants. 457 <369>



(ii) The Lay Followers Section (Upasakavaggo)[]

197. Kasi Bharadvaja[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). 458 On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling among the Magadhans at Dakkhinagiri near the brahmin village of Ekanala. Now on that occasion the brahmin Kasi Bharadvaja, Bharadvaja the Ploughman, had five hundred ploughs fastened to their yokes at the time of sowing. 459 Then, in the morning, the Lord (Buddha) dressed and, taking bowl and robe, went to the place where the brahmin Kasi Bharadvaja was at work.
Now on that occasion the brahmin Kasi Bharadvaja's food disribution was taking place. 460 Then the Lord (Buddha) approached the place of the food distribution and stood to one side. The brahmin Kasi Bharadvaja saw the Lord (Buddha) standing for alms and said to him:
"Recluse, I plough and sow, and when I have ploughed and sown I eat. You too, ascetic, ought to plough and sow; then when you have ploughed and sown, you will eat."
[Buddha:] "I too, brahmin, plough and sow, and when I have ploughed and sown I eat."
[Kasi Bharadvaja] "But we do not see Master Gotama's yoke or plough or ploughshare or goad or oxen; yet Master Gotama says, 'I too, brahmin, plough and sow, and when I have ploughed and sown I eat.'"
Then the brahmin Kasi Bharadvaja addressed the Lord (Buddha) in verse:

"You claim to be a man who works the plough; But I do not see your ploughing.
If you're a ploughman, answer me; How should we understand your ploughing?"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Faith is the seed, austerity(tapa) the rain; illuminated-insight(panna) my yoke and plough;
Shame is the pole, mind the yoke-tie; meditation(sati) my ploughshare and goad 461

"Guarded in body, guarded in speech; Controlled in my appetite for food,
I use truth as my weeding-hook; And gentleness as my unyoking 462 [173]

"Energetic-strength(viriya) is my beast of burden; Carrying me to security from bondage.
It goes ahead without stopping; To where, having gone, one does not sorrow. 463

"In such a way this ploughing is done; Which has the deathless-state(nirvana) as its fruit.
Having finished this work of ploughing; One is released(in mokkha/moksha) from all suffering."

"Let Master Gotama eat! The worthy is a ploughman, since Master Gotama does ploughing that has even the deathless-state as its fruit."

"Food over which verses have been sung;Is not fit to be eaten by me.
This, brahmin, is not the principle Observed by those who see.
The Enlightened Ones reject such food Over which verses have been sung.
As such a principle exists, O brahmin This is their rule of conduct.

" To the perfect one, the great saint
With defilements destroyed and remorse stilled,
Serve with food and drink
For he is the field for one seeking divine-merit(punya). (as in 194)"

When this was said, the brahmin Kasi Bharadvaja said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! The dhamma(path,law) has been made clear in many ways by Master Gotama, as though he were turning upright what had been turned upside down, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. I go for refuge to Master Gotama, and to the Dhamma, and to the bhikkhu(monk) Sangha(fraternity). Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."


198. Udaya[]

At Savatthi. Then, in the morning, the Lord (Buddha) dressed and, taking bowl and robe, approached the residence of the brahmin Udaya. Then the brahmin Udaya filled the Lord (Buddha)'s bowl with rice. A second time in the morning the Lord (Buddha) dressed and, taking bowl and robe, approached the residence of the brahmin Udaya.... A third time in the morning the Lord (Buddha) dressed and, taking bowl and robe, approached the residence of the brahmin Udaya. 464 Then a third time the brahmin Udaya filled the Lord (Buddha)'s bowl with rice, after which he said to the Lord (Buddha): "This pesky ascetic Gotama keeps coming again and again." 465

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Again and again, they sow the seed; Again and again, the sky-god sends down rain;
Again and again, ploughmen plough the field; Again and again, grain comes to the realm.

"Again and again, the mendicants beg; Again and again, the donors give;
When donors have given again and again; Again and again they go to heaven.

"Again and again, the dairy folk draw milk; Again and again, the calf goes to its mother;
Again and again, one wearies and trembles; Again and again, the dimwit enters the womb;

Again and again, one is born and dies; Again and again, they take one to the cemetery.
"Obtaining path of no more rebirths; one bright in illuminated-insight(panna), is not born again & again!"

When this was said, the brahmin Udaya said to the Lord (Buddha):
"Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama!...(as in 197) Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."


199. Devahita[]

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha) was afflicted by winds and the Venerable Upavana was his attendant. 466 There the Lord (Buddha) addressed the Venerable Upavana thus: "Come now, Upavana, find some hot water for me."

"Yes, venerable sir," the Venerable Upavana replied. Then he dressed and, taking bowl and robe, went to the residence of the brahmin Devahita, where he stood silently to one side. The brahmin Devahita saw the Venerable Upavana standing silently to one side and addressed him in verse:

"Silent, the worthy one stands; Shaven-headed, clad in a stitched robe.
What do you want, what do you seek; What have you come here to beg?"

[The Venerable Upavana:]
"The Arahant, the Fortunate One(Sugato) in the world;The Sage, is afflicted with winds.
If there is any hot water, brahmin; Please give it for the Sage.

"He is worshipped by those worthy of worship; Honoured by those worthy of honour.
Respected by those worthy of respect;It is to him that I wish to take it."

Then the brahmin Devahita ordered a man to bring a carrying pole with hot water and presented a bag of molasses to the Venerable Upavana. Then the Venerable Upavana approached the Lord (Buddha). He had the Lord (Buddha) bathed with the hot water, and he mixed the molasses with hot water and offered it to him. Then the Lord (Buddha)'s ailment subsided.

Then the brahmin Devahita approached the Lord (Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him, after which he sat down to one side and addressed the Lord (Buddha) in verse:

"Where should one give a proper donation? Where does a donation bear great fruit?
How, for one bestowing alms; Does an offering bring success - just how?" 467

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"One who has known his past abodes; Who sees(passato,in meditation) heaven and the plane of woe(hell).
Who has reached the destruction(khaya\kshaya) of rebirth; A sage perfect in divine-knowledge(abhinna):

Here one should give a proper donation; Here a donation bears great fruit.
That's how, for one bestowing alms; An offering brings success - just so!"

When this was said, the brahmin Devahita said to the Lord (Buddha):
"Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama!... Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life." (as in 197)


200 The Affluent One (Mahasala)[]

At Savatthi. 468 Then a certain affluent brahmin, shabby, clad in a shabby cloak, approached the Lord (Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side, and the Lord (Buddha) then said to him: "Why now, brahmin, are you so shabby, clad in a shabby cloak?"
[Brahmin:] "Here, Master Gotama, my four sons, instigated by their wives, have expelled me from the house."
[Buddha:] "Well then, brahmin, learn these verses and recite them when the multitude has assembled in the meeting hall with your sons sitting together there:

"Those at whose birth I took delight(nandi\anand); And whose success I much desired.
Being instigated by their wives; Chase me out as dogs chase swine.

"These evil fellows are indeed mean; Although they call me, 'Dad, dear Dad.'
They're demons in the guise of sons; To abandon me when I've grown old.

"As an old horse of no more use; Is led away from its fodder,
So the old father of those boys; Begs for alms at others' homes.

"Better for me is the staff I use; Than those disobedient sons;
For the staff drives off the wild bull; And drives away the wild dog.

"In the dark it goes before me; In the deep it gives me support.
By the gracious power of the staff; If I stumble I still stand firm."

Then that affluent brahmin, having learned these verses in the presence of the Lord (Buddha), recited them when the multitude had assembled in the meeting hall with his sons sitting together there:

"Those at whose birth I took delight(nandi\anand) . . . (same as before)..If I stumble I still stand firm."

Then the sons led that affluent brahmin to their house, bathed him, and each gave him a pair of clothes. Then that affluent brahmin, having taken one pair of clothes, approached the Lord (Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. Then he sat down to one side and said to the Lord (Buddha): "Master Gotama, we brahmins seek a teacher's fee for our teacher. Let Master Gotama accept a teacher's fee from me." The Lord (Buddha) accepted out of compassion.

Then that affluent brahmin said to the Lord (Buddha):
"Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama!...(as in 197) Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."


201. Manatthaddha[]

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion a brahmin named Manatthaddha, Stiff with Conceit, was residing at Savatthi. 469 He did not pay homage to his mother or father, nor to his teacher or eldest brother. Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha) was teaching the dhamma(path,law) surrounded by a large assembly. Then it occurred to the brahmin Manatthaddha: "This ascetic Gotama is teaching the Dhamma surrounded by a large assembly. Let me approach him. If the ascetic Gotama addresses me, then I will address him in turn. But if he does not address me, neither will I address him."

Then the brahmin Manatthaddha approached the Lord (Buddha) and stood silently to one side, but the Lord (Buddha) did not address him. Then the brahmin Manatthaddha, thinking, "This ascetic Gotama doesn't know anything' 470 wanted to turn back, but the Lord (Buddha), having known with his own mind the thought in the brahmin's mind, addressed the brahmin Manatthaddha in verse:

"The fostering of conceit is never good;For one keen on his welfare, brahmin.
You should instead foster that purpose; Because of which you've come here." 471

Then the brahmin Manatthaddha, thinking, "The ascetic Gotama knows my mind," prostrated himself right there with his head at the Lord (Buddha)'s feet. He kissed the Lord (Buddha)'s feet, stroked them with his hands, and announced his name thus:
"I am Manatthaddha, Master Gotama! I am Manatthaddha, Master Gotama!"
Then that assembly was struck with amazement and the people said: "It is wonderful indeed, sir! It is amazing indeed, sir! This brahmin Manatthaddha does not pay homage to his mother and father, nor to his teacher or eldest brother, yet he shows such supreme honour towards the ascetic Gotama." 472
Then the Lord (Buddha) said to the brahmin Manatthaddha:
"Enough, brahmin! Get up and sit in your own seat, as your mind has confidence in me."
Then the brahmin Manatthaddha sat down in his own seat and addressed the Lord (Buddha) in verse:

"Towards whom should one avoid conceit? Towards whom should one show reverence? To whom should one be ever respectful? Whom is it proper to venerate deeply?"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"First one's own mother and father; Then one's eldest family brother.
Then one's teacher as the fourth;
Towards these one should avoid conceit;
Towards these one should be reverential;
These should be well respected;
These it is good to venerate deeply.

"Having struck down conceit, humble;One should pay homage to the arahants.
Those cool of heart, their tasks done;The defilement-free ones, unsurpassed."

When this was said, the brahmin Manatthaddha said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama!... (as in 197) Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."


202. Paccanika[]

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion a brahmin named Paccanikasata, Relisher of Contradiction, was residing at Savatthi. Then it occurred to the brahmin Paccanikasata: "Let me approach the ascetic Gotama and contradict whatever he says." Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha) was walking back and forth in the open. Then the brahmin Paccanikasata approached the Lord (Buddha) and said to him while he was walking back and forth: "Speak dhamma(path,law), ascetic!"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Well-spoken counsel is hard to understand; By one who relishes contradiction.
By one with a corrupt mind ; Who is engrossed in aggression.

"But if one has removed aggression; And the distrust of one's heart.
If one has cast away aversion; One can understand well-spoken counsel."

When this was said, the brahmin Paccanikasata said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama!...(as in 197) Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."


203. Navakammika[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling among the Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Now on that occasion the brahmin Navakammika Bharadvaja was getting some work done in that woodland thicket. 473 The brahmin Navakammika Bharadvaja saw the Lord (Buddha) sitting at the foot of a certain sal tree with his legs folded crosswise, holding his body erect, having set up meditation(sati) in front of face of him. Having seen him, he thought: "I take delight(nandi\anand) in getting work done in this woodland thicket. What does this ascetic Gotama take delight in getting done?"

Then the brahmin Navakammika Bharadvaja approached the Lord (Buddha) and addressed him in verse:

"With what kind of work are you engaged; Here in this sal woods, bhikkhu(monk).
By reason of which you find delight; Alone in the forest, Gotama?"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"There is nothing in the woods I need to do;
Cut down at the root, my woods is dried up.
Woodless and dartless, discontent cast off,
I find delight alone in the woods." 474

When this was said, the brahmin Navakammika Bharadvaja said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama!... (as in 197) Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."


204. The Wood Gatherers (Katthahara Sans. Kashth-hara)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling among the Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Now on that occasion a number of brahmin boys, students of a certain brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan, approached that woodland thicket while collecting firewood. Having approached, they saw the Lord (Buddha) sitting in that woodland thicket with his legs folded crosswise, holding his body erect, having set up meditation(sati) in front of face of him. Having seen him, they approached the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan and said to him: "See now, master, you should know that in such and such a woodland thicket an ascetic is sitting with his legs folded crosswise, holding his body erect, having set up meditation(sati) in front of face of him."

Then the brahmin of the' Bharadvaja clan, together with those brahmin boys, went to that woodland thicket. He saw the Lord (Buddha) sitting there .. (as before) ... having set up meditation(sati) in front of him. He then approached the Lord (Buddha) and addressed him in verse:

"Having entered the empty, desolate forest.
Deep in the woods where many terrors lurk,
With a motionless body, steady, lovely.
How you meditate, bhikkhu(monk), so beautifully! 475

"In the forest where no song or music sounds,
A solitary sage has resorted to the woods!
This strikes me as a wonder - that you dwell
With joyful mind alone in the woods.

"I suppose you desire the supreme triple heaven,
The company of the world's divine lord.
Therefore you resort to the desolate forest:
You practise penance here for attaining Brahma(arch-angel)." 476

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Whatever be the many desires and delights
That are always attached to the manifold elements(dhatu).
The longings sprung from the root of unknowing
All I have demolished along with their root. 477

701 "I am desireless, unattached, disengaged;
My vision of all Dhammas has been purified.
Having attained the auspicious - supreme enlightenment -
Self-confident, brahmin, I meditate alone." 478

When this was said, the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama!...(as in 197) Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."


205. The Mother Supporter (Matuposaka)[]

At Savatthi. Then a brahmin who supported his mother approached the Lord (Buddha) ... and said to him: "Master Gotama, I seek almsfood righteously and thereby support my mother and father. In doing so, am I doing my duty?"

"For sure, brahmin, in doing so you are doing your duty. One
who seeks almsfood righteously and thereby supports his
mother and father generates much divine-merit(punya).

"When a mortal righteously supports his parents.
Because of this service to mother and father
The wise praise him here in this world; And after death he rejoices in heaven."

When this was said, the brahmin who supported his mother said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! . .(as in 197). . Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."


206. The Mendicant (Bhikkhaka)[]

At Savatthi. Then a mendicant brahmin approached the Lord (Buddha) . . . and said to him: "Master Gotama, I am a mendicant and you are a mendicant. What is the difference between us in this respect?" 479

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"It is not thus that one becomes a mendicant.
Just because one begs others for alms.
If one has taken up a domestic practice.
One still has not become a bhikkhu(monk). 480

"But one here who leads the holy celibate life(brahmacariya).
Having divine-merit(punya) and expelled evil,
Who dwells in the world with comprehension:
He is truly called a bhikkhu."

When this was said, the mendicant brahmin said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama!..(as in 197).. Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."


207. Sangarava[]

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion a brahmin named Sangarava was residing at Savatthi. He was a practitioner of water-purification, one who believed in purification by water, who dwelt devoted to the practice of immersing himself in water at dusk and at dawn.
Then, in the morning, the Venerable Ananda dressed and, taking bowl and robe, entered Savatthi for alms. Having walked for alms in Savatthi, when he had returned from his alms round, after his meal he approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:
"Here, venerable sir, a brahmin named Sangarava is residing at Savatthi. He is a practitioner of water-purification ... devoted to the practice of immersing himself in water at dusk and at dawn. It would be good, venerable sir, if the Lord (Buddha) would approach the residence of the brahmin Sangarava out of compassion." The Lord (Buddha) consented by silence.

Then, in the morning, the Lord (Buddha) dressed and, taking bowl and robe, approached the brahmin Sangarava's residence, where he sat down in the appointed seat. Then the brahmin Sangarava approached the Lord (Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him, after which he sat down to one side. The Lord (Buddha) then said to him: "Is it true, brahmin, that you are a practitioner of water-purification, one who believes in purification by water, devoted to the practice of immersing yourself in water at dusk and at dawn?"
[Sangarava:] "Yes, Master Gotama."
[Buddha:] "Considering what benefit do you do this, brahmin?"
[Sangarava:]"Here, Master Gotama, whatever evil deed I have done during the day I wash away by bathing at dusk. Whatever evil deed I have done at night I wash away by bathing at dawn."

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"The dhamma(path,law), brahmin, is a lake with fords of virtue(sheel)
A limpid lake the good praise to the good
Where the knowledge-masters go to bathe.
And, dry-limbed, cross to the far shore." 481

When this was said, the brahmin Sangarava said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama!..(as in 197) .. Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."


208. Khomadussa[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling among the Sakyans. where there was a town of the Sakyans named Khomadussa. 482 Then the Lord (Buddha) dressed and, taking bowl and robe, entered Khomadussa for alms.
Now on that occasion the brahmin householders of Khomadussa had assembled in council on some business matter while it was drizzling. Then the Lord (Buddha) approached the council. The brahmin householders of Khomadussa saw the Lord (Buddha) coming in the distance and said: "Who are these shaveling ascetics? Don't they know the rule of order?" 483

Then the Lord (Buddha) addressed the brahmin householders of Khomadussa in verse:

"That is no council where the good are absent;
They are not the good who don't speak Dhamma.
But having abandoned lust(raag), hatred(dosa\dvesh), and delusion(moha).
Those speaking on dhamma(path,law) are alone the good."

When this was said, the brahmin householders of Khomadussa said to the Lord (Buddha): "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! The Dhamma has been made clear in many ways by Master Gotama, as though he were turning upright what had been turned upside down, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. We go for refuge to Master Gotama, and to the Dhamma, and to the bhikkhu(monk) Sangha(fraternity). Let Master Gotama remember us as lay followers who from today have gone for refuge for life."



Samyutta 8 : Connected Discourses with Vangisa (Vangisasamyutta)[]

209. Renounced (Nikkhanta)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). 484 On one occasion the Venerable Vangisa was dwelling at Alavi at the Aggalava Shrine together with his preceptor, the Venerable Nigrodhakappa. 485 Now on that occasion the Venerable Vangisa, newly ordained, not long gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit), had been left behind as a caretaker of the dwelling. Then a number of women, beautifully adorned, approached the Aggalavaka Park in order to see the dwelling. When the Venerable Vangisa saw those women, dissatisfaction arose in him; lust infested his mind 486 Then it occurred to him: "It is a loss for me indeed, it is no gain for me! It is a mishap for me indeed, it is not well gained by me, that dissatisfaction has arisen in me, that lust has infested my mind. How could anyone else dispel my dissatisfaction and arouse delight(nandi\anand)? Let me dispel my own dissatisfaction and arouse delight by myself."
Then the Venerable Vangisa, having dispelled his own dissatisfaction and aroused delight by himself, on that occasion recited these verses:

"Alas, though I am one who has renounced; Gone from home into hermit life.
These thoughts still run over me; Impudent thoughts from the Dark One. 487

"Even if mighty youths, great archers;Trained men, masters of the bow,
A thousand such men who do not flee; Should surround me on all sides, 488

And if women were to come here ; still more numerous than this.
They would never make me tremble; For I stand firmly in the dhamma(path,law). 489

"I have heard this as a witness; From the Buddha, Kinsman of the Sun
The path leading to Nibbana; That is where my mind delights. 490

"If, while I am dwelling thus; You approach me. Evil One,
I will act in such a way, O Death, That you won't even see my path." 491


210. Discontent (Arati)[]

On one occasion the Venerable Vangisa was dwelling at Alavi at the Aggalava Shrine together with his preceptor, the Venerable Nigrodhakappa. Now on that occasion, when the Venerable Nigrodhakappa returned from his alms round, after his meal he would enter the dwelling and would come out either in the evening or on the following day.
Now on that occasion dissatisfaction had arisen in the Venerable Vangisa; lust had infested his mind. Then it occurred to the Venerable Vangisa: "It is a loss for me indeed, it is no gain for me! It is a mishap for me indeed, it is not well gained by me, that dissatisfaction has arisen in me, that lust has infested my mind. How could anyone else dispel my dissatisfaction and arouse delight(nandi\anand)? Let me dispel my own dissatisfaction and arouse delight."
Then the Venerable Vangisa, having dispelled his own dissatisfaction and aroused delight," on that occasion recited these verses:

"Having abandoned discontent and delight(nandi\anand); And household thoughts entirely.
One should not nurture lust towards anything; The lustless one, without delight he is indeed a bhikkhu(monk). 492

"Whatever exists here on earth and in space; Comprised by form, included in the world
Everything is impermanent decays; The sages dwell having pierced this truth. 493 ;

"People are tied to their acquisitions(upadhi); To what is seen, heard, sensed, and felt;
Dispel desire for this, be unstirred; Who clings to nothing here, they call him a sage. 494

"Those caught in the sixty, by their own thoughts; Many among the people, settled on wrong dhamma(path,law):
One who would not join their faction anywhere; Nor utter corrupt speech he is a bhikkhu. 495

"Proficient, long trained in samadhi; Honest, discreet, without longing.
The sage attaining peaceful state; Parinibbbuto(Nibbana) dwells his time.496


211. Well Behaved (Pesala)[]

On one occasion the Venerable Vangisa was living at Alavi at the Aggalava Shrine together with his preceptor, the Venerable Nigrodhakappa. Now on that occasion, the Venerable Vangisa, because of his own ingenuity, had been looking down at other well-behaved bhikkhus. 497 Then the thought occurred to the Venerable Vangisa: "It is a loss for me indeed, it is no gain for me! It is a mishap for me indeed, it is not well gained by me, that because of my ingenuity I look down upon other well behaved bhikkhus."
Then the Venerable Vangisa, having aroused remorse in himself, on that occasion recited these verses:

"Abandon conceit, O Gotama; And leave the pathway of conceit entirely.
Infatuated with the pathway of conceit; For a long time you've been remorseful. 498

"People smeared by denigration; killed by conceit, fall into hell.
People sorrow for a long time; Killed by conceit, reborn in hell.

"But a bhikkhu(monk) never sorrows at all; A path-knower practising rightly.
He experiences acclaim and happiness(sukh); Truly they call him a seer of dhamma(path,law). 499

"Therefore be pliant here and strenuous; Having abandoned the hindrances, be pure.
Having entirely abandoned conceit; Be an end-maker by knowledge, peaceful."' 500


212. Ananda[]

On one occasion the Venerable Ananda was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Then, in the morning, the Venerable Ananda dressed and, taking bowl and robe, entered Savatthi for alms with the Venerable Vangisa as his companion. Now on that occasion dissatisfaction had arisen in the Venerable Vangisa; lust had infested his mind. 501 Then the Venerable Vangisa addressed the Venerable Ananda in verse:

"I am burning with sensual(kaam/sexual) lust; My mind is engulfed by fire.
Please tell me how to extinguish it; Out of compassion, O Gotama." 502

[The Venerable Ananda:]
"It is through an inversion of perception(sanna sans. sangya); That your mind is engulfed by its fire.
Turn away from the causative(nimitta) of beauty; Provocative of sensual(kaam/sexual) lust(raag). 503

"See sankhara([karma]sanskaras, compulsive-behavior-conditioning) as alien;As suffering, not as self.
Extinguish the great fire of lust; Don't burn up again and again. 504

"Develop the mind on foulness(of body); One-pointed(focussed), well in-samadhi(trance)state;
Apply your meditation(sati) to the body; Be engrossed in revulsion(nibbida). 505

"Develop meditation on the noncausative(animitta); And discard the tendency to conceit.
Then, by breaking through conceit; You will be one who stays in peace." 506


213. Well Spoken (Subhasita)[]

At Savatthi. 507 There the Lord (Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus
thus: "Bhikkhus(monks)!"
"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), when speech possesses four factors, then it is well spoken, not badly spoken, and it is blameless, not blameworthy among the wise. What four? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu(monk) speaks only what is well spoken, not what is badly spoken. He speaks only on the dhamma(path,law), not on non-Dhamma. He speaks only what is pleasant, not what is unpleasant. He speaks only what is true, not what is false. When speech possesses these four factors, it is well spoken, not badly spoken, and it is blameless, not blameworthy among the wise." 508 This is what the Lord (Buddha) said. Having said this, the Fortunate One(Sugato), the Teacher(Sattha), further said this:

"What is well spoken, the good say, is foremost; Second, speak Dhamma, not non-Dhamma;
Third, speak what is pleasant, not unpleasant; Fourth, speak the truth, not falsehood."

Then the Venerable Vangisa rose from his seat, arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, and, raising his joined hands in reverential salutation towards the Lord (Buddha), said to him: "An inspiration has come to me. Lord (Buddha)! An inspiration has come to me. Fortunate One(Sugato)!" 509
The Lord (Buddha) said: "Then express your inspiration, Vahgisa
Then the Venerable Vahgisa praised the Lord (Buddha) to his face with suitable verses:

"One should utter only such speech; By which one does not afflict oneself
Nor cause harm to others; Such speech is truly well spoken.

"One should utter only pleasant speech; Speech that is gladly welcomed.
When it brings them nothing evil; What one speaks is pleasant to others.

"Truth, indeed, is deathless(eternal) speech; This is an ancient principle.
The goal and the Dhamma, the good say; Are established upon truth. 510

"The secure speech which the Buddha utters; For the attainment of Nibbana,
For making an end to suffering; Is truly the foremost speech." 511


214. Sariputta[]

On one occasion the Venerable Sariputta was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Now on that occasion the Venerable Sariputta was instructing, instructing, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus with a Dhamma talk, [spoken] with speech that was polished, fluent, articulate, expressing well the meaning. And those bhikkhus were listening to the dhamma(path,law) with eager ears, attending to it as a matter of vital concern, directing their whole mind to it.
Then it occurred to the Venerable Vahgisa: "This Venerable Sariputta is instructing the bhikkhus with a Dhamma talk, [spoken] with speech that is polished, clear, articulate, expressing well the meaning. And those bhikkhus are listening to the Dhamma with eager ears.... Let me extol the Venerable Sariputta to his face with suitable verses."

Then the Venerable Vangisa rose from his seat, arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, and, raising his joined hands in reverential salutation towards the Venerable Sariputta, said to him: "An inspiration has come to me, friend Sariputta! An inspiration has come to me, friend Sariputta!"
[Sariputta:] "Then express your inspiration, friend Vangisa."
Then the Venerable Vangisa praised the Venerable Sariputta to his face with suitable verses:

"Deep in panna(illuminated-insight), intelligent; Skilled in the true path and the false,
Sariputta, of great illuminated-insight(panna); Teaches the Dhamma to the bhikkhus.

"He teaches briefly; He speaks in detail.
His voice, like that of a myna bird; Pours forth inspired discourse. 512

"As he teaches them, they listen; To his sweet utterance.
Uplifted in mind, made joyful; By his delightful voice,
Sonorous and lovely; The bhikkhus incline their ears."


215. Pavarana[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in the Eastern Park in the Mansion of Migara's Mother together with a great Sangha of bhikkhus, with five hundred bhikkhus, all of them arahants. Now on that occasion - the Uposatha day of the fifteenth - the Lord (Buddha) was sitting in the open surrounded by the bhikkhu(monk) Sangha(fraternity) in order to hold the Pavarana. 513 Then, having surveyed the silent Bhikkhu Sangha, the Lord (Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Come now, bhikkhus, let me invite you: Is there any deed of mine, either bodily or verbal, which you would reject?"

When this was said, the Venerable Sariputta rose from his seat, arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, and, raising his joined hands in reverential salutation towards the Lord (Buddha), said to him: "Venerable sir, there is no deed of the Lord (Buddha), either bodily or verbal, that we reject. For, venerable sir, the Lord (Buddha) is the originator of the path unarisen before, the producer of the path unproduced before, the declarer of the path undeclared before. He is the knower of the path, the discoverer of the path, the one skilled in the path. And his disciples now dwell following that path and become possessed of it afterwards. 514 And I, venerable sir, invite the Lord (Buddha): Is there any deed of mine, either bodily or verbal, which the Lord (Buddha) would reject?"

"There is no deed of yours, Sariputta, either bodily or verbal, that I reject. For you, Sariputta, are wise, one of great illuminated-insight(panna), of wide illuminated-insight(panna), of joyous illuminated-insight(panna), of swift illuminated-insight(panna), of sharp illuminated-insight(panna), of penetrative illuminated-insight(panna). Just as the eldest son of a wheel-turning monarch properly keeps in motion the wheel [of sovereignty] set in motion by his father, so do you, Sariputta, properly keep in motion the Wheel of dhamma(path,law) set in motion by me." 515

"If, venerable sir, the Lord (Buddha) does not reject any deed of mine, bodily or verbal, does he reject any deed, bodily or verbal, of these five hundred bhikkhus?"

"There is no deed, Sariputta, bodily or verbal, of these five hundred bhikkhus that I reject. For of these five hundred bhikkhus, Sariputta, sixty bhikkhus are triple-knowledge bearers, sixty bhikkhus are bearers of the six divine-knowledges(abhinna)\magical-powers, sixty bhikkhus are liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt) in both ways, while the rest are liberated by illuminated-insight(panna)." 516

Then the Venerable Vangisa rose from his seat, arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, and, raising his joined hands in reverential salutation towards the Lord (Buddha), said to him: "An inspiration has come to me. Lord (Buddha)! An inspiration has come to me. Fortunate One(Sugato)!"
The Lord (Buddha) said: "Then express your inspiration, Vangisa."
Then the Venerable Vangisa praised the Lord (Buddha) to his face with suitable verses:

"Five hundred bhikkhus have gathered today; The fifteenth day, for purification,
Who have cut off all fetters and bonds; Untroubled saints(ishis sans. rishis) who have ended renewed existence(rebirth cause),

"Just as a king, a wheel-turning monarch; Accompanied by his ministers.
Travels all over this mighty earth; Bounded by the deep dark ocean

So they attend on the victor in battle; The unsurpassed caravan leader,
The disciples bearing the triple knowledge; Who have left Death far behind. 517

"All are true sons of the Lord (Buddha); Here no worthless chaff is found.
I worship the Kinsman of the Sun; Destroyer of the dart of craving(tanha sans. trishna)."


216. Over a Thousand (Parosahassa sans. Paro-sahasra)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park, together with a great Sangha(fraternity) of bhikkhus, with 1,250 bhikkhus. Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha) was instructing, instructing, inspiring, and encouraging the bhikkhus with a Dhamma talk concerning Nibbana. And those bhikkhus were listening to the dhamma(path,law) with eager ears, attending to it as a matter of vital concern, directing their whole mind to it.
Then it occurred to the Venerable Vahgisa: "The Lord (Buddha) is instructing the bhikkhus with a Dhamma talk concerning Nibbana. And those bhikkhus are listening to the Dhamma with eager ears.... Let me extol the Lord (Buddha) to his face with suitable verses."

Then the Venerable Vahgisa rose from his seat, arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, and, raising his joined hands in reverential salutation towards the Lord (Buddha), said to him: "An inspiration has come to me. Lord (Buddha)! An inspiration has come to me, Fortunate One(Sugato)!"
[Buddha:] "Then express your inspiration, Vahgisa."
Then the Venerable Vangisa praised the Lord (Buddha) to his face with suitable verses:

"Over a thousand bhikkhus here; Attend upon the Fortunate One(Sugato)
As he teaches the dust-free Dhamma; Nibbana inaccessible to fear. 518

"They listen to the stainless Dhamma;Taught by the Perfectly Enlightened One.
The Enlightened One indeed shines; Honoured by the bhikkhu(monk) Sangha(fraternity).

"O Lord (Buddha), your name is 'Naga' ;The best seer(rishi) of the seers(rishis).
Like a great cloud bearing rain; You pour down on the disciples. 519

"Having emerged from his daytime abode; From a desire to look at the Teacher,
Your disciple Vangisa, O greatly brave(mahavir); Bows down in worship at your feet."

[Buddha:] "Had you already thought out these verses, Vangisa, or did they occur to you spontaneously?" 520
[Vangisa:] "I had not already thought out these verses, venerable sir; they occurred to me spontaneously."
[Buddha:] "In that case, Vangisa, let some more verses, not already thought out, occur to you."
[Vangisa:] "Yes, venerable sir," the Venerable Vangisa replied. Then he praised the Lord (Buddha) with some more verses that had not been previously thought out:

"Having overcome the deviant course of Mara's path; You are living with demolished barrenness of mind.
Look at him, the released(in mokkha/moksha) from bondage; Unattached, dissecting into parts. 521

"For the sake of leading us across the flood; You declared the path with its many aspects.
The seers of Dhamma stand immovable; In that deathless-state(nirvana) declared by you. 522

"The light-maker, having pierced right through; Saw the transcendence of all stations;
Having known and realized it himself; He taught the chief matter to the five. 523

"When the Dhamma has been so well taught;
What slothfulness(pamada) is there for those who understand it?
Therefore, living alertful in the Lord (Buddha)'s Teaching,
One should always reverently train in it."


217. Kondanna[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). Then the Venerable Anna Kondanna, after a very long absence, approached the Lord (Buddha), prostrated himself with his head at the Lord (Buddha)' s feet, kissed the Lord (Buddha)'s feet, stroked them with his hands, and announced his name thus: "I am Kondanna, Lord (Buddha)! I am Kondanna, Fortunate One(Sugato)!" 524
Then it occurred to the Venerable Vangisa: "This Venerable Anna Kondanna, after a very long absence, has approached the Lord (Buddha) . . . kisses the Lord (Buddha)'s feet, strokes them with his hands, and announces his name.... Let me extol the Venerable Anna Kondanna in the Lord (Buddha)'s presence with suitable verses."

Then the Venerable Vangisa rose from his seat, arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, and, raising his joined hands in reverential salutation towards the Lord (Buddha), said to him: "An inspiration has come to me, Lord (Buddha)! An inspiration has come to me. Fortunate One(Sugato)!"
[Buddha:] "Then express your inspiration, Vangisa."
Then the Venerable Vangisa praised the Venerable Anna Kondanna in the Lord (Buddha)'s presence with suitable verses:

"Enlightened in succession to the Buddha; The elder Kondanna, of strong endeavour.
Is one who gains pleasant dwellings; One who often gains the seclusions. 525

"Whatever may be attained by a disciple; Who practises the Master's Teaching,
All that has been attained by him; One who trained alertfully(appamada).

"Of great might, a triple-knowledge man; Skilled in the course of others' minds
Kondanna, a true heir of the Buddha; Pays homage at the-Teacher's feet." 526


218. Moggallana[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha on the Black Rock on the Isigili Slope, together with a great Sangha(fraternity) of bhikkhus, with five hundred bhikkhus all of whom were arahants. Thereupon the Venerable Mahamoggallana searched their minds with his own mind [and saw that they were] released(in mokkha/moksha), without acquisitions(upadhi).
Then it occurred to the Venerable Vangisa: "The Lord (Buddha) is dwelling at Rajagaha on the Black Rock on the Isigili Slope.... Thereupon the Venerable Mahamoggallana has searched their minds with his own mind [and seen that they are] released(in mokkha/moksha), without acquisitions. Let me extol the Venerable Mahamoggallana in the Lord (Buddha)'s presence with suitable verses."

Then the Venerable Vangisa rose from his seat, arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, and, raising his joined hands in reverential salutation towards the Lord (Buddha), said to him:
"An inspiration has come to me. Lord (Buddha)! An inspiration has come to me. Fortunate One(Sugato)!"
[Buddha:] "Then express your inspiration, Vangisa."
Then the Venerable Vangisa praised the Venerable Mahamoggallana in the Lord (Buddha)'s presence with suitable verses:

"While the sage is seated on the mountain slope; Gone to the far shore of suffering.
His disciples sit in attendance on him; Triple-knowledge men who have left Death behind.

"Moggallana, great in spiritual-power(iddhi\riddhi); Encompassed their minds with his own.
And searching [he came to see] their minds; Fully released(in mokkha/moksha), without acquisitions!

"Thus those perfect in many qualities; Attend upon Gotama,
The sage perfect in all respects; Gone to the far shore of suffering." 527


219 Gaggara[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Campa on the bank of the Gaggara Lotus Pond together with a great Sangha(fraternity) of bhikkhus, with five hundred bhikkhus, seven hundred male lay followers, seven hundred female lay followers, and many thousands of devatas(angels). The Lord (Buddha) outshone them in beauty and glory.
Then it occurred to the Venerable Vangisa: "This Lord (Buddha) is dwelling at Campa ... and many thousands of devatas. The Lord (Buddha) outshines them in beauty and glory. Let me extol the Lord (Buddha) to his face with suitable verses."

Then the Venerable Vangisa rose from his seat, arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, and, raising his joined hands in reverential salutation towards the Lord (Buddha), said to him: "An inspiration has come to me. Lord (Buddha)! An inspiration has come to me. Fortunate One(Sugato)!"
[Buddha:] "Then express your inspiration, Vangisa."
Then the Venerable Vangisa praised the Lord (Buddha) to his
face with a suitable verse:

"As the moon shines in a cloudless sky; As the sun shines devoid of stain.
So you, Angirasa, O great sage; Outshine the whole world with your glory."


220. Vangisa[]

On one occasion the Venerable Vangisa was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Now on that occasion the Venerable Vangisa had only recently attained arahantship and, while experiencing the happiness(sukh) of liberation(vimutti sans. vimukti), on that occasion he recited these verses: 528

"Drunk on poetry, I used to wander; From village to village, town to town.
Then I saw the Enlightened One(Buddha); And faith arose within me. 529

"He then taught me the dhamma(path,law); aggregates(khandha sans. skandha), sense spheres, and elements(dhatu).
Having heard the Dhamma from him; I went forth into hermit life.

"Indeed, for the good of many; The sage, attained enlightenment.
For the bhikkhus and bhikkhunis; Who have reached and seen the fixed course. 530

"Welcome indeed has it been for me; My coming into the Buddha's presence.
The three knowledges have been obtained; The Buddha's Teaching has been done.

"I know now my past abodes;The divine eye is purified.
With triple knowledge & spiritual powers(iddhi\riddhi); skilled in knowing others' minds." 531



Samyutta 9 : Connected Discourses in the Woods (Vanasamyutta)[]

221. Seclusion (Viveka)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion a certain bhikkhu(monk) was dwelling among the Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Now on that occasion, while that bhikkhu had gone for his day's abiding, he kept on thinking evil harmful(akusala sans. akushal) thoughts connected with the household life.
Then the devata(angel) that inhabited that woodland thicket, having compassion for that bhikkhu, desiring his good, desiring to stir up a sense of urgency in him, approached him and addressed him in verses:

"Desiring seclusion you entered the woods;
Yet your mind gushes outwardly.
Remove, man, the desire for people;
Then you'll be happy, devoid of lust. 532

"You must abandon discontent, be meditative(satima); Let us remind [you] of that [way] of the good.
Hard to cross, indeed, is the dusty abyss; Don't let sensual dust drag you down. 533

"Just as a bird littered with soil;
With a shake flicks off the sticky dust.
So a bhikkhu, strenuous and meditative; With a shake flicks off the sticky dust."

Then that bhikkhu, stirred up by that devata, acquired a sense of urgency.


222. Rousing (Upatthana)[]

On one occasion a certain bhikkhu(monk) was dwelling among the Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Now on that occasion when that bhikkhu had gone for his day's abiding he fell asleep. 534 Then the devata(angel) that inhabited that woodland thicket, having compassion for that bhikkhu, desiring his good, desiring to stir up a sense of urgency in him, approached him and addressed him in verses:

"Get up, bhikkhu, why lie down? What need do you have for sleep?
What slumber [can there be] for one afflicted; Stricken, pierced by the dart?

"Nurture in yourself that faith; With which you left behind the home life
And went forth into hermit life; Don't come under sloth's control."

[The bhikkhu:] 535
"Sensual pleasures are impermanent, unstable; Though the dullard is enthralled with them.
When he's free, detached among those bound;Why trouble one gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit)?

"When, by the removal of desire(chand) & lust(raag);And the transcendence of ignorance(avijja sans. avidya).
That knowledge has been cleansed; Why trouble one gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit)? 536

"When, by breaking ignorance with knowledge; And by destruction(khaya\kshaya) of the defilements.
He is sorrowless, beyond despair; Why trouble one gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit)?

"When he is energetic and resolute, Always firm in his exertion.
Aspiring to attain Nibbana; Why trouble one gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit)?" 537


223. Kassapagotta[]

On one occasion the Venerable Kassapagotta was dwelling among the Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Now on that occasion, when he had gone for his day's abiding, the Venerable Kassapagotta instructed a certain hunter. 538 Then the devata(angel) that inhabited that woodland thicket, having compassion for the Venerable Kassapagotta, desiring his good, desiring to stir up a sense of urgency in him, approached him and addressed him in verses:

"The bhikkhu(monk) strikes me as a dimwit; Who out of season instructs a hunter
Roaming in the rugged mountains; With little illuminated-insight(panna), devoid of sense.

"He listens but does not understand; He looks but does not see;
Though the Dhamma(law,path) is being spoken; The childish(unwise) does not grasp the meaning.

"Even if you would bring ten lamps; [Into his presence], Kassapa,
Still he would not see forms; For he does not have eyes to see."

Then the Venerable Kassapagotta, stirred up by that devata, acquired a sense of urgency.


224. A Number (Sambahula)[]

On one occasion a number of bhikkhus were dwelling among the Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Then, when they had spent the rains there, after the three months had passed those bhikkhus set out on tour. Then the devata(angel) that inhabited that woodland thicket, not seeing those bhikkhus, lamenting, on that occasion recited this verse:

"Today discontent appears to me;
When I see here so many vacant seats.
Where have they gone, Gotama's disciples;
Those splendid speakers rich in learning?" 539

When this was said, another devata replied in verse:

"They've gone to Magadha, gone to Kosala, And some are in the Vajjian land.
Like deer that roam free from ties; The bhikkhus dwell without abode." 540


225. Ananda[]

On one occasion the Venerable Ananda was dwelling among the Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Now on that occasion the Venerable Ananda was excessively involved instructing lay people. 541 Then the devata(angel) that inhabited that woodland thicket, having compassion for the Venerable Ananda, desiring his good, desiring to stir up a sense of urgency in him, approached him and addressed him in verse:

"Having entered the thicket at the foot of a tree; Having placed Nibbana in your heart,
Meditate, Gotama, and don't be slothful(in pamada)! What will this hullabaloo do for you?" 542

Then the Venerable Ananda, stirred up by that deity, acquired a sense of urgency.

Note : Ananda also belongs to Gotama clan similar to Buddha.


226. Anuruddha[]

On one occasion the Venerable Anuruddha was dwelling among the Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Then a certain devata(angel) of the Tavatimsa heaven named Jalini, a former consort of the Venerable Anuruddha, approached him and addressee him in verse: 543

"Direct your mind there [to that realm]; Where you dwelt in the past
Among the Tavatimsa devas(angels); For whom all desires are fulfilled.


227. Nagadatta[]

(Translated by Bhikkhuni Uppalavanna)

I heard thus. At one time venerable Nàgadatta lived in a stretch of forest in the country of Kosala.
At that time, venerable Nàgadatta enters the village too early and returns very late.
Then a deity living in that stretch of forest out of compassion, wishing to arouse remorse, approached venerable Nagàdatta.
Approaching, said these stanzas:

"Nàgadatta, enter the village ; at the right time and return early.
Do not associate householders too long; Do not share pleasant and unpleasant feelings,

I'm afraid, Nagadatta; association with families is the bond
King of Death is powerful; do not enter his domains.

Then venerable Nàgadatta made remorseful by the deity became concerned.


228. Kulagharani[]

(Translated by Bhikkhuni Uppalavanna)

I heard thus. At one time a certain bhikkhu(monk) lived in a stretch of forest in the country of Kosala.
At that time, that bhikkhu spent a lot of his time going a certain family.
Then a deity living in that stretch of forest out of compassion, wishing to arouse remorse, disguised herself to look like the woman of that ill famous house and approached that bhikkhu.
Approaching, said these stanzas to that bhikkhu:

"All night you think of the river bank. People say,
Why is he going up and down the bank of the river?

There are many impedimental sounds
That should be endured by the ascetic.
By those sounds you should not be bewildered or wearied

Wild animals in the forest tremble because of sounds
Ignore those sounds, they do not come to your sphere."


229. Vajjian Prince (Vajjiputta)[]

On one occasion a certain bhikkhu(monk), a Vajjian prince, was dwelling at Vesali in a certain woodland thicket. Now on that occasion an all-night festival was being held in Vesali. Then that bhikkhu, lamenting as he heard the clamour of instruments, gongs, and music coming from Vesali, 549 on that occasion recited this verse:

"We dwell in the forest all alone;
Like a log rejected in the woods.
On such a splendid night as this;
Who is there worse off than us?"

Then the devata(angel) that inhabited that woodland thicket, having compassion for that bhikkhu, desiring his good, desiring to stir up a sense of urgency in him, approached him and addressed him in verse:

"As you dwell in the forest all alone; Like a log rejected in the woods.
Many are those who envy you; As hell-beings envy those going to heaven." 550

Then that bhikkhu, stirred up by that devata, acquired a sense of urgency.


230 Reciting (Sajjhaya)[]

On one occasion a certain bhikkhu(monk) was dwelling among the Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Now on that occasion that bhikkhu had been excessively engrossed in recitation, but on a later occasion he passed the time living at ease and keeping silent 551 Then the devata(angel) that inhabited that woodland thicket, no longer hearing that bhikkhu recite the dhamma(path,law), approached him and addressed him in verse:

"Bhikkhu, why don't you recite Dhamma-stanzas; Living in communion with other bhikkhus?
Hearing the Dhamma, one gains confidence; In this very life [the reciter] gains praise."

[The bhikkhu:]
"In the past I was fond of Dhamma-stanzas; So long as I had not achieved dispassion.
But from the time I achieved dispassion; [I dwell in what] the good men call
'The laying down by final knowledge ; Of whatever is seen, heard, or sensed.'" 552


231. Harmful Thoughts (Akusalavittaka sans. Akushal-vitark)[]

On one occasion a certain bhikkhu(monk) was dwelling among the Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Now on that occasion, when that bhikkhu had gone for the day's abiding, he kept on thinking evil harmful(akusala sans. akushal) thoughts, that is, thoughts of sensuality, ill will, and harming. Then the devata(angel) that inhabited that woodland thicket, having compassion for that bhikkhu, desiring his good, desiring to stir up a sense of urgency in him, approached him and addressed him in verses:

"Because of applying mind(mansikara) non-meditatively(ayoniso); You, sir, are eaten by your thoughts.
Having relinquished the non-meditative way; You should think meditatively(yoniso) 553

"By basing your thoughts on the Teacher; On dhamma(path,law), Sangha(fraternity), and your own virtues,
You will surely attain to joy; And bliss(piti/preeti) and happiness(sukh) as well.
Then when you are suffused with joy; You'll make an end to suffering."

Then that bhikkhu, stirred up by that devata, acquired a sense of urgency.


232. Midday (Majjhanhika sans. Madhyanika)[]

On one occasion a certain bhikkhu(monk) was dwelling among the Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Then the devata(angel) that inhabited that woodland thicket approached that bhikkhu and recited this verse in his presence:

"When the noon hour sets in, And the birds have settled down.
The mighty forest itself murmurs; How fearful that appears to me!"

[The bhikkhu:]
790 "When the noon hour sets in; And the birds have settled down.
The mighty forest itself murmurs; How delightful that appears to me!"


233. Loose in Sense Faculties (Pakatindriya)[]

On one occasion a number of bhikkhus were dwelling among the Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. They were restless, puffed up, personally vain, rough-tongued, rambling in their talk, muddle-minded, without complete comprehension (sampajanna), not-in-samadhi(trance)state, scatter-brained, loose in their sense faculties. Then the devata(angel) that inhabited that woodland thicket, having compassion for those bhikkhus, desiring their good, desiring to stir up a sense of urgency in them, approached them and addressed them with verses:

"In the past the bhikkhus lived happily; The disciples of Gotama.
Without wishes they sought their alms; Without wishes they used their lodgings.
Having known the world's impermanence(anicca sans. anitya); They made an end to suffering.

"But now like headmen in a village; They make themselves hard to maintain.
They eat and eat and then lie down; Infatuated in others' homes.

"Having reverently saluted the Sangha(fraternity), I here speak only about some:
They are rejected, without protector; Become just like the dead.

"My statement is made with reference ; To those who dwell in slothfulness(pamada).
As for those who dwell in alertfulness(appamada); To them I humbly pay homage."

Then those bhikkhus, stirred up by that devata, acquired a sense of urgency. <440>


234. The Thief of Scent (Gandhatthena)[]

On one occasion a certain bhikkhu(monk) was dwelling among the Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Now on that occasion, when he had returned from his alms round, after his meal that bhikkhu used to descend into a pond and sniff a red lotus. Then the devata(angel) that inhabited that woodland thicket, having compassion for that bhikkhu, desiring his good, desiring to stir up a sense of urgency in him, approached him and addressed him in verse: 554

"When you sniff this lotus flower; An item that has not been given.
This is one factor of theft; You, dear sir, are a thief of scent."

[The bhikkhu:]
"I do not take, I do not damage; I sniff the lotus from afar;
So for what reason do you say; That I am a thief of scent? 555

"One who digs up the lotus stalks; One who damages the flowers,
of such rough behaviour; Why is he not spoken to?" 556 [205]

[The devata:]
"When a person is rough and fierce; Badly soiled like a nursing cloth,
I have nothing to say to him; But it's to you that I ought to speak.

"For a person without blemish; Always in quest of purity.
Even a mere hair's tip of evil; Appears as big as a cloud."

[The bhikkhu:]
"Surely, spirit, you understand me; And you have compassion for me.
Please, O spirit, speak to me again; Whenever you see such a deed."

[The devata:]
"We don't live with your support; Nor are we your hired servant.
You, bhikkhu, should know for yourself; The way to a good destination(sugati)." 557

Then that bhikkhu, stirred by that devata, acquired a sense of urgency.



Samyutta 10 : Connected Discourses with Yakkhas/Spirits (Yakkhasamyutta)[]

235. Indaka[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha on Mount Inda's Peak, the haunt of the yakkha Indaka. 558 Then the yakkha Indaka approached the Lord (Buddha) and addressed him in verse:

"As the Buddhas say that form is not the soul; How then does one obtain this body?
From where do one's bones and liver come? How is one begotten in the womb?" 559

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"First there is the kalala; From the kalala comes the abbuda ;
From the abbuda the pesi is produced; From the pesi the ghana arises;
From the ghana emerge the limbs; The head-hair, body-hair, and nails.

And whatever food the mother eats; The meals and drink that she consumes
By this the being there is maintained; The person inside the mother's womb." 560


236. Sakkanamaka[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha on Mount Vulture Peak. Then the yakkha Sakkanamaka approached the Lord (Buddha) and addressed him in verse:

"Having abandoned all the knots; As one fully released(in mokkha/moksha),
It isn't good for you, an ascetic; To be instructing others." 561

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"If, O Sakka, for some reason; Intimacy with anyone should arise.
The wise man ought not to stir his mind ; With compassion towards such a person.

"But if with a mind clear and pure; He gives instructions to others.
He does not become fettered; By his compassion and sympathy." 562


237. Suciloma[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Gaya at the Tankita Bed, the haunt of the yakkha Suciloma. 563 Now on that occasion the yakkha Khara and the yakkha Suciloma were passing by not far from the Lord (Buddha). Then the yakkha Khara said to the yakkha Suciloma: "That is an ascetic."
"That is not an ascetic; that is a sham ascetic. 564 I'll soon find out whether he is an ascetic or a sham ascetic."

Then the yakkha Suciloma approached the Lord (Buddha) and bent over the Lord (Buddha). The Lord (Buddha) drew back. Then the yakkha Suciloma said to the Lord (Buddha): "Are you afraid of me, ascetic?"
"I'm not afraid of you, friend. It is just that your touch is evil." 565
"I'll ask you a question, ascetic. If you won't answer me, I'll drive you insane or I'll split your heart or I'll grab you by the feet and hurl you across the Ganges."
"I do not see anyone in this world, friend, with its devas(angels), Mara(Satan), and Brahma(arch-angel), in this generation with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas and humans, who could drive me insane or split my heart or grab me by the feet and hurl me across the Ganges. But ask whatever you want, friend."

"What is the source of lust(raag) & hatred(dosa/dvesh)?
From where originates discontent, delight(nandi\anand), and terror?
Having arisen from what do the mind's thoughts
[Toss one around] as boys toss up a crow?" 566

[The Lord (Buddha):]
809 "lust(raag) & hatred(dosa/dvesh) have their source here;
From this originates discontent, delight(nandi\anand), and terror;
Having arisen from this, the mind's thoughts
[Toss one around] as boys toss up a crow. 567

"Sprung from affection, arisen from oneself, Like the trunk-born shoots of the banyan tree;
Manifold, clinging(upadana sans. asakti) to sensual pleasures, Like a maluva creeper stretched across the woods. 568

"Those who understand their source.
They dispel it - listen, O yakkha!
They cross this flood so hard to cross.
Uncrossed before, for no renewed existence(rebirth cause)." 569


238. Manibhadda[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling among the Magadhans at the Manimalaka Shrine, the haunt of the yakkha Manibhadda. Then the yakkha Manibhadda approached the Lord (Buddha) and in the Lord (Buddha)'s presence recited this verse:

"It is always good for the meditative(satima) one, The meditative one thrives in happiness(sukh).
It is better each day for the meditative one, And he is freed from enmity." 570

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"It is always good for the meditative one, The meditative one thrives in happiness.
It is better each day for the meditative(satima) one, But he is. not freed from enmity.

"One whose mind all day and night, Takes delight(nandi\anand) in harmlessness.
Who has lovingkindness(metta\maitri) for all beings, For him there is enmity with none." 571


239. Sanu[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Now on that occasion a certain female lay follower had a son named Sanu who had been possessed by a yakkha. 572 Then that female lay follower, lamenting, on that occasion recited these verses:

"With those who lead the holy celibate life(brahmacariya), 573 Who observe the Uposatha days
Complete in eight factors; On the fourteenth or fifteenth,

And on the eighths of the fortnight, And during special periods.
The yakkhas do not sport around; So I have heard from the arahants.
But now today I see for myself; The yakkhas trouble Sanu."

[The yakkha that has entered Sanu:]
"With those who lead the holy celibate life(brahmacariya); Who observe the Uposatha days
Complete in eight factors; On the fourteenth or fifteenth,
And on the eighths of the fortnight; And during special periods.
The yakkhas do not sport around; What you heard from the arahants is good.

"When Sanu has awakened tell him ; This injunction of the yakkhas;
Do not do an evil deed; Either openly or in secret.

If you should do an evil deed; Or if you are doing one now.
You won't be free from suffering; Though you fly up and flee." 574

[Sanu:] 575
"They weep, mother, for the dead; Or for one living who isn't seen.
When you see, mother, that I'm alive; Why, O mother, do you weep for me?"

[Sanu's mother:]
"They weep, O son, for the dead; Or for one living who isn't seen;
But when one returns to the home life; After renouncing sensual pleasures.
They weep for this one too, my son; For though alive he's really dead. 576

"Drawn out, my dear, from hot embers, You wish to plunge into hot embers;
Drawn out, my dear, from an inferno(hell), You wish to plunge into an inferno(hell). 577

"Run forward, good luck be with you! To whom could we voice our grief?
Being an item rescued from the fire; You wish to be burnt again." 578


240. Piyankara (sans. Priyankara)[]

On one occasion the Venerable Anuruddha was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Now on that occasion the Venerable Anuruddha, having risen at the first flush of dawn, was reciting stanzas of dhamma(path,law). Then the female yakkha Piyankara's Mother hushed her little child thus: 579

826 "Do not make a sound, Piyankara, A bhikkhu(monk) recites Dhamma-stanzas.
Having understood a Dhamma-stanza, We might practise for our welfare.

"Let us refrain from harming living beings; Let us not speak a deliberate lie.
We should train ourselves in virtue(sheel); Perhaps we'll be freed from the goblin(pisaca) realm."


241. Punabbasu[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha) was instructing, instructing, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus with a Dhamma talk concerning Nibbana. And those bhikkhus were listening to the dhamma(path,law) with eager ears, attending to it as a matter of vital concern, applying their whole mind to it. Then the female yakkha Punabbasu's Mother hushed her little children thus: 580

"Be quiet, Uttarika, Be quiet, Punabbasu!
I wish to listen to the Dhamma; Of the Teacher, the Supreme Buddha.

"When the Lord (Buddha) speaks of Nibbana, release(mokkha/moksha) from all the knots,
There has arisen within me; Deep affection for this Dhamma.

"In the world one's own son is dear; In the world one's own husband is dear;
But for me the quest for this Dhamma; Has become even dearer than them.

"For neither one's own son nor husband; Though dear, can release(mokkha/moksha) one from suffering
As listening to true Dhamma frees one; From the suffering of living beings. 581

"In this world steeped in suffering, Fettered by aging and death,
I wish to listen to the Dhamma; That he the Buddha fully awakened to.
For freedom from aging and death; So be quiet, Punabbasu!" 582

[Punabbasu:]
"Mother dear, I am not talking; This Uttara is silent, too.
Pay attention only to the Dhamma; For listening to true Dhamma is pleasant.
Because we have not known true Dhamma; We've been living miserably, mother.

"He is the maker of light; For bewildered devas(angels) and humans;
Enlightened, bearing his final body; The One with Vision teaches the Dhamma."

[Punabbasu's mother:]
"It is good that my son has become so wise; He whom I bore and nursed at my breast.
My son loves the pure Dhamma; Of the Supremely Enlightened One.

"Punabbasu, be happy! Today I have emerged at last.
Hear me too, O Uttara; The noble truths are seen!" 583


242. Sudatta[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Cool Grove. Now on that occasion the householder Anathapindika had arrived in Rajagaha on some business. 584 He heard:
"A Buddha, it is said, has arisen in the world!" He wanted to go and see the Lord (Buddha) immediately, but it occurred to him: "It is not the right time to go and see the Lord (Buddha) today. I will go and see the Lord (Buddha) early tomorrow morning." He lay down with his attention directed to the Buddha, and during the night he got up three times thinking it was morning. Then the householder Anathapindika approached the gate of the charnel ground. Non-human beings opened the gate. Then, as the householder Anathapindika was leaving the city, the light disappeared and darkness appeared. Fear, trepidation, and terror arose in him and he wanted to turn back. But the yakkha Sivaka, invisible, made the proclamation: 585

"A hundred [thousand] elephants, A hundred [thousand] horses, A hundred [thousand] mule-drawn chariots,
A hundred thousand maidens; Adorned with jewellery and earrings;
Are not worth a sixteenth part ; Of a single step forward. 586 "

"Go forward, householder! Go forward, householder! Going
forward is better for you, not turning back again."

Then the darkness disappeared and light appeared to the householder Anathapindika, and the fear, trepidation, and terror that had arisen in him subsided.

A second time ... (earlier verses is included in this repetition)
...A third time the light disappeared and darkness appeared before the householder Anathapindika. Fear, trepidation, and terror arose in him and he wanted to turn back. But a third time the yakkha Sivaka, invisible, made the proclamation:

"A hundred [thousand] elephants . . . Of a single step forward. "

"Go forward, householder! Go forward, householder! Going
forward is better for you, not turning back again."

Then the darkness disappeared and light appeared to the householder Anathapindika, and the fear, trepidation, and terror that had arisen in him subsided.

Then the householder Anathapindika approached the Lord (Buddha) in the Cool Grove. Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha), having risen at the first flush of dawn, was walking back and forth in the open. The Lord (Buddha) saw the householder Anathapindika coming in the distance. He descended from the walkway, sat down in the seat that was prepared, and said to the householder Anathapindika: "Come, Sudatta." 587

Then the householder Anathapindika, thinking, "The Lord (Buddha) has addressed me by my name," [thrilled and elated], 588 prostrated himself right on the spot with his head at the Lord (Buddha)' s feet and said to him: "I hope, venerable sir, that the Lord (Buddha) slept well."

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Always indeed he sleeps well; The brahmin who is fully quenched.
Who does not cling to sensual pleasures; Calm at heart, without acquisitions(upadhi).

"Having cut off all attachments; Having removed care from the heart,
The peaceful one sleeps well; Having attained peace of mind." 589


243. Sukka (1)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). Now on that occasion the bhikkhuni(nun) Sukka, surrounded by a large assembly, was teaching the dhamma(path,law). Then a yakkha who had full confidence in the bhikkhuni Sukka, going from street to street and from square to square in Rajagaha, on that occasion recited these verses:

"What has happened to these people in Rajagaha? They sleep as if they've been drinking mead.
Why don't they attend on Sukka; As she teaches the deathless-state(nirvana)? 590

"But the wise, as it were, drink it up; That [Dhamma] irresistible.
Ambrosial, nutritious; As travellers do a cloud." 591


244. Sukka (2)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). Now on that occasion a certain lay follower gave food to the bhikkhuni(nun) Sukka. Then a yakkha who had full confidence in the bhikkhuni Sukka, going from street to street and from square to square in Rajagaha, on that occasion recited this verse:

"He has gathered much divine-merit(punya); Wise indeed is this lay follower.
Who just gave food to Sukka, One released(in mokkha/moksha) from all the knots." 592


245. Cira[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). Now on that occasion a certain lay follower gave a robe to the bhikkhuni(nun) Cira. Then a yakkha who had full confidence in the bhikkhuni Cira, going from street to street and from square to square in Rajagaha, on that occasion recited this verse:

"He has gathered much divine-merit(punya), Wise indeed is this lay follower.
Who just gave a robe to Cira, One released(in mokkha/moksha) from all the bonds."


246. Alavaka[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Alavi, the haunt of the yakkha Alavaka. 593 Then the yakkha Alavaka approached the Lord (Buddha) and said to him:
"Get out, ascetic!"
"All right, friend," the Lord (Buddha) said, and he went out. 594
"Come in, ascetic."
"All right, friend," the Lord (Buddha) said, and he went in.
A second time ... A third time the yakkha Alavaka said to the Lord (Buddha): "Get out, ascetic!"
"All right, friend," the Lord (Buddha) said, and he went out"Come in, ascetic."
"All right, friend," the Lord (Buddha) said, and he went in.
A fourth time the yakkha Alavaka said to the Lord (Buddha):
"Get out, ascetic."
"I won't go out, friend. Do whatever you have to do."
"I'll ask you a question, ascetic. If you won't answer me. I'll drive you insane or I'll split your heart or I'll grab you by the feet and hurl you across the Ganges." 595
"I do not see anyone in this world, friend, with its devas(angels), Mara(Satan), and Brahma(arch-angel), in this generation with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas and humans, who could drive me insane or split my heart or grab me by the feet and hurl me across the Ganges But ask whatever you want, friend." 596

[Alavaka:]
"What here is a man's best treasure? What practised well brings happiness(sukh)?
What is really the sweetest of tastes? How lives the one who they say lives best?"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Faith is here a man's best treasure; dhamma(path,law) practised well brings happiness;
Truth is really the sweetest of tastes; One living by illuminated-insight(panna) they say lives best." 597

[Alavaka:]
"How does one cross over the flood? How does one cross the rugged sea?
How does one overcome suffering? How is one purified?"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"By faith one crosses over the flood; By alertfulness(appamada), the rugged sea.
By energetic-strength(viriya) one overcomes suffering; By illuminated-insight(panna) one is purified." 598

[Alavaka:]
"How does one gain illuminated-insight(panna)? 599 How does one find wealth?
How does one achieve acclaim? How bind friends to oneself?
When passing from this world to the next; How does one not sorrow?"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Placing faith in the Dhamma of the arahants; For the attainment of Nibbana,
From desire to learn one gains illuminated-insight(panna); If one is alertful and astute. 600

"Doing what is proper, dutiful; One with initiative finds wealth.
By truthfulness one wins acclaim; Giving gifts, one binds friends.
That is how one does not sorrow ; When passing from this world to the next. 601

"The faithful seeker of the household life, In whom dwell these four qualities -
Truth, Dhamma, steadfastness, generosity, Does not sorrow when he passes on.

"Come now, ask others as well; The many ascetics and brahmins.
Whether there is found here anything better; Than truth, self-control, generosity, and patience." 602

[Alavaka:]
"Why now should I ask this question;Of the many ascetics and brahmins?
Today I have understood; The good pertaining to the future life. 603

"Indeed, for my sake the Buddha came; To reside at Alavi.
Today I have understood; Where a donation bears great fruit.

"I myself will travel about; From village to village, town to town.
Paying homage to the Enlightened One; And to the excellence of the Dhamma." 604



Samyutta 11 : Connected Discourses with Sakka[Indra],King of gods/angels (Sakkasamyutta)[]

(i) The First Subchapter(Suvira)[]

247 Suvira[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. There the Lord (Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus(monks)!"
"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said
this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), once in the past the asuras(demons) marched against the devas(angels). 605 Then Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, addressed Suvira, a young deva(angel), thus: 'Dear Suvira, these asuras are marching against the devas. Go, dear Suvira, launch a counter-march against the asuras.' - 'Yes, your lordship,' Suvira replied, but he became slothful(pamada). 606 A second time Sakka addressed Suvira ...
... but a second time Suvira became slothful. A third time Sakka addressed Suvira ... but a third time Suvira became slothful. Then, bhikkhus, Sakka addressed Suvira in verse:

"'Where one need not toil and strive; Yet still may attain to happiness:
Go there, Suvira, And take me along with you.'

[Suvira:]
"'That a lazy man who does not toil; Nor attend to his duties
Might still have all desires fulfilled; Grant me that, Sakka, as a boon.' 607

[Sakka:]
'"Where a lazy man who does not toil; Might achieve unending happiness:
Go there, Suvira, And take me along with you.'

[Suvira:]
"'The happiness, supreme deva, we might find ; Without doing work, O Sakka,
The sorrowless state without despair; Grant me that, Sakka, as a boon.'

[Sakka:]
'"If there exists any place anywhere ; Where without work one won't have loss.
That is indeed Nibbana's path; Go there, Suvira,
And take me along with you.' 608

"So, bhikkhus, if Sakka, lord of the devas(angels), subsisting on the fruit of his own divine-merit(punya), exercising supreme sovereignty and rulership over the Tavatimsa devas, will be one who speaks in praise of initiative and energetic-strength(viriya), then how much more would it be fitting here for you, 609 who have gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit) in such a well expounded dhamma(path,law) and discipline, to toil, struggle, and strive for the attainment of the as-yet-unattained, for the achievement of the as-yet-unachieved, for the realization of the as-yet-unrealized."


248. Susima[]

(This sutta is identical with the preceding one 247, except that a young deva(angel) is named Susima. )


249. The Crest of the Flag (Dhajagga sans. Dhvaja-aggra)[]

At Savatthi. There the Lord (Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus thus:
"Bhikkhus(Monks)!" 610
"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied.
The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), once in the past the devas(angels) and the asuras(demons) were arrayed for battle. Then Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, addressed the Tavatimsa devas thus:

'Dear sirs, when the devas are engaged in battle, if fear or trepidation or terror should arise, on that occasion you should look up at the crest of my flag. For when you look up at the crest of my flag, whatever fear or trepidation or terror you may have will be abandoned. 611

"'If you cannot look up at the crest of my flag, then you should look up at the crest of the deva(angel)-king Pajapati's flag. For when you look up at the crest of his flag, whatever fear or trepidation or terror you may have will be abandoned.

'"If you cannot look up at the crest of the deva-king Pajapati's flag, then you should look up at the crest of the deva-king Varuna's flag.... If you cannot look up at the crest of the deva-king Varuna's flag, then you should look up at the crest of the deva-king Isana's flag.... For when you look up at the crest of his flag, whatever fear or trepidation or terror you may have will be abandoned.' 612

"Bhikkhus, for those who look up at the crest of the flag of Sakka, lord of the devas; or of Pajapati, the deva-king; or of Varuna, the deva-king; or of Isana, the deva-king, whatever fear or trepidation or terror they may have may or may not be abandoned. For what reason? Because Sakka, lord of the devas, is not devoid of lust(raag), not devoid of hatred(dosa\dvesh), not devoid of delusion(moha); he can be timid, petrified, frightened, quick to flee.

"But, bhikkhus, I say this: If you have gone to a forest or to the foot of a tree or to an empty hut, and fear or trepidation or terror should arise in you, on that occasion you should recollect me thus: 'The Lord (Buddha) is an arahant, perfectly enlightened, accomplished in true knowledge and conduct, fortunate, knower of the world, unsurpassed leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of devas and humans, the Enlightened One, the Lord (Buddha).' For when you recollect me, bhikkhus, whatever fear or trepidation or terror you may have will be abandoned.

"If you cannot recollect me, then you should recollect the dhamma(path,law) thus: The Dhamma is well expounded by the Lord (Buddha), directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise'. For when you recollect the Dhamma, bhikkhus, whatever fear or trepidation or terror you may have will be abandoned.

"If you cannot recollect the dhamma(path,law), then you should recollect the Sangha(fraternity) thus: The Sangha of the Lord (Buddha)'s disciples is practising the good way, practising the straight way, practising the true way, practising the proper way; that is, the four pairs of persons, the eight types of individuals - this Sangha of the Lord (Buddha)'s disciples is worthy of donations, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of reverential salutation, the unsurpassed field of divine-merit(punya) for the world.' For when you recollect the Sangha, bhikkhus, whatever fear or trepidation or terror you may have will be abandoned.

"For what reason? Because, bhikkhus, the Tathagata, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One is devoid of lust(raag), devoid of hatred(dosa\dvesh), devoid of delusion(moha); he is brave, courageous, bold, ready to stand his place."

This is what the Lord (Buddha) said. Having said this, the Fortunate One(Sugato), the Teacher(Sattha), further said this:

"In a forest, at the foot of a tree; Or in an empty hut, O bhikkhus.
You should recollect the Buddha; No fear will then arise in you.

"But if you cannot recall the Buddha; Best in the world, the bull of men.
Then you should recall the Dhamma; Emancipating, well expounded.

"But if you cannot recall the Dhamma;Emancipating, well expounded.
Then you should recall the Sangha(fraternity), The unsurpassed field of divine-merit(punya).

"For those who thus recall the Buddha; The dhamma(path,law), and the Sangha(fraternity), bhikkhus.
No fear or trepidation will arise; nor any grisly terror."


250. Vepacitti (The Lord of Demons)[]

At Savatthi. The Lord (Buddha) said this:
"Once in the past, bhikkhus, the devas(angels) and the asuras(demons) were arrayed for battle. Then Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, addressed the asuras thus: 613 'Dear sirs, in the impending battle between the devas and the asuras, if the asuras win and the devas are defeated, bind Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, by his four limbs and neck and bring him to me in the city of the asuras.' And Sakka, lord of the devas, addressed the Tavatimsa devas thus:
'Dear sirs, in the impending battle between the devas and the asuras, if the devas win and the asuras are defeated, bind Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, by his four limbs and neck and bring him to me in the Sudhamma assembly hall.'
"In that battle, bhikkhus, the devas won and the asuras were defeated. Then the Tavatimsa devas bound Vepacitti by his four limbs and neck and brought him to Sakka in the Sudhamma assembly hall. 614 When Sakka was entering and leaving the Sudhamma assembly hall, Vepacitti, bound by his four limbs and neck, abused and reviled him with rude, harsh words.
Then, bhikkhus, Matali the charioteer addressed Sakka, lord of the devas, in verse:

"'When face to face with Vepacitti; Is it, Maghava, from fear or weakness
That you endure him so patiently; Listening to his harsh words?'

[Sakka:]
'"It is neither through fear nor weakness; That I am patient with Vepacitti.
How can a wise person like me; Engage in combat with childish(unwise)?'

[Matali:]
"'Childish(unwise) would vent their anger even more; If no one would keep them in check.
Hence with drastic punishment ; The wise man should restrain the childish(unwise).' 615

[Sakka:]
'"I myself think this alone ; Is the way to check the childish(unwise):
When one knows one's foe is angry ; One meditative(sato) maintains one's peace.'

[Matali:]
"'I see this fault, O Vasava; In practising patient endurance:
When the childish(unwise) thinks of you thus;"He endures me out of fear,"
The dimwit will chase you even more; As a bull does one who flees.'

[Sakka:]
"'Let it be whether or not he thinks; "He endures me out of fear,"
Of goals that culminate in one's own good; None is found better than patience. 616

"'When a person endowed with strength; Patiently endures a weakling.
They call that the supreme patience; The weakling must be patient always. 617

"'They call that strength no strength at all; The strength that is the strength of folly -
But no one can reproach a person ; Who is strong because guarded by Dhamma. 618

"'One who repays an angry man with anger; Thereby makes things worse for himself.
Not repaying an angry man with anger; One wins a battle hard to win.

'"He practises for the welfare of both; His own and the other's.
When, knowing that his foe is angry; He meditative(sato) maintains his peace.

"'When he achieves the cure of both; His own and the other's -
The people who consider him childish(unwise); Are unskilled in the Dhamma.'

"So, bhikkhus, if Sakka, lord of the devas, subsisting on the fruit of his own divine-merit(punya), exercising supreme sovereignty and rulership over the Tavatimsa devas, will be one who speaks in praise of patience and gentleness, then how much more would it be fitting here for you, who have gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit) in such a well expounded dhamma(path,law) and Discipline, to be patient and gentle."


251. Victory by Well-Spoken Counsel (Subhasitajaya)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), once in the past the devas(angels) and the asuras(demons) were arrayed for battle. Then Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, said to Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels: 'Lord of the devas, let there be victory by well-spoken counsel.' [And Sakka replied:] 'Vepacitti, let there be victory by well-spoken counsel.'
"Then, bhikkhus, the devas and the asuras appointed a panel of judges, saying: 'These will ascertain what has been well spoken and badly spoken by us.'
"Then Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, said to Sakka, lord of the devas: 'Speak a verse, lord of the devas.' When this was said, Sakka said to Vepacitti: 'You, Vepacitti, being the senior deva here, speak a verse.' 619 When this was said, Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, recited this verse: 620

"'Childish(unwise) would vent their anger even more; If no one would keep them in check.
Hence with drastic punishment; The wise man should restrain the childish(unwise).'

"When, bhikkhus, Vepachitti, lord of the asuras, spoke this
verse, the asuras applauded but the devas were silent. Then
Vepacitti said to Sakka: 'Speak a verse, lord of the devas.' When
this was said, Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, recited this verse:

"'I myself think this alone; Is the way to check the childish(unwise),
When one knows one's foe is angry; One meditative(sato) maintains one's peace.'

"When, bhikkhus, Sakka, lord of the devas, spoke this verse, the devas applauded but the asuras were silent. Then Sakka said to Vepacitti: 'Speak a verse, Vepacitti.' When this was said, Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, recited this verse:

'"I see this fault, O Vasava; In practising patient endurance:
When the childish(unwise) thinks of you thus; "He endures me out of fear,"
The dimwit will chase you even more; As a bull does one who flees.'

"When, bhikkhus, Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, spoke this verse, the asuras applauded but the devas were silent. Then Vepacitti said to Sakka: 'Speak a verse, lord of the devas.' When this was said, Sakka, lord of the devas, recited these verses:

"'Let it be whether or not he thinks, I am patient out of fear, or not out of fear,
When in great trouble, a lot of patience is not evident.

If a powerful one keeps peace; and endures for the sake of the weaker.
To that is said the highest patience, the weak one endures all the time.

To a weakness they said strength, when childish(unwise) showed his strength.
The strong one protected by the Dhamma; does not change his path.

Because of that it is evil; to make someone angry in return.
Someone not arousing the anger of one; who made him angry, wins a battle.

He behaves for the welfare of both; his own and the others.
If someone keeps peace himself meditative(sato); knowing the other is angry,

He heals the wounds of both, his own and the other.
It is said, 'they are childish(unwise); the people unskilled in the dhamma(path,law).'

"When, bhikkhus, these verses were spoken by Sakka, lord of the devas, the devas applauded but the asuras were silent. Then the panel of judges appointed by the devas and the asuras said this: 'The verses spoken by Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, are in the sphere of punishment and violence; hence [they entail] conflict, contention, and strife. But the verses spoken by Sakka, lord of the devas, are in the sphere of nonpunishment and nonviolence; hence [they entail] freedom from conflict, freedom from contention, and freedom from strife. Sakka, lord of the devas, has won the victory by well-spoken counsel.'

"In this way, bhikkhus, Sakka, lord of the devas, won the victory by well-spoken counsel."


252. The Bird Nests (Kulavaka)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), once in the past the devas(angels) and the asuras(demons) were arrayed for battle. In that battle the asuras won and the devas were defeated. In defeat the devas withdrew towards the north while the asuras pursued them. Then Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, addressed his charioteer Matali in verse:

'"Avoid, O Matali, with your chariot pole;
The bird nests in the silk-cotton woods;
Let's surrender our lives to the asuras;
Rather than make these birds nestless.' 621

"'Yes, your lordship,' Matali the charioteer replied, and he turned back the chariot with its team of a thousand thoroughbreds.
"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to the asuras: 'Now Sakka's chariot with its team of a thousand thoroughbreds has turned back. The devas will engage in battle with the asuras for a second time.' Stricken by fear, they entered the city of the asuras. In this way, bhikkhus, Sakka, lord of the devas, won a victory by means of righteousness(Dhamma) itself."


253. One Should Not Transgress (Nadubbhiya)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), once in the past, when Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, was alone in seclusion, the following thought arose in his mind: 'Though someone may be my sworn enemy, I should not transgress even against him.'
"Then, bhikkhus, Vepacitti, lord of the asuras(demons), having known with his own mind the thought in Sakka's mind, approached Sakka, lord of the devas. Sakka saw Vepacitti coming in the distance and said to him: 'Stop, Vepacitti, you're caught!' 622

[Vepacitti:] 'Dear sir, do not abandon the idea that just occurred to you.' 623

[Sakka:] 'Swear, Vepacitti, that you won't transgress against me.'

[Vepacitti:]
"'Whatever evil comes to a liar; Whatever evil to a reviler of noble ones,
Whatever evil to a betrayer of friends; Whatever evil to one without gratitude,
That same evil touches the one; Who transgresses against you, Suja's husband."' 624


254. Verocana, Lord of the Asuras (Verochana-asurinda)[]

At Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana). Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha) had gone for his day's abiding and was in seclusion. Then Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, and Verocana, lord of the asuras(demons), approached the Lord (Buddha) and stood one at each door post.
Then Verocana, lord of the asuras, recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha): 625

"A man should make an effort; Until his goal has been achieved.
Goals shine when achieved; This is the word of Verocana."

[Sakka:]
"A man should make an effort; Until his goal has been achieved.
Of goals that shine when achieved; None is found better than patience." 626

[Verocana:]
"All beings are bent on a goal; Here or there as fits the case.
But for all creatures association; Is supreme among enjoyments.
Goals shine when achieved;This is the word of Verocana." 627

[Sakka:]
"All beings are bent upon a goal; Here or there as fits the case.
But for all creatures association; Is supreme among enjoyments.
Of goals that shine when achieved; None is found better than patience."


255. Saints(Ishis sans. rishis) in a Forest (Arannayatanaisi sans. Aranyatana-rishi)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), once in the past a number of saints(ishis sans. rishis) who were virtuous and of good character had settled down in leaf huts in a tract of forest. Then Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, and Vepacitti, lord of the asuras(demons), approached those saints(ishis sans. rishis).
"Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, put on his boots, bound his sword on tightly, and, with a parasol borne aloft, entered the hermitage through the main gate; then, having turned his left side towards them, 628 he walked past those saints(ishis sans. rishis) who were virtuous and of good character. But Sakka, lord-of the devas, took off his boots, handed over his sword to others, lowered his parasol, and entered the hermitage through an [ordinary] gate; then he stood on the lee side, raising his joined hands in reverential salutation, paying homage to those saints(ishis sans. rishis) who were virtuous and of good character.
"Then, bhikkhus, those saints(ishis sans. rishis) addressed Sakka in verse:

'"The odour of the saints(ishis sans. rishis) long bound by their vows,
Emitted from their bodies, goes with the wind.
Turn away from here, O thousand-eyed god.
For the saints'(ishis sans. rishis) odour is foul, O deva-king.' 629

[Sakka:]
"'Let the odour of the saints(ishis sans. rishis) long bound by their vows.
Emitted from their bodies, go with the wind;
We yearn for this odour, O venerable sirs.
As for a garland of flowers on the head.
The devas do not perceive it as repulsive.'" 630


256. Near the Ocean (Samuddaka)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), once in the past a number of saints(ishis sans. rishis) who were virtuous and of good character had settled down in leaf huts along the shore of the ocean. Now on that occasion the devas(angels) and the asuras(demons) were arrayed for a battle. Then it occurred to those saints(ishis sans. rishis) who were virtuous and of good character: 'The devas are righteous, the asuras unrighteous. There may be danger to us from the asuras. Let us approach Sambara, lord of the asuras, and ask him for a guarantee of safety.' 631
"Then, bhikkhus, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn-in arm or draw in his extended arm, those saints(ishis sans. rishis) who were virtuous and of good character disappeared from their leaf huts along the shore of the ocean and reappeared in the presence of Sambara, lord of the asuras. Then those saints(ishis sans. rishis) addressed Sambara in verse:

"The saints(ishis sans. rishis) who have come to Sambara; Ask him for a guarantee of safety.
For you can give them what you wish; Whether it be danger or safety.' 632

[Sambara:]
'"I'll grant no safety to the saints(ishis sans. rishis); For they are hated devotees of Sakka(Indra, King of angels);
Though you appeal to me for safety; I'll give you only danger.'

[The saints(ishis sans. rishis):]
"'Though we have asked for safety;You give us only danger.
We receive this at your hands; May ceaseless danger come to you!

"'Whatever sort of seed is sown; That is the sort of fruit one reaps,
The doer of good reaps good; The door of evil reaps evil.
By you, dear, has the seed been sown; Thus you will experience the fruit.'

"Then, bhikkhus, having put a curse on Sambara, lord of the asuras(demons), just as quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn in arm or draw in his extended arm, those saints(ishis sans. rishis) who were virtuous and of good character disappeared from the presence of Sambara and reappeared in their leaf huts on the shore of the ocean. But after being cursed by those saints(ishis sans. rishis) who were virtuous and of good character, Sambara, lord of the asuras, was gripped by alarm three times in the course of the night." 633



(ii) The Second Subchapter(Seven Vows)[]

257. Vows (Vatapada)[]

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus(monks), in the past, when Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, was a human being, he adopted and undertook seven vows by the undertaking of which he achieved the status of Sakka. 634 What were the seven vows?

(1) "'As long as I live may I support my parents.'
(2) "'As long as Ilive may I respect the family elders.'
(3) "'As long as I live may I speak gently.'
(4) "'As long as I live may I not speak divisively.'
(5) "'As long as I live may I dwell at home with a mind devoid of the stain of stinginess, freely generous, open-handed, delighting in relinquishment, devoted to charity, 635 delighting in giving donation and sharing.'
(6) "'As long as I live may I speak the truth.'
(7) "'As long as I live may I be free from anger, and if anger should arise in me may I dispel it quickly.'

"In the past, bhikkhus, when Sakka, lord of the devas, was a human being, he adopted and undertook these seven vows by the undertaking of which he achieved the status of Sakka.

"When a person supports his parents; And respects the family elders;
When his speech is gentle and courteous; And he refrains from divisive words;

When he strives to remove meanness; Is truthful, and vanquishes anger.
The Tavatimsa devas call him; Truly a superior person."


258. Sakka's Names (Sakkanama)[]

At Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana). There the Lord (Buddha) said to the bhikkhus:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), in the past, when Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, was a human being, he was a brahmin youth named Magha; therefore he is called Maghava. 636

"Bhikkhus, in the past, when Sakka, lord of the devas, was a human being, he gave donations in city(pure after city(pure); therefore he is called Purindada, the Urban Giver. 637

"Bhikkhus, in the past, when Sakka, lord of the devas, was a human being, he gave donations considerately(Sakkaccam); therefore he is called Sakka. 638

"Bhikkhus, in the past, when Sakka, lord of the devas, was a human being, he gave a rest house(avastham); therefore he is called Vasava. 639

"Bhikkhus, Sakka, lord of the devas, thinks of a thousand matters(Sahassa) in a moment; therefore he is called Sahassakkha, Thousand-eyed. 640

"Bhikkhus, Sakka's wife is the asura maiden named Suja; therefore he is called Sujampati, Suja's husband. 641

"Bhikkhus, Sakka, lord of the devas, exercises supreme sovereignty and rulership over the Tavatimsa devas; therefore he is called lord of the devas.

"Bhikkhus, in the past, when Sakka, lord of the devas, was a human being, he adopted and undertook seven vows by the undertaking of which he achieved the status of Sakka...."

(The remainder of this sutta is identical with the preceding sutta 257; Bhikkhus, in the past, when Sakka.......a superior person )


259. Mahali[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Vesali in the Great Wood in the Hall with the Peaked Roof. Then Mahali the Licchavi approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

"Venerable sir, has the Lord (Buddha) seen Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels?"

"I have seen Sakka, lord of the devas, Mahali."

"Surely, venerable sir, that must have been one who looked like Sakka, lord of the devas; for Sakka, lord of the devas, is difficult to see."

"I know Sakka, Mahali, and I know the qualities that make for Sakka, by the undertaking of which Sakka achieved the status of Sakka.

"In the past, Mahali, when Sakka, lord of the devas, was a human being, he was a brahmin youth named Magha. Therefore he is called Maghava...."

(Here follows the names of Sakka as in previous sutta 258 and the seven vows as etc. i.e. 'Bhikkhus, in the past, when Sakka, lord of the devas, was a human being .................a superior person ')


260. Poor (Dalidda sans. Daridra)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo-Grove(Veluvan), the Squirrel-Sanctuary(Kalandak-Nivap). There the Lord (Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus(monks)!"
"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Lord (Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), once in the past in this same Rajagaha there was a poor man, a miser, an indigent. He undertook faith, virtue(sheel), learning, generosity, and illuminated-insight(panna) in the dhamma(path,law) and Discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata. Having done so, with the breakup of the body, after death, he was reborn in a good destination(sugati), in a heavenly world, in the company of the Tavatimsa devas(angels), where he outshone the other devas in regard to beauty and glory. 642

"Thereupon the Tavatimsa devas found fault with this, grumbled, and complained about it, saying: 'It is wonderful indeed, sir! It is amazing indeed, sir! For formerly, when this young deva(angel) was a human being, he was a poor man, a miser, an indigent. Yet with the breakup of the body, after death, he has been reborn in a good destination(sugati), in a heavenly world, in the company of the Tavatimsa devas, where he outshines the other devas in regard to beauty and glory.'

"Then, bhikkhus, Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, addressed the Tavatimsa devas thus: 'Dear sirs, do not find fault with this young deva. Formerly, when this young deva was a human being, he undertook faith, virtue, learning, generosity, and panna(illuminated-insight) in the Dhamma and Discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata. Having done so, with the breakup of the body, after death, he has been reborn in a good destination(sugati), in a heavenly world, in the company of the Tavatimsa devas, where he outshines the other devas in regard to beauty and glory.'

"Then, bhikkhus, instructing the Tavatimsa devas, Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, on that occasion recited these verses:

"'When one has faith in the Tathagata, Unshakable and well established.
And good conduct built on virtue; Dear to the noble ones and praised; 644

"'When one has confidence in the Sangha(fraternity); And one's view is straightened out,
They say that one isn't poor; One's life is not lived in vain.

"'Therefore the person of intelligence, Remembering the Buddha's Teaching,
Should be devoted to faith and virtue, To confidence and vision of the Dhamma.'"


261. A Delightful Place (Ramaneyyaka sans. Ramaneek)[]

At Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana). Then Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, stood to one side, and said to him: "Venerable sir, what is a delightful place?" [233]

[The Lord (Buddha):]

"Shrines in parks and woodland shrines; Well-constructed lotus ponds,
These are not worth a sixteenth part; Of a delightful human being.

"Whether in a village or forest; In a valley or on the plain,
Wherever the arahants dwell ; Is truly a delightful place."


262. Bestowing Alms (Yajamana)[]

On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha on Mount Vulture Peak. Then Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, and stood to one side. Standing to one side, he addressed the Lord (Buddha) in verse: 645

"For those people who bestow alms; For living beings in quest of divine-merit(punya).
Performing divine-merit(punya) of the mundane type; Where does a donation bear great fruit?" 646

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"The four practising the way; And the four established in the fruit,
This is the Sangha(fraternity) of upright conduct; Endowed with illuminated-insight(panna) and virtue(sheel). 647

"For those people who bestow alms; For living beings in quest of divine-merit(punya),
Performing divine-merit(punya) of the mundane type, A donation to the Sangha bears great fruit."


263. Veneration of the Buddha (Buddhavandana)[]

At Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana). Now on that occasion the Lord (Buddha) had gone for his day's abiding and was in seclusion. Then Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, and Brahma(arch-angel) Sahampati approached the Lord (Buddha) and stood one at each doorpost. Then Sakka, lord of the devas, recited this verse in the presence of the Lord (Buddha):

"Rise up, O brave one, victor in battle!
Your burden lowered, debt-free one, wander in the world.
Your mind is fully liberated(vimutta sans. vimukt);
Like the moon on the fifteenth night." 648

[Brahma Sahampati:] "It is not in such a way that the Tathagatas
are to be venerated, lord of the devas. The Tathagatas are
to be venerated thus:

"Rise up, O brave one, victor in battle!
O caravan leader, debt-free one, wander in the world.
Teach the dhamma(path,law), O Lord (Buddha),
There will be those who will understand." 649


264. The Worship of Householders (Gahtthavandana sans. Grihastha-vandana)[]

At Savatthi. There the Lord (Buddha) said this: "Bhikkhus(monks), once in the past Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, addressed his charioteer Matali thus: 'Harness the chariot with its team of a thousand thoroughbreds, friend Matali. Let us go to the park grounds to see the beautiful scenery.' - 'Yes, your lordship,' Matali the charioteer replied. Then he harnessed the chariot with its team of a thousand thoroughbreds and announced to Sakka, lord of the devas: 'The chariot has been harnessed, dear sir. You may come at your own convenience.' 650
"Then, bhikkhus, Sakka, lord of the devas, descending from the Vejayanta Palace, raised his joined hands in reverential salutation, and worshipped the different quarters. Then Matali the charioteer addressed Sakka in verse:

"'Those knowing Triple Vedas worship you, and all khattiyas reigning on earth.
And the Four Great Kings(of directions) and the glorious Thirty;
So who, O Sakka, is that spirit; To whom you bow in worship?' 651

[Sakka:]
"Those knowing Triple Vedas worship me, and all khattiyas reigning on earth
And the Four Great Kings(of directions) and the glorious Thirty;

"But I worship those those with virtue(sheel); And those long trained in samadhi(trance)state,
Those who have properly gone-forth(initiated,pabajjit) ; With the holy celibate life(brahmacariya) their destination. 652

'"And those householders making divine-merit(punya); The lay followers possessed of virtue
Who righteously maintain a wife; I worship these as well, O Matali;

[Matali:]
"'They are indeed the best in the world; Those whom you worship, my lord Sakka;
I too will worship them ; Those whom you worship, Vasava.'

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Having given this explanation; Having worshipped the different quarters,
The deva-king Maghava, Suja's husband; The chief, climbed into his chariot."


265. The Worship of the Teacher (Sattharavandana)[]

(As above 264 down to:)
"Then, bhikkhus, Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, descending from the Vejayanta Palace, raised his joined hands in reverential salutation and worshipped the Lord (Buddha). Then Matali the charioteer addressed Sakka, lord of the devas, in verse:

"'Both devas and human beings; Humbly worship you, Vasava.
So who, O Sakka, is that spirit; To whom you bow in worship?'

[Sakka:]
"'The Perfectly Enlightened One here; In this world with its devas.
The Teacher of perfect name; He is the one whom I worship, Matali. 653

"'Those for whom lust(raag) & hatred(dosa/dvesh); And ignorance(avijja sans. avidya) have been expunged.
The arahants with defilements destroyed; These are the ones whom I worship, Matali.

"'The trainees who delight(nandi\anand) in dismantling; Who attentively pursue the training
For the removal of lust(raag) & hatred(dosa/dvesh); For transcending ignorance:
These are the ones whom I worship, Matali.' 654

[Matali:]
"'Those whom you worship, my lord Sakka; Are indeed the best in the world.
I too will worship them; Those whom you worship, Vasava.'

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Having given this explanation; Having worshipped the Lord (Buddha),
The deva(angel)-king Maghava, Suja's husband; The chief, climbed into his chariot."


266. The Worship of the Sangha (Sanghavandana)[]

(As above down to:)

"Then, bhikkhus, Sakka(indra), lord of the devas/angels, descending from the Vejayanta Palace, raised his joined hands in reverential salutation and worshipped the Sangha(fraternity) of bhikkhus. Then Matali the charioteer addressed Sakka, lord of the devas, in verse:

"'It is these that should worship you; The humans stuck in a putrid body.
Those submerged inside a corpse; Afflicted with hunger and thirst. 655

Why then do you envy them; These who dwell as hermit, Vasava?
Tell us about the saints'(ishis sans. rishis) conduct; Let us hear what you have to say.'

[Sakka:]
"'This is why I envy them; Those who dwell as hermit, Matali;
Whatever village they depart from; They leave it without concern.

"'They do not keep their goods in storage; Neither in a pot nor in a box.
Seeking what has been prepared by others; By this they live, firm in vows:

"Those wise ones who give good counsel; Maintaining silence, maintaining equanimity.
While devas fight with asuras(demons); And people fight with one another.

"Among those who fight, they do not fight; Among the violent, they are quenched;
Among those who grasp, they do not grasp: These are the ones whom I worship, Matali.'

[Matali:]
" They are indeed the best in the world; Those whom you worship, my lord Sakka,
I too will worship them; Those whom you worship, Vasava.'

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Having given this explanation, The deva(angel)-king Maghava, Suja's husband.
Having worshipped the bhikkhu(monk) Sangha(fraternity), The chief, climbed into his chariot."



(iii) The Third Subchapter(Sakka Pentad)[]

267. Killing (Chetva)[]

At Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana). Then Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, and stood to one side. Standing to one side, Sakka, lord of the devas, addressed the Lord (Buddha) in verse:

"Having killed what does one sleep soundly? Having killed what does one not sorrow?
What is the one dhamma(quality,law), O Gotama; Whose killing you approve?"

[The Lord (Buddha):]
"Having killed anger, one sleeps soundly; Having killed anger, one does not sorrow;
The killing of anger, O Vasava; With its poisoned root and honeyed tip,
This is the killing the noble ones praise; For having killed that, one does not sorrow."


268. Ugly (Dubbanniya sans. Durvarnya)[]

At Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana). There the Lord (Buddha) said this:
"Bhikkhus(Monks), once in the past a certain ugly deformed yakkha sat down on the seat of Sakka, lord of the devas(angels). 658 Thereupon the Tavatimsa devas found fault with this, grumbled, and complained about it, saying: 'It is wonderful indeed, sir! It is amazing indeed, sir! This ugly deformed yakkha has sat down on the seat of Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels!' But to whatever extent the Tavatimsa devas found fault with this, grumbled, and complained about it, to the same extent that yakkha became more and more handsome, more and more comely, more and more graceful.

"Then, bhikkhus, the Tavatimsa devas approached Sakka and said to him: 'Here, dear sir, an ugly deformed yakkha has sat down on your seat. ... But to whatever extent the devas found fault with this ... that yakkha became more and more handsome, more and more comely, more and more graceful.'

[Sakka:] 'That must be the anger-eating yakkha.'

"Then, bhikkhus, Sakka, lord of the devas, approached that anger-eating yakkha. 659 Having approached, he arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, knelt down with his right knee on the ground, and, raising his joined hands in reverential salutation towards that yakkha, he announced his name three times: 'I, dear sir, am Sakka, lord of the devas! I, dear sir, am Sakka, lord of the devas!' To whatever extent Sakka announced his name, to the same extent that yakkha became uglier and uglier and more and more deformed until he disappeared right there.

"Then, bhikkhus, having sat down on his own seat, instructing the Tavatimsa devas, Sakka, lord of the devas, on that occasion recited these verses:

'"I am not one afflicted in mind; Nor easily drawn by anger's whirl.
I never become angry for long; Nor does anger persist in me. 660

"'When I'm angry I don't speak harshly; And I don't praise my virtues.
I keep myself well restrained ; Out of regard for my own good.'" 661


269. Sambari Magic (Sambarimaya)[]

At Savatthi. The Lord (Buddha) said this: "Bhikkhus(monks), once in the past Vepacitti, lord of the asuras(demons), was sick, afflicted, gravely ill. 662 Then Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas/angels, approached Vepacitti to inquire about his illness. Vepacitti saw Sakka coming in the distance and said to him: 'Cure me, lord of the devas.'
[Sakka:]'Teach me, Vepacitti, the Sambari magic(of killing enemy).' 663
[Vepacitti:]'I won't teach it, dear sir, until I have asked the asuras for permission.'
"Then, bhikkhus, Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, asked the asuras:
'May I teach the Sambari magic to Sakka, lord of the devas?' 'Do not teach him the Sambari magic, dear sir.' 664

"Then, bhikkhus, Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, addressed
Sakka, lord of the devas, in verse:

'"A magician - O Maghava, Sakka; King of devas, Suja's husband
Goes to the terrible hell; Like Sambara, for a hundred years.'" 665


270. Transgression (Accaya)[]

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion two bhikkhus had a quarrel and one bhikkhu(monk) had transgressed against the other. Then the former bhikkhu confessed his transgression to the other bhikkhu, but the latter would not pardon him.
Then a number of bhikkhus approached the Lord (Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and reported to him what had happened. [The Lord (Buddha) said:]

"Bhikkhus(monks), there are two kinds of childish(unwise): one who does not see a transgression as a transgression; and one who, when another is confessing a transgression, does not pardon him in accordance with the dhamma(path,law). These are the two kinds of childish(unwise).
"There are, bhikkhus, two kinds of wise people: one who sees a transgression as a transgression; and one who, when another is confessing a transgression, pardons him in accordance with the Dhamma. These are the two kinds of wise people.

"Once in the past, bhikkhus, Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas(angels), instructing the Tavatimsa devas in the Sudhamma assembly hall, on that occasion recited this verse:

'"Bring anger under your control; Do not let your friendships decay.
Do not blame one who is blameless; Do not utter divisive speech.
Like a mountain avalanche ; Anger crushes evil people.'" 667


271. Nonanger (Akkodha sans. Akrodha)[]

Thus have I heard(from Lord Buddha, says Ananda). On one occasion the Lord (Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's-Grove(Jetvana), Anathapindika's Park. There the Lord (Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), once in the past Sakka(Indra), lord of the devas(angels), instructing the Tavatimsa devas in the Sudhamma assembly hall, on that occasion recited this verse:

"'Do not let anger overpower you; Do not become angry at those who are angry.
Nonanger and harmlessness always dwell; Within [the hearts of] the noble ones.
Like a mountain avalanche ; Anger crushes evil people.'" 668

The Book With Verses (Sagathavagga) of Samyutta Nikaya is finished.


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