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Tipitaka >> Abhidhamma Pitaka >> Puggalapannatti >> List Of Human Types

Originally Spoken by Gautam Buddha in Pali Language Around 550 BC
Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version
Adapted From Translation into English by Bimala Charan Law,


Chapter : List Of All The Human Types In The BookEdit

The Six Designations—viz.: 

(1) The notion of the groups(Khandhas(Pali)/ Skandhas(Sanskrit)).

[Khandha - Group, section, aggregate]

(2) The notion of sense-organs and their objects(Ayatanas).

[Ayatana : Incoming door/sense organ and also the information conveying mechanism]

(3) The notion of the elements of cognition(Dhatu).

[Dhatu : The word dhatu is used in a very wide sense in the Buddhist meta physical system. All the sense-organs, their respective objects, and the different sense-perceptions are included in this term. Here it has been used in the sense of- sense-perceptions or cognitions]

(4) The notion of truth(Saccha/Satya).

[Saccha : According to the Commentary, the first two Truths, dukkham and dukkhasamudayo, are ‘ mundane ’ (belonging to the worlds of re-birth), and the other two Truths (nirodha and nirodhagaminipatipada) are ‘ supramundane ’ (belonging to the Paths ) ]

(5) The notion of sense-organs(Indriyas).

(6) The notion of human types (Puggala).

 

1. In what ways is there a designation of groups(Khandhas/ Skandhas) ? 

So far as the five groups are concerned—viz.: 

(a) The group of material form(Rupa Khandha),

(b) the group of sensation( Vedana Khandha),

(c) the group of perception ( Sanna/ Sangya Khandha),

(d) the group of confections( Sankhara/Sanskara Khandha),

[ sankhara : It may mean habits, propensities , attributes which lead to behaviour & karma]

(e) the group of consciousness (Vinnana/ Vigyan Khandha). 

In these ways is there a designation of groups. 

2. In what ways is there a designation of sense-organs and

their objects (Ayatanas)?

So far as the twelve sense-organs and their objects are

concerned—viz.: (a) the eye (Chakkhu/Chakshu Ayatana), (b) visible shape(Rupa Ayatana), (c) the ear(Sota/strota Ayatana), (d) sound(Sadda Ayatana), (e) the nose(Ghana/Ghrana Ayatana), (f) the smell(Gandha Ayatana), (g) the tongue(Jivha Ayatana), (h) the taste(Rasa Ayatana), {i) the body(Kaya Ayatana), (j) tangible things(Fotabba Ayatana), (k) the mind(Mana Ayatana), (l) ideas(Dhamma Ayatana). 

In these ways is there a designation of sense-organs and their objects

 

3. In what ways is there a designation of the elements of

cognition(Dhatu) ?

So far as the eighteen elements of cognition(Dhatu) are concerned—

viz.; (a) the eye(Chakkhu/Chakshu Dhatu), (b) visible shape(Rupa Dhatu), (c) visual cognition(Chakkhu Vinnana Dhatu), (d) the ear(Sota Dhatu), (e) sound, (Sadda Dhatu) (f) auditory cognition (Sota Vinnana Dhatu), {g) the nose (Ghana Dhatu), (h) odour(Gandha Dhatu), (i) olfactory cognition(Gandha Vinnana Dhatu), (j) the tongue(Jivha Dhatu), (k) taste(Rasa Dhatu), (I) gustatory cognition(Jivha Vinnana Dhatu), (m) the organ of touch(Kaya Dhatu), (n) tangible things(fotabba Dhatu ), (o) tactile cognition (Kaya Vinnana Dhatu), (p) mind (mana Dhatu), (q) idea (Dhamma Dhatu), (r) mental cognition (Mano Vinnana Dhatu). 

In these ways is there a designation of the elements of cognition.

 

4. In what ways is there a designation of truths(Saccas/Satyas) ?

So far as the four truths are concerned—viz.; (a) the truth

of suffering(Dukkha Sacca), (6) the truth of the genesis of suffering(Samudaya Sacca), (c) the

truth of cessation of suffering(Nirodha Sacca), (d) the truth of the path leading

to the cessation of suffering (Magga Sacca). 

In these ways is there a designation of truths.

 

5. In what ways is there a designation of functions/faculties (Indriyas) ?

So far as the twenty-two functions (or faculties) are concerned—viz.;

(?) the faculty/function of the eye (Chakkhu/Chakshu Indriya),

(b) the faculty/function of the ear(Sota Indriya) ,

(c) the faculty/function of the nose(Ghana/Ghrana Indriya),

(d) the faculty/function of the tongue(Jivha Indriya),

(e) the faculty/function of the touch(Kaya Indriya) ,

(f) the faculty/function of the mind(Mana Indriya),

(g) the faculty/function of womanhood(Itthi/Istri Indriya))

(h) the faculty/function of manhood(Purisa/Purusha Indriya))

(i) the faculty/function of life (Jivita Indriya)),

(j) the faculty/function of pleasure (Sukha Indriya)),

(k) the faculty/function of pain (Dukha Indriya)),

(I) the faculty/function of gladness (Somanassa Indriya)),

(m) the faculty/function of grief (Domanassa Indriya)),

(n) the faculty/function of neutral feeling (Upekkha/ Upeksha Indriya)),

(o) the faculty/function of faith (Saddha, Shraddha Indriya)),

(p) the faculty/function of energy (Viriya/ Veerya Indriya)),

(q) the faculty/function of mindfulness/attention (Sati/Smriti Indriya).

(r) the faculty/function of focussed concentration(Samadhi Indriya)) ,

(s) the faculty/function of insight/direct understanding (Panna/ Pragya[Pratyaksha Gyana] Indriya)),

(t) the faculty/function of will-to-know-what-is-unknown,

(u) the faculty/function of gnosis/ trance ,

(v) the faculty/function of having-come-to-know-the-unknown. 

In these ways is there a designation of functions (or faculties).

 

6. In what ways is there a designation of human types ?

 

I.—Grouping of Human Types by One.

 

(1) One who is emancipated in season/due course (Samaya vimutto/vimukt) .

(2) One who is emancipated out of season/ out of way (Asamaya vimutto/vimukt) .

(3) One of perturbable nature (Kuppa-dhammo).

[ Kuppa-dhammo : It means a person who is unsteady or not firmly established in the path. ]

(4) One of imperturbable nature (Akuppa-dhammo).

[ Akuppa-dhammo : It means a person who does not go astray.

(5) One liable to fall away (Parihana-dhammo).

(6) One not liable to fall away ( Aparihana-dhammo).

(7) One competent in will (Cetanabhabbo).

(8 ) One competent in watchfulness (Anurakkhanabhabbo).

(9) Lay Person [ in sin], not following the Path (Puthujjano/Pruthka-jana).

(10) One become of the family of the Enlightened[Ariyas](Gotrabhu).

 [Gotrabhu : A person who has reached the family, clan, circle, or designation of enlightened/Ariyas by surpassing the family, circle, or designation of ordinary persons through the knowledge acquired by meditation on Nirvana. The term Gotrabhu comes from the word Gotra, meaning ‘ lineage,’

and ‘ bhu’ meaning ‘ born of.’ ]

(11) One above/without fear (Bhayuparato).

(12) One not above/without fear (Abhayuparato).

(13) One capable of arriving (Bhabbagamano).

(14) One incapable of arriving (Abhabbagamano).

(15) One with determined destiny (Niyato).

(16) One with undetermined destiny (Aniyato).

(17) The path-attainer (Patipannako).

(18) One established in fruition (Phale-thito).

(19) The equal-headed/equanimous mind (Sama-sisi).

(20) The aeon-arrester (Thitakappi).

(21) The elect/ Enlightened (Ariyo).

(22) The non-elect/ unenlightened (Anariyo).

(23) The learner (Sekkho).

(24) The no more a learner /adept (Asekkho).

(25) Neither a learner nor a non-learner (Neva-sekkha-n?-sekkho) .

(26) One who knows threefold knowledge (Tevijjo)

  (knower of past rebirths, divine eye & elimination of all sin/ enlightened).

(27) The possessor of the six super-knowledges (Cha-labhinno)

(as above in 26 plus magical & supernatural)

(28) The perfectly Enlightened One (Samma Sam Buddha). [such as Gautam Buddha]

(29) The one Enlightened for himself (Paccheka Sam Buddha) .

(30) One emancipated in both ways(Ubhatobhagavimutto).

(31) One emancipated by insight(Pannavimutto/ Pragya Vimukt).

(32) The bodily aware (Kayasakkhi/Kaya Sakshi).

(33) He who has won vision (Ditthippatto).

(34) One emancipated by faith (Saddhavimutto/ Shraddha vimukt).

(35) One conforming to the Dhamma (Dhamma-nusari).

(36) One conforming by faith (Saddha-nusari).

(37) One undergoing re-births (not more than) seven times (Sattakkhattuparamo).

(38) One transmigrating through a few families (less

than seven times). (Kolankolo)

(39) The single-seeded/single rebirth. (Ekabiji)

(40) The once-returner/one rebirth then Nirvana (Sakdagami)

(41) The never-returner/ never rebirths then Nirvana.(Anagami)

(42) One who dies and attains Nirvana before half the

age he should have lived in a Brahma world

expires.(Antara-parinibbayi)

(43) The term-curtailing Nirvana achiever. (Upahacca-parinibbayi)

(44) The automatic Nirvana achiever. (A-sankhara-parinibbyi)

(45) The passer-away after strenuous exertions. (Sa-sa?kh?ra-parinibb?y?)

(46) The stream-ascending Akanittha traveller (Uddham-soto-akani??ha-g?m?).

(47) Stream Winner/Attainer (Sotapana)

(48) The stream-attainer walking/living in realisation of the

fruition stage (Sotapatti-phala-sacchikiriyaya-patipanno) .

(49) Once Returner (Sakdagami)

(50) The once-returner walking/living in the realisation of

the fruition stage (Sakadagami-phala-sacchikiriyaya-patipanno).

(51) Never returner (Anagami)

(52) The never-returner walking/living in the realisation

of the fruition stage (Anagami-phala-sacchikiriyaya-patipanno).

(53) One who has destroyed all inner enemies/ sin within and

became fully enlightened like Buddha (Arahat / Arahant/ Arihant )

[will never be reborn in any world ]

(54) The Arahant walking/living in Arahantship (Fully enlightened & living)

(Arahatta-phala-sacchikiriyaya-patipanno). 

 

II.— Grouping of Human Types by Two. 

1. The wrathful and the vengeful.

2. The hypocrite and the charlatan.

3. The jealous and the avaricious.

4. The crafty and the deceitful.

5. The shameless and the impudent.

6. The disobedient and the associate of the wicked.

7. One unguarded as to the sense-doors and one im-moderate as to food.

8 . The forgetful and the unmindful.

9. The infringer of moral law and the upholder of wrong

views.

10. One with internal fetters and one with external

fetters.

11. The wrathless and the unrevengeful.

12. The unaffected and the unpretentious.

13. The unenvious and the unavaricious.

14. The not crafty and the undeceiving.

15. The scrupulous and the conscientious.

16. The obedient and the associate of the good.*

17. One guarded as to the sense-doors and one moderate

as to food.

18. The wakeful and the mindful.

19. The observer of the moral law and the upholder of

right views.

20. Two persons who are rare in this world.

21. Two persons who are difficult to be satisfied.

22. Two persons who are easily satisfied.

23. Two persons whose sinful tendencies increase.

24. Two persons whose sinful tendencies do not increase.

25. The depraved and the refined.

26. The gratified and the gratifier.

 

III. Grouping of Human Types by Three. 

1. The despairing, the hopeful, one above aspiration.

2 . Three men who are like unto the sick.

3. The eye-witness, the person who has won vision, he

who is emancipated by faith.

4. The foul-mouthed, the flower-speaker, the honey tongued.

5. A cancer-minded man, a lightning-minded man, a

thunder-minded man.

6. The blind, the one-eyed, the two-eyed.

7. A man of inverted intellect, a man of folded intellect,

a man of wide intellect.

8 . A man not dispassionate as to sensual pleasures, as also

to the states of rebirth; a man dispassionate as to sensual

pleasures, but not so as to the states of rebirth; a man

dispassionate as to both.

9. A man comparable to a mark upon stone, another to a

mark upon earth, another to a mark of water.

10. Three men comparable to hempen cloth.

11. Three men comparable to Benares cloth.

12. The fathomable, one difficult to fathom, the un-fathomable.

13. A man not worthy to be served, to be devotedly

served, to be worshipped. A man worthy to be served, to

be devotedly served, to be worshipped. A man worthy to

be served with regard and esteem, to be devotedly served,

to be worshipped.

14. A man who should be despised, not worthy to be

served, to be devoted to, to be worshipped. A man who

should be treated with indifference, not worthy to be served,

to be devotedly served, to be worshipped. A man deserving

of service, of devotion, of worship.

15. A man who fulfils the moral laws, but incompletely

practises meditation and the way of insight. A man who

fulfils the moral laws, completes the practice of meditation,

but incompletely practises the way of insight. A man who

fulfils the moral laws, completes the practice of meditation,

but completely practises the way of insight.

16. Three teachers.

17. And again three teachers.

10 Designation of Human Types 

 

IV. Grouping of Human Types by Four. 

1. A wicked man, a wicked man of worse type, a good

man, a good man of better type.

2. A sinful man, the sinful man of worse type, the good

man, the good man of better type.

3. A man of sinful propensity/one of worse type, a man

of noble disposition, one of better type.

4. The blame-worthy, one exceedingly blameful, one

hardly blame-worthy, the blameless.

5. One of quick imderstanding, one of medium understanding,

one of slow understanding, the superficial reader.

6 . One making a correct but not a prompt reply, one

making a prompt but not a correct reply, one making a correct

and prompt reply, one making neither a correct nor a prompt

reply.

7. Four teachers of the Norm.

8 . Four persons comparable to a cloud.

9. Four persons comparable to a mouse.

10. Four persons comparable to the mango.

11. Four persons comparable to a jar.

12. Four persons comparable to a pool of water.

13. Four persons comparable to a bullock.

14. Four persons comparable to a serpent.

15. A man speaking in praise of an unworthy man without

inquiry and scrutiny. A man speaking in dispraise of a

worthy man without inquiry and scrutiny. A man finding

delight in an unpleasant or disagreeable thing without

inquiry and scrutiny. A man harbouring dislike for a

pleasant thing without inquiry and scrutiny.

16. A man speaking in dispraise of an unworthy man after

inquiry and scrutiny. A man speaking in praise of a praise

worthy man after inquiry and scrutiny. A man harbouring

dislike for a disagreeable thing after inquiry and scrutiny.

A man finding delight in a pleasant thing after inquiry and

scrutiny.

17. A man who speaks in dispraise of an unworthy man

expressing the right and just thing at the (right) time but

does not speak in praise of the praiseworthy (expressing) the

right and the just thing at the (right) time. A man who

speaks in praise of a praiseworthy man expressing the right

and the just thing at the right time, but does not speak in

dispraise of the unworthy expressing the right and the just

thing at the right time. A man who speaks in dispraise of

one unworthy of praise and in praise of the praiseworthy

expressing the right and the just thing at the right moment.

A man who neither speaks in dispraise of one unworthy of

praise nor in praise of the praiseworthy expressing the right

and just thing at the right moment.

18. One living on the fruits of his exertion (but) not

on the fruits of his (previous) merit. One living on the

fruits of his (previous) merit, (but not) on the fruits of his

exertion.

One living on the fruits of both.

One living on the fruits of neither.

19. One who is in the dark and tends towards darkness.

One who is in the dark but tends towards light.

One who is in the light and tends towards darkness.

One who is in the light and tends towards light.

20. The depressed and the unprogressive, the depressed but

the progressive, the prosperous but the unprogressive, the

prosperous as well as the progressive.

21. Four persons comparable to the tree.

22. One considering and esteeming the outward form.

One considering and esteeming others’ words.

One considering and esteeming outward austerity.

One considering and esteeming the Norm.

23. A man who strives after his own welfare but not after

that of others. A man who strives after others’ welfare but

not after his own. A man who strives after his own welfare

as well as that of others. A man who strives neither after his

own welfare nor after that of others.

24. A man who is self-mortifying and is engaged in practices

tending to self-mortification. A man who torments others

and is engaged in practices tending to torment others. A

man combining the characteristics of these two types. A

man who bears the characteristics of neither of them; such a

man neither torturing his own self, nor torturing others, lives

a higher life free from desire, calmed, appeased, and happy,

in his present existence.

25. One possessed of passion.

One possessed of hatred.

One possessed of delusion

One possessed of pride.

26. A man who attains inner tranquillity of mind but

not the higher wisdom of insight into things. A man who

attains the higher wisdom of insight into things but not

inner tranquillity of mind.

A man who attains both.

A man who attains neither.

27. A man going along the stream.

A man going against the stream.

A man remaining stationary.

A Brahmin who has crossed the stream and has gone

to the other shore and is established in fruition.

28. A man who does not act up to what little he has learnt.

A man who acts up to what little he has learnt.

A man who, though very learned, does not act up to

his learning.

A man who is very learned and acts up to his learning.

29. A recluse with a firm footing.

A lotus-like recluse.

A white-lotus-like recluse.

A delicate recluse.

 

V. Grouping of Human Types by Five 

1. A man who acts and becomes remorseful but does not

experience the emancipation of mind and the emancipation

by insight as they really are, wherein the sinful and immoral

states that have come into being, can completely cease to be.

A man who acts but does not become remorseful and does

not experience the emancipation of mind and the emancipation

by insight as they really are, wherein the sinful and

immoral states that have come into being can completely

cease to be.

A man who does not act but is remorseful and does not

experience the emancipation of mind and the emancipation

by insight as they really are, wherein the sinful and immoral

states that have come into being, can completely cease to be.

A man who neither acts nor is remorseful and does not

experience the emancipation of mind and the emancipation

by insight as they really are, wherein the sinful and immoral

states that have come into being, can completely cease to be.

(The fifth man instructing the above four.)

2. One who despises after giving.

One who despises after living together.

One with a grasp-mouth.

One who is dull and stupid.

A low-liking man.

3. Five persons comparable to a professional warrior.

4. Five persons who live on alms.

5. Five persons refusing to accept food after proper time.

6. Five persons using one kind of seat.

7. Five persons wearing rags collected from refuse heaps.

8 . Five persons wearing threefold raiment.

9. Five forest-dwellers.

10. Five who live under a tree.

11. Five who live under the open sky.

12. Five always seated (i.e., never lie down).

13. Five using any seats that are offered.

14. Five who dwell in cemeteries.

14 Designation of Human Types

 

VI.—Grouping of Human Types by Six. 

1. A man who himself understands the truths in regard to

the doctrines unheard of before, and obtains omniscience

thereof as well as mastery over the fruition.

A man who himself understands the truths in regard to the

doctrines unheard of before, but does not obtain omniscience

thereof as well as mastery over the fruition.

A man who himself understands the truths in regard to

the doctrines unheard of, puts an end to suffering in his

present conditions and attains the perfection of a disciple.

A man who himself understands the truths in regard to the

doctrines unheard of before, puts an end to suffering in his

present conditions, but does not attain the perfection of a

disciple.

A man who himself understands the truths in regard to the

doctrines unheard of before, puts an end to suffering in his

present conditions, and becomes a non-returner not having

to come back to this world.

A man who himself understands the truths in regard to the

doctrines unheard of before, and becomes a once-returner

having to come back to this world as he does not put an end

to suffering in his present conditions.

 

VII. Grouping of Human Types by Seven. 

1. Seven persons to be compared with those immersed in

water.

One who once drowned is drowned.

One who is drowned after emergence.

One who remains stationary after emergence.

One who looks around after emergence.

One who swims up after emergence.

One who obtains a firm footing after emergence.

One who as a true Brahmin crosses after emergence

and goes to the other shore and establishes himself

in fruition.

2. One emancipated in both ways.

One emancipated by insight.

An eye-witness.

He who has won view.

One emancipated by faith.

One conforming to the Norm.

One conforming by faith

 

VIII. Grouping of Human Types by Eight. 

1. Four persons identifiable with the Path and four

identifiable with the Fruition.

 

IX . Grouping of Human Types hy Nine. 

1. A perfectly Enlightened One.

One enlightened for himself.

A person emancipated in both ways.

A person emancipated by insight.

An eye-witness.

He who has won view.

A person emancipated by faith.

One conforming to the Norm.

One conforming by faith.

 

X .Grouping of Human Types by Ten. 

Five persons reaching perfection here and five reaching

perfection hereafter.

In these ways are there designations of human types.

 

Here ends the List of Human Types


 

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