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Tipitaka >> Abhidhamma Pitaka >> Puggalapannatti >> Chapter 4

Originally Spoken by Gautam Buddha in Pali Language Around 550 BC
Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version
Adapted From Translation into English by Bimala Charan Law,


CHAPTER  IV : DIVISION  OF HUMAN TYPES  BY FOUR

 

1.  What sort of person is not a good man?

Here a certain person is a destroyer of life, taker of things not given, misbehaving  in sensual desires, liar, one indulging in  the  enjoyment  of spirituous,  fermented  liquors  and  intoxicants.   Such is the  person  who is called  ' not a good man.'

 

What sort of person is more ' not a good man,' than the ' not good man'?

Here a certain person is himself a destroyer of life and urges others  to do the same,  himself takes  things  not given and urges others to do likewise, himself misbehaves in the matter of sensual  desires and  instigates  others  in  the  same  way, himself tells a lie and instigates others to do the same, himself indulges  in the  enjoyment  of spirituous,  fermented  liquors and intoxicants  and instigates  others  to do the same.   Such is the person who is said to be more ' not a good man ' than the ' not good man.'

 

What sort of person is a good man?

Here  a  certain  person  refrains  from  destruction  of life, refrains from taking anything  not given, refrains  from  misbehaviour  in  the  matter  of sensual  pleasures,  and  lastly, refrains  from  indulging  in  the  enjoyment  of  spirituous, fermented  liquors and intoxicants-such  is the person who is said to be a good man.

 

What sort of person is a better man than the good man?

Here a certain  person, while he himself refrains  from the destruction  of life, incites  others  to refrain,  himself refrains from taking things not given, incites others to refrain, himself refrains from misbehaviour in sensual pleasures, incites others to refrain, himself refrains from speaking falsehood, incites others to refrain,  himself refrains  from indulging in the enjoyment of spirituous, fermented liquors and intoxicants,  incites others to refrain.  Such is the person who is said to be a better man than the good man.

 

2. What sort of person is wicked?

Here a certain person is a destroyer of life, taker of things not  given,  misbehaves  in  sensual  pleasures,  is  a  liar,  a slanderer,  speaks  harsh  words,  is  a  gossip,  covetous,  of malevolent  thoughts,  an upholder  of false doctrines.   Such a person is said to be wicked.

 

What sort of person is more wicked than the wicked?

 

Here a certain person, while he himself destroys  life, instigates  others  to do the  same, while himself  takes  things not  given  instigates  others  to  do  likewise,  while  himself misbehaves in sensual  pleasures  instigates  others  to do the same,  while himself is a liar instigates  others  to be so, while himself is a slanderer instigates  others to slander, himself a harsh speaker instigates  others to use harsh  language, himself a  gossip  instigates  others  to  gossip,  himself  covetous instigates  others towards  covetousness, himself of malevolent nature  instigates  others  to  be malevolent,  himself  an  upholder  of wrong views instigates  others  to  entertain  such views.  Such a person  is said to be more wicked than the wicked.

 

What sort of person is of lovely disposition?

Here  a certain  person  refrains  from killing  life, refrains from taking  what  is not  given, refrains  from misbehaving in sensual pleasures, refrains from speaking falsehood, refrains from slanderous speech, refrains  from using harsh language, refrains  from gossip, is not covetous or malevolent, is an upholder of right views.  Such a person is said to be of lovely disposition.

 

What sort of person is more lovely than one of lovely disposition?

 

Here a certain person himself refrains  from destruction  of life,  and  incites  others  as well to  cease  to  kill; himself  a refrainer  from  taking  things  not  given,  incites  others  to abstain  from taking what is not given, himself refrains from misbehaving in sensual pleasures and incites others to refrain from misbehaving  in sensual pleasures  . . .  incites others to right  views.   Such is the  person  who is more lovely than one of lovely disposition.

 

3. What sort of person is of a wicked nature?  What sort of person is of a more wicked nature than he who is wicked?   What sort of person is of a lovely nature ?  What sort of person is of a more lovely nature than he who is of a lovely nature?

Answers as in 2.

 

4. What sort of person is blameworthy?

Here  a  certain  person  has  come  to  have  blameworthy action,  speech, and thought.   Such is the person who is said to be blameworthy.

 

What sort of person is exceedingly blameworthy?

Here a certain person has come to have more of blameworthy action, speech, and thought and less of unblameworthy  action, speech, and thought.   Such is the person  who is said to be exceedingly blameworthy.

 

What sort of person is little blameworthy ?

Here a certain person has come to have more of unblameworthy  conduct,  speech,  and  thought  and  less  of  blameworthy  conduct,  speech,  and  thought.   Such is the person who is said to be little blameworthy.

 

What sort of person is blameless?

Here  a  certain  person  has come to have  blameless conduct,  speech,  and  thought.   Such  a  person  is  said  to  be blameless.

 

5. What sort of person is quick in acquiring?

The person who comprehends  the doctrine  at the time of its pronouncement  is said to be quick in acquiring.

 

What sort of person learns by exposition?

The person to whom comprehension of the doctrine comes when  the  meaning  of  what  is briefly  uttered  is analysed in detail.

 

What sort of person is one who may be led !

The  person  to  whom  comprehension  of  the  doctrine comes by recitation, questioning, and earnest attention  and by serving, cultivating  and  waiting  upon  lovely friends  is one who may be led .

 

What sort of person is one with whom the word is the chief thing?

The  person  to  whom  comprehension  of  doctrine  would not come in this life, however much he may hear and say and bear in mind or recite, is said to be one with whom the word is the chief thing.

 

6. What sort of person is one who makes a fit but not a prompt reply ?

Here a certain person answers correctly but not quickly when a question  is put to him.  Such a person is said to be one who makes a fit but not a prompt reply.

 

What sort of person is one who makes a prompt but not a fit reply?

Here  a  certain  person  answers  quickly  but  not  fitly when a question is put to him.  Such a person is said to be one who makes a prompt but not a fit reply.

What sort of person is one who makes a fit  and prompt reply?

Here a certain  person who answers quickly and  says the fit thing when a question is put to him, is said to be a person who makes both a fit and a prompt reply.

 

What  sort  of person  'is one  who  makes  neither  a fit nor a prompt  reply ?

Here  a  certain  person who answers  neither  quickly  nor fitly when a question is put to him, is said to be a person who makes neither a fit nor a prompt reply.

 

7.  Who are the four  preachers  of Dhamma  ?

Here a certain  religious teacher speaks but little and what is irrelevant,  and  the  congregation  may not be competent to judge  what  is relevant  and  what  not.   Such a teacher, in a congregation such as this, passes for a preacher  of the 'Norm.'

Here a certain religious teacher speaks but little and what is relevant,  and the congregation is competent  to judge what is relevant  and  what  not.   Such a teacher,  in such a congregation, passes for a preacher of the 'Norm.'

Here  a certain  religious teacher  speaks much and what is irrelevant,  and the congregation is incompetent  to judge what is relevant  and what not.   Such a person, in a congregation like this, passes as a preacher of the ' Norm.'

Here  again  a certain  religious teacher  speaks  much  and what  is  relevant,   and  the  congregation   is  competent to judge what is relevant  and what not.   Such a teacher, in such  a  congregation  as  this,  passes  as  a  preacher  of the

'Norm.' These are the four religious preachers.

 

8. What  are  the four  types  of  persons  comparable  to the cloud?

The  four kinds of clouds are : That  which thunders  but rains not, that which rains but thunders  not, that which both thunders  and rains,  that  which neither  thunders  nor rains. Thus are to be found in this world four types of persons who are comparable to these four kinds of clouds.  And  who  are they?    One who thunders  but rains not, one who rains but thunders  not,  one who rains  and  also thunders,  one who neither thunders nor rains.

 

What sort of person is one who thunders but rains not?

Here  a certain  person does not  act up to what he says. Such a man is said to be one who thunders  but rains not. Just as the cloud that thunders  but rains not, so also is this person.

 

What sort of person is one who rains but thunders not?

Here a certain  person acts  but does not  speak.  Such  a person is said to be one who rains but thunders  not.   Just as a cloud that rains but thunders  not, so also is this person.

 

What sort of person is one who thunders as well as rains ?

Here a certain  person  speaks and  acts.  Such a person  is said to be one who thunders  as well as rains.   Just  as the cloud that thunders and rains, so also is this person.

 

What sort of person is one who neither thunders nor rains?

Here  a certain  person  neither  speaks  nor  acts,  Such  a person  is said  to  be one who neither  thunders  nor  rains. Just as the cloud that neither  thunders  nor rains, so also is this person.

These are the four types of men that are found in this world comparable to the cloud.

 

9. What are the four types of persons that are comparable to mice?

Four  kinds  of mice-those  that dig their  holes but do not live therein;  those that live in holes but do not (themselves) dig them;  those that live in the holes that they  dig;  those that neither dig holes for themselves nor live therein.

In the same way also there are four types  of persons that are found in this world who are comparable to mice.   What are the four ?

Those that have dug holes but do not dwell.  Those who dwell but do not dig.  Those who dig and dwell.  Those who neither dig nor dwell.

 

What  sort of person  is one who digs  the hole but  does not dwell?

Here a certain person masters the doctrine consisting of the Sutta, Geyya, Vyakarana, Gatha, Udana,  Itivuttaka, Jataka,  Abhidhamma, Vedalla,  but  all the  same he does not truly  realise suffering, the origin of suffering,  the cessation of suffering, the way leading to the  cessation of suffering.   Such is the person who is a digger but not  a dweller.  Just as the mouse digs a hole but does not dwell in it, so also is this person.

 

What  sort of person is one who dwells in  the hole but does not dig it?

Here a certain person does not master a doctrine consisting of the Suttas, etc., but he truly realises suffering, the origin of suffering,  the cessation of suffering, the path  leading to the cessation of suffering.   Such a person is a dweller but not a hole-digger.   Just as a mouse which dwells in a hole it does not dig, so also is this person.

 

What sort of person is a digger as well as a dweller ?

Here  a  certain  person learns the  doctrine  consisting of Sutta,  etc.,  and truly realises suffering, etc.  Such a person is a digger as well as a dweller.  Just as the mouse which digs its hole and dwells in it, so also is this person.

 

What sort of person is neither a digger nor a dweller'?

Here a certain person neither learns the doctrine, nor does he truly realise suffering, etc.  Such a person is one who is neither  a digger nor a dweller.   Just  as the  mouse which neither digs its hole nor dwells in it, so also is this person.

These are the four kinds of persons that  live in this world who are comparable to mice.

 

 

10.  What are the four types of person that are comparable to the mango?

Four kinds  of mangoes-immature   but of ripe  colour;  of ripe colour but immature;  immature  and of unripe  colour; ripe as well as of ripe colour.   So also there are four persons that live in  this world who are comparable  to the  mango. What are they?  One unripe but ripe-hued;  one ripe but unripe-hued; one unripe and unripe-hued;  one ripe and ripe-hued.

 

How is a person unripe but ripe-hued?

Here  a  certain  person  looks  graceful  when  proceeding forward   or  backward,  when  looking  this  way  or  that way,  while  stretching  out  or  bending  in  (his  arms),  and when  wearing  the  uppermost  robe  or  the  ordinary  dress and  holding  the  alms-bowl.   He  does  not  truly  realise suffering,  etc.  He  does  not  truly  realise  also  the  path leading to the suffering.  Thus is a person who is unripe but ripe-hued.   Just as a mango which is unripe but ripe-hued, so also is this person.

 

How is a person ripe but of immature hue?

Here  a  certain  person  is  not  graceful  while  proceeding forward  or backward,  while looking this  way  or that  way, while  stretching  out  or  bending  in  (his arms),  and  when wearing  the  uppermost  robe  or  the  ordinary  dress  and holding  the  alms-bowl,  but he truly  realises  suffering,  etc. Such a person is ripe but of immature hue.   Just as a mango which is ripe but of immature hue, so also is this person.

 

How is a person unripe and of immature hue?

Here a certain person's movement forward and backward, etc., the holding of the alms-bowl,  are not graceful.   He does not  truly  realise suffering,  etc.   Just as a mango which is unripe and green-hued, so also is this person.

 

What sort of person is ripe and ripe-hued?

Here  a  certain  person's  movements  forward  and  backward,  etc.,   holding  of  alms-bowl-all  are  graceful.  He truly  realises  suffering,  etc.   Thus  is  a  person  ripe  and

 

also ripe-hued.   Just as a mango which is ripe and ripe-hued, so also is this person.

These are the four  types of person existing in this world who are comparable to the mango.

 

11.  What are the four types of persons comparable to a jar ? Four kinds of jar-that  which is empty but well covered; that which is full but uncovered;  that which is empty as well as uncovered; that which is full as well as covered. In the same way there  are four types of persons existing in this world that are comparable to a jar.

 

What  are  the  four?  Empty   but  covered;  full  and

uncovered;      empty  as  well  as  uncovered;  full  as  well  as covered.

 

How is a person empty but covered?

Here  a  certain  person  whose  movements  forward  and backward,  etc.,  are all graceful:  he  does  not  truly  realise suffering  as  it  is,  etc.  Such  a person  is  empty  but  well covered.  Just as the jar is empty but covered, so also is this person.

 

What sort of person is full and uncovered?

Here  a  certain  person  whose  movements  forward  and backward,  etc., are not graceful (iv, 10 b).   He truly realises suffering as it is, etc.  Thus is he full and uncovered.   Just as the jar is full and uncovered, so also is this person.

 

What sort of person is empty as well as uncovered?

Here  a  certain  person  whose  movements  forward  and backward,  etc., are neither graceful nor does he truly realise suffering, etc.  Such is the person who is empty as well as uncovered.   Just as the jar is empty and uncovered, so also is this person.

 

What sort of person is full as well as covered?

Here  a  certain  person  whose  movements  forward  and backward,  etc., are all graceful.  He truly  realises suffering as  it  is, etc.  Thus  is  a  person  full  as  well  as  covered just  as  a  jar  is  full as  well as  covered,  so  also is  this person.

These are the four types of persons existing in this world who are comparable to a jar.

 

12.  What  are the four  types  of persons  who are comparable

to a pool of water ?

Four  kinds  of pools :-shallow  but  seeming to  be deep; deep but seeming to be shallow;  shallow and appearing to be shallow;  lastly, deep and appearing to be deep.

In the same manner there are four types of persons existing in this world who are comparable to pools.

What  are  the  four  kinds ? -shallow  but  seeming  to  be deep; deep but seeming to be shallow; shallow and  seeming to be shallow;  lastly, deep and seeming to be deep.

What  sort of person  is one who is shallow  but seems to be deep?

Here  a  certain  person  whose  movements  forward  and backward,  etc.   [See 4-10 (a.)]   He  does not truly realise suffering,  etc.   Such  a person  is shallow but  seems  to  be deep.   Just  as  the  pool is shallow but  seems to be deep, so also is this person.

What sort of person is deep but seems to be shallow ?

Here  a  certain  person  whose  movements  forward  and backward,  etc.  He  truly  realises  suffering,  etc.   Such  a person is deep but  seems to  be  shallow.   Just as the pool is deep but seems to be shallow, so also is this person.

What sort of person is shallow and seems to be shallow ?

Here  a  certain  person  whose  movements  forward  and backward,  etc.,  the holding of the alms-bowl are not graceful, and also he does not realise suffering,  etc.  Thus is a person shallow and seems to be shallow.  Just  as a pool is shallow and seems to be shallow, so also is this person.

What sort of person is deep and seems to be deep ?

Here  a  certain  person  whose  movements  forward  and backward,  etc., holding of alms-bowl-all  are graceful,  at the same time he truly  realises suffering as it is, etc.  He truly realises that this is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.  Such a person is one who is deep and seems to be deep. Just as the pool is deep and seems to be deep, so also is this person.

 

13.  What are the four persons that are comparable to the ox? There are four kinds  of oxen :-pest  to its own herd but not to another  herd;  pest to another  herd but not to its own herd; pest to its own as well as to another herd;  pest neither to its own herd nor to another herd. In the same manner there are four types of persons existing in the world comparable to the ox.

What  are the  four ? A pest  in the  congregation  but not outside  it;  a pest  outside  the  congregation  but not  in  it; a pest in as well as outside the congregation; a pest neither in his own nor in another  congregation.

 

How is a person a pest  in his own congregation but not outside it?

Here a certain person creates trouble in his own congregation  but not  in another  congregation.   Such a person is a pest in his own congregation but not in another.   Just as that ox is a pest in its own herd but not in another herd, so also is this person.

 

How is a person a pest outside but  not in his own congregation ?

Here a certain person creates trouble in another  congregation  but  not in  his own.  Such  a person is a pest  outside but not in his congregation.   Just as that ox is a pest outside, but not in its own herd, so also is this person.

 

How is a person a pest in as well as outside his own congregation ?

Here a certain  person creates trouble in as well as outside his own congregation.   Such a person is one who is a pest in as well as outside  his  own congregation.   Just as  that  ox is a pest in as well as outside  its own herd,  so also is this person.

 

How is a person a pest neither of his own congregation nor of another congregation ?

Here  a  certain  person  creates  trouble  neither  in  his own congregation nor in another congregation.   Such a person is said to be a pest  neither  to his own congregation  nor to another congregation.   Just as that ox is neither  a pest  to his own herd nor to another herd,  so also is this person.

These are the four types of persons, who live and have their being in this world, comparable to the ox.

 

14.  What  are the four  types  of persons  comparable to  a serpent?

Four kinds of snake :-the quick but not strong poisoning; strong  but  not  quick  poisoning;  quick  as  well as  strong poisoning; neither quick nor strong poisoning.

In the same manner, there are four types of persons existing in this world, who are comparable to a serpent.   What are the  four ?  Persons  of quick  but strong  poison;  of strong but  not  quick  poison;  of quick  as  well  as strong  poison; of neither quick nor strong poison.

 

What sort of person is of quick but not strong poison?

Here a certain person gets angry repeatedly but the anger does not linger for a very  long time.  Thus is a person of quick but not of strong poison.  Just as that serpent  has a quick but has not a strong poison,  so also is this person.

 

What sort of person is of strong but not of quick poison ?

Here a certain person does not get angry repeatedly,  but when he is angry, his anger endures for a pretty long time. Just as that serpent has a strong but not quick poison, so also is this person.

 

What sort of person is of quick as well as of strong poison?

Here  a  certain  person  gets  angry  repeatedly,  his  anger being of long duration,  such a person is of quick  as well as of strong poison.   Just as that serpent has quick as well as strong poison, so also is this person.                  ·

 

What sort of a person is of neither quick nor strong poison ?

Here  a  certain  person  neither  gets  angry repeatedly,  nor does his anger  endure  for a long time.   Such a person  is neither  of quick nor of strong poison.  Just as the serpent has neither quick nor strong poison, so also is this person.

These are the four types of persons existing in this world, who are comparable to a serpent.

 

15.  How is a person one who speaks in praise of one unworthy of praise without inquiring  into and scrutinising  (his nature)?

Here a certain  person speaks  in praise of the heretics or their disciples who are badly or wrongly regulated in conduct, that  they  are both  well conducted  and properly  conducted. Such a person is one who speaks  in praise of one unworthy of praise without inquiring  into and scrutinising  (his nature).

 

How is a person  one who speaks in dispraise of a person worthy of praise without inquiring into and scrutinising  (his nature)?

Here a certain person speaks ill of Buddhas and their disciples who are really well and properly regulated as to their conduct, saying that they are wrongly and badly regulated in conduct. Such a person is one who speaks ill of a person worthy  of praise without inquiring into and scrutinising  (his nature).

 

How is a person one who shows satisfaction in an unsatisfactory thing without inquiring  into and scrutinising  it ?

Here a certain person finds satisfaction  in a bad and wrong course, saying  that  this is the good path,  this is the right path.   Such a person is one who finds satisfaction  in an unsatisfactory  thing without inquiring into or scrutinising it.

 

How is a person one who shows dissatisfaction in a satisfactory thing without inquiring, etc. ?

Here  a certain  person  finds dissatisfaction  in a good and right  course,  saying  that  this  is  a  bad  path,  this  is  a wrong path.   Such a person  is one who finds dissatisfaction in, etc.

 

16. How is  a  person a  speaker in  dispraise  of a  person unworthy of praise after inquiring into and  scrutinising  (his nature)?

Here a certain person rightly  speaks in dispraise of the heretics or their disciples, who are wrongly and badly regulated as to conduct, saying that  they are badly as well as wrongly conducted.  Thus is a person a speaker in dispraise of an unworthy person after inquiring into and scrutinising (his nature).

 

How is a person a speaker in praise of a praiseworthy person after inquiring into and scrutinising  (his nature) ?

Here a certain person speaks rightly in praise of the Buddhas and their disciples, who are well and perfectly regulated in conduct, saying that they are well and perfectly conducted. Such a person is a speaker in praise of a praiseworthy man after inquiring into and scrutinising (his nature).

 

How is a person one who finds dissatisfaction in an unsatisfactory thing after, etc. ?

Here a certain person finds dissatisfaction  in a bad and wrong course, saying that this is a bad path, this is a wrong path.   Such a person is one who finds dissatisfaction, etc.

 

How is a person one who finds satisfaction in a satisfactory thing after inquiring  into and scrutinising  it ?

Here  a  certain  person finds satisfaction  in  a  good and right course, saying, this is the good path,  this is the right path.   Such  a person  is  one who finds satisfaction  in  a satisfactory thing after, etc.

 

17. How is  a  person  one  who  speaks  in  dispraise  of a person unworthy of praise, expressing what is true and right at the right time about him, but does not in the same way speak in praise of what is praiseworthy?

Here a person, when there is something creditable as well as something discreditable (in regard  to a person), speaks about the latter, expressing what is true and right at the right time, but does not speak in the same way about the something creditable.   It is thus  that  a man  speaks in dispraise  of a person unworthy  of praise, expressing what is true  and right at the right time about  him, but does not in the  same way speak in praise of what is praiseworthy.

 

How does a person speak in praise of a person worthy of praise, expressing what is true and right at the right time about him, but does not in the same way speak in dispraise of what is unworthy of praise ?

Here a person,  when there is something  creditable  as well as  something  discreditable  (in regard  to a person),  speaks about  the  former, expressing what  is true  and right  at the right time but does not in the same way speak about the latter. It is thus that a person speaks in praise of a person worthy

of praise, expressing what is true and right at the right time about him, but does not in the same way speak in dispraise of what is unworthy of praise.

 

How does a person speak in dispraise of a person unworthy of praise and in praise of the praiseworthy, expressing what is true and right at the right time?

Here a person, when there is something  creditable  as well as something  discreditable  (in regard  to a person),  speaks about  the latter  and also about  the former, expressing what is true and right at the right  time, being aware of the proper time for answering the question put to him.  It is thus that a person  speaks  in dispraise  of a person  unworthy  of praise and in praise of the praiseworthy, expressing what is true and right at the right time.

 

How does  a person neither speak in dispraise of a person unworthy  of praise nor speak  in praise of a person worthy of praise, expressing what is true and right at the right time?

Here a person, when there is something creditable  as well as something  discreditable  (in regard  to a  person),  speaks neither about the former nor about the latter, expressing what is true and right at the right time, but keeps up an indifferent attitude,  being mindful  and  thoughtful.   It is thus  that  a person neither  speaks in dispraise  of a person unworthy  of praise nor speaks in praise  of a person worthy of praise, expressing the right thing at the right time.

 

18.  What sort of person is he who lives on the fruit  of his exertions and not on that of any (previous) merit?

Here  a  person  whose living  springs from  his  (present) exertions (lit. uprising), endeavours, and efforts, not as a result of any (previous) merit, is said to be a person who lives on the fruit of his exertions and not on that of any (previous) merit.

 

What sort of person lives on the fruit  of Ms merit, but not on that of his exertions ?

The devas commencing from Paranimmitavasavatti  and those above them :-these  live on the fruit of merits and not on that of their exertions.

 

What sort of person is he who lives on the fruit of his exertions as well as on that of merits ?

The person whose living springs from his own exertions, endeavours, and efforts,  as also from merits, is  the  person who lives on the  fruit of his own exertions as well as on that of merits.

 

What sort of person lives neither on the fruit  of his  own exertions nor on that of merits ?

Persons  (suffering) in  purgatory  are  persons  who  live neither on the fruit  of their  own exertions nor on that  of merits.

 

19. How does a person remain in the dark and tend towards darkness ?2

Here a person born in a family  of low degree,  be it of Candalas,  or of Nesadas,  or of basket-weavers,  or of chariot makers,  or of Pukkusas,  poor,  ill-fed,  in straitened  circumstances, where victuals are obtained with difficulty, is swarthy, ill-featured, hunch-backed,  a prey to many diseases, purblind, or with a crooked hand, lame or paralysed,  one who receives neither  food nor  drink,  nor raiment,  nor  conveyances,  nor wreaths, perfumes and unguents, nor bed, dwelling, and light; he is an evil doer in deed, word, and thought,  he having been an evil doer in deed, word, and thought, is reborn at the disintegration  of the body after death in misery, to woeful doom, to disaster.   Thus does a person remain in the dark and tend towards darkness.

 

How does a person who is in the dark tend towards light?

Here  a person  born  in a family  of low degree, be it of Candalas, or of Nesadas,  or of basket-weavers,  or of chariot makers,  or of Pukkusas,  poor, ill-fed,  in straitened  circumstances, where victuals are obtained with difficulty, is swarthy, ill-featured, hunch-backed,  a prey to many diseases, purblind, or with a crooked hand, lame or paralysed,  one who receives neither  food nor  drink, nor raiment,  nor  conveyances,  nor wreaths, perfumes and unguents, nor bed, dwelling, and light; he is a well-doer indeed, word, and thought,  he having been a well-doer indeed, word, and thought,  is reborn at the disintegration  of the body after death to a happy destiny in the bright worlds.  Thus  does a person  who is in the dark tend towards light.

 

How does a person who is in the light tend towards darkness?

Here a person who is reborn into a family of high degree, be it eminently noble or of a brahmin magnate, or of a householder  of high position,  rich,  of enormous  wealth,  owner of abundant  objects of enjoyment,  having ample hoards of gold and  silver, having  ample  aids  to  enjoyment,  ample  stores of  money  and  corn,  is  handsome,  fair-looking,  charming, endowed with the most exquisite  complexion,  the recipient of food,  drink,  raiment,  means of transport,  wreaths,  perfumes and unguents, bed, dwelling, and light;  he is an evil-doer indeed, word, and thought, he having been an evil-doer indeed, word, and thought, is reborn at the disintegration  of the body after  death,  in  misery,  to woeful doom, to disaster.   Thus does a person who is in the light tend towards darkness.

How does a person who is in the light tend towards light?

Here a person who is reborn  into a family of high degree, be  it  eminently  noble  or  of a  brahmin  magnate,  or  of a householder  of  high  position,  rich,  of  enormous  wealth, owner  of  abundant   objects  of  enjoyment,  having  ample hoards of gold and silver, having  ample aids to enjoyment, ample stores of money and corn, is handsome,  fair-looking, charming,  endowed with the most exquisite complexion, the recipient of food, drink, raiment, means of transport,  wreaths, perfumes,  unguents,  bed, dwelling, and  light;  he is a well doer indeed, word, and thought, he having been a well-doer indeed, word, and thought,  is reborn at the disintegration  of the body after death to a happy destiny in the bright worlds. Thus  does a  person  who  is in  the  light  proceed  towards light.

 

20. How does a person stoop down and remain unprogressive? How does a person stoop down but remain progressive?  How does a person who is prosperous remain unprogressive ?  How does a person who is prosperous remain progressive ?

These four types correspond respectively to the above four.

 

21. Who are the four persons comparable to trees?

The four kinds of trees are as follows-one  itself weak but surrounded  by strong ones;  one itself strong but surrounded by weak ones; one itself weak and surrounded by weak ones; one itself strong and surrounded by strong ones.

The four types  of person likened respectively  unto  these four classes of trees  exist  in  this  world-a  person  himself weak but surrounded  by the strong;  a person himself strong but  surrounded  by  the  weak;  a person  himself  weak  and surrounded  by the weak;  a person himself strong  and  surrounded by the strong.

 

How is a person who himself is weak surrounded by the strong? Here a certain  person is of bad  morals, wicked, while his associates1  are moral men of lovely nature.   Thus is a person who himself is weak surrounded  by the  strong, just in the

same way as a weak tree is surrounded by strong ones.

 

How is a person who is strong surrounded by the weak?

Here a certain person who is moral, of lovely nature, having associates who are immoral,  wicked.  Thus is a person who is strong surrounded  by the weak, just in the same way as a strong tree is surrounded by weak ones.

How is a person who is immoral, wicked, having associates who are the same ? . . .

How is a person who is strong surrounded by the strong ?

Here a certain  person who himself is moral and of lovely nature, has similar associates.  Thus is a person who is strong surrounded  by the strong, just in the same way as a strong tree is surrounded by strong ones.

These are the four persons comparable  to trees existing in

this world.

 

22. What sort of person is one estimating  by and satisfied with the outward form ?

Here  a person  having  observed  the  height, the  compass, the shape, and the finish of a material object, finds satisfaction in it.  Such a person is one estimating, etc.

What sort of person is one estimating by and satisfied with others' words ?

Here a person engenders faith  on the  basis of the  praise, the  adulation,  the  admiration,  the  encomiums  of  others, treating  them as a standard  of judgment.   Such a person is one estimating  by and esteeming others' words.

What sort of person is one estimating  by and  esteeming outward austerity ?

Here  a.  person  having  noticed  the  austere  nature  of the garments,  or of begging bowls, or of beds and sheets, or having  observed manifold austerities, finds satisfaction  in them, taking these  austerities as a standard  of judgment. Such a person is one estimating by and esteeming outward austerity.

 

What sort of person is one estimating by and esteeming that which is right ?

Here a person having noticed  the  practice  of morality, or of meditation,  or of insight, finds satisfaction  therein, taking  these practices as a  standard  of judgment.   Such a person is one estimating by and esteeming that  which is right.2

 

23. How does a person strive after his own welfare but not after that of others ?

Here a person attains  to the moral life but does not encourage others to attain it, himself attains to [the practice of ecstatic] meditation but does not encourage others to attain it, himself attains  to insight but does not encourage others to attain  it, himself attains  to emancipation but does not encourage others to attain,  himself attains to the perception of a consciousness of emancipation  but does not encourage others to attain that perception.  Such a person is one who strives after his own welfare but not after that of others.

 

How does a person strive after others' welfare but not after his own?

Here a person does not  himself attain  to the moral life but encourages  others to attain  it, does not himself attain to [the practice of ecstatic] meditation but encourages others to attain the same, does not himself attain  to insight  but encourages others to attain insight, does not himself attain to the practice of emancipation but encourages others to attain that  state,  does not himself attain  to the perception of a consciousness of  emancipation  but  encourages others  to attain  that  perception.  Thus  does a  person  strive  after others' welfare but not after his own.

 

How does a person  strive neither after his own welfare nor after that of others ?

Here a person neither himself  attains  to  the  moral  life nor  encourages others  to  attain  to  the  moral life, neither himself attains  to [the practice of ecstatic] meditation  nor encourages others to attain the same, neither himself attains to insight  nor  encourages others  to attain  insight,  neither himself attains  to emancipation  nor  encourages others to attain  that  state,  neither himself attains  to the perception of a consciousness of emancipation nor encourages others to attain  that  perception.  Such a person is one who strives neither after his own welfare nor after that of others.

 

How does a person strive after his own welfare as well as after that of others?

Here a person himself attains  to the moral life and also encourages others to attain the moral life, himself attains to

[the  practice  of ecstatic] meditation,  and  also encourages others to attain the same,  himself attains  to insight and also encourages others to attain insight, himself attains to emancipation and also encourages others to attain that state, himself attains  to the perception of a consciousness  of emancipation and also encourages others to attain that perception.  Such a person is one who strives after his own welfare as well as after that of others.

 

How does a person strive neither after his own welfare nor after that of others ?

Here a certain person neither himself attains  to the moral life nor  encourages others to attain  the moral life, neither himself attains  to [the practice  of ecstatic]  meditation  nor encourages others to attain the same, neither himself attains to the practice of insight  nor  encourages others to attain insight, neither himself attains  to the practice of emancipation nor encourages others to attain the state of emancipation, neither  himself attains  to perception of a consciousness of emancipation nor encourages others to attain that perception. 

 

Such a person is one who strives neither after his own welfare nor after that of others.

 

 

24. How does a person become self-mortifying and addicted to practices tending to self-mortification?

Here a person goes naked, is of loose habits; licks his hand clean,  does not  stop  nearer  or wait  a moment  if politely requested  to do so, refuses to accept  food brought  to him, refuses to accept food especially prepared  for him, does not accept any invitation,  does not accept food from a cooking pot or a pan, does not accept food placed within the threshold, does not accept food placed among the pestles, does not accept food when two persons are eating  together,  does not accept from a woman with child, from a woman giving suck, from a woman living  as a wife, does not  accept  food offered at consecrated  places,   does  not  accept  food  when  a  dog  is standing  by,  nor where flies are swarming  down, does not accept  fish, or flesh,  or strong  drink,  or intoxicant,  or sour gruel, begs from one house, eats just one morsel, or begs from two houses, eats just two morsels, or begs from up to seven houses, eats up to seven morsels, keeps himself going on only one alms or only two .  .  . up to seven alms, takes only once a day  or once  every  two  days,  or  once  every  seven  days, conforming in this way to the practice of taking food according to rule, at regular intervals,  up to even half a month,  feeds on pot-herbs,  on wild rice, on Nivara  rice, on Daddula  rice, on unhusked  grain, on grains of rice or scum of rice, on oil cakes, on grasses, on cowdung, on fruits and roots from the woods, on fruits that have fallen of themselves, wears coarse hempen cloth, coarse cloth of mixed fibers, wears cloth taken from a dead body, clothing made of dust-heap  rags, clothing made of bark,  the skin of a black antelope,  dress made of a black  antelope's  hide,  dress made  of kusa  grass,  garments made of bark, garments made of pieces of wood, hair-garments, garments  made up  of horses'  tails,  garments  made up  of feathers of owls; he is a plucker-out of hair and beard, addicted to the practice of plucking out both hair and beard; he is a stander-up rejecting the use of a seat, he is a squatter addicted to the effort of squatting, he is a bed-of-thorns-man, lying on a bed of thorns,  he is addicted to the practice of going down into water thrice a day up to the evening.  Thus he dwells addicted to many such tortures of the body.  Thus does he become a self-mortifier and addicted to practices tending to self-mortification.

 

How does a person become tormentor of others and remain addicted to practices tending to oppression?

Here a person is a sheep-butcher, a boar-hunter,  a deerstalker, a bird-catcher,  a snarer, a fish-killer, a thief, a public executor,  a jailer, or a committer of other such cruel acts. Thus does a person become tormentor of others and remain addicted to practices tending to oppress others.

 

How does a person come to combine the characteristics of the above two types ?

Here a person is a king, a crowned monarch, or a brahmin of great wealth and influence; he having a new sacrificial house built to the east of the capital city, having his hair and beard shaven, having put on a black antelope's  skin, anointed  his body with clarified butter  and  oil,  scratching the back with the horn of an antelope, he enters the sacrificial house together  with  his queen-consort and  brahmin priest,  there he lies down in a narrow space on the yellow painted ground; the king lives on the quantity  of milk that can be drawn from one udder of a cow with a calf resembling her  (in colour),  the queen-consort lives upon the quantity of milk that can be drawn from the second udder, the brahmin priest lives upon the  quantity  of milk that  can be drawn from the  third,  the  fire-sacrifices are performed with  the quantity  of milk that can be drawn from the fourth, and the calf lives upon the quantity that is left; thus he commands-that so many bullocks be slain for the sacrifice, that so many bull-calves, so many  cow-calves, BO  many goats, BO  many rams be slain for the sacrifice,  so many trees be cut down to make  posts,  so  much  dubba  grass be  mown to be strewn around  the sacrificial spot;  the slaves or the  messengers or the workmen that are employed carry out his orders impelled by the whip, impelled by fear, weeping with tears upon their faces.  Thus a person  comes to combine the  characteristics of the above two types.

 

How does a person come to bear the characteristics of neither of those two types ?

He tortures  neither  himself nor others,  and in this world he  without  any  hankering,  at  peace,  cool, enjoying  bliss, lives with a self become  godlike.

Here it happens  that a Tathagata is  born in this  world, an  exalted,  perfectly  enlightened  Buddha,  enriched  with insight,  and virtuous  deportment,  walking in the right path," the knower of the world, the unsurpassed,  the guide to persons amenable  to  discipline,  the  teacher  of  devas  and  men, Buddha,  the  Blessed  One,-he  having  come  to know  and realise  by  himself,  this   world  together  with  those  of the devas, the Maras, the Brahmas,  together with the recluses and brahmins, dwellers together with devas and men, instructs others about it; he imparts instruction  beneficial in its inception, beneficial in its continuation,  beneficial in its conclusion, full of meaning,  couched in appropriate  terms,  couched  in suitable  language; he expresses,  sets forth  the higher life in its  purity  and  entire  fulness.   To this  instruction  does a householder  listen  or his  offspring  or one who is born  in another family; he listening  to this instruction  gains faith in the  Tathagata.   Endowed  with this acquisition  of faith,  he ponders  thus:  cramping  is household  life,  a  dusty  path! Open and wide is the way of renunciation!   Not easy is it while living the household  life to practise  the higher life, full and entire,  supremely  pure,  pure  like  well-wrought  conch shell,

I  must  therefore  depart  from  home  into  a  homeless  life, having  my hair  and beard  shaven,  covering my body with yellow  garments:  so it happens  that at a subsequent  date, he  abandoning  his  entire  store  of  wealth,  whether  this be large or small, abandoning  his circle of relations,  whether this be few or numerous, wanders away from home into the homeless state,  having  his hair  and beard  shaven,  covering his  body  with  yellow  garments.1    Thus  initiated  into  the religious order, while adopting the mode of training  and living followed by the bhikkhus, he putting  away the  (intentional) killing of living beings, abstains from the (intentional) slaughter of life, putting aside the rod, putting aside the sword, ashamed of cruelty,  merciful,  compassionate,  and  kind  to  all living beings; putting  away the taking of what  has not been given him, he abstains from accepting what is not given;  he takes what  is given  expecting  only what  is given, he passes his life in honesty,  with a self become pure;  putting  away the unchaste  life,  he  is  chaste,  not  unchaste,  refraining  from sexual  life, from village nature;2  putting  away lying words, he refrains from telling a lie, speaks the truth, always aiming at the truth, is trustworthy,  never betraying his trust to the world; putting  away  slanderous  speech, he refrains  from  calumny, hearing  something  at one place, he does not relate the same at another  place with a view to foment quarrel  against  the former party,  hearing something elsewhere, he does not relate it  here with a view to foment a quarrel  against  the people there.   Thus as a reconciliator  of those that have separated, as an augmenter of the unity of those who are already united, rejoicing in union, jubilant  over unity,  he is in the habit of uttering  words  tending  to  reunion;  putting  away  rough words, he refrains  from offensive language,  he speaks those words  that  are blameless, pleasing  to the  ear, affectionate, appealing  to the heart, refined, gladdening the people, captivating  the heart of many; putting  away silly talk, he refrains from idle talk, speaks at the right time, speaks what is true, speaks according to the good, according to religion, according to self-control,  utters  speech worthy  of being treasured  up, sometimes with illustrations, clearly defined, pregnant with meaning.

He refrains from doing injury to the forms of life whether in the germinal or grown-up state; he takes but one meal a day, not eating at night, refraining from an untimely meal; he abstains from being a spectator at dances, songs, music, and  (such other) amusements;  he abstains from wearing garlands, besmearing and adorning his body with scents and unguents, and using (such other) articles for beautifying; he abstains from using high and fine couches; he abstains from taking (all that is included under) gold and silver; he abstains from accepting uncooked· rice, uncooked meat, women and girls, male and female slaves, goat and sheep, fowls and pigs, elephants, cows, horses and mules, fields and residences, as gifts; he refrains from the practice of acting as a go-between or a messenger; he abstains from buying and selling; he abstains from cheating with scales or coins or measures; he abstains from the crooked way of bribery, cheating, and fraud; he abstains from mutilating, killing, putting in bonds, highway robbery, dacoity, and acts of violence.

He is satisfied with robes just enough to protect his body, with alms just enough to feed his stomach, wherever he goes taking these with him.  Just as a winged bird wherever it flies, flies with just the load of its wings, in the same way the bhikkhu is satisfied with robes just enough to protect his body, with alms just enough to feed his stomach, wherever he goes he goes taking these with him.  Endowed with these Ariyan moral precepts, he experiences within himself the happiness which is blameless.

He having seen an object with his eye does not fasten his mind upon the general form of details thereof, but sets himself to restrain that which gives occasion for the sinful immoral tendencies, covetousness, and dejection to flow in over him while he was dwelling unrestrained as to the sense of sight, he guards the faculty of sight, he attains to control over

 

the sense of sight.   Similarly having heard sound with his ear, having smelt an odour with his nose, having tasted  a savour with his tongue,  having  touched  a tangible  thing  with his body,  having  cognised a mental  object  with  his mind,  he does not  fasten  his mind  upon  the  general form of details thereof but sets himself to restrain that which gives an occasion for  the  sight  and  immoral  tendencies,  covetousness,  and dejection  to flow in over him  while he  was  dwelling  unrestrained as to his mind, his faculty of thought;  he guards his mind,  he  attains  to  control  over  the  faculty  of thought. Endowed  with this Ariyan  mastery  over the  senses, he experiences within himself the happiness which is blameless.

 

In going forth  and in coming back,  he  acts deliberately, and as also in looking  at or around,  in stretching  forth his arm, or in drawing it in again, in putting on the sanghati1 and other robes, or in carrying the alms-bowl, in eating or drinking, in masticating  or swallowing, in obeying the calls of nature, in  going  or  standing  or sitting,  in  sleeping  or  waking, in speaking or in remaining in a state of silence.

 

Endowed  with this Ariyan  moral behaviour  and endowed also with  this  excellent practice  of mindfulness  and awareness, endowed also with this Ariyan way of contentment,  he takes  shelter  in a lonely spot, whether  it  be forest,  or the foot of a tree, or a hill side, or a grotto,  or a rocky cave, or a cemetery,  or a forest tract,  or an open :field,  or a heap of straw;  he returning  thither  after  his round  for alms, seats himself cross-legged when his meal is done, keeping his body erect, setting mindfulness ahead; putting  away the hankering after the world he dwells with his mind free from covetousness, he purifies his mind  of greed;  putting  away the  evil propensities  to injure  he  dwells with  a heart  free from ill will; compassionate  and kind to all living beings he purifies his mind of malevolence; putting away laziness and drowsiness he-dwells being free therefrom;  conscious of the presence of light, mindful  and aware of experiences he purifies his mind of sloth and torpor;  putting  away worry and flurry he dwells free  from  fretfulness;  with  his  heart  tranquil  within  he purifies  his mind  of worry  and  flurry;  putting  away  perplexity  he dwells free from doubt;  no longer doubting  as to what is good he purifies his mind of skepticism.

Putting  away  these  five  hindrances  which  trouble  the heart  and  weaken  insight,  he  eschewing  sensual  desires, eschewing evil states, enters upon and dwells in the first stage of ecstatic meditation,  attended  with applied 1 and sustained thought,  joy, and bliss born of mental  isolation.   With  the cessation of applied and sustained thought  he enters upon and dwells in the second stage of ecstatic meditation, a state of joy and bliss born of concentration  free from applied and sustained thought--a  state  of concentration  of mind,  and inner  tranquillisation  of heart.   By absence of passionate  longing for joy he remains in equanimity,  and aware of his mental  states and experiences, he enjoys bliss through  his body, which the Ariyas describe when they say, " the man serene and mindful dwells at ease."   And thus he dwells entering upon the third stage  of  ecstatic  meditation    Then  putting  away  both ease and pain, and with the previous dying away of joys and griefs he dwells entering  upon the fourth  stage of meditation void of ease and pain, a state made pure by equanimity  and thoughtfulness.   Now  with  his  mind  thus  concentrated, rendered  supremely  pure and bright,  freed from contamination,  with  disturbing  factors  cleared  off,  rendered  soft and pliant,  fixed, and  unperturbed,  he bends  forth  his mind  to acquire the knowledge enabling him to remember his previous births, he calls to mind previous existences in various shapes, it may be one birth,  two births,  three,  four,  five to ten,  to twenty,  thirty,  forty,  fifty,  one hundred,  one -thousand  or one  hundred  thousand  births  in  many  periods  of cosmic revolution,  in  many  periods  of envelopment  and  development  taken  together  to the  effect " there I have been born under  such and such a name, in such and such a family, of such and such a caste, lived on such and such kinds of food, experienced  such and such pleasure  and pain, and had such and  such  an end of [that] life; when I had  deceased  from that state I was reborn in another  state,  where I was of such and such a name, of such and such a family, of such and such a caste, lived upon such and such kinds of food, experienced such  and  such  pleasure  and  pain,  such  was  the  end  of [that] life, having  again  deceased  from that state  I was reborn  here."   Thus  does  he  recall  in  manifold  ways  his previous dwelling-places with forms of destinies in details.

And  again  with  his  mind  thus  concentrated,  rendered supremely  pure and bright,  freed  from contamination,  with disturbing  factors cleared off, rendered  soft and pliant,  fixed and  unperturbed,  he bends  forth  his  mind  to  acquire  the perception  of appearance  and disappearance  of other beings. He sees with clear-vision clarified, surpassing that of ordinary human  beings,  living  beings  deceasing  from one state  and being reborn into another;  he perceives beings of inferior or superior order, good-looking and ugly, well-situated or ill-fated, faring  according  to  their  own karma.   He  recognises  that these are verily beings guilty of evil deeds,  of offences committed by way of words and thoughts,  calumniators  of the Ariyas,  upholders  of erroneous  views,  adhering  to practices associated  with erroneous  judgment,  they on the dissolution of the body after death,  are reborn in hell, in a condition of utter ruin, a woeful state of pain;  that those (others] are, on the other hand, beings who came into full possession of good deeds,  of merits  earned by them  on account  of words  and in thoughts;  not reviling  the  Ariyas, upholders  of right views, adhering to practices associated with sound judgment, they on the  dissolution  of  the  body  after  death  are reborn  in the heavenly  world, to a happy  destination.   Thus does he see with deva-vision  clarified, surpassing that of ordinary human beings,  living  beings  deceasing  from  one state  and  being reborn into another;  he perceives beings of inferior or superior order, good-looking and ugly, well-situated  or ill-fated, faring according to their own karma.

Now  again  with  his  mind  thus  concentrated,  rendered supremely  pure and bright,  freed from contamination,  with disturbing  factors cleared off, rendered  soft and pliant, fixed and unperturbed,  he  bends forth  his mind  to acquire  the knowledge of the process of the  destruction  of  sinful  tendencies (asavas).  He truly  understands  that this is suffering and that this is the genesis of suffering, that this is the cessation of suffering, that this is the path leading to the cessation of suffering: he truly knows that these are the sinful tendencies, that this is their genesis, etc.   When he knows and sees thus, his mind becomes free from the tendency to sensual pleasures, from the  tendency  to be reborn,  and from the tendency  to ignorance.   And  when [the  mind]  is emancipated,  there  is the knowledge that it is emancipated  and he knows that birth is destroyed,  the  holy life has been  led,  duties  have  been accomplished, and there is no more of these conditions.   Thus a man does not become a self-mortifier, nor become addicted to practices leading to self-mortification,  and is not a mortifier of others, and is not devoted to practices leading to mortification of others.   He tortures  neither  himself nor  the  self of others,  and  in  this  world  he,  without  any  hankering,  at peace, cool, enjoying  bliss, lives with a self become godlike.

 

25. What person is said to be possessed of passion?

One whose passion has not been put away :- this  person is said to he one possessed of passion.

 

What person is said to be one possessed of hatred ?

One whose hatred  has not been put away :- this  person is said to be one possessed of hatred.

 

What person is said to be one possessed of delusion?

One whose delusion has not  been put away :- this person is said to be one possessed of delusion.

 

What person is said to be one possessed of pride ?

One whose pride has  not  been put away :- this  person is

said to be one possessed of pride.

 

26. How does a person attain the inner tranquility of mind but not the higher wisdom of insight into things?

Here is a certain person who attains  [ecstatic  meditation]1 accompanied  by an idea of form or the idea of formlessness but does not attain the supramundane  path or the  fruition. In this  way a person attains  the inner  tranquility  of mind but not the higher wisdom of insight into things.

 

How does a person attain the higher wisdom of insight into things but not the inner tranquility of mind ?

Here a certain  person is an attainer  of the supramundane path  and  fruition,  but  not  of  ecstatic  meditation  accompanied by an idea of form or the idea of formlessness.  In this way  a  person  attains  the  higher  wisdom  of  insight  into things but not the inner tranquility  of mind.

 

How does a person attain both these?

Here a certain  person attains  ecstatic  meditation  accompanied by an idea of form or by an idea of formlessness  as well as the supramundane  path  and fruition.   In this  way a person attains  both of these.

 

How does a person attain neither?

Here  a certain  person attains  neither  ecstatic  meditation accompanied  by an idea of form or  by an idea  of formlessness nor supramundane  path  and fruition.   In this  way a person attains neither.

 

27. How is a person said to be going with the stream?

Here a certain person enjoys sensual pleasures and commits sinful deeds.  This person is going with the stream.1

How is a person said to be going against the stream t ?

Here a certain person neither  enjoys sensual pleasures nor commits sinful deeds.  He with suffering and with sorrow, with tears on the face and lamenting, practises purity,  full and unspotted.   This person is one going against the stream.

 

How is a person said to be established?

Here a certain person on account of the destruction  of the live fetters causing rebirth  in lower  regions becomes a being of apparitional rebirth, attaining  there the final release,  not liable to return  from that  world.   This person is one who is established.

 

How is a person 'a  brahmin,  who has crossed the stream, has gone to the other shore, and is established in fruition ' ?

Here a certain person because of the destruction of his sinful tendencies  lives having  known and  realised in  this  very existence, emancipation of mind and insight, free from sinful tendencies: this person is said to be a ' brahmin,  who has crossed the stream, gone to the other shore, and is established in the fruition.'

 

28. How is a person one who knows little and does not act up to what he has learnt?

Here a certain person possesses little knowledge of Sutta, Geyya, Vyakarana, Gatha., Udana,   Itivuttaka,   Jataka, Abbhuta,  and  Vedalla,   but  knows  neither  the  meaning nor  the  truth,  does not  follow the Dhamma  either  in  its entirety or in its details.  Such a person is said to be one who knows little and does not act up to what he has learnt.

 

 

How is a person one who knows little and acts up to what he has learnt ?

Here  a certain  person possesses little  learning,  namely of Sutta,  etc.; he, knowing the  meaning  and the truth of that little  learning,  practises  the  Dhamma  in  its  entirety  and in its details.   In this way a person  is said to he one who knows little and acts up to what he has learnt.

 

How  is  a  person  one who though much learned does  not act up to his learning ?

Here a certain person has much learning,  namely of Sutta, etc.;  he not knowing the meaning and the truth of that great learning, does not follow the Dhamma  in its entirety or in its details.   In this way a person is said to be one who though much learned does not act up to his learning.

 

How is a person one who is much learned and acts up  to his learning ?

Here a certain  person has great learning, namely of Sutta, etc.;  he knowing the  meaning  and  the  truth  of that great learning, follows the Dhamma in its entirety and in its details. In this way a person is said to be one who is much learned and acts up to his learning.

 

29. How is a person a recluse with a firm footing?

Here a certain person through  the complete destruction  of (three)  fetters  becomes a  'stream  attainer,'  no more liable to  fall  (into  a  woeful state),  but  is  destined  to  succeed and  has enlightenment  for his end and aim; this  person  is said to be a recluse with a firm footing.

 

How is a person said to be a red-lotus-like recluse?

Here a certain person through  the complete destruction  of three fetters  and having made passion, hatred,  and  delusion attenuated,  becomes a once-returner;  coming only once back to this world, he makes an end of suffering,  This person is said to be a red-lotus-like recluse.

 

How is a person a white-lotus-like recluse?

Here a person through  the complete destruction  of the five fetters  causing rebirth  in the lower worlds, becomes a being of apparitional  rebirth,  attaining  there  the final release, not liable to return from that world.   This person is said to be a white-lotus-like recluse.

 

How is a person said to be a delicate recluse?

Here  a  certain  person  because  of the  destruction  of his sinful tendencies lives having known and realised in this very existence the  emancipation  of  mind  and insight,  free from sinful tendencies-this   person is said to be a tender recluse.

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