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Tipitaka >> Abhidhamma Pitaka >> Patthana Dhamma
By Htoo Naing


Chapter 7 - Adhipati Paccayo Edit

Or Predominence Condition Edit

There are 4 adhipati dhammas. They are chanda adhipati, citta adhipati, viriya adhipati, and vimamsa adhipati. Chanda is chanda cetasika and it is wish or will and it is sometimes referred to as will power. Citta is the leader of all cetasikas and when it becomes adhipati dhamma, it organises everthing. Viriya is viriya cetasika and it is effort. Vimamsadhipati is pannindriya cetasika and it is wisdom.

But in adhipati paccaya there are complex relations between cittas, cetasikas, rupas, and nibbana which is also a nama dhamma. Adhipati paccayo relates nama dhamma and rupa dhamma with nama dhamma and rupa dhamma. There are 2 kinds of such correlation between such complicated dhammas. They are arammana adhipati and sahajata adhipati paccayo.

Arammanadhipati paccayo reveals that rupa dhamma and nama dhamma as causes or paccaya dhammas support other nama dhammas which are the resultant dhammas or paccayuppanna dhammas. This kind of support and relationship between dhammas are called arammana adhipati paccayo.

In case of sahajata adhipati paccayo, nama dhammas serve as paccaya dhamma or causal dhamma and nama dhamma and rupa dhamma have to arise because of nama dhamma and these resultant dhammas are called paccayuppanna dhamma while causal nama dhammas are called paccaya dhamma.

There are 18 rupas which are all nipphanna rupas when they all are itthārammana or agreeable or pleasurable objects, they serve as arammanas or objects for nama dhamma cittas which may be one of 8 lobha mula cittas, or may be one of 8 kamavacara mahakusala cittas, and if there is wise attention that is with panna and manasikara cetasika may be one of 4 kamavacara mahakiriya cittas. When these 18 rupas are agreeable and serve as arammanas to these cittas, then these 18 rupas become the leading dhamma and they are said to be arammana adhipati paccaya.

Because they serve as arammana and they are leaders to arising cittas mentioned. This is how rupa dhamma serve as arammana adhipati for nama dhamma cittas that were mentioned above. There are other arammana adhipati dhamma that serve as arammana for nama dhamma. They are 84 cittas after exclusion of 2 moha mula cittas, 2 dosa mula cittas and 1 dukkha sahagata kayavinnana citta from 89 total cittas. Dosa cittas, moha cittas and that dukkha sahagatam kayavinnana citta cannot serve as adhipati dhamma for nama dhamma. So these 5 cittas are excluded from 89 cittas. When these 84 cittas arise and again these become the object of mind, then they serve as adhipati dhamma and this kind of adhipati is called arammama adhipati. These 84 cittas may cause arising of 8 mahakusala cittas and 8 mahakiriya cittas.

Among 52 cetasikas, 5 cetasikas do not serve as arammana adhipati dhamma. They are dosa or aversion, issa or jealousy, macchariya or stinginess, kukkucca or worry and moha or ignorance or delusion. These 5 cetasikas do not serve as arammana adhipati for nama dhamma. Other 47 cetasikas when arise and they are again directed or attended by mind, the attending mind may be one of 8 kamavacara mahakusala cittas, may be one of 8 kamavacara mahakiriya cittas. So these 47 cetasikas serve as arammana or object and when they do so they are leading dhamma to those 16 cittas and these 47 cetasikas are arammanadhipati dhamma.

There is another dhamma which is a nama dhamma that can serve as arammana or object of mind. When it serves as the object of the mind, it also becomes the leader of following nama dhamma. That nama dhamma is called nibbana. Nibbana can be the arammana or object of the mind. But it is strictly limited and true nibbana is only seen by 8 lokuttara cittas. When 8 lokuttara cittas arise and they see nibbana, that nibbana actually serves as arammana or object of that magga cittas and phala cittas. At the same time nibbana becomes the leading dhamma or adhipati dhamma. Nama dhamma nibbana serves as arammana for 4 magga cittas and 4 phala cittas which are nama dhamma.

18 ittharammana forming nipphanna rupas ( 10 rupas are excluded from 28 paramattha rupas and only 18 rupas are nipphanna rupas ), 84 cittas of 89 cittas after exclusion of 2 dosa mula cittas, 2 moha mula cittas, and 1 dukkha sahagata kayavinnana citta, 47 cetasikas of 52 cetasikas after exclusion of dosa, issa, macchariya, kukkucca and moha, and 1 nama dhamma nibbana can serve as arammana for their respective nama dhamma. These dhamma are paccaya dhamma or causal dhamma or conditioning dhamma.

Paccayuppanna dhamma or resultant dhammas of above mentioned dhammas are 8 lobha mula cittas, 8 kamavacara mahakusala cittas, 8 kamavacara mahakiriya cittas and 8 lokuttara cittas that is 4 magga cittas and 4 phala cittas. These dhamma whcih are all nama dhamma are resulted from paccaya dhamma. The relationship between these above mentioned paccaya dhammas and pacayuppanna dhamma is called adhipati paccaya. Again this adhipati paccaya is arammana and so the whole condition in this page is called arammana adhipati paccayo.

Adipati Paccayo has two kinds of paccayas. They are arammanadhipati paccaya and sahajatadhipati paccaya. In Arammanadhipati paccaya, paccaya dhammas or causal conditioning dhammas are 18 nipphanna rupas all of which serving as ittharammana or agreeable objects, 84 cittas of 89 total cittas after exclusion of 2 dosa cittas, 2 moha cittas and 1 dukkha sahagata kayavinnana citta, 47 cetasikas after exclusion of 4 dosa rooted cetasikas of dosa, issa, macchariya and kukkucca and 1 moha cetasika, and 1 nibbana.

When these dhamma serve as arammana, they all become leading dhamma called adhipati. Nibbana is leading dhamma for 8 lokuttara cittas. Ittharammana of 18 nipphanna rupas serve as leading dhamma for 8 lobha mula cittas, 8 mahakusala cittas and 8 mahakiriya cittas. 84 cittas and 47 cetasikas can be leading dhamma for nana sampayutta mahakusala cittas and mahakiriya cittas. So all these are arammanadhipati paccaya.

Moha cittas and dosa cittas and dukkha sahagata kayavinnana citta cannot be leading dhamma as adhipati dhamma. They will behave in other paccayas but not in adhipati paccaya. As moha cittas and dosa cittas cannot serve as arammanadhipati their related cetasikas dosa, issa, macchariya, kukkucca and moha cetasikas cannot serve as arammanadhipati paccaya.

Paccayuppanna dhammas or resultant dhammas because of these causal conditional dhammas are 8 lobha mula cittas, 8 mahakusala cittas, 8 mahakiriya cittas and 8 lokuttara cittas, 47 cetasikas after exclusion of dosa, issa, macchariya, kukkucca and moha cetasikas. So causal conditioning dhammas here are rupa dhamma or 18 nipphanna rupas, nama dhamma of 84 cittas, 47 cetasikas, and 1 nibbana. So causal dhamma are rupa and nama. But resultant dhammas because of these conditioning dhamma are all nama dhamma of cittas ( 8 lobha mula cittas, 8 mahakusala cittas, 8 mahakiriya cittas, and 8 lokuttara cittas ) and cetasikas 47 after exclusion of dosa, issa, macchariya, kukkucca, and moha.

So in arammanadhipati paccaya, rupa dhamma and nama dhamma serve as causal conditioning dhamma and they cause arising of resultant dhamma which are all nama dhamma. There is no resultant rupa dhamma at all in arammanadhipati paccaya dhamma.

In adhipati paccaya, there are two kinds of adhipati paccayas. They are arammana adhipati paccaya and sahajata adhipati paccaya. Arammanadhipati paccaya has been explained in the previous pages. In this page, sahajata adhipati paccaya will be discussed to some details.

There are dhammas which serve as the leading role. They are called adhipati dhammas. They all are nama dhamma. They are citta, chanda cetasika, viriya cetasika and pannidriya cetasika. As adhipati dhammas they are called as 1. chandadhipati, 2. cittadhipati, 3. viriyadhipati, and 4. vimamsadhipati.

These are all nama dhamma and they become adhipati dhamma only when cittas are performing their javana function. At other time, they are not adhipati dhamma at all. Example of dhammas that cannot be adhipati dhamma are non javana cittas and chanda, viriya, and pannindriya cetasikas of these non javana cittas are not adhipati dhamma at all. So adhipati dhammas are seen only in javana cittas.

There are 89 cittas. Even though there are 89 cittas, they perform their own function and they do not do others functions. Functionwise, there are 14 functions of cittas.

  1. patisandhi kicca or linking function
  2. bhavanga kicca or life continuing function
  3. avajjana kicca or adverting function
  4. dassana kicca or seeing function
  5. savana kicca or hearing function
  6. ghayana kicca or smelling function
  7. sayana kicca or tasting function
  8. phusana kicca or touching function
  9. sampaticchana kicca or receiving function
  10. santirana kicca or investigating function
  11. votthapana kicca or determining function
  12. javana kicca or mental impulse function
  13. tadarammana kicca or retention function
  14. cuti kicca or dying function

Among these functions, only javana kicca or mental impulse can be adhipati dhamma. There are 55 javana cittas.

They are 29 kamavacara javana cittas and 26 mahaggata cittas. Mahaggata means superior. They are jhana cittas or magga cittas or phala cittas.

29 kamavacara javana cittas are

  • 12 akusala cittas
  • 1 ahetuka hasituppada citta
  • 8 mahakusala cittas
  • 8 mahakiriya cittas

There are 26 mahaggata cittas. They are

  • 5 rupakusala cittas
  • 5 rupakiriya cittas
  • 4 arupakusala cittas
  • 4 arupakiriya cittas
  • 4 magga cittas
  • 4 phala cittas

In 29 kamavacara javana cittas, 2 moha cittas and 1 hasituppada citta cannot serve as adhipati dhamma. So among 55 javana cittas, 3 cittas are left out and there will be 52 javana cittas.

These 52 javana cittas each have citta portion and cetasikas portion. When citta portion is very strong then all of these 52 cittas are said to be cittadhipati dhamma. As citta is leading, chanda, viriya and panna in these 52 cittas have to follow the will of their cittas.

Among these 52 cittas, if chanda becomes the leading dhamma, then chanda serve as adhipati paccaya dhamma to all other cetasikas and citta of each of these 52 cittas. This is chandadhipati dhamma. If viriya in these 52 cittas become the leading dhamma, then all other cetasikas in these 52 cittas have to follow the will of viriya dhamma. By the same token, when panna in these 52 cittas becomes the leading dhamma, all other cetasikas in these 52 cittas have to follow the will of that panna.

In each javana citta, citta and their associated cetasika arise at the same time at the same moment like candle light gives both heat and light at the same time. These cetasikas arise at the same time when citta arises and they are called sahajata paccaya. But when they that is chanda, viriya and panna each separately lead in a citta, they each are called sahajatadhipati paccaya.

When 52 cittas arise, their cetasikas also arise and when citta is very powerful and take the lead, then it is cittadhipati dhamma and sahajatadhipati paccaya dhamma is citta in each case of 52 cittas and sahajatadhipati paccayuppanna dhammas or resultant dhammas are their associated cetasikas. The results arise with the causes and this is called sahajata paccaya. But as there are leading dhamma 52 cittas, it is not simple sahajata paccaya but sahajatadhipati paccaya.

By the same token when chanda or viriya or panna becomes the leading dhamma or adhipati dhamma, they each acts as sahajatadhipati paccaya dhamma or causal conditioning dhamma and all 52 cittas and their associated cetasikas excluding each of chanda, viriya, and panna when they are leading dhamma become paccayuppanna dhamma or resultant dhamma. As the causal conditioning dhammas and the resultant dhammas arise together they are called sahajata and the paccaya or condition is called sahajatadhipati paccayo.

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