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Tipitaka >> Abhidhamma Pitaka >> Patthana Dhamma
By Htoo Naing


Chapter 6 - Ārammana Paccayo Edit

Or Object Condition Edit

Ārammana paccayo ti

Rupayatanam cakkhuvinnanadhatuyam, tam sampayuttakananca dhammanam ārammana paccayena paccayo. Saddayatanam sotavinnanadhatuyam, tam sampayuttakananca dhammanam ārammana paccayena paccayo. Gandhayatanam ghanavinnanadhatuyam, tam sampayuttakananca dhammanam ārammana paccayena paccayo. Rasayatanam jivhavinnanadhatuyam, tam sampayuttakananca dhammanam ārammana paccayena paccayo. Photthabbayatanam kayavinnanadhatuyam, tam sampayuttakananca dhammanam arammana paccayena paccayo.

Rupayatanam saddayatanam gandhayatanam rasayatanam photthabbayatanam manodhatuyā, tam sampayuttakananca dhammanam ārammana paccayena paccayo. Sabbe dhammā manovinnana dhatuyā , tam sampayuttakananca dhammanam ārammana paccayena paccayo. Yam yam dhammam ārabbha ye ye dhammā uppajjanti citta cetasika dhamma te te dhamma tesam tesam dhammanam ārammana paccayena paccayo.

Arammana paccaya or object condition is the relationship between different dhammas. These dhammas are nama dhamma, rupa dhamma, and pannatti dhamma. Here pannatti dhamma can serve as an object even though it is not a paramattha dhamma. A rupa dhamma called rupa which is vanno or colour serves as an object for eye consciousness. Eye consciousness or cakkhu vinnana dhatu has to depend on rupa or vanno or colour or sight or visual objects. All associated mental factors of cakkhu vinnana citta ( cakkhuvinnana dhatu ) also have to depend on ruparammana. The paccaya dhamma or causal dhamma is vanno. Paccayuppanna dhamma or resultant dhammas are cakkhu vinnana citta and associated cetasikas. The paccaya satti or the causal relationship between the rupa dhamma rupa or vanno and nama dhamma cakkhuvinnana and allied cetasikas is called ārammana. This is ārammana paccayo or object condition.

Similar implications can be taken in cases of other object conditions like sadda or sound which serves as saddarammana or audible objects, gandha or smell which serves as aromatic objects, rasa or taste which serves as rasārammana or gustatory objects, photthabba or touch which serves as photthabbarammana or tangible objects. But in case of objectfor the mind, objects are a bit complicated. There are 6 possible kinds of object for the mind and they are collectively called dhammārammana or mind objects.

Mind object or dhammarammana may be one of these 6 kinds of dhamma. They are (a) one of 5 pasada rupas which are 1.cakkhu pasada rupa, 2. sota pasada rupa, 3. ghana pasada rupa, 4. jivha pasada rupa, and 5. kaya pasada rupa; (b) one of 16 sukhuma rupas namely 1.itthi atta bhava rupa or itthatta bhava rupa, 2. purisatta bhava rupa, 3. hadaya rupa, 4. jivita rupa, 5. ahara rupa, 6. pariccheda rupa or ākasa rupa, 7. kaya vinatti rupa, 8. vaci vinatti rupa, 9. rupa lahuta rupa, 10. rupa muduta rupa, 11. rupa kammannata rupa, 12. upacaya rupa, 13. santati rupa, 14. jarata rupa, 15. aniccata rupa, and 16. apo rupa which is apo dhatu; (c) one of 89 cittas; (d) one of 52 cetasikas; (e) nibbana; and (f) pannatti dhamma. So dhammarammana or the object of mind may be one of these 6 kinds. The topics from (a) to (c) have been explained in the previous pages. Regarding (d) cetasikas 7 universal cetasikas, 6 particular cetasikas, 14 akusala cetasikas, and 19 sobhana citta sadharana cetasikas have all been discussed. There left 6 sobhana cetasikas. They are 3 virati cetasikas, 2 appamanna cetasikas and 1 pannindriya cetasika.

There are 3 virati cetasikas. Virati means avoidance. It is particular avoidance when there are conditions that may lead to committing things which should be avoided. They are 1. kaya ducarita virati or samma kammanta, 2. vaci ducarita virati or samma vaca, and 3. dujiva virati or samma ajiva. These cetasikas are also kind of inhibitions. But unlike hiri and ottappa, they are directed at the particular action rather than contemplating on possible future effects or results. When contemplate on the act which is kaya ducarita, this avoidance is samma kammanta. If the act is vaci ducarita, then the cetasika becomes samma vaca and when it is avoidance of dujiva act then it is samma ajiva cetasika. With the exception of Noble Eightfold Path at the time of magga and phala, these three cetasikas never arise together and not even two cetasikas together.

There are another 2 cetasikas which is called appamanna cetasikas. They are called appamanna because these two cetasikas take the objects which are limitless or boundless. These two cetasikas are karuna cetasika and mudita cetasika. Both cetasikas are directed to the object which are pannatti that is satta pannatti. This means that they take the objects which are not paramattha dhamma orultimate realities. There are 2 separate cetasikas on satta pannatti. This is because the characters of the objects differ each other. While karuna takes the object of satta pannatti who are in defective conditions, mudita takes the object of satta pannatti who are in prosperous conditions.

There left a cetasika called pannindriya cetasika. This is the most important cetasika. Because this cetasika is the only cetasikathat will lead us to attainment of arahatta magga nana. Without this cetasika, however good other cetasikas are, arahatta magga nana will never be attained.

Pannindriya cetasika or panna is a cetasika. It is constructive minister of the king citta. But pannindriya cetasika itself is not a citta. It advises the king citta to see real things. It throws a good light on things. Panna casts a bright light on dhamma. Panna isthe most powerful cetasika among other cetasikas. Panna cetasika serves at different thana or places of Bodhipakkhiya dhammas like iddhipada dhamma or base of success, bala dhamma or strength of power, indriya dhamma or faculties, bojjhanga dhamma or factor of enlightenment, and magga dhamma or path factor. Panna also involves as adipati dhamma among 4 adipati dhamma. Panna is also known as vijja. Sometimes it is also known as nana.

There are 6 objects or 6 arammanas. The first 5 objects are 5 physical senses namely sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch. The 6th sense is the object of mind. It is called dhammarammana. There are 6 kinds of dhamma that can serve as object of mind. They are 5 pasada rupas, 16 sukhuma rupas, 89 cittas, 52 cetasikas, 1 nibbana and 1 pannatti. The first 4 kinds have been explained in detail in the previous pages. There are 2 more kinds which can serve as object of mind. They are nibbana and pannatti

Nibbana is a Pali word and it derives from nirvana which composes of ni and vana. Ni means nikkhanta or liberated from vana or binding effect. Vana is the dhammas that bind various different lives in the samsara. So nibbana means liberated from binding in the samsara. this binding is tanha.

Even though there is only a single nibbana as ultimate reality, nibbana is talked to have in two forms. But both are the same and only one kind. They are considered as two kinds from view point of the samsaric dweller or traveller. They are saupadisesa nibbana and anupadisesa nibbana. Saupadisesa nibbana is nibbana when arahats in the samsara stay in nirodha samapatti. That state arahats stay is called saupadisesa nibbana. Because nibbana is joined when the arahats are still in the samsara with pancakhandha.

Another nibbana is when arahats do khandha parinibbana. That is when arahats die, there is nothing left and nothing continued. This is anupadisesa nibbana. Immediately after cuti citta of arahats, there is no more kammaja rupa, no more cittaja rupa, and no more aharaja rupa. There left only utuja rupa. Utuja rupas are like other lifeless rupa in this world nothing to do with life. This is the state that all Buddhists are trying to attain after their pacchima bhava or final life.

Still there are three kinds that are referred to as nibbana. Actually all these are a single state and it is nibbana and nothing more than nibbana. But from view point of those who are still in the samsara, nibbana is said to have three kinds. They are sunnata nibbana, animitta nibbana and appanihita nibbana.

Sunnata nibbana is totally free of arammana or object for tanha to arise. There is no atta or ego in ultimate sense. Nibbana is free of attajiva or any self or any life. So as there is free of such life, self or anything like that, that nibbana is called sunnata nibbana or voided emptiness of peace. When ariya to be was contemplating on dhamma as anatta, then the nibbana that he saw at magga kala is called sunnata nibbana. It is anatta, no atta, no jiva, no life, nothing is there, sunna is there. So it is sunnata nibbana.

Animitta nibbana means nibbana is free of raga, kilesa and it is free of bases and causal things. When ariya to be was viewing on dhamma as anicca just before arising of magga citta, and if he saw nibbana as anicca, this nibbana is called animitta nibbana. Because there is no nicca nimitta or no permanent nimitta. So this nibbana is called animitta nibbana.

Appanihita nibbana means nibbana is not one that has to be craving for as in cases of sensuous or other worldly things like tanha, raga, kilesa etc etc. When ariya to be was viewing on dhamma as dukkha, if he saw nibbana at magga kala, then the nibbana that he saw is said to be appanihita nibbana. Because nibbana is free of tahna, raga, kilesa which otherwise if present will be longing for. But as there is no such things to be longing for, this nibbana is called appanihita nibbana. Even though nibbana is contemplated as three kinds, there is only a single nibbana in terms of character and in ultimate sense.

Nibbana is not like other dhamma. It is not rupa dhamma. But nibbana can be known by nama dhamma and so nibbana is included in nama dhamma. But nibbana of ultimate reality can only be seen by magga cittas and phala cittas. When we are discussing on nibbana, no one is seeing nibbana. But we all are comparing and contrasting nibbana with our experiences like fire of sufferings. We just think of it as absence of fire. In actual term, nibbana can only be seen by magga cittas and phala cittas.

When such lokuttara cittas arise, then nibbana does serve as the object for the citta of magga and citta of phala dhamma. So nibbana is also a kind of arammana and it is dhammarammana. This dhammarammana nibbana is seen by nama dhamma magga cittas and phala cittas. So paccaya dhamma here is nibbana. Paccayuppanna dhamma here is magga cittas and phala cittas. The relationship between the causal dhamma nibbana and resultant dhamma magga cittas and phala cittas is called arammana. So this paccaya satti is arammana. This is object condition. This is arammana paccayo.

There are dhammas that serve as objects or arammanas for different cittas. These dhammas include panca arammanas or 5 sense objects namely light of different colours and brightness, sounds and voices , smell and fragnance, taste , and different touches. These panca arammanas serve as arammana for dvi panca vinnana cittas.

These is 6th sense or 6th object. It is collectively called dhammarammana. Because all that include in this 6th objects are all dhammas. Dhammarammana include 5 pasada rupas, 16 sukhuma rupas, 89 cittas, 52 cetasikas, 1 nibbana and 1 pannatti dhamma. So far 5 pasadas, 16 sukhumas, 89 cittas, 52 cetasikas and 1 nibbana have all been discussed in the previous pages.

Pannatti also serves as an arammana and it is the sixth sense. It is dhammarammana. Panatti is sensed only by mind. No other sense organs can detect pannatti dhamma. Pannatti is known and sensed only by citta which is nama dhamma. Pannatti is a domain that most people or nearly all people and all beings confuse. Even people who are well learned in Dhamma still have some confusion on pannatti dhamma.

Pannatti is a dhamma. It can be sensed. It can be known. But when dhammas are viewed by ultimate sense, pannatti dhamma is not an ultimate reality. Pannatti never arises. Because it never exists as paramattha dhamma. It never exists as an ultimate reality. As pannatti does not arise as it is not a reality, then it does not fall away.

There have been a lot of argument on pannatti dhamma because of inability to penetrate the dhamma pannatti. Pannatti does not arise and does not fall away. Some people say pannatti arise and fall away. They argue that pannatti as arammana does arise and fall away. This is wrong. Pannatti never arises and never falls away as it does not exist in ultimate sense. It is not an ultimate truth. it is not an ultimate reality.

They may argue why pannatti as an arammana arises and falls away. This is a wrong concept. What actually arises is citta. What actually falls away is citta. Pannatti does not arise and does not fall away. I do repeat these because it is important. When a citta who takes pannatti arises, it falls away immediately. According to functions of cittas, next arising cittas do their functions. Cittas do arise and falls away.

Example: When we think a tree, there is no tree as an ultimate reality. But a citta arises taking pannatti a tree. As that citta is anicca and impermanent, it falls away. Here, it seems like pannatti arises and falls away which actually is not. Just before that idea of a tree arises, there may be many cittas that took realties as their objects. We may think on colour form size in our mind before a citta that takes pannatti a tree arises.

In real terms, pannatti does not arise and does not fall away. Pannatti serves as an object for mind. In this matter of arammana or object condition, pannatti dhamma takes the role of paramattha dhamma by pretending as if it is a paramattha dhamma which actually is not so. That is why pannatti dhamma is not a dhammāyatana.

As pannati does not arise and does not fall away, there is no evidence of anicca or dukkha or anatta in pannatti dhamma. This is because pannatti dhamma does not exists as an ultimate reality from the start. There are higher cittas that do take pannatti dhamma as their objects. These cittas are all of rupavacara cittas. Some kamavacara cittas take pannatti dhamma as their objects. Some arupavacara cittas do take pannatti dhamma as their object.

But what is sure is that all 8 lokuttara cittas never take pannatti dhamma as their object. The arammana of all lokuttara cittas is only nibbana which is an ultimate reality. All lokuttara cittas take just nibbana as their object. No other object can be the object of lokuttara cittas. Only nibbana can serve as arammana or object of sotapatti magga citta and phala citta, sakadagami magga and phala citta, anagami magga and phala citta, and arahatta magga and phala citta.

All rupavacara cittas that is all 5 rupakusala cittas (which are 1st jhana, 2nd jhana, 3rd jhana, 4th jhana, and 5th jhana), all 5 rupavipaka cittas (whcih are the resultant cittas of the former 5 cittas), and all 5 rupakiriya cittas (which are 1st jhana, 2nd jhana, 3rd jhana, 4th jhana and 5th jhana cittas of arahats) take the pannatti dhamma as their object. Rupavacara cittas never take other object apart from pannatti dhamma as their arammana or object.

Pannatti dhamma is an interesting subject. It does not arise and it does not fall away. It is not an event. It is non event. It does not hold any of tilakkhana namely anicca or impermanance, dukkha or suffering, and anatta or non self. Pannatti is not an ultimate reality. It is not an ultimate truth. But it is very important dhamma. Without pannatti we will not understand anything at all.

That is why we need to study pannatti dhamma in dhamma study. If pannatti is not understood, then paramattha dhamma will not be understood. When dhammas are not understood, it is hard to transcend this samsara or round of births which is birth death birth death birth..beginningless endless cycle. So what does pannatti mean?

Pannatti means name idea notion concept designation description manifestation or making known. Pannatti is a dhamma that makes us known paramattha dhamma and also pannatti dhamma as well. So this is quite evident that pannatti does help us understand everything including pannatti.

There are two forms of pannatti dhamma even though both do not exist as ultimate realities or ultimate truths. These two types are atthapannatti and saddapannatti. Saddapannatti is based on sound or voice that represent atthapannatti while atthapannatti is the intrinsic meaning of any pannatti dhamma.

Example of saddapannatti is water. When we look through paramattha scope, there is no water at all. Surely water is pannatti dhamma. But whenever it is shown to anyone in this world on this earth, those who have been shown water will understand it as water. This is the intrinsic nature of water which does not exist as an ultimate reality. This meaning in its intrinsic nature is called atthapannatti. No other material will take the position of water. This is atthapannatti.

Saddapannatti on the other hand is based on voice or sound that human beings use to bring up the meaning of water. Example is when the voice saying water will not make any understanding to people who never heard of the voice saying water before and never learned before that water is what they know water. When water is voiced by a speaker and it is heard by listeners who are not English and who never learned English will not know that they are being told about water. But when they are shown water they will definitely know that what they heard actually referred to water which they have already known.

Water may be sounded or voiced in other languages that are not English which will be different articulation and different voice sound. Examples are pāni, udaka, apa, yay, suei, mitsu and many others. All these stand on their own and they will each make known to their particular language speaker. But in essence, all are the same and it is water. This intrinsic nature that make us knwon as water is called atthapannatti. Other voices that represent the same meaning are all saddapannatti.

Pannatti is essential. Without pannatti we cannot discuss anything at all. But we must know what are pannatti dhamma and what paramattha dhamma. This again will depend on how deeply we have learned. Otherwise differentiation between pannatti dhamma and paramattha dhamma is very difficult and it even needs practical experience.

There are 6 different atthapannattas. They are 1.vijjamana pannatta, 2.avijjamana pannatta, 3.vijjamanenavijja pannatta, 4.avijjamanenāvijja pannatta, 5.vijjamanenāvijja pannatta, 6.avijjamanenavijja pannatta.

Examples of these pannatta dhammas are

1. vijjamana pannatta

Sadda. This is sound. Its intrinsic nature or intrinsic meaning is sound that we can heard through our ear. Those words whichever languages we are using, which represent sound in its atthapannatta is that it is a reality and it is ultimate truth. This can be proved as sound does exist. So this kind of atthapannatta is called vijjamana pannatta. Vijja means penetrative wisdom. Mana here means building measure. So vijjamana means wisdom building. Even though the word sound does not exist which is a pannatta and not an ultimate reality, it brings up wisdom building idea. So here the example sadda is called vijjamana pannatta.

2. avijjamana pannatta

Water. This is a word that isn used to represent the meaning of water. But there is no water in ultimate sense. Water is not an ultimate reality. When people do not understand this pannatta matter, they try to argue endlessly quoting old wisdom that was developed by philosophers of different era and different background. Actually there is no water at all in ultimate sense. What we see as water is not water. It is clear colourless substance that reflects into our eye as bright light of different degrees according to ambient temperature and weather. What we hear is not water. Even apo rupa which is sensed by manodvara is not water. So there is no water at all in ultimate sense. So this word water which is a pannatta, atthapannatta does not bring up any ultimate sense and does not build up wisdom. So it is avijjamana pannatta.

3. vijjamanenavijja pannatta

Cakkhu vinnana. Cakkhu is a vijjamana pannatta. Vinnana is also vijjamana pannatta. Both build up wisdom and this combination making a new word called cakkhuvinnana is also building up wisdom. Cakkhuvinnana does exist as an ultimate reality and it has ultimate meaning, ultimate sense. So it brings up understanding of ultimate truth called paramattha dhamma. So this kind of pannatta is called vijjamanenavijja pannatta.

4. avijjamanenāvijja pannatta

Raja putto. Kings son. There is no king in ultimate sense. There is no son in ultimate sense. So rajaputta or kings son is called avijjamanenāvijja pannatta.

5. avijjamanenavijja pannatta

Itthi saddo. Womans voice. There is no woman at all in ultimate sense. But there is voice or sound which is an ultimate reality and builds up wisdom. So Itthisaddo or womans voice is called avijjamanenavijja pannatta.

6. vijjamanenāvijja pannatta

Cakkhu dvara. Eye door. There exists cakkhu which is an ultimate reality. But there is no door at all. This word is a pannatta and it is called vijjamanenāvijja pannatta.

Dhamma is wider than mahasamudda or great oceans. Dhamma is larger than these oceans. Dhamma is deeper than these oceans. Dhamma is endless. Dhamma is limitless. Dhamma boundless. Once The Buddha said, O monks, dhammas that I preach to you is like these leaves in my hand. Dhammas that I know is more than leaves in this whole forest. But The Buddha preached all necessary dhammas that are needed to transcend the samsara.

There are complicated and complex dhammas. Dhammas and their relations are presented in paticcasamuppada dhamma or dependent origination or dependent co arising. Paticcasamuppada dhamma is so wide and deep that The Buddha once told Venerable Ananda who said Bhante, paticcasamuppada dhamma is so clear to me, do not say like that Ananda, paticcasamuppada dhamma is wider than you understand.

More subtle, more intricate and more complicated dhamma is patthana dhamma. The Buddha stayed in arahatta phala samapatti for 49 days which are 7 weeks and it is classically called sattasattāha. In the first week, The Buddha contemplated on paticcasamuppada dhamma. In the second week, The Buddha went to the north east of the Banyan tree which is Bo tree under which He became enlightened and attained Sammasambodhi nana along with sabbannuta nana. From there The Buddha looked at the throne ( seating place made of grass ) for about 7 days. Next week that is in the 3rd week, The Buddha did walking on the pavement made of gem to the north of Bo tree. In the 4th week, He contemplated on patthana dhamma.

Before contemplation on patthana dhamma, there was no Buddhaly rays. When He contemplated on patthana dhamma, there arose 6 kinds of Buddhaly rays from His body which spread through out the whole universe. Patthana dhamma is the most difficult dhamma that ever exists. Patthana dhamma is the deepest, the widest and the largest. Pathana dhamma shows more elaboratively than paticcasamuppada dhamma.

There are endless relations between dhammas of different kinds and they all are interrelated and interconnected in one way or another. It is hard to understand patthana dhamma. Yet, pathana dhamma actually reflect all our daily life happenings and nothing is outside of patthana dhamma. If people notice this they will happily study patthana dhamma and they will apply patthana dhamma to their daily life. But to understand patthana dhamma is hard. To do so, first we need to know what dhammas are. These are talked in the introductory page.

There are dhammas which are always true and which are real existence and they all are called ultimate realities or ultimate truths. These truths or realities are called paramattha dhamma. Paramattha is made up of parama and attha. Attha means essence meaning and parama means higher greater upper. So paramattha means the essence which is always higher and greater than non paramattha dhamma. they are upper dhamma. Non paramattha dhamma are pannatti dhamma. In ultimate sense, these dhammas do not exist. But patthana dhamma real all dhammas, their interrelations and interconnections including pannatta dhamma.

Paramattha dhammas have been explained in the earlier pages. After that we have a look on the first paccaya dhamma called hetu paccaya. Hetu means root or cause. There are 6 hetus or 6 roots. They are lobha, dosa, moha, alobha, adosa, and amoha roots. They are roots because they all support their related dhammas to develop and so they are all called root conditions of dhamma or hetu paccayo.

In this paccaya of hetu or root condition which is one of the 24 conditions, the causal dhamma or paccaya dhamma are lobha, dosa, moha, alobha, adosa, and amoha cetasika. The paccayuppanna dhammas or resultant dhammas because of these 6 dhammas are 2 ekahetuka cittas and their accompanying cetasikas, 22 dvihetuka cittas and their accompanying cetasikas, and 47 tihetuka cittas and their accompanying cetasikas. And there also involve cittaja rupas that arisen from these sahetuka cittas. So 6 dhammas are root conditions for other dhammas that depend on them like roots of the whole tree support the whole tree with water, minerals, nutriment, etc etc. The relationship between the causal dhamma paccaya dhamma and the resultant dhammas or paccayuppanna dhamma is called hetu paccaya.

In arammana paccaya, there are different dhammas that serve as arammana or objects. They are called object condition. Nearly all dhamma can serve as arammana or objects. Rupa or vanna or colour of different brightness is called ruparammana or the object of eye sight or the object of eye consciousness or they are called visual objects. This rupa which serves as arammana is called ruparammana. It serves for cakkhuvinnana citta, at first and later it serves for manovinnana cittas. Sadda or sounds serve as object or arammana for sotavinnana citta or ear consciousness and it is called saddarammana or auditory object. Gandha or smell serves as object for ghanavinnana citta and it is called gandharammana or aromatic object. Rasa or taste serves as the object for jivhavinnana citta and it is called rasarammana. Pathavi or tejo or vayo which are photthabba dhatu serve as object for kayavinnana citta and they are called photthabbarammana.

The causal dhamma or paccaya dhammas are ruparammana, saddarammana, gandharammana, rasarammana, and photthabbarammana. Their resultant dhamma or paccayuppanna dhammas are cakkhuvinnana citta, sotavinnana citta, ghanavinnana citta, jivhavinnana citta, and kayavinnana citta and their associated cetasikas. But these 5 arammana do not support rupa dhamma even though they are rupa dhammas. The relationship between these causal dhamma and resultant dhamma is called object condition or arammana paccayo.

There is 6th object or 6th arammana. It is collectively called dhammarammana. Because it is a collection of different dhammas. Dhamma that serve as object for cittas are 6 kinds. They are 1. pasada rupas, 2. sukhuma rupas, 3. cittas, 4. cetasikas, 5. nibbana, and 6. pannatta dhamma. All these can serve as the object for mind and they all can be causal dhamma or paccaya dhamma and the resultant cittas are paccayuppanna dhamma. The relationship between these causal dhamma of dhammarammana and resulatant dhamma cittas and cetasikas are called arammana paccaya.

While hetu paccayo relates nama dhamma to both nama dhamma and rupa dhamma, arammana paccayo relates rupa dhamma, nama dhamma, and pannatta dhamma to nama dhamma only. There are 7 rupas which serve as 5 arammanas namely rupa or vanno, sadda, gandha, rasa, pathavi, tejo, and vayo. But in 6th sense, all rupa dhamma, all nama dhamma including nibbana and pannatta dhamma can serve as object for cittas. So object condition or arammana paccayo is not for rupa but for nama dhamma only. Next paccayo is adhipati paccayo.

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