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Tipitaka >> Abhidhamma Pitaka >> Patthana Dhamma
By Htoo Naing


Chapter 5 - Hetu Paccayo Edit

Or Root Condition Edit

Hetu paccaya or root conditions are one of patthana paccaya. They are one of 24 conditions that can be seen in patthana dhamma. There are 6 roots or 6 hetus. All these 6 roots or hetus are cetasika dhamma. They are lobha, dosa, moha, alobha, adosa, and amoha.

Lobha, dosa, and moha are called akusala hetus and alobha, adosa, and amoha are called kusala hetus. These latter 3 hetus if they arise with abyakata dhamma they are called abyakata hetus. Lobha is also known as tanha, upadana, samudaya and so on. Moha is sometimes called avijja. Alobha is sometimes refered to dana or offering but it is non attachment. Adosa is metta or loving kindness. Amoha is pannindriya cetasika and simply called panna and is sometimes called vijja.

There are 89 cittas or 89 states of consciousness. Among these 89 cittas, 18 cittas do not have any hetu or root with them. They are called ahetuka cittas and they are not conditioned by root condition. These 18 cittas are 10 pancavinnana cittas, 5 akusala and 5 kusala in origin, 2 sampaticchana cittas or receiving consciousness again akusala and kusala, 2 upekkha santirana cittas, akusala and kusala, and 1 kusala somanassa santirana citta. These 15 cittas are vipaka cittas and they are called ahetuka vipaka cittas.

There are 3 ahetuka kiriya cittas. They are pancadvaravajjana citta, manodvaravajjana citta, and somanassa hasituppada citta. 15 ahetuka vipaka cittas and 3 ahetuka kiriya cittas are not supported by root condition. These 18 cittas are ahetuka cittas while all other cittas are called as sahetuka cittas. There are 71 sahetuka cittas. They are 2 ekahetuka cittas, 22 dvihetuka cittas, and 47 tihetuka cittas.

All these 71 sahetuka cittas are supported by root condition and this condition is called as hetu paccaya. Hetu serves as the root for the whole tree. The root of a tree gives water to the whole tree, supports nutriment to the whole tree. Like a tree, the whole tree of nama rupa are supported by stated 6 hetus. As these 6 hetus are present, they support the stem citta, all the branches cetasikas and all the leaves rupa dhamma.

Ekahetuka cittas are 2 moha mula cittas. In these 2 cittas, there is no other hetu but just moha hetu. So these cittas are called ekahetuka cittas. Eka means one and that single hetu is moha. 2 moha mula cittas are upekkha samagatam uddhacca sampayutta citta and upekkha sahagatam vicikiccha sampayutta citta. The root is moha hetu. The stem is uddhacca citta and vicikiccha citta.

There are cetasika branches in the whole tree of nama rupa. In uddacca citta, there are 1.phassa or contact, 2. vedana or feeling, 3. cetana or volition, 4. sanna or perception, 5. ekaggata or one pointedness, 6. jivitindriya or mental life, 7. manasikara or attention, 8. vitakka or initial application, 9. vicara or sustained application, 10. viriya or effort, 11. adhimokkha or decisiveness, 12. ahirika or shamelessness, 13. anottappa or fearlessness, 14. uddhacca or spreading. In that tree of uddhacca there are a total of 15 cetasikas including the root moha. Leaves are cittaja rupa, kammaja rupa where uddhacca citta has to depend on that is hadaya vatthu, and utuja rupa and aharaja rupa are also so there.

In the tree of vicikiccha, the root that is a single root is moha as well. The stem is vicikiccha citta. There are cetasika branches. In vicikiccha citta, as it cannot decide anything there does not arise adhimokkha. So there will be 14 cetasikas that arise in uddhacca citta. But in vicikiccha citta an extra cetasika is vicikiccha cetasikas. So there are a total of 15 cetasikas in the vicikiccha tree. The root is moha. The stem is vicikiccha citta. The branches are 14 cetasikas ( with moha there will be 15 cetasikas ). Leaves are cittaja rupa, kammaja rupa hadaya vatthu, utuja rupa and aharaja rupa.In both trees, moha is the chief. Moha supports as root conditions to all those dhamma cited above. This condition is called root condition. This is hetu paccaya.

In dvihetuka cittas that is double rooted consciousness, there are three possible alternative combinations of roots from the six hetus or roots namely lobha, dosa, moha, alobha, adosa, and amoha cetasika. Even though there are six hetus they do not arise in random fashion of combination but they have to arise according to the conditions and so there are only three possible combinations of hetus in case of dvihetuka cittas.

The first combination is seen in lobha cittas. Since all akusala cittas are led by moha cetasika, all lobha cittas do have moha as a root. As they are lobha cittas the second root is lobha. So in dvihetuka cittas, there are two roots or hetus. They are lobha cetasika and moha cetasika. There are 8 lobha cittas and all about lobha cittas have been delineated in the citta section that appears earlier in those pages. 8 lobha mula cittas are all dvihetuka cittas or double rooted consciousness.

The second combination can be observed in case of patigha sampayutta cittas that is 2 dosa cittas in simple term. Since all akusala cittas are led by moha cetasika, these two dosa mula cittas are led by moha cetasika. So in these two cittas, there are moha cetasika and dosa cetasika as root dhamma or hetu. These 2 dosa mula cittas are both dvihetuka cittas or double rooted consciousness. By reviewing this paragraph and above paragraph, it is clear that in any given akusala citta lobha cetasika and dosa cetasika can never arise together in the same citta.

So in akusala cittas, there are 8 lobha mula cittas and 2 dosa mula cittas as dvihetuka cittas. Therefore, there are a total of 10 akusala dvihetuka cittas. If one of these 10 cittas arise at dying period or marana asanna kala, they will function as marana asanna javana citta. As soon as they function as though, there arise cetana cetasika along with them. That cetana cetasika becomes kamma for future. After cuti citta or dying consciousness, as there are still defilement and as there were marana asanna javana which were not kiriya and which were akusala that is dvihetuka cittas, immediately after cuti citta will be linking consciousness or patisandhi citta.

That patisandhi citta will be the corresponding vipaka citta which is the result of those 10 akusala cittas. It will definitely be upekkha saha gatam akusala santirana citta. This patisandhi or rebirth is called ahetuka patisandhi and this is the citta of sattas of apaya bhumis that is niraya or hell realm, tiracchanna or animal realm, peta or hungry ghost realm, and asurakaya or demon realm. Akusala commitment definitely gives akusala result or akusala vipaka.

The third combination is alobha cetasika and adosa cetasika. This combination can be seen in 12 nana vippayutta kamavacara sahetuka mahakusala cittas. As they are kusala cittas they do not have hurting nature because they are rooted by adosa cetasika and they also do not have strong attachment like lobha cetasika. This is because they are rooted by alobha cetasika. But in all 12 dvihetuka cittas, there does not arise amoha or pannindriya cetasika because there is no condition for arising of panna. So all 12 kusala nana vippayutta cittas are dvihetuka cittas.

At dying period, if one of these 12 nana sampayutta citta works as marana asanna javana citta, then they will give rise to kamma vipaka citta which will be the correspondent vipaka citta depending on dvihetuka kusala citta that arises at dying period. Then the next life will start with dvihetuka patisandhi citta. It will be one of 4 mahavipaka citta. If this is patisandhi, then the whole life will be dvihetuka bhavanga citta. In such a person, jhana citta, magga citta, and phala citta can never arise however hard they try the whole life say more than 30 years or more than that.

So there are 10 akusala dvihetuka cittas and 12 kusala dvihetuka cittas altogether there are 22 dvihetuka cittas. They all are rooted by 2 of 6 hetus or roots. We can see here three separate kinds of dhamma tree made up of hetus or roots cetasikas, stem dvihetuka cittas, branches associated cetasikas and leaves cittaja rupas, kammaja rupas, aharaja rupas and utuja rupas.

In lobha tree, the roots are moha and lobha cetasikas. The stem is one of 8 lobha mula cittas and the branches are their assocaiated cetasikas and leaves are rupas that are attached to all.

The tree with the stem 1. somanassa saha gatam ditthi gata sampayuttam asankharika citta the roots are moha and lobha cetasikas. The branches are 13 annasamana cetasikas that is 1)phassa, 2) vedana, 3) cetana, 4) sanna, 5) ekaggata, 6) jivitindriya, 7) manasirara, 8) vitakka, 9) vicara, 10) viriya, 11) chanda, 12) adhimokkha, and 13) piti and 4 akusala sadharana cetasika that is moha, ahirika, anottappa, and uddhacca and 2 of 3 lotari that is lobha cetasika and ditthi cetasika. There are 19 cetasikas ( 13 annasamana, 4 akusala sadharana, and 2 lotari ). As moha and lobha are roots other 17 cetasikas are branches of that lobha tree. Leaves are different rupas arise with them.

In the lobha tree with the stem 2. somanassa saha gatam ditthi gata sampayutta sasankharika citta, there will be 2 extra branches that is thina cetasika and middhha cetasika as the citta is needed to be prompted by outside influences. In this citta, there will be 21 cetasikas. As 2 are roots, 19 will serve as branches. In the lobha tree with the stem 3. somanassa saha gatam ditthi gata vippayutta asankharika citta, ditthi cetasika is replaced with mana cetasika. In the lobha tree with the stem 4. somanassa saha gatam ditthi gata vipayutta sasankharika citta, ditthi is replaced with mana and thina and middhi are added.

In lobha tree with the stem 5. upekkha saha gatam ditthi gata sampayuttam asankharika citta there arise a total of 18 cetasikas including moha and lobha cetasikas. As this citta is associated with upekkha vedana or equanimous feeling, piti of 13 annasamana cetasika does not arise. There will be 12 annasamana cetasikas. Together with 4 akusala sadharana cittas and lobha and ditthi, there will be a total of 18 cetasikas. Lobha and moha here serve as roots. So the other 16 cetasikas can be assumed as the branches.

In lobha tree with the stem 6. upekkha saha gatam ditthi gata sampayutta sasankharika citta, thina cetasika and middha cetasika also arise and there will be a total of 20 cetasikas. 2 serve as roots while 18 serve as branches.

In lobha tree with the stem 7. upekkha saha gatam ditthi gata vippayutta asankharika citta, ditthi cetasika is replaced by mana cetasika. So ditthi and mana cannot co exist. In this tree there will also be 18 cetasikas , 2 are roots and 16 are the branches.

In lobha tree with the stem 8. upekkha saha gatam ditthi gata vippayutta sasankharika citta, due to arising of thina cetasika and middha cetasika there will be a total of 20 cetasikas, 2 are roots and 18 serve as the branches of that lobha tree.

In dosa tree with the stem 1.domanassa saha gatam patigha sampayuttam asankharika citta, there arise 12 annasamana cetasikas. Piti never arises in dosa citta. 4 akusala sadharana cetasika moha, ahirika, anottappa, and uddhacca also arise. There will be 16 cetasika. With dosa cetasika there will be a total of 17 cetasika. 2 of them moha and dosa serve as roots while other 15 cetasikas serve as branches.

In dosa tree with the stem 2. domanassa saha gatam patigha sampayuttam sasankharika citta, there arise two extra cetasikas called thina and middha. So there will be a total of 19 cetasikas, 2 of which serve as roots while other 17 cetasikas serve as branches of that dosa tree.

If the dosa tree is a kind of jealousy, then an extra cetasika arises. This cetasika is issa or jealousy or envy. In that issa dosa tree, there will be a total of 18 cetasikas, 2 of which are roots and 16 of which are branches. If the issa dosa tree is with the stem sasankharika citta thina and middha also arise and there will be 20 cetasikas, 2 are roots and 18 are branches.

If the dosa tree is a kind of stinginess, then an extra cetasika arises. This cetasika is macchariya or stinginess. In this macchariya dosa tree, there will be a total of 18 cetasikas, while moha and dosa cetasika are serving as roots and other 16 cetasikas are serving as branches. If the macchariya dosa tree has the stem of sasankharika, then there will be 20 cetasikas, 2 are roots and 18 are branches.

If the dosa tree is a kind od repent, then an extra cetasika arises. This cetasika is kukkucca or repent. In this kukkucca dosa tree, there will be a total of 18 cetasikas, 2 are roots and 16 are branches. If the kukkucca dosa tree has the stem of sasankharika citta, 2 extra cetasikas thina and middha arise. So there will be 20 cetasikas, 2 of which are roots and other 18 cetasikas are branches.

In dvihetuka trees there are 12 dhamma trees. 4 kusala trees, 4 vipaka trees, and 4 kiriya trees.

In kusala tree with 1. somanassa saha gatam nana vippayuttam asankharika citta, there are a maximum of 37 cetasikas arise. They are 13 annasamana cetasikas 1.phassa, 2.vedana, 3.cetana, 4.sanna, 5.ekaggata, 6.jivitindriya, 7.manasikara, 8.vitakka, 9.vicara, 10.viriya, 11.piti, 12.chanda, 13.adhimokkha; 19 sobhana sadharana cetasikas 1.saddha, 2.sati, 3.hiri, 4.ottappa, 5.alobha, 6.adosa or metta, 7. tatramajjatthata, 8.kayapassaddhi, 9.cittapassaddhi, 10.kayalahuta, 11.cittalahuta, 12.kayamuduta, 13.cittamuduta, 14.kayakammannata, 15.cittakammannata, 16.kayapagunnata, 17.cittapagunnata, 18.kayujukata, 19.cittujukata; 3 virati cetasikas 1.samma kammanta, 2.samma vaca, 3.samma ajiva; and 2 appamanna cetasikas 1.karuna, and 2.mudita. There will be a maximum of 13 + 19 + 3 + 2 = 37 cetasikas. There does not arise pannindrita cetasika as this citta is nana vippayutta citta. In this tree the roots are alobha and adosa cetasikas. Other 35 cetasikas serve as branches.

This is just talking of maximum. Karuna and mudita do not always arise. So there will leave 35 cetasikas. Again 3 virati cetasikas do not always arise. So there will leave 32 cetasikas.

If the kusala tree is mudita tree, there will be 33 cetasikas. If karuna tree, there will also be 33 cetasikas. Karuna and mudita never arise together because objects are totally different that is while karuna exerts on poor sattas, mudita exerts on gaining sattas.

If kusala tree is samma kammanta, there will be 33 cetasikas. If kusala tree is samma vaca, there will also be 33 cetasikas. When kusala tree is samma ajiva there will arise 2 extra cetasikas add to 32 cetasikas. They may be samma kammanta and samma ajiva or samma vaca and samma ajiva. So in samma ajiva tree there will be 34 cetasikas. If the kusala tree has the stem sasankharika citta, all will be the same as asankharika citta stem. But resultwise will not be the same. Asankharika kusala becomes ukkattha kusala or the greatest kusala while sasankharika citta becomes omaka kusala or lesser kusala.

In the kusala tree with the stem 3. upekkha saha gatam nana vippayutta asankharika citta, there will be a maximum of 36 cetasikas as upekkha cittas do not have piti cetasika. Otherwise other accompaniments are all the same with somanassa cittas.

In kiriya tree, there do not arise 3 virati cetasikas. There will be a total of 34 cetasikas. They are 13 annasamana cetasikas, 19 sobhana sadharana cetasikas and 2 appamanna cetasikas altogether 34 cetasikas.These are cetasikas of arahats. 2 appamanna do not always arise. So there will be 32 cetasikas. If kiriya tree is karuna then there will be 33 cetasikas and if mudita there will also be 33 cetasikas. If the stem is asankharika citta, all will be the same. If the stem is upekkha citta, then piti does not arise and there will be a total of 33 cetasikas but without appamanna there will be 31 cetasikas. But if kiriya tree is karuna then 32 cetasikas arise and if mudita there also are 32 cetasikas. In these kiriya trees, the roots are alobha and adosa hetus. There is no amoha hetu or pannindriya cetasika.

In 22 dvihetuka cittas, a total of 18 cittas have been discussed in the previous page. There left 4 cittas in dvihetuka. They are 4 kamavacara sahetukha mahavipaka cittas. These mahavipaka cittas are patisandhi citta, bhavanga citta, and cuti citta of kama sugati bhumi. That is these 4 cittas are linking consciousness, life continūm and dying consciousness of human beings and devas from 6 deva realms all of whom would not attain any jhana or magga nana in their very present life.

These four vipaka trees have four different stems called mahavipaka cittas. They are 1.samanassa sahagatam nana vippayutta asankharika citta, 2. somanassa sahagatam nana vippayutta sasankharika citta, 3. upekkha sahagatam nana vippayutta asankharika citta, and 4. upekkha sahagatam nana vippayutta sasankharika citta.

In the first vipaka tree, the stem of the tree is somanassa sahagatam nana vippayutta asankharika citta. In that stem there arise many cetasika branches. There are 13 annasamana cetasikas phassa, vedana, cetana, sanna, ekaggata, jivitindriya, manasikara, vitakka, vicara, piti, viriya, chanda, and adhimokkha and 19 sobhanasadharana cetasika saddha, sati, hiri, ottappa, alobha, adosa, tatramajjhatthata, kayapassaddhi, cittapassaddhi, kayalahuta, cittalahuta, kayamuduta, cittamuduta, kayakammannata, cittakammannata, kayapagunnata, cittapagunnata, kayujukata, and cittujukata. There are 32 cetasikas. Among them alobha and adosa cetasika work as root dhamma and other will become branches of the tree. There is no panna so this citta is dvihetuka citta that is without amoha.

In the stem sasankharika citta, the branches and the roots are all the same. There is some difference between asankharika citta and sassankharika citta. Asankharika citta works as ukkattha kusala and the result is asankharika vipaka citta which is much more better than sasankharika citta.

In the stem upekkha sahagatam nana vippayutta citta, piti does not arise as it is upekkha citta. So there will be 31 cetasikas in total. The roots are alobha and adosa cetasikas and other 29 cetasikas will become the branches of the tree. Asankharika and sasankharika have different result as when kusala were done asankharika kusala was done as ukkattha kusala or the greatest wholesome deeds while sasankharika kusala was done as omaka kusala or lesser wholesome deeds.

So there are 2 ekakahetuka cittas which are supported by moha cetasika alone as root condition. There are 22 dvihetuka cittas which are supported by moha and lobha in case of 8 lobha cittas, moha and dosa in case of 2 dosa cittas, and alobha and adosa in case of 12 nana vippayutta kama sobhana cittas. Root cetasikas work as root condition and they are chiefs in the whole set of things.

There are 47 cittas which are tihetuka cittas. They are 12 kamavacara nana sampayutta cittas, 15 rupavacara cittas, 12 arupavacara cittas, and 8 lokuttara cittas.

In case of 12 nana sampayutta kamavacara cittas, there arises panna as they all are nana sampayutta citta. Panna here is amoha cetasika and it is a root. It adds to the existing alobha and adosa cetasikas of dvihetuka cittas and the cittas become tihetuka cittas.

In the kusala tree with the stem somanassa sahagatam nana sampayutta asankharika citta, there are a total of 38 cetasikas. 3 are roots and 35 are branches. In sasankharika citta, it has lesser effect as compared to asankharika citta but cetasika are the same amount. In the upekkha stem, piti does not arise and there will be 37 cetasikas, 3 are roots and 34 are branches. Asankharika and sasankharika both have the same cetasikas. But karuka and mudita do not always arise and they do not arise together. So there will be 36 total and 33 branches and in upekkha citta, there will be 35 total and 32 branches. Again 3 virati cetasikas do not always arise and if arise samma kammanta and samma vaca do not arise together. When they do not arise then there will be 33/30 in somanassa and 32/29 in upekkha cittas. If samma kammanta arises, then 34/31 & 33/30 respectively will arise and the same does happen in case of samma vaca. When samma ajiva arise it may be associated with samma kammanta or samma vaca and then it will be 35/32 & 34/ 31 respectively.

In kiriya tree, there are 35 cetasikas in total as possible cetasikas that can arise. 3 virati cetasika do not arise in kiriya cittas as thse cittas are kamavacara cittas of arahats. They only arise when in magga and phala cittas.

In the first kiriya tree in nana sampayutta, there will be 35/32 ( total / branches as 3 are roots ). Again karuna and mudita do not always arise. So there will be 33/30 cetasika. When karuna arises, then 34/31 will arise. Sasankharika does the same. If upekkha citta, then piti will not arise and there will be 34/31 and if karuna and mudita are removed,32/29 will be left. If karuna or mudita arises then there will be 33/30 cetasikas will arise.

In vipaka tree in nana sampayutta, there will be 33/30 cetasikas. If karuna or mudita do not arise then there will be left 31/28 cetasikas and it arises then 32/29 cetasikas will arise. Sasankharika citta will have the same numbers of cetasikas as in asankharika cittas. In upekkha vipaka citta , piti does not arise and cetasikas arise will be 32/29. If 2 appamanna cetasikas do not include there will be 30/27. If karuna or mudita arises then cetasikas arise will be 31/28. All these 12 nana sampayutta cittas are tihetuka cittas. When they arise, they are supported by alobha, adosa, and amoha as their roots. Citta stem will have different cetasika branches. There are different rupa leaves namely cittaja rupa, kammaja rupa, utuja rupa, and aharaja rupa attached to stem or branches.

There are 47 tihetuka cittas or triple rooted consciousness. They are 12 kamavacara nana sampayutta cittas, 15 rupavacara cittas, 12 arupavacara cittas, and 8 lokuttara cittas. 12 kamavacara nana sampayutta cittas have been explained in the previous page.

There are 15 rupavacara cittas. Rupavacara cittas are cittas that most frequently arise in rupa brahma bhumis or realms. But they can arise in other realms when there are conditions for their arising. Those in manussa bhumi or human realm and those in 6 deva realms who are born with tihetuka cittas are possible sources where rupavacara cittas may arise. But rupavacara cittas in non rupabrahma are almost always rupakusala cittas except in case of human arahats and deva arahats.

Among 15 rupavacara cittas, 5 cittas are rupakusala cittas, 5 are kupakiriya cittas, and 5 are rupavipaka cittas. Rupakusala cittas arise when rupa brahma are staying in vithi vara that is while they are not in bhavanga citta. In other realms like human and deva, rupakusala cittas arise when in rupa jhana. Rupakiriya cittas are rupa jhana cittas of arahats. When arahats stay in rupa jhana, rupakiriya cittas arise. If rupa brahmas become arahats, then their cittas will become rupakiriya cittas when not in bhavanga citta. Rupavipaka cittas are cittas that arise only in rupa brahmas as they are patisandhi, bhavanga and cuti citta of rupa brahmas. Even The Buddha did not have rupavipaka cittas.

In rupakusala trees there are three roots. They are alobha, adosa, and amoha. The stems are rupa jhana cittas. There are cetasikas branches and rupa leaves and flowers.

In the 1st rupa jhana cittas trees that is in all kusala, kiriya, and vipaka citta, the roots are alobha, adosa, and amoha or panna. The stems are 1st jhana rupakusala citta, 1st jhana rupakiriya citta, 1st jhana rupavipaka citta. In all these three trees, cetasika are altogether 35 cetasikas. They are 13 annasamana cetasika of phassa or contact, vedana or feeling, cetana or volition, sanna or perception, ekaggata or one pointedness, jivitindriya or mental life, manasikara or attention, vitakka or initial application, vicara or sustained application, viriya or effort, chanda or wish, piti or joy, adhimokkha or decision, 19 sobhanasadharana cetasikas, 2 appamanna of karuna and mudita and finally panna or pannindriya cetasika. So there are 13 + 19 + 2 + 1 = 35 cetasikas.

But karuna and mudita do not arise together. So there will be 34 cetasikas. As three are roots, there will be 31 cetasika branches. Rupas are cittaja rupas including iriyapatha or body position postures, kammajarupas, aharaja rupas and utuja rupas. In the 2nd rupa jhana trees of kusala, kiriya, and vipaka, vitakka cetasika does not arise. So there will be 34. In the 3rd rupa jhana vitakka and vicara do not arise and there will be 33 cetasikas. In 4th rupa jhana vitakka, vicara, and piti do not arise and there will be 32 cetasikas. In 5th rupa jhana vitakka, vicara, piti, karuna, and mudita do not arise and there will be 30 cetasikas.

By the same token, all arupavacara cittas will have the same number of cetasikas as in 5th rupa jhana. Because all arupa jhana are upekkha and in terms of jhananga they all have only upekkha and ekaggata as jhanangas.

There are 12 arupavacara cittas. They are 4 arupakusala cittas, 4 arupakiriya cittas, and 4 arupavipaka cittas. 4 arupa jhanas are akasanancayatana arupa jhana, vinnanancayatana arupa jhana, akincinnayatana arupa jhana, and nevasannanasannayatana arupa jhana. Each has three cittas they are arupakusala citta, arupakiriya citta and arupavipaka citta. Arupa kusala cittas are cittas of arupa brahmas when they are in vithi vara. These citta can also arise in manussa bhumi and deva bhumi if satta concerned has tihetuka citta and attain arupa jhana.

Arupakiriya cittas are vithi cittas of arahatta arupa brahmas. These cittas can arise in manussa arahats who are in arupa jhana, in deva arahats who are in arupa jhana. Arupavipaka cittas are patisandhi, bhavanga and cuti citta of arupa brahmas and they never arise in other realms.

There are 8 lokuttara cittas and they all are tihetuka cittas. These 8 lokuttara cittas are sotapatti magga kusala citta, sakadagami magga kusala citta, anagami magga kusala citta, arahatta magga kusala citta, sotapatti phala vipaka citta, sakadagami phala vipaka citta, anagami phala vipaka citta, and arahatta phala vipaka citta.

In lokuttara trees, there are maximum of 36 cetasikas that can arise. They are 13 annasamana cetasika, 19 sobhanasadharana cetasikas, 3 virati cetasikas and 1 pannindriya cetasika. 13 + 19 + 3 + 1 = 36 cetasikas. All these 36 cetasikas arise in 8 pathamajjhana lokuttara cittas. In 8 duthiyajjhana lokuttara cittas there arise 35 cetasikas as vitakka does not arise in 2nd jhana. In 3rd lokuttara jhana cittas, there are 34 cetasikas excluding vitakka and vicara. In 4th lokuttara jhana cittas there arise 33 cetasikas. in 5th lokuttara jhana cittas there arise also 33 cetasikas but with upekkha vedana instead of somanassa vedana.

In lokuttara trees three roots are alobha, adosa, and amoha cetasikas. In all 47 tihetuka cittas, alobha, adosa and amoha cetasikas support citta as root condition. In 22 dvihetuka cittas that is 10 lobha citta, 2 dosa citta, and 12 nana vippayutta cittas, there are two roots lobha and moha for 10 lobha cittas, dosa and moha for 2 dosa cittas and alobha and adosa for 12 nana vippayutta kamavacara cittas. 2 moha cittas of vicikiccha citta and uddhacca cittas are supported only by moha hetu as root condition. So altogether these 71 sahetuka cittas are supported by 6 roots as root condition.

There are only citta, cetasika, rupa, and nibbana in ultimate sense. But they have a relationship in a way or others. All cittas at any given time, at any given place, and at any condition have an object to depend on. Citta always takes an object. Citta always depends on an object.

No citta can arise without any object. When there is no object, there is no citta. Each and every citta has their own object. No matter what kinds they are, they each have their own object. Without object means no citta. Objects as we can sense are called arammana in Pali.

There are six kinds of arammana. They are rupārammana, saddarammana, gandharammana, rasarammana, photthabbarammana, and dhammarammana. When these six heavy Pali words are seen, those who are not familiar with Pali may feel a bit uneasy. But they do not need to worry. These words will explained along with ongoing messages. Repeated use and repeated reading will finally make these terms easy to understand.

Ruparammana is a Pali word made up of rupa and arammana. Rupa here is not the word rupa in 4 paramattha dhammas or 4 ultimate realities. But rupa in ruparammana is sight what we can see with our eyes. When eyes are closed, there is no sight consciousness or alternatively no eye consciousness. As soon as eyes are open and attention is given to take sight object, we will see there are different colours with different brightness.. That colour is called vanna in Pali. All vanna or colours constitute ruparammana or sight object.

In front of us there are many visible objects. There are various books of different thickness and different coloured covers. And there are still many other objects around us. They have shapes and forms like circular, square, rectangular, triangular, spherical, pyramidal, cylindrical, conical, irregular. They have different brightness depending on the colours they bear. Whatever we think in science all these are just pannatta classification and in ultimate sense what we see are just colours of different combinations.

This matter can be considered as in digital construction of pictures on the computer screen. There are numerous tiny spots. They each bear some brightness from zero to infinity. Zero is complete darkness. These tiny spots have different colours. These different combinations make an illusion of what we think of pictures of such and such things what we will think of man, animal, things.

This is illusion. Illusion is false interpretation of real images or real things. Real thing here is just colour. Colours are vanna. And these vanna or colour constitutes ruparammana or sight object. Cakkhuvinnana cittas always have to depend on ruparammana or sight object. Without sight, there is no cakkhuvinnana cittas.

This means that citta always has to depend on its object to arise. This is called arammana paccaya. Paccaya is the cause. The cause of citta that is in this case the cause of cakkhuvinnana citta is arammana in this case ruparammana or sight object.

Cittas have to depend on arammanas. Cittas have to hook to arammanas or objects. No citta can arise without an arammana or object. Cittas totally depend on arammanas. When people become old, they have to use walking sticks to help their walking and to support their walking. Without sticks they cannot walk and even cannot stand.

There are objects that we can sense through 5 sense organs. These 5 kinds of objects are called arammana in Pali. In dhamma, there are six arammanas or 6 objects. They are sights that we can see through our eyes, which is called ruparammana; sounds we can hear through our ears, which is called saddarammana ; smells that we can smell through our nose, which is called gandharammana ; tastes that we can taste through our tongue, which is called rasarammana ; touch senses that we can touch through our body or body parts. The six sense will be discussed separately in later pages.

So five senses or 5 objects are 1.sights or ruparammana, 2. sounds or saddarammana, 3. smells or gandharammana, 4. tastes or rasarammana, 5. touch senses or photthabbarammana. All these are rupa of ultimate reality. Sights or ruparammana is a rupa.

Ruparammana is made up of rupa and arammana. Rupa here is referred to vanna or colour. What we see are just colours and their different brightness or light intensity. This can be seen in case of telecasting. On the screen of a television set, there are uncountable tiny spots. These spots have different colours and different brightness. What we see as picture is an illusion. Illusion is false interpretation of real object. Due to illusion, colours and their different brightness combinations are illuded as man, woman, animal, etc etc. In real sense, what we see is colour or vanna. This is actual rupa which is an ultimate reality.

Ruparammana is vanna and it serves as arammana or object for cakkhuvinnana citta. Cakkhu means eye related. Vinnana comprises vi and nana. Vi means special or distinctive or distinguished and nana means knowledge. Vinnana means special knowledge. Cakkhuvinnana citta is consciousness of special knowledge at eye. This is when we exactly see a visual object. That cakkhuvinnana citta does have to depend on ruparammana or vanna. Without ruparammana, cakkhuvinnana will never arise. Paccaya dhamma or causal dhamma is arammana and in this case it is ruparammana which is a rupa. Paccayuppanna dhamma or resultant dhamma is cakkhuvinnana citta. The relationship between rupa ( vanna ) and nama ( cakkhuvinnana citta and 7 universal cetasikas ) is arammana. There is no cittaja rupa arises from cakkhuvinnana citta as 10 dvipancavinnana cittas do not give rise to rupa. Cakkhuvinnana citta will never arise without ruparammana or vanna. This is arammana paccaya and its implication.

Saddha or sound serves as the object for sotavinnana citta. They are called saddarammana or sound object. If there is no sound, there will not be any sotavinnana citta or ear consciousness ( direct translation ) or sound consciousness. So sotavinnana citta totally depend on saddarammana or sadda or sound.

Sadda or sound is a rupa. It is one of ultimate realities. Sadda is a paramattha rupa. This rupa serves as arammana for citta which is called sotavinnana citta. So the rupa sadda or sound serves as arammana for the nama sotavinnana cittas and its associated cetasikas of 7 universal ones such as phassa or contact, vedana or feeling, cetana or volition, sanna or perception, ekaggata or one pointedness, jivitindriya or mental life, and manasikara or attention.

The causal dhamma or paccaya dhamma here is sound or sadda which serves as saddarammana or sound object. Due to this causal dhamma there has to arise, the resultant dhamma or paccayuppanna dhamma the citta called sotavinnana citta and its accompanying 7 cetasikas. The causal dhamma here is paramattha rupa sadda or sound and the resultant dhamma here is nama dhamma ( sotavinnana cittas and 7 universal cetasikas ). The relationship between the rupa dhamma and nama dhamma here is arammana. This is arammana paccaya.

Smell or gandha serves as the object for ghanavinnana citta. As gandha or smell becomes an object it is called an arammana and this arammana is called gandharammana or smell object. Ghana means related to nose. Ghanavinnana means special consciousness at nose. If there is no smell, there will not arise ghanavinnana citta. Gandha or smell is a paramattha rupa and serves as an object here. Ghanavinnana citta and its associated 7 cetsaikas are nama dhamma and they are resultant dhamma. The cause is gandha or smell and the result is ghanavinnana citta or nose consciousness ( direct translation ) or smell consciousness. The relationship between the cause which is rupa here and the result which are nama dhamma here is arammana. This is arammana paccaya. Or object condition.

Rasa or taste serves as an object and it becomes arammana. It is called rasarammana or taste objectDue to this taste, there arises jivhavinnana citta. Jivha means tongue related. Jivhavinnana citta is tongue consciousness ( direct ) or taste consciousness. The cause here is a paramattha rupa taste or rasa and the effect or the result here is jivhavinnana citta and its associated 7 cetasikas. The relationship between the cause and the resultant dhamma here is arammana. This is arammana paccaya.

Photthabba or touch senses serve as object and they become arammana. This arammana is called photthabbarammana or touch object. When there arise photthabba or touch sense, there arises kayavinnana citta. Kaya means body related. Kayavinnana citta is body consciousness ( direct ) or touch sense consciousness. Photthabba or touch may be one of three kinds.

These three are patthavi photthabba, tejo photthabba, and vayo photthabba. Pathavi photthabba is a touch sense that has the quality of hardness softness or state of solidity or state of smoothness roughness. This is the state that we can sensed by touching things with our body parts which know the touch sense. Tejo photthabba is a rupa that has the quality of coldness hotness and vayo photthabba is a paramattha rupa that has the quality of propulsion repulsion/ compression repression/ contration retraction/ pushing pulling/ attraction distraction/ movement/ supportiveness. These three rupas are three of 4 mahabhuta rupas namely pathavi, tejo, apo, vayo.

The rupa photthabba ( pathavi, tejo, vayo ) serves as arammana or object and it is photthabbarammana. Due to this kayavinnana citta has to arise. The causal dhamma is rupa and the resultant dhamma are nama dhamma that is kayavinnana citta and 7 universal cetasikas here in this case. The relationship between the cause rupa and the result nama dhamma is called arammana. This is arammana paccaya or object condition.

There exist 6th object or sixth arammana. And this object condition will be discussed in the coming pages. So far there have explained 5 senses. There is no satta or no atta here in these dhamma. The causal dhamma or paccaya dhamma are paramattha rupa dhamma and the resultant dhamma or paccayuppanna dhamma are nama dhamma or cittas and cetasikas. Unlike paticcasamuppada dhamma which just shows the cause and the result, patthana dhamma have an extra feature that paticcasamuppada dhamma cannot reveal. This is how they are related or the way they are related. In this part of patthana dhamma, the cause here is rupa and the result here is nama. The relationship between these two is arammana or object condition.

Five objects or five arammanas which are sensual things have been discussed in the previous page. They are ruparammana or sight, saddarammana or sound, gandharammana or smell, rasarammana or taste, photthabbarammana or touch sense.

Each of these 5 objects which again are paramattha rupas serves as the specific object for the specific citta. This means that ruparammana which is vanna is a paramattha rupa and it serves as arammana for cakkhuvinnana citta or sight consciousness or eye consciousness. Saddarammana or sound which is a paramattha rupa serves as the object for the specific citta sotavinnana citta or sound consciousness or ear consciousness. Gandharammana or smell which is a paramattha rupa serves as the object for the specific citta ghanavinnana citta or smell consciousness or nose consciousness. Rasarammana or taste which is a paramattha rupa serves as the object for the specifice citta jivhavinnana citta or taste consciousness or tongue consciousness. Photthabbarammana or touch senses serve as objects for kayavinnana citta or touch sense consciousness or body consciousness.

Photthabbarammana may be one of 3 paramattha rupa that is pathavi or sense of solidity, tejo or sense of temperature, and vayo or sense of motion. These 5 arammana or 5 objects are 7 paramattha rupas that is 1.vanna, 2.sadda, 3.gandha, 4.rasa, 5.pathavi, 6.tejo, 7.vayo serve as the object for their respective citta. If these 7 paramattha rupa are not in existence, then 10 dvipancavinnana cittas will never arise. Old people have to depend on walking stick for their standing and walking. When there is no walking stick, they will not be able to stand or walk. Arammana ( 5 as stated arammanas or 7 in terms of paramattha rupas ) serves as walking stick for old people cittas. So far only 10 pancavinnana cittas and 7 paramattha rupas and their relationship have been discussed.

Among 89 cittas which have been described in the earlier pages, 3 cittas are known as manodhatu. They are pancadvaravajjana citta, akusala sampaticchana citta, and kusala sampaticchana citta. Pancavinnana cittas knows their respective arammana and they are called pancavinnana dhatu. Pancavinnana dhatu knows pancadhatu. Pancavinnana dhatu are all cittas and pancadhatu are all rupas. Manovinnana dhatu are cittas that know their own objects very well. But above three cittas which just do their function are not like other manovinnana cittas and they are just called manodhatu. Pancadvaravajjana citta just checks which door does the arammana come in. This citta is the first citta in vithi vara. It replaces the passed citta bhavanga citta.

Depending on arammana, pancadvaravajjana citta has to depend on specific arammana. If the arammana which is rupa in case of pancarammana is ruparammana, the pancadvaravajjana citta will contemplate on ruparammana and this citta can be called cakkhudvaravajjana citta or eye door adverting consciousness. If the arammana is saddarammana, pancadvaravajjana citta will depend on the rupa sound or sadda and this pancadvaravajjana citta can be called sotadvaravajjana citta or ear door adverting consciousness. If the arammana is gandha or smell, pancadvaravajjana citta will depend on smell and it can be called ghanadvaravajjana citta or nose door adverting consciousness. If taste, pancadvaravajjana will depend on taste and it can be called jivhadvaravajjana citta or tongue door adverting consciousness. If touch sense, pancadvaravajjana citta will take touch as its object and it can be called kayadvaravajjana citta or body door adverting consciousness.

After passing away of pancadvaravajjana citta in a vithi vara, next arises pancavinnana citta which will be the corresponding citta of 5 arammanas. This citta passes away and next citta arise. This citta is called sampaticchana citta. It just receives the object as pancavinnana citta does but it does not know fully what the object is like in detail. So it is also called manodhatu as pancadvaravajjana does. This sampaticchana citta may be the result of akusala if the arammana is disagreeable and may be the result of kusala if the arammana is agreeable. And all three manodhatu that is pancadvaravajjana citta and 2 sampaticchana citta will take their correspondent arammana of 5 senses that are ruparammana, saddarammana, gandharammana, rasarammana, photthabbarammana.

In this, 5 arammana or 7 paramattha rupa serve as object for cittas ( in this instance, 3 manodhatu ) and these 7 rupa are not concerned with other dhamma but the stated corresponding cittas. This is arammana paccaya. Or this is object condition. The causal dhamma or the paccaya dhamma here are 7 paramattha rupas or 5 arammanas. The resultant dhamma or paccayuppanna dhamma here are pancavinnana cittas and 3 manodhatu all of which are nama dhamma. The relationship between rupa (arammana ) and nama ( cittas and associated cetasikas ) in these examples are arammana. Such relationship cannot be seen in paticcasamuppada dhamma. This is the distinctive feature of patthana dhamma. Patthana dhamma can be applied in our daily life. These 5 senses are our daily life encounters.

No citta can arise without any object or without any arammana. So far, regarding arammana or object condition, ruparammana or object of sight, saddarammana or object of sound, gandharammana or object of smell, rasarammana or object of taste, photthabbarammana or object of touch have been discussed in the previous pages.

All these arammanas or objects are rupa dhamma and they are also called pancarammana or 5-sense objects. They serve as the object for their respective citta. Vanna or coulour which is a paramattha rupa serves as ruparammana or object of sight for the citta, cakkhuvinnana. Sadda or sound which is a paramattha rupa serves as saddarammana or object of sound for the citta, sotavinnana. So do other rupas as gandha by serving as gandharammana or object of smell for the citta, ghanavinnana and rasa serves as rasarammana or object of taste for the citta, jivhavinnana and three of four mahabhuta rupas namely pathavi, tejo, and vayo serve as photthabbarammana or object of touch for the citta, kayavinnana.

Again all these 5 arammanas or pancarammana serve as object for three cittas, which are also known as manodhatu. They are pancadvaravajjana citta, kusala sampaticchana citta and akusala sampaticchana citta. Without these 5 arammanas which are all paramattha rupas, the above cittas namely cakkhuvinnana, sotavinnana, ghanavinnana, jivhavinnana, kayavinnana, pancadvaravajjana, kusala sampaticchana, and akusala sampaticchana citta will never arise. This kind of support or relation between rupa dhamma and nama dhamma is called arammana. The paccaya is arammana paccaya or object condition.

There are dhammarammana which are the object of manovinnana. Dhammarammana refers to object of mind. There are different kind of objects which serve as dhammarammana. They are 5 pasada rupas, 16 sukhuma rupas, 89 cittas, 52 cetasikas, nibbana, and pannatta. Pannatta is not paramattha dhamma. But can serve as arammana for paramattha dhamma cittas and cetasikas by pretending to be paramattha dhamma

5 pasada rupas are paramattha rupas. They are cakkhuppasada, sotappasada, ghanappasada, jivhappasada, and kayappasada. All these 5 rupas are not vanna or colour. So they cannot be seen by eye and cannot be known by cakkhuvinnana citta. All these 5 rupas are not sound and not known by sotavinnana citta. They are not gandha or smell and they are not known by ghanavinnana citta. They are not rasa or taste and they are not known by jivhavinnana citta, and they are not object of touch and they are not known by kayavinana cittas. While these 5 pasada rupas are not known by pancavinnana cittas, they are also not known by pancadvaravajjana citta and 2 sampaticchana citta. But they can be known by all other manovinnana cittas. So these 5 pasada rupas serve as object of mind for manovinnana dhatu and they are called dhammarammana or object of mind.

16 sukhuma rupas are paramattha rupas and they are not the object of pancavinnana cittas and so they are also not the object of 3 mano dhatu. So they are object of manovinnana dhatu.

16 sukhuma rupas are:

  1. itthatta bhava rupa ( female faculty )
  2. purisatta bhava rupa ( male faculty )
  3. hadaya rupa ( heart base )
  4. jivita rupa ( material life )
  5. ahara rupa ( nutriment )
  6. pariccheda rupa ( akasa or space )
  7. kayavinatti rupa ( gesture formation )
  8. vacivinatti rupa ( speech character )
  9. rupa lahuta rupa ( lightness of other rupas )
  10. rupa muduta rupa ( tenderness of other rupas )
  11. rupa kammannata rupa ( wieldiness of other rupas )
  12. upacaya rupa ( initial formation of other rupas )
  13. santati rupa ( sustained formation of other rupas )
  14. jarata rupa ( oldness of other rupas )
  15. aniccata rupa ( disappearence of other rupas )
  16. apo mahabhuta rupa ( water element or cohesion of other rupas )

These subtle materials or sukhuma rupas cannot be sensed by any of 5 physical senses and they are called dhammarammana if they are to be known by cittas which are manovinnana dhatu.

There are 89 states of consciousness. There are 89 states of mental conditions. There are 89 states of mind. These 89 states of mind are called cittas. These cittas are real existence. But these 89 cittas while being talked are just representatives of realities, cittas or consciousness.

There are cittas arising and falling away all the time as each will last only a single moment called cittakkhana. They are arising in your mind right now and they are also arising in other sattas in all lokas comprising kama loka or sensuous sphere ( 4 apaya bhumis or 4 woeful planes of existence, 1 manussa bhumi or 1 human realm, 6 deva bhumis or 6 heavenly beings realms ), rupa loka or fine material beings ( 16 rupa brahma bhumis or 16 fine material heavenly beings realms ), and arupa loka ( 4 arupa brahma bhumis or 4 immaterial beings ). These cittas that are arising outside of your awareness are called bahiddha cittas.

There are cittas here in your mind, there in cittas other beings in 31 planes of existence, here in your area and there in other areas far away from your area as far as millions billions trillions miles, and here in your presence and were there when you were not there as now and cittas will be there here and there when you will not be as in the present states. There are endless, countless cittas in this samsara and they are arising and falling away all the time and no one including Sammasambuddha control them to arise and to fall away. This is dhamma and they behave according to dhamma niyama and citta niyama. But even though there are numerous and endless cittas, they can be summarised as 89 cittas according to their characteristics.

These 89 cittas in summary are real existences and you yourselves can test and confirm their existence if you are good enough to develop special nana if you want to realise all 89 cittas. But some cittas can be understood by you as they are frequently arising in sensuous planes which are arising in you at this moment when you are reading this message. How can these 89 cittas be sensed? With eye? Ear? Nose? Tongue? Body? Not at all. All these 89 cittas are called nama dhamma and they are not rupa dhamma. They are not material things. So they will not be detected by any mode in any physical instruments even though some strange materialistic scientists would try to prove the existence of cittas by electroencephalogram called EEG and other related machines. But these are not real senses that you know.

How can these 89 cittas be sensed? They are all known by citta itself. They are sensed through mind sense door or manodvara and they are known by manovinnana cittas. As they are sensed by citta and they represent as arammanas which are objects and things to be known they all that is all 89 cittas are dhammārammana or mind object. They are nama but they can serve as arammana. By serving as arammana or objects they do not become rupa which is totally wrong. I have come across two people who thought like this. One in a dhamma discussion group and he seemed to believe so. Another person seemed to state unintentionally in a wrong way. But 89 cittas are always nama dhamma and they are never rupa dhamma. As they can be known by mind, they are dhammārammana or mind object when they are sensed by the mind.

Arammana paccaya shows the relation between nama dhamma and all other dhamma including nama dhamma again. Tha dhamma as arammana or object support nama dhamma citta and cetasikas. Without arammana or object, there is no citta and no cetasikas at all. In earlier pages, 5 physical senses have been discussed in some details. After that the 6th sense that is object of mind or dhammārammana has been started under discussion.

In dhammārammana, there are 6 kinds which can be objects of mind. They are 5 pasada rupas, 16 sukhuma rupas, 89 cittas, 52 cetasikas, nibbana and pannatta. Apart from pannatta all other dhammarammana are paramattha dhamma. Pannatta can serve as arammana in the position of paramattha dhamma. Some general things has been discussed on cittas. There are 89 cittas which can be the object of mind. They are

1. somanassa sahagatam ditthigata sampayutta asankharika lobha mula akusala citta 2. somanasssa sahagatam ditthigata sampayutta sasankharika lobha mula akusala citta 3. somanassa sahagatam ditthigata vippayutta asankharika lobha mula akusala citta 4. somanassa sahagatam ditthigata vippayutta sasankharika lobha mula akusala citta 5. upekkha sahagatam ditthigata sampayutta asankharika lobha mula akusala citta 6. upekkha sahagatam ditthigata sampayutta sasankharika lobha mula akusala citta 7. upekkha sahagatam ditthigata vippayutta asankharika lobha mula akusala citta 8. upekkha sahagatam ditthigata vippayutta sasankharika lobha mula akusala citta

These are 8 lobha mula akusala cittas. So means pleasurable, pleasant, agreeable. Manassa [ mana + assa ] means of mind. Somanassa means mental pleasure or mental joy. Saha means together with and gata means to go. Sahagata means to go together with. Ditthi means wrong view that does not believe Kamma and the results of kamma. Sam means well right true. Yutta means mix with in parallel with in common with. Sampayutta means well mixed with. Sankhara means to prepare to affect effort exertion. Sankharika means prompted urged. Asankharika means unprompted.

There are 8 lobha mula cittas. 4 cittas arise with mental pleasure and 4 cittas arise with indifferent feeling. Half of these arise along with wrong view and each pair composes of promptedness and unpromptedness. So there become 8 lobha mula cittas.

9. domanassa sahagatam patigha sampayutta asankharika dosa mula akusala citta 10.domanassa sahagatam patigha sampayutta sasankharika dosa mula akusala citta

Do or du here means unpleasant, displeasurable, disagreeable. Domanassa means mental displeasure. Patigha means hitting destruction attacking. These 2 cittas are dosa mula cittas and they are dosa cittas. Dosa means hatred, anger, aversion.

11. upekkha sahagatam vicikiccha sampayutta moha mula citta 12. upekkha sahagatam uddhacca sampayutta moha mula citta

Vicikiccha means doubt, undecisiveness, suspicion and uddhacca means upsetting, restlessness.

13. upekkha sahagatam ahetuka akusala vipaka cakkhuvinnana citta 14. upekkha sahagatam ahetuka akusala vipaka sotavinnana citta 15. upekkha sahagatam ahetuka akusala vipaka ghanavinnana citta 16. upekkha sahagatam ahetuka akusala vipaka jivhavinnana citta 17. dukkha sahagatam ahetuka akusala vipaka kayavinnana citta 18. upekkha sahagatam ahetuka akusala vipaka sampaticchana citta 19. upekkha sahagatam ahetuka akusala vipaka santirana citta

20. upekkha sahagatam ahetuka kusala vipaka cakkhuvinnana citta 21. upekkha sahagatam ahetuka kusala vipaka sotavinnana citta 22. upekkha sahagatam ahetuka kusala vipaka ghanavinnana citta 23. upekkha sahagatam ahetuka kusala vipaka jivhavinnana citta 24. sukha sahagatam ahetuka kusala vipaka kayavinnana citta 25. upekkha sahagatam ahetuka kusala vipaka sampaticchana citta 26. somanassa sahagatam ahetuka kusala vipaka santirana citta 27. upekkha sahagatam ahetuka kusala vipaka santirana citta

There 13 to 27 cittas are vipaka cittas. They are resultant consciousness. They are ineffectual as they are resultant. So their arising does not give rise to any kamma. Ahetuka means without hetu. Hetu is a cause or a root. There are 6 hetus; lobha, dosa, moha, alobha, adosa, and amoha. Ahetuka cittas do not have any of these 6 hetus. Cakkhu means eye related. Vinnana is made up of vi and nana. Nana is knowledge and vi means particular or distinct or distinguishing. Cakkhuvinnana means knowing particularly at eye. Sota means ear related, ghana means nose related, jivha means tongue related and kaya means body related.

Sampaticchana is made up of sam and paticchana. Sam means well properly. Paticchana means to receive. Sampaticchana means to receive well. Santirana means to investigate well. Dukkha means unbearable feeling and sukha means pleasurable bodily feeling.

Anything can be the object of mind that is dhammarammana. 5 pasada rupas and 16 sukhuma rupas as dhammarammanas have been explained in the previous pages. After that cittas as the object of mind or dhammarammana is currently under discussion. So far, we have talked about up to 27 cittas among 89 cittas.

28. upekkha sahagatam pancadvaravajjana ahetuka kiriya citta 29. upekkha sahagatam manodvaravajjana ahetuka kiriya citta 30. somanassa sahagatam hasituppada ahetuka kiriya citta

These 3 cittas are all kiriya cittas. Kiriya cittas are inoperative cittas. This means that they do not produce or generate any kamma and their arising is sinless. They do not give rise to any later effects or results. All these 3 cittas are ahetuka cittas. Ahetuka means there is no hetu or cause. Hetus or causes are lobha or attachment, dosa or aversion, moha or ignorance, alobha or dana or non attachment, adosa or non hatred or metta, and amoha or panna.

Pancadvara means five doors. This means 5 sense doors of eye, ear, nose, tongue and body. Avajjana means adverting or contemplating. Pancadvaravajjana citta contemplates on where the arammana arises whether at eye or ear or nose or tongue or body. Mano means mind. Manodvara means mind sense door. Manodvaravajjana citta is the citta that contemplates on mind sense door what the arammana is or what nature arises at mind sense door. 30th citta is associated with somanassa or joy. So means good, pleasurable, pleasant, agreeable etc etc. Mana or mano means mind. Assa is a word showing possessiveness. Manassa means of mind. Somanassa here means joy. Hasa means humuor. Uppada means arising. Hasituppada means arising of humour. Hasituppada citta is ahetuka kiriya citta of arahats and it arises when arahats just smile..

All these 30 cittas which have been described are all called asobhana cittas. Sobhana means beautiful. These 30 cittas are asobhana that is not beautiful. They are non beautiful consciousnesses. Because they do not have any beautiful cetasikas like saddha or faith, sati or mindfulness, hiri or shamefulness, ottappa or fearfulness, alobha, adosa etc etc.

There are 24 kama sobhana cittas. These 24 cittas are beautiful consciousnesses. They are kamavacara cittas and arise frequently in kama bhumi like 4 apaya bhumis, manussa bhumi or human realm, and 6 deva bhumis.

31. somanassa sahagatam nana sampayuttam asankharika kamavacara mahakusala citta 32. somanassa sahagatam nana sampayuttam sasankharika kamavacara mahakusala citta 33. somanassa sahagatam nana vippayuttam asankharika kamavacara mahakusala citta 34. somanassa sahagatam nana vippayuttam sasankharika kamavacara mahakusala citta 35. upekkha sahagatam nana sampayuttam assankharika kamavacara mahakusala citta 36. upekkha sahagatam nana sampayuttam sasankharika kamavacara mahakusala citta 37. upekkha sahagatam nana vippayuttam asankharika kamavacara mahakusala citta 38. upekkha sahagatam nana vippayuttam sasankharika kamavacara mahakusala citta

39. somanassa sahagatam nana sampayuttam asankharika kamavacara mahavipaka citta 40. somanassa sahagatam nana sampayuttam sasankharika kamavacara mahavipaka citta 41. somanassa sahagatam nana vippayuttam asankharika kamavacara mahavipaka citta 42. somanassa sahagatam nana vippayuttam sasankharika kamavacara mahavipaka citta 43. upekkha sahagatam nana sampayuttam asankharika kamavacara mahavipaka citta 44. upekkha sahagatam nana sampayuttam sasankharika kamavacara mahavipaka citta 45. upekkha sahagatam nana vippayuttam asankharika kamavacara mahavipaka citta 46. upekkha sahagatam nana vippayuttam sasankharika kamavacara mahavipaka citta

47. somanassa sahagatam nana sampayuttam asankharika kamavacara mahakiriya citta 48. somanassa sahagatam nana sampayuttam sasankharika kamavacara mahakiriya citta 49. somanassa sahagatam nana vippayuttam asankharika kamavacara mahakiriya citta 50. somanassa sahagatam nana vippayuttam sasankharika kamavacara mahakiriya citta 51. upekkha sahagatam nana sampayuttam asankharika kamavacara mahakiriya citta 52. upekkha sahagatam nana sampayuttam sasankharika kamavacara mahakiriya citta 53. upekkha sahagatam nana vippayuttam asankharika kamavacara mahakiriya citta 54. upekkha sahagatam nana vippayuttam sasankharika kamavacara mahakiriya citta

Somanassa is joy. Sahagata means arising together or go together. Nana here means panna or pannindriya cetasika which is wisdom and knows that there are kamma and their effects and results. Sampayuttam means mixing with. Asankharika means unprompted and sasankharika means prompted that is need to be stimulated to act. Kama + avacara means frequently arising in kama bhumis. Maha means great. Here maha is just used to differentiate from other kusala cittas such as rupakusala cittas and arupakusala cittas. Kamavacara kusala cittas are called mahakusala cittas. Kusala means wholesome and they produce good kamma. Vipaka means resultant and kiriya means inoperative or ineffectual. Upekkha here means a feeling which is not dukkha or domanassa or sukha or somanassa. It is just equanimous feeling. According to class, there are 3 kinds of cittas in kama sobhana cittas they are mahakusala, mahavipaka and mahakiriya cittas. Each class has 8 cittas. 4 are with joy and 4 are without joy. Each 4 has 2 cittas with wisdom. These 4 pairs each have promptedness and unpromptedness. So there are 24 kama sobhana cittas. Together with 30 asobhana cittas, there are 54 kamavacara cittas.

There are 35 cittas left to be discussed. They all are sobhana cittas. They are 15 rupavacara cittas, 12 arupavacara cittas and 8 lokuttara cittas. Rupavacara cittas are cittas that frequently arising in rupa brahma bhumis. There are 15 rupa brahma bhumis where rupavacara cittas frequently arise. Asannisatta catuttha jhana rupa brahma bhumi does not have any citta. Arupavacara cittas are consciousness that frequently arise in arupa brahma bhumis. Lokuttara cittas are consciousness that is beyond lokas that is kama loka, rupa loka, and arupa loka. Lokuttara ( loka + uttara ) cittas look at nibbana which is beyond all lokas and not related to any rupa or citta or cetasika.

There are 6 objects that make us full of sense. These 6 objects are called arammana. They support citta to know the senses as objects. There are 5 physical sense objects and they have been discussed. The 6th sense is mind object or object of mind. They are called dhamma arammana or dhammarammana. There are 6 classes of dhamma that serve as dhamma arammana and nothing more than that. So far 5 pasada rupas, 16 sukhama rupas and some part of cittas have been discussed. 54 kamavacara cittas have been enumerated.

There are further 35 cittas that can be the object of mind or dhammarammana. They are 15 rupavacara cittas, 12 arupavacara cittas and 8 lokuttara cittas. Rupavacara cittas are cittas that frequently arising in rupa brahma bhumis in rupa brahmas even though they may arise in non brahmas like human beings and devas. Rupa means rupa brahma and avacara means frequently arising. So does arupavacara cittas. Lokuttara cittas are cittas that take the object which is totally and completely different from loka and it is beyond lokas like kama loka, rupa loka, and arupa loka. Lokuttāra is loka + uttara. Uttara means superior, higher, nobler. So lokuttara cittas are not related to lokas and they are beyond lokas because these cittas take the object nibbana as their arammana.

Rupavacara cittas have 3 classes of citta called kusala, vipaka, and kiriya citta. Kusala are kamma producing or kammagenerating. Kiriya are non kamma producing or non kamma generating like vipakas which are also non kamma producing and non kamma generating. But kiriyas are inoperational or ineffectual while vipakas are resultant and the effects of kusalas here.

55. vitakka, vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam rupavacara pathamajjhana rupakusala citta 56. vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam rupavacara dutiyajjhana rupakusala citta 57. piti, sukhekaggata sahitam rupavacara tatiyajjhana rupakusala citta 58. sukhekaggata sahitam rupavacara catutthajjhana rupakusala citta 59. upekkhekaggata sahitam rupavacara pancamajjhana rupakusala citta

60. vitakka, vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam rupavacara pathamajjhana rupavipaka citta 61. vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam rupavacara dutiyajjhana rupavipaka citta 62. piti, sukhekaggata sahitam rupavacara tatiyajjhana rupavipaka citta 63. sukhekaggata sahitam rupavacara catutthajjhana rupavipaka citta 64. upekkhekaggata sahitam rupavacara pancamajjhana rupavipaka citta

65. vitakka, vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam rupavacara pathamajjhana rupakiriya citta 66. vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam rupavacara dutiyajjhana rupakiriya citta 67. piti, sukhekaggata sahitam rupavacara tatiyajjhana rupakiriya citta 68. sukhekaggata sahitam rupavacara catutthajjhana rupakiriya citta 69. upekkhekaggata sahitam rupavacara pancamajjhana rupakiriya citta

In jhana cittas there are 5 jhana factors called vitakka, vicara, piti, sukha, and ekaggata. Sahitam means along with. pathama means first, dutiya means second, tatiya for third, catuttha for fourth and pancama for fifth. Jhanas are absorptive states of mind and jhana cittas are fused with their object. Jhana means to look very closely. Jhanas are so close that they merge into the object.

There are 12 arupavacara cittas and they are arupa jhana cittas. Arupa jhana are jhanas that do not deal with rupa at all. They are

70. akasanancayatana arupavacara arupakusala citta 71. vinnanancayatana arupavacara arupakusala citta 72. akincannayatana arupavacara arupakusala citta 73. nevasannanasannayatana arupavacara arupakusala citta

74. akasanancayatana arupavacara arupavipaka citta 75. vinnanancayatana arupavacara arupavipaka citta 76. akincannayatana arupavacara arupavipaka citta 77. nevasannanasannayatana arupavacara arupavipaka citta

78. akasanancayatana arupavacara arupakiriya citta 79. vinnanancayatana arupavacara arupakiriya citta 80. akincannayatana arupavacara arupakiriya citta 81. nevasannanasannayatana arupavacara arupakiriya citta.

1st jhana citta arises when there is no nivarana dhammas or hindrances such as kamacchanda nivarana or sensuous thought, byapada nivarana or destructive thought or ill will, thina middha nivarana or sloth and torpor or sluggishness of citta and cetasikas that is all mental faculties, uddhacca kukkucca nivarana or spreading repenting/worrying thought, and vicikiccha nivarana or suspicious thought. When these hindrances are free and when 5 jhana factors are working to their fullest strength and when citta is absorbed into the object, it can be said that 1st jhana citta arise. When each lower jhana factor is detached higher jhana arises. Vicara is detached in 2nd jhana, piti is detached in 3rd jhana, sukha is detached in 4th jhana and 5th jhana is with only ekaggata cetasika which is one pointedness on jhana object but with upekkha vedan or equanimous feeling.

In 5th rupa jhana the object is expanded to fill the whole universe. But when the weakness of rupa is seen, higher jhana will avoid rupa and when the space filled with rupa is voided there just left unbounded space. This space is not the space as you would think. But it is a pannatta or idea of boundless space that arises from releasing of 5th jhana object. When this happen and there is only ekaggata or one pointedness and upekkha, 1st arupa jhana arises. It is akasanancayatana jhana. Akasa means space. Here unbounded space or limitless space that arises from releasing fof 5th rupa jhana object. Ayatana means where citta and cetasika dwell or depend on. When a jhana that sees the 1st arupa jhana cittas as its object, it is called 2nd arupa jhana citta. It is vinnanancayatana citta. Formerly unbounded space is seen by citta called akasanancayatanba citta. As akasa which is thana or place is boundless, the citta which is thanī or dweller is also boundless. When this boundless consciousness is seen 2nd arupa jhana citta arises.

When that cittas are released and when the mind take attention to absence of that cittas that is nothingness or natthibho pannatta, 3rd arupa jhana arises and it is called akincannayatana citta. Kinca means something, akinca means not something or nothing. Next citta sees this citta and as it is hard to say whether there is a sanna or a nasanna, it is called nevasannanasannayatana citta and it is the 4th arupa jhana citta.

Nevasannanasannayatana is composes of na, eva, sanna, nasanna, ayatana. Na means not no and eva means such. Sanna means perception and nasanna means non perception. Ayatana means where citta and cetasikas dwell or depend on. This object is the object of 4th arupa jhana. It is a paramattha dhamma and it is a citta. It is the 3rd arupa jhana.

That arupa jhana citta take the object nothingness. So it is very difficult to say whether this citta has sanna or perception and equally it is difficult to say whether this citta does not have perception. So it is called neither perception nor non perception.

When in this citta and in this jhana, mind is well calm and free of any sin and free of any kilesas. But this arupa jhana again is not well calm in real because it can at any time fall back to rupa jhana and then back to kama bhumis. There must be a way to void such unsteadiness or such changing. But using these 8 jhanas, dhammas are contemplated again.

The dhamma practitioner contemplates on dhamma inside and outsidewise and he stays in seeing dhamma in its wholeness here and there. He contemplates on feelings that arise at each moment cittas arise. He contemplates on citta and see what kind of cittas they are. He contemplates on dhammas as they arise like absence of nivarana etc etc. As he is practising to avoid old arisen unwholesome, to prevent arising of unarisen unwholesome things, to develop newly arising wholesome things and to proliferate the existing wholesome things his effort well support his mindfulness.

He has a strong wish to find out complete steadiness and peace. His mind is pushing at good will. He has passed through all 8 jhanas but he knows these are not yet absolute peace and these jhanas are not steady ultimately. But he is well calm and as he has experienced many dhamma he knows that which is right and which is wrong. That is why he does not stay in 4th arupa jhana. He has a good faith in foinding a new path that would lead him to absolute steadiness and absolute peace. His mindfulness leads him along with wisdom. His viriya or effort is untiring and he is well stilled.

As he investigates into dhammas, at a time when he is well ripe and matured there arise calmness, peacefulness and there arise all the factors of enlightenment. These happen when there are eightfold path arises. Just before these thing he finds that there are rupas and there are namas. They arise not without a reason. And he recognises that these dhamma are not permanent. This lights him up that these are dukkha or suffering and they are out of control of anyone any self. They are selfless.

He sees thing arises and falls away. They are rapid that he later only sees passing away. As soon as he sees they vanish and he becomes frightened. As they are not right things he becomes dispassionated. As less and less attached, he tries to be liberated and tries again to contemplate on dhamma that arise and fall away. Then he sees that there is a balance and he no more attaches to anything and assume just as they are.

When he well experiences there arise a successive wisdom that would otherwise lead him to liberation. As there are many kilesa in the whole samsara, the clearing away of kilesda has to be done with four different stages. These stages may arise in succession in case of well ripe and well perfected beings. Say about in a matter of minutes to hours. But depending on conditions there are different ways that these 4 stages arise.

When citta that sees complete steadiness and absolute peace or nibbana for the first time, that citta is called sotapatti magga kusala citta. Sotāpatti composes sota and āpatti. Sota means the flow of river and āpatti means to get to to arrive at to reach to get access. Magga means path road way. This sotapatti magga kusala citta is 82nd citta of 89 cittas in total. When this stage has been passed, there is no more wrong view and the idea that the existence of nibbana is unshakable and unalterable even at the expence of his own life. This means he has cleared away any suspicion and all wrong views.

Next time when he reproaches nibbana and sees nibbana, as he has been in the flow, his existing kilesa become lessen. When this new citta that sees nibbana arises, it is said to be in the 2nd stage of seeing nibbana. This new citta is called sakadagami magga kusala citta. It is 83rd citta of 89 cittas. Sakadagami is made up of saka or sakkim which means once and agami means coming to gama or human village or kama bhumi. So when they die there is only one chance of coming back to kama bhumi that is reborn in kama bhumi once. This means after that they will never come back to kama bhumi instead in rupa brahma bhumi if they are still not arahats.

When he passes the third stage and sees nibbana, as he has visited twice that is when in sotapatti magga citta and when in sakadagami magga citta, now he becomes more mature in terms of clearing away of kilesa. This time, he eradicate all kama raga and all aversion or dosa. When this kind of citta arises, it is called anagami magga kusala citta. This is 84th citta of 89 cittas. Anagami is made up of ana and agami. So he will not return to kama bhumi. As soon as these anagams die they will be reborn in 5 suddhavasa catuttha jhana rupa brahma bhumis.

When these anagams reproach nibbana and see nibbana as they have already visited three times and as they are already matured and well perfected, they eradicate all remaining kilesa without any remanants. They have finished all they have to do and their job has done. Their job means the job of clearing away of kilesa. When this approaching citta approaches and see nibbana, it is called arahatta magga kusala citta. As soon as this citta arises, the puggala where this citta arises become an arahat. This arahatta magga kusala citta is 85th citta of 89 cittas.

As soon as magga citta arises, it vanishes and next arise phala citta of corresponding level. So there are four corresponding cittas which are the results of magga kusala cittas and they all are called vipaka cittas. They are lokuttara vipaka cittas. Unlike other vipaka cittas they are fully conscious and conscious to nibbana with great joy as nibbana is free of any suffering. These four cittas are

86. sotapatti phala lokuttara vipaka citta 87. sakadagami phala lokuttara vipaka citta 88. anagami phala lokuttara vipaka citta 89. arahatta phala lokuttara vipaka citta.

These 89 cittas are cittas and they all can be the object of the mind and they are dhammarammana. There is no more than these 89 cittas. But vicakkhana or the wise also consider these last 8 lokuttara cittas in connection with jhana cittas. Even though there are 8 jhanas, jhana factorwise, there are 5 jhana levels. So there are 40 lokuttara cittas ( 8>< 5 = 40 ). So 81 + 40 = there are 121 cittas in total.

There are 81 loki cittas. There are 8 lokuttara cittas. Lokuttara cittas or supramundane consciousness are sometimes considered in connection with jhanas. That is when these lokuttara cittas arise in the vicinity of jhana they are called lokuttara jhana cittas. There are 5 jhanas. All arupa jhanas have ekaggata as jhana factor and they are included in 5th jhana. So as there are 8 lokuttara cittas, there will be 40 lokuttara jhana cittas.

1. vitakka, vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam sotapatti magga pathamajjhana lokuttara kusala citta 2. vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam sotapatti magga dutiyajjhana lokuttara kusala citta 3. piti, sukhekaggata sahitam sotapatti magga tatiyajjhana lokuttara kusala citta 4. sukhekaggata sahitam sotapatti magga catutthajjhana lokuttara kusala citta 5. upekkhekaggata sahitam sotapatti magga pancamajjhana lokuttara kusala citta

6. vitakka, vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam sotapatti phala pathamajjhana lokuttara vipaka citta 7. vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam sotapatti phala dutiyajjhana lokuttara vipaka citta 8. piti, sukhekaggata sahitam sotapatti phala tatiyajjhana lokuttara vipaka citta 9. sukhekaggata sahitam sotapatti phala catutthajjhana lokuttara vipaka citta 10.upekkhekaggata sahitam sotapatti phala pancamajjhana lokuttara vipaka citta

11. vitakka, vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam sakadagami magga pathamajjhana lokuttara kusala citta 12. vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam sakadagami magga dutiyajjhana lokuttara kusala citta 13. piti, sukhekaggata sahitam sakadagami magga tatiyajjhana lokuttara kusala citta 14. sukhekaggata sahitam sakadagami magga catutthajjhana lokuttara kusala citta 15. upekkhekaggata sahitam sakadagami magga pancamajjhana lokuttara kusala citta

16. vitakka, vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam sakadagami phala pathamajjjhana lokuttara vipaka citta 17. vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam sakadagami phala dutiyajjhana lokuttara vipaka citta 18. piti, sukhekaggata sahitam sakadagami phala tatiyajjhana lokuttara vipaka citta 19. sukhekaggata sahitam sakadagami phala catutthajjhana lokuttara vipaka citta 20.upekkhekaggata sahitam sakadagami phala pancamajjhana lokuttara vipaka citta

21. vitakka, vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam anagami magga pathamajjhana lokuttara kusala citta 22. vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam anagami magga dutiyajjhana lokuttara kusala citta 23. piti, sukhekaggata sahitam anagami magga tatiyajjhana lokuttara kusala citta 24. sukhekaggata sahitam anagami magga catutthajjhana lokuttara kusala citta 25. upekkhekaggata sahitam anagami magga pancamajjhana lokuttara kusala citta

26. vitakka, vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam anagami phala pathamajjhana lokuttara vipaka citta 27. vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam anagami phala dutiyajjhana lokuttara vipaka citta 28. piti, sukhekaggata sahitam anagami phala tatiyajjhana lokuttara vipaka citta 29. sukhekaggata sahitam anagami phala catutthajjhana lokuttara vipaka citta 30.upekkhekaggata sahitam anagami phala pancamajjhana lokuttara vipaka citta

31. vitakka, vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam arahatta magga pathamajjhana lokuttara kusala citta 32. vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam arahatta magga dutiyajjhana lokuttara kusala citta 33. piti, sukhekaggata sahitam arahatta magga tatiyajjhana lokuttara kusala citta 34. sukhekaggata sahitam arahatta magga catutthajjhana lokuttara kusala citta 35. upekkhekaggata sahitam arahatta magga pancamajjhana lokuttara kusala citta

36. vitakka, vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam arahatta phala lokuttara vipaka citta 37. vicara, piti, sukhekaggata sahitam arahatta phala lokuttara vipaka citta 38. piti, sukhekaggata sahitam arahatta phala lokuttara vipaka citta 39. sukhekaggata sahitam arahatta phala lokuttara vipaka citta 40.upekkhekaggata sahitam arahatta phala lokuttara vipaka citta.

Together with 81 loki cittas, there are in total 121 cittas. Citta can take these cittas as its object. So all 121 cittas can be arammana or object of citta and they are called object of mind or dhammarammana.

There are arammanas or objects that serve for specific cittas. Five objects are physical objects and they are known as 5 senses. They are rupārammana or sight, saddārammana or sound, gandhārammana or smell, rasārammana or taste, photthabbārammana or touch. The 6th arammana or the 6th object is object for the mind. It is called dhammārammana or mind object.

5 pasada rupas, 16 sukhuma rupas or 16 subtle materials, and 89 cittas have been discussed as arammana in the previous pages. There are other dhammas that serve as dhammarammana or object for mind. They are cetasikas or mental factors. In our daily life, we are touching with these cetasikas. Examples are anger, joy, proud, greediness etc etc.

Cetasikas are belong to ceto or citta and so they are called cetasikas. They are mental factors that arise together with their corresponding citta and they vanish with disappearance of citta they arose together with. These mental factors take the same object that the citta takes as object. They all base on the same vatthu or base as the citta depends or the citta dwells.

These cetasikas are not separate entities. But they always mix with citta that they arise together with. They are inseparable. Even though they are inseparable, they all each do have their own characteristic and they do have their functions distinctively while citta does its job. So these cetasikas or mental factors worth to be studied separately. Even though they are inseparable from the mixture of citta forming an army of mental faculties, they are separate paramattha dhamma as they do have their own characters and functions.

There are 52 cetasikas in total. Although there are 52 cetasikas, they all never arise as 52 together. There are different classes of cetasikas and these classes sometimes work together. Cetasikas or mental factors are dhamma that help citta in doing its function. They help advising citta regarding their jobs and describe them to the citta, who is the king or the leader of all mental faculties.

Among 52 cetasikas, 7 cetasikas are universal to any citta and they are common to all cittas whether they are akusala or kusala or vipaka or kiriya. Cetasikas are like ministers of the king here who is the citta. So these 7 universal cetasikas or universal mental factors may be referred as permanent ministers of the king citta. Here I call them permanent because these cetasikas do the same job all the time even though they each last a moment and pass away all the time. Permanent may be misnomer but their arising with each citta make them assumed as permanent ministers of the king citta.

They are called sabbācittasādhārana cetasikas. Sabba means all, and sadharana means always. These 7 cetasikas are

1. phassa or contact 2. vedana or feeling 3. cetana or volition 4. sanna or perception 5. ekaggata or one pointedness 6. jivitindriya or mental life 7. manasikara or attention

Phassa or contact is a cetasika. It arises with any citta. It function is to introduce arammana with citta along with other associated cetasikas. It makes contact. The best example can be seen in case of striking a stone with an iron rod. The stone here represents cakkhuppasada rupa. The iron rod here represents rupārammana. When the iron is striked with the stone there arise sparks. When cakkhuppasada rupa is striked with rupārammana there arise cakkhuvinnana citta as sparks. The sparks arise at the meeting point of the iron rod and the stone surface. These three things meet together. So do in case of cakkhuvinnana citta arising. Rupārammana, cakkhu pasada and cakkhuvinnana citta all meet at a single point. That meeting is arranged by phassa or contact.

As phassa arises in any citta, there always is a contact. As soon as patisandhi citta arises, phassa arises. This phassa or contact makes a special arrangement to meet the arammana of marana asanna javana cittas of the immediate past life with patisandhi citta and other co arising cetasika. When bhavanga cittas arise, phassa arise and itmake contact with the same arammana with bhavanga citta and their accompanying cetasikas. When a being cease to exist, just before die there arises a citta called cuti citta. At that time, phassa makes contact with the same arammana as in cases of patisandhi citta and bhavanga cittas. When there arise vithi cittas, each vithi citta does have phassa as cetasika. Without phassa or contact, citta will never arise and arammana will never be known by the citta.

Vedana is another cetasika. It is feeling. It advises citta to feel while he is experiencing arammana. The knowledge of arammana or the awareness of arammana is the function of citta. While he is aware of arammana, vedana or feeling mental factor advise the king citta to feel while the king is experiencing arammana. Vedana also helps other co arising cetasikas to feel while citta is feeling. Everyone knows about feeling. Feeling is a cetasika. It is distinctive to vedana and no other cetasika can perform this function. There might be some confusion with other cetasikas which do not do the job of feeling. But these will be discussed when they are approaching. Examples are mudita or sympathetic joy, metta or loving kindness, karuna or compassion, piti or joy and so on.

Ceatana is a cetasika. It is volition. It urges the king citta to do his job and at the same time cetana also advises other co arising cetasikas to do their job. It has a pushing effect. Cetana reminds the king citta to do the job that is to take the object, to know the object and to be aware of the arammana or object. Without cetana, citta cannot arise. It is cetana that is responsible for all actions because he is urging all the time and encouraging all the time. Without its encouragement citta and other associated cetasikas will not commit anything and even they will not arise without cetana cetasika. This cetana actually works as sahajata kamma paccaya or co arising kamma conditions for citta and other cetasikas and cittaja rupas.

Sanna is another cetasika. His duty is to mark the arammana. He also advises the king citta to mark on the arammana they experienced together. Sanna is perception. It perceives the arammana and just know the marks on the arammana. As he advises the king citta to perceive, the citta while being aware the arammana, he also perceives the mark. Perception after perception will make what we call memories. Sanna always arises with any citta. Without sanna citta cannot arise separately. Through the marks on the arammanas or object, there arises sanna. This sanna cannot arise without a citta. As soon as citta arises, it arises while noting the marks on the arammana. Through these marks sanna has a connection with past sannas and all these make a block of memory depending on specific markers on the arammana.

Ekaggata or one pointedness is another cetasika in the group of universal mental factors or permanent ministers of the king citta. Ekaggata is not citta. It is cetasika that arises with citta. It advises citta to stay still. It advises citta to fix at a point. When cittas are those of kamavacara mahakusala cittas, ekaggata cetasikas in those cittas are good mental factors. When those mahakusala cittas are taking the same object repeatedly, then ekaggatas in those cittas are said to be samadhi.

Jivitindriya is another mental factor in 7 universal mental factors or 7 permanent ministers of the king citta. It is mental life. It supports citta and associated mental cetasikas as a life faculty. Without jivitindriya citta cannot arise and other cetasikas also cannot arise. Jivitindriya always arises with each of all 89 cittas or 89 kind of consciousness.

Manasikara is a cetasika and it is attention. It attends at an object. It is a steerer. It attends at an object and does not deviate to any other objects when it arises. It arises with each of 89 cittas. Manasikara advises citta to go directly to the object and not to any other objects apart from the object it directs. It is like a steerer. Attentiveness is produced by this cetasika manasikara.

There are 6 cetasikas which are flexibly working with many cittas. They are particular mental factors or flexible ministers of the king cittas. They are vitakka or initial application, vicara or sustained application, piti or joy, viriya or effort, chanda or wish, adhimokkha or decision. When they arise with kusala cittas, they become kusala cetasikas. But when they arise with akusala cittas, they become akusala cetasikas. So they are called flexible ministers of the king citta.

Vitakka is a cetasika and it is initial application. It applies citta to the object. It advises citta to apply to the object. It pushes the citta and citta has to go to the object as vitakka advises. There are different kinds of vitakka. There are kama vitakka or sensual thoughts, byapada vitakka or destructive thoughts, vihimsa vitakka or torturing thoughts, jhana vitakka which is a part of jhana and it applies kusala cittas to jhana objects. And still there are magga vitakka and phala vitakka and they are called samma sankappa of Noble Eightfold Path.

Vicara is a friend of vitakka. Vicara is sustained application. As application to the object is sustained, citta will not go away from the object. While vitakka is like pushing from behind to the object, vicara is like pulling from the centre of the object and sustains the force it draws citta toward the object. Vitakka and vicara works together. There are many similes for this pair of cetasikas. When a bell is tolled, initial sound is like vitakka and ringing is like vicara. Vicara repeatedly take the object and it reviews the object. When a bird from resting on the ground flies up to the sky, initial flapping of wings is like vitakka and continuing flapping in the sky is like vicara. Still there are many other similes.

Piti is a cetasika. It is joy. It is likeness. It is interest. It advises the king citta to enjoy the object and citta likes the object because of piti. Piti refreshes citta and all other mental faculties. It energizes citta and cetasikas. In the presence of piti, the whole group of mental faculties including citta and cetasikas become happy and joyous. The least degree of piti is likeness. There are different degrees of piti. They are slight sense of interest or kuddika piti, momentary joy or khanika piti, oscillating and flood of joy or okantika piti, thrilling emotion or ecstacy or ubbega piti, and suffusing joy or rapture or pharana piti.

Viriya is a mental factor. It advises the king citta to exert an effort. Viriya is non withdrawing effort that exert on the object. When there arises viriya citta and all associated cetasikas have a full power and they all will work together without ever withdrawing from the object. Viriya arises in most of 89 cittas. Exceptions are 10 pancavinnana cittas where there does not need any viriya because there already hits three things namely ruparammana or visual object, cakkhuppasada or eye, and cakkhuvinnana citta. These happen without any effort. Pancadvaravajjana citta who preceeds cakkhuvinnana citta does not need any viriya by the same reason. So do 2 sampaticchana cittas and 3 santirana cittas. So viriya has to arise in 73 or 89 cittas. Manodvaravajjana needs viriya because it has to decide on the object. So do other cittas.

Chanda is a cetasika and it advises citta to wish the object. Chanda has a propelling force. Chanda or wish is one of 4 adhipati dhammas namely chanda adipati, citta adipati, viriya adipati, and vimamsa adipati or panna. Adhipati dhamma behaves like an emperor. This means that they lead any other dhamma when they prevail. Chanda is also one of 4 iddhipada or bases of success. The contents of dhamma are the same as adipati dhamma. Without chanda nothing can be accomplished. This cetasika chanda is not lobha. Even thoug lobha always arises with chanda, chanda does not always arise with lobha. When chanda arises with alobha, it becomes samma chanda.

Adhimokkha is another cetasika in 6 particular mental factors or 6 flexible ministers of the king citta. It advises the king citta to decide on the object. In the presence of adhimokkha, citta clearly decides on the object. When there is no adhimokkha, citta does not decide on the object and then these kinds of citta that do not have adhimokkha will have undecisiveness. In 10 pancavinnana cittas adhimokkha is not needed as there is nothing to decide on. In vicikiccha citta, there is no adhimokkha and then citta does not know whether the object is right or wrong and citta becomes wavering.

There are objects. Cittas or consciousness know these objects. But each specific citta has its own appropriate object. There are 6 kinds of object. The first 5 objects have been explained. The 6th kind of object is object for mind. They are collectively called dhammarammana. They include 1. 5 pasada rupas, 2. 16 sukhuma rupas, 3. 89 cittas or 89 consciousness, 4. 52 cetasikas, 5. nibbana, and 6. pannatti.

Among 52 cetasikas, 7 universal mental factors and 6 particular mental factors have been explained in the previous page. Together these 13 cetasikas are called annasamana cetasikas. Anna or annehi means dealing with. Samana means agree or equal or appropriate or adapted. So both are flexible to akusala or kusala cetasikas. There are 14 mental factors that are entirely akusala.

They are

A) 4 moha rooted cetasikas

1. moha ( akusala king ) 2. ahirika ( right wing of akusala king ) 3. anottappa ( left wing of akusala king ) 4. uddhacca ( secretary of akusala king )

B) 3 lobha rooted cetasikas

1. lobha ( king of lobha cittas ) 2. mana ( queen of lobha king ) 3. ditthi ( another queen of lobha king )

C) 4 dosa rooted cetasikas

1. dosa ( king of dosa cittas ) 2. issa ( 1st twins queen of dosa king ) 3. macchariya ( 2nd twins queen of dosa king ) 4. kukkucca ( sister queen of twins queen )

D) 3 unspecified akusala cetasikas ( these do have moha as root )

1. thina ( friend of middha ) 2. middha ( friend of thina ) 3. vicikiccha ( downtoner )

Moha is a cetasika or mental factor. Moha itself is not consciousness. But when it arises with a citta, it covers up realities and truths so that citta does not see them. Moha advises the king citta to be deluded. Moha is like darkness. In its presence, truth will never be seen.

Ahirika is a mental factor. It is a kind of disinhibition. It is immorality. Ahirika advises the king citta not to be shameful. It removes inhibition. Inhibition is for possible shameful results. But in the presence of ahirika, as there is no more shame, all akusala can be done without any inhibition.

Anottappa is a mental factor and it is the left wing of the akusala king moha. It is, like ahirika, a kind of disinhibition. It removes inhibition. That inhibition is for possible dreadful results. But in the presence of anottappa, as there is no more fear, all akusala can be done without any inhibition.

Uddhacca is a mental factor and when it arises, it advises the king citta to be upset. Uddhacca is like a secretary and she always follows the akusala king moha. Uddhacca along with moha, ahirika, and anottappa, they altogether serve as universal akusala cetasikas. They always arise with each of akusala citta.

In the cittas of lobha kingdom, among cetasikas in these lobha mula cittas, lobha cetasika is the king and he leads other associated mental factors. This lobha king has two queens namely mana cetasika and ditthi cetasika. The king never goes with both queens at the same moment.

Lobha is a cetasika or mental factor. When it arises, it advises the great king citta who leads all mental faculties in the matter that the king citta should be fond of the object that they are facing or they are taking. Lobha is attachment and it is very powerful and attracts to the object. When it works with moha cetasika who covers the light of truth, almost all beings are attracted to objects that lobha would be very very fond of.

When the lobha king goes for an object of interest, one of his queens follows him. Mana is a cetasika or a mental factor and when it arises it advises the great king citta to be lofty. Mana is conceit. Mana is proud. Mana is loftiness. Mana works with moha cetasika and lobha cetasika. While moha covers the light of truth and lobha attracts all mental factors including mana to the object, mana behaves as if she is the most powerful.

When the lobha king goes for an object of interest while mana is away, then the queen ditthi follows the king lobha. Ditthi is a cetasika or mental factor. When it arises, it advises the great king citta to see things with a wrong view. Because of ditthi, citta wrongly assumes the object which in reality is not as he assumes. This cetasika ditthi works with moha cetasika and lobha cetasika.

In the cittas of dosa kingdom, among cetasikas in these dosa mula cittas, dosa cetasika is the king and he leads other associated cetasikas. In this dosa kingdom, the king dosa has three queens. But these three queens never appear together with the king dosa. The king dosa may go without any of these queens. These three queens are twins sisters issa cetasika and macchariya cetasika and their younger sister uddhacca cetasika.

Dosa is a cetasika and when it arises it advises the great king citta to become aggressive. As dosa advises him, the king citta is disturbed and agitated. So dosa is also the leader of destructive troop in destructive ministers of the king citta. Dosa is aversion, hatred, unacceptability, impatience and it has mant many qualities. But in short it is a disturbance packed with aversion and unliking.

Issa is a cetasika and when it arises it advises the great king citta to hate others who he thinks excel him in terms of many many different qualities like wealth, success, position, status, possession etc etc. Issa is jealousy. It is envious. It does not want other to have better qualities or better achievement or better position or possession.

Macchariya on the other hand hides its own qualities. It would not want other to use its possession and wealth. Macchariya is a cetasika which is stinginess and when it arises macchariya cetasika advises the great king citta to be stingy. Macchariya will not allow others to involve in utility of her own wealth.

The third queen of the king dosa is kukkucca. Kukkucca is a cetasika and it is worry. When it arises, kukkucca cetasika advises the great king citta to be worried. Kukkucca takes worries over the things that have not been done which actually should have done. Kukkucca also takes worries over the things that have been done which actually should not have done. As everything has been done, such kind of worry is not a good thing to breed and it is an akusala cetasika to grow kukkucca or worry.

There are still 3 other cetasikas which are also destructive ministers of the great king citta. They are 2 close friends thina and middha and downtoner called vicikiccha cetasika. Thina is sloth. It is sluggishness of citta and when it arises, it advises the king citta to become sluggish and relatively less active. Middha is a cetasika which is sluggishness of mental factors and when it arises it cause torpor. Middha always arises with his friend thina.

There left a destructive minister of the king citta. It is vicikiccha cetasika. Vicikiccha is a cetasika which is indecisiveness. It is unable to decide on the object. It is doubt. It is suspicion. Unlike other akusala cetasikas which are abundant, vicikiccha does not always arise and it does not arise very frequently. But when it arises it makes the great king citta tired in making decision because the king citta cannot decidie on the object because of this destructive minister.

In objects or arammana dhamma, the first five are rupa dhamma and they are 5 physical senses like light, sound, smell, taste, and touch. The 6th object or the 6th sense or the 6th arammana is called dhammarammana and they include 5 pasada rupas, 16 sukhuma rupas, 89 cittas, 1 nibbana, 1 pannatti and 52 cetasikas. Among 52 cetasikas which can serve as dhammarammana, 7 universal mental factors, 6 particular mental factors and 14 akusala cetasikas or unwholesome mental factors have been discussed in the previous pages.

There are still further 25 cetasikas or 25 mental factors which can serve as dhammarammana. Among these 25 cetasikas, 19 cetasikas are universal to all form of sobhana cittas or all of beautiful consciousness. If a citta does not have these 19 cetasikas, then that citta is not a beautiful consciousness including the smiling mind of arahats. These 19 universal sobhana cetasikas are led by saddha cetasika. For easy recognition and easy remembrance and for memory, these 19 cetasikas can be grouped into 2 groups. Both groups will include saddha cetasika as it is the leader.

Actually these 19 cetasikas can never be separated as they always work together in a sobhana citta. The two groups are army and navy of the great king citta. In army saddha cetasika is the general and the leader. In navy again saddha is the admiral and the leader in navy. So in both groups of cetasikas there will be a total of 10 cetasikas. In each group 2 cetasikas are deputies and they are second to the leader saddha. This is for easy remembrance. There are 2 secretaries and each is in each group. So after the leader, secretary and 2 deputies, there left 6 followers. Each group has 6 followers. Again these 6 followers in each group cannot be separated from each other and they cannot be in separate group. But for simplicity they can be said so. 6 followers in each group make a total of 12 cetasikas or 6 pairs of cetasikas.

Saddha is a mental factor and it arises with each and every of beautiful consciousness. When it arises, it advises the great king citta to feel confident and to trust in the object they encounter. Saddha is confidence. It is faith. It is trust. It is belief. Saddha decloud the sky and makes it clear so that everything that appears in the sky can clearly be seen. Saddha is like a gem. When this gem is put in the muddy water, all the dirts sink down and the water becomes clear.

Sati is a secretary to saddha. Sati always follows saddha. Whenever saddha arises, sati also arises. Sati is a cetasika. It is mindfulness. It is alertness. It is awareness. It is remembrance of things to do. It is unforgetfulness. So it behaves like a secretary to the leader saddha and he notes down everything that saddha does. When sati arises in a citta, it advises that king citta to be mindful and to be attentive to the object.

There are 2 deputies for saddha cetasika leader. They are right and left wing of the king saddha. They are hiri and ottappa cetasikas. Hiri and ottappa cetasikas always work together and they are inseparable from each other. They both have similar characteritics. It is inhibition. Both hiri and ottappa inhibit the citta not to do bad thing. But as hiri inhibits with a though that avoidance is better because of possible future outcomes which may be shameful, hiri becomes a separate cetasika. Ottappa on the other hand inhibits the king citta not to do bad thing becuase it foresees the possible future outcomes which may be dreadful.

These 2 cetasikas are very strong and they are said to be lokapala dhamma. Loka means kama loka, rupa loka, and arupa loka. Pala means to guard. In a family, there are father and daughter, mother and son. With the exception of parents who are father and mother of their two children son and daughter, there is no sexual affairs between family members. This is guarded by hiri and ottappa cetasikas. But when hiri and ottappa are lost and when ahirika and anottappa cetasikas come in along with moha, everything can be possible and they destroy the beautiful world.

Another secretary of saddha cetasika ( in navy ) is tatramajjhattata cetasika. This tatramajjhattata cetasika is a mental facor. It always arises with each and every beautiful consciousness. It is a balancer. It balances associated citta and other mental factors. When it arises in a citta, it advises the great king citta to do with balance. Tatramajjhatta cetasika behaves like a charioteer who drives 2 horses drawing a cart. If charioteer does not work, one horse may draw to a side and equally another horse may draw to another side and there will be aimless journey when charioteer is not working. But balancer tatramajjhattata cetasika balances and make the journey in the intended way.

Still there are 2 deputies of the leader saddha cetasikas. They are in navy group cetasikas and they are alobha cetasika and adosa cetasika. Alobha is right wing rear admiral and adosa is left wing rear admiral of the saddha admiral. Alobha is non attachment. As it is non attachment, it always arises when offering or dana are done. So sometimes it is called as dana. But alobha cetasika also arises in other kusala and abyakata cetasikas. Adosa is non aversion. It is also known as metta. These 2 cetasikas cannot be separated and they always work together.

After explanation on the leader saddha, each 2 deputies and secretaries, there left 6 followers in each of the groups. They will be considered together here. These 6 pairs of cetasikas always arises together and they cannot be separated by one another. But characterwise, they each have their own characteristics. These 12 cetasikas or 6 pairs of cetasikas will be explained in the next page. Here 19 cetasikas are re enumerated below for easy reference. Saddha is included in both groups.

The army of the king citta includes

  1. saddha or faith ( general )
  2. sati or mindfulness ( secretary )
  3. hiri or shamefulness ( right wing leutinent general or deputy )
  4. ottappa or fearfulness( left wing leutinent general or deputy )
  5. cittapassaddhi or tranquility of mind
  6. cittalahuta or buoyancy or lightness of mind
  7. cittamuduta or plasticity of mind
  8. cittakammannata or workableness of mind
  9. cittapagunnata or proficiency of mind
  10. cittujjukata or uprightness of mind

The navy of the king citta includes

  1. saddha
  2. tatramajjhattata or balance
  3. alobha or non attachment or dana
  4. adosa or non aversion or metta
  5. kayapassaddhi or tranquility of mental factors
  6. kayalahuta or buoyancy of mental factors
  7. kayamuduta or plasticity of mental factors
  8. kayapagunnata or proficiency of cetasikas
  9. kayujjukata or uprightness of cetasikas

There are 6 pairs of cetasikas that always arise in pair and in common with other universal sobhana cetasikas. When I mentioned them in two group as an army and a navy of the king citta, 6 cetasikas that isfrom the side of citta related cetasikas are included in the army of the king citta. other 6 cetasikas are included in the navy of the king citta. But actually there are no army, no navy but they all work together.

These 6 pairs or 12 cetasikas are

  1. cittapassaddhi and kayapassaddhi
  2. cittalahuta and kayalahuta
  3. cittamuduta and kayamuduta
  4. cittakammannata and kayakammannata
  5. cittapagunnata and kayapagunnata
  6. cittujjukata and kayujjukata

a) cittapassaddhi and kayapassaddhi

Cittapassaddhi isa cetasika. Cittapassaddhi is made up of citta and passaddhi. Citta is consciousness and passaddhi means calmness, tranquility, serenity. When this cetasika arises, the king citta is advised to be calm, to be cool, be tranquil. When you do offering like charity work, you may sense that there is some hints of tranquility in your mind. This is because of cittapassaddhi. This cetasika makes citta peaceful and tranquil.

Kayapassaddhi is very similar to cittapassaddhi and it is very difficult to differentiate between these two let alone trying to separate them out which again is totally impossible. But kayapassaddhi by its name comprises two Pali words. They are kaya and passaddhi. Kaya here means combination of cetasikas or aggregate of cetasikas or a body of cetasika and passaddhi means tranquility calmness. As citta becomes tranquil because of cittapassaddhi, associated cetasikas are also become tranquil because of kayapassaddhi cetasika. These two cetasikas are twins brothers.

b) cittalahuta and kayalahuta

Cittalahuta is a cetasika and when it arises this cetasika advises the king citta to be quick, reactive, and light. Cittalahuta is buoyancy of citta. Because of this cetasika, citta becomes lighter than akusala cittas or ahetuka vipaka cittas or ahetuka kiriya cittas where all of these do not have cittalahuta as their accompanying cetasika. This is also like cittapassaddhi, arises when we do wholesome things like offering or dana, constructing moral conduct or sila, or cultivating mental wholesomeness or bhavana.

Kayalahuta is twin brother of cittalahuta. When cittalahuta works, citta becomes lighter while kayalahuta works, it causes cetasikas all become lighter.Kayalahuta is buoyancy of associated cetasikas. It is lightnessof cetasikas. Cittalahuta and kayalahuta cetasikas always arise together and they work together. They cannot be separated out. And they cannot arise singly without other twin brother. These 2 cetasikas also arise in common with other 5 pairs of cetasikas and along with universal sobha cetasikas including the leader saddha cetasika.

c) cittamuduta and kayamuduta

Cittamuduta is softness of citta. It is a cetasika. It is plasticity. It is pliability. It is resiliency. It is flexibility. It is impressibility. Cittamuduta easily moulds the king citta to becomes polite, soft, plastic, flexible. In the presence of cittamuduta the king citta is like a candle which is close to fire or heat and it can be moulded into any form.

Kayamuduta is twin brother of cittamuduta and it is softness of cetasikas or plasticity of cetasikas. Cetasikas all become flexible in the presence of this cetasika kayamuduta. These two twin brothers work together in a citta and they also arise in common with other 5 pairs ofcetasikānd other universal sobhana cetasikas.

d) cittakammannata and kayakammannata

Cittakammannata is a cetasika. It is workableness. It is adaptability. It is readiness to respond or to work. When a sobhana citta arise, there also arise a cetasika called cittakammannata and this cetasika advises the king citta to be ready to work ortobe ready to respond. This is a sort of alertness. It is workableness.

Kayakammannata is twin brother of cittakammannata cetasika. Kayakammannata is workableness of cetasikas.It is adapability of cetasikas. It is readiness of cetasikas. These two twin brothers always arise together in common with other 5 pairs and other universal sobhana cetasikas. These two cetasikas are quick responders or fast responders.

e) cittapagunnata and kayapagunnata

Cittapagunnata is a cetasika and it advises the king citta to be familiar withthe object. It is proficiency of citta. It is power of experience. When it arises, cittapagunnata works as proficient worker and advises the king citta in work to be proficient.

Kayapagunnata is twin brother of cittapagunnata cetasika. It is proficiency of cetasikas. It is familiarness of the associated cetasikas. These two twin brothers also arises together and they arise with other 5 pairs and other universal sobhana cetasikas.

f) cittujjukata and kayujjukata

Cittujjukata is uprightness of citta. It is rectitude of citta. When cittujjukata cetasika arises, it advises the king citta and citta become upright and takes rectitude and behaves in a straight way. Citta in the presence of cittujjukatawill not lie anything at all. It is uprightnessof citta.

Kayujjukata istwin brother of cittujjukata and it is uprightness of associated cetasikas. It is rectitude of cetasikas. When it arises, it causes associated cetasikas to behave in a straight way. Again these two twin brothers always arise together and they are also accompanied by other 5 pairs and other universal sobhana cetasikas including saddha cetasika.

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