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Tipitaka >> Abhidhamma Pitaka >> Patthana Dhamma
By Htoo Naing


Chapter 17 - Kamma Paccayo Edit

Or Kamma Condition Edit

Kamma paccayoti

kusalā kusalam kammam vipākānam khandhānam katattā ca rūpānam kamma paccayena paccayo.

Cetanā sampayuttakānam dhammānam tam samutthānānanca rūpānam kamma paccayena paccayo.

Kusala means wholesome act and these wholesome acts condition or support vipākānam khandhānam or aggregates that are resultants of wholesome acts. These resultants are 4 vipāka namakkhandhas or 4 mental aggregates namely

  1. vedana khandha or feeling aggregate
  2. sanna khandha or perception aggregate
  3. sankhara khandha or formation aggregate
  4. vinnāna khandha or consciousness aggregate.

So all pains ( dukkha vedana ), all mental pains ( domanassa vedana ), all desirable touches (sukha vedana ), all desirable mental feeling ( somanassa vedana ) and all unstated feeling that are not dukkha, not domanassa, not sukha, not somanassa ( upekkha vedana ) are all paccayuppanna dhamma or resultant dhamma or conditioned dhamma or supported dhamma of kusala or wholesome acts.

As they are resultant dhamma they all have to vipāka dhamma. There are also physical matters that are associated with these 4 vipaka namakkhandha and they are called katattā rūpa and they are also conditioned by past wholesome acts or kusala.

This also applies to akusala or unwholesome acts and these acts become akusala kamma and they cause akusala vipaka namakkhandhas at later time.

Cetana cetasika or volition is present in any kind of consciousness or citta and when there is cetana that cetana conditions its associated dhamma of citta and other cetasikas and cittaja or consciousness born rūpa.

In kamma paccaya the conditioning dhamma are past cetana and present cetana. While past cetana all become kusala or akusala according to their sampayutta dhamma or associated dhamma the current and present cetana is called sahajāta kamma and it support cittaja rūpa or consciousness born rūpas with kamma condition.

Sahajātā cetanā sahajātānam nāmarūpānam, nānākkhanikā cetanā kammābhinibbattānam nāmarūpānam kamma vasena nāmam nāmarūpānam paccayo hoti.

There are 89 cittas in total. Each of these 89 cittas has cetana as one of their accompanying cetasikas. This cetana cetasika serves as the conditioning dhamma to all these 89 cittas, and other 51 cetasikas after extraction of cetana cetasika from 52 total cetasikas.

The paccaya dhamma or causal dhamma or supporting dhamma or conditioning dhamma in these 89 cittas and their associated cetasikas is cetana cetaska.

The pacayuppanna dhamma or resultant dhamma or supported dhamma or conditioned dhamma in this type of relationship are all other 51 cetasikas and 89 cittas.

The relationship between these dhamma is called kamma condition or kamma paccayo. And this kamma paccayo is called sahajāta kamma paccayo because the conditioning dhamma arises at the same time of the resultant dhamma. Still there are other kamma paccaya.

In the particular past time, there had been different cetanas in the past when wholesome actions or unwholesome actions are carried out. When these actions are carried out there arise associated cetansikas. In kusala action or wholesome actions there are 19 universal sobhana cetasikas and they are

  1. saddha or confidence (faith )
  2. sati or mindfulness
  3. hiri or moral shame
  4. ottappa or moral fear
  5. alobha or non attachment
  6. adosa or non aversion
  7. tatramajjhattata or balance
  8. kaya passaddhi or mental tranquility
  9. citta passaddhi or mind tranquility
  10. kaya lahuta or mental lightness
  11. citta lahuta or mind lightness
  12. kaya muduta or mental mouldability
  13. citta muduta or mind mouldability
  14. kaya kammannata or mental workability
  15. citta kammannata or mind workability
  16. kaya pagunnata or mental proficiency
  17. citta pagunnata or mind proficiency
  18. kayujukata or mental rectitude
  19. cittujukata or mind rectitude

In akusala actions or unwholesome actions there are 14 akusala cetasikas and they are

  1. moha or ignorance]
  2. akhirika or shamelessness
  3. anottappa or fearlessness
  4. uddhacca or upset
  5. lobha or attachment
  6. mana or conceit
  7. ditthi or wrong view
  8. dosa or aversion
  9. issa or envy or jealousy
  10. macchariya or stinginess
  11. kukkucca or worry
  12. thina or sloth
  13. middha or torpor
  14. vicikiccha or suspicion

19 cetasika work with kusala cetana and they all become nānākkhanika kusala kamma. 14 cetasika work with akusala cetana and they all become nānākkhanika akusala kamma. All together these 33 ( 19 + 14 ) together with cetana serve as nānākkhanika kamma to their conditioned dhamma.

Their conditioned dhamma are vipāka chattimsa nāmakkhandha or 36 vipaka cittas, patisandhi kammaja rūpa or nascent kamma born rūpa or rūpa at birth, asanna satta kammaja rūpa or rūpa of asannāsatta brahmas and pavatti kammaja rūpa or current kamma born rūpa.

Nānā means in many ways in different ways in various ways. Khana means moment and khanika means related to moment or taking a moment. Nānākhanika kamma are kamma that committed in the past and that can give rise to their effect at any moment or in different time span or in various occasions.

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