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Tipitaka >> Abhidhamma Pitaka >> The Patthanuddesa Dipani
The Buddhist Philosophy of Relations
By Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw, Aggamahapandita, D.Litt.
Translated into English by Sayadaw U Nyana, Patamagyaw of Masoeyein Monastery Mandalay


Synchrony of Relations in the States of Mind

There are ninety-one "radiant" classes of consciousness. They are: twenty four "radiant" classes of kama-consciousness, fifteen classes of rupa-consciousness, twelve classes of arupa-consciousness and forty classes of transcendental consciousness. Of these the twenty-four "radiant" classes of kama-consciousness are: eight classes of moral consciousness, eight classes of "radiant" resultant kind, and another eight classes of "radiant" inoperative kind.

There are twenty-five kinds of sobhana ("radiant") mental properties: alobha (disinterestedness), adosa (amity), amoha (intelligence)--these three are termed moral hetus--saddha (faith), sati (mindfulness), hiri (prudence), ottappa (discretion), tatramajhattata (balance of mind), kayapassaddhi (composure of mental properties), cittapassaddhi (composure, of mind), kaya-lahuta (buoyancy of mental properties), citta-lahuta (buoyancy of mind), kayamuduta (pliancy of mental properties), citta-mudata (pliancy of mind), kayakammannata (fitness of work of mental properties), citta-kammannata (fitness of work of mind), kaya-pagunnata (proficiency of mental properties), citta-pagunnata (proficiency of mind), kayujukata (rectitude of mental properties), cittujukata, (rectitude of mind), samma-vaca (right speech), samma-kammanta (right action), samma-ajiva (right livelihood)--the last three are called the three abstinences; karuna (compassion) and mudita (sympathetic appreciation)--these last two are called the two illimitables.

Of these, the three moral hetu are hetupaccayas. Intelligence appears under the name of vimamsa in the adhipati relation; under the name of panna in the indriya relation; and under the name of sammaditthi in the magga relation. Saddha or faith is the indriya relation. Sati or mindfulness is a satindriya in the indriya relation, and a sammasati in the magga relation. The three abstinences (right speech, right action, right livelihood) are magga relations. The remaining seventeen mental states are not particular relations.

Thirty-eight mental properties enter into combination with the eight moral classes of kama-consciousness (kama=sense desires). They are: seven universals, six particulars, and twenty-five sobhana. Of these, pleasurable interest enters into combination only with the four classes of consciousness accompanied by joy. Intelligence also enters into combination with the four classes connected with knowledge. The three abstinences enter into combination only when moral rules or precepts are observed. The two illimitables arise only when sympathising with the suffering, or sharing in the happiness, of living beings. In these eight classes of consciousness, the dual or triple roots are hetu relations. Among the four kinds of adhipati, i.e. desire-to-do, mind, effort, and investigation, each is an adhipati in turn. Volition is the relation of kamma. The three foods are the relations of ahara. The eight mental states, i.e. mind, sensation, concentration, psychic life, faith, mindfulness, effort and intelligence are relations of indriya. The five jhana factors, i.e. initial application, sustained application, pleasurable interest, sensation and concentration are relations of jhana. The eight path-constituents, i.e. investigation, initial application, the three abstinences, mindfulness, effort and concentration are relations of magga. Therefore, only the two relations (pacchajata and vipaka) are not obtained in these eight classes of consciousness, and the remaining twenty-two are obtained. The three abstinences do not obtain in the eight sobhana classes of inoperative consciousness. As in the moral consciousness, two relations are unobtainable and twenty-two are obtainable here. The three abstinences and the two illimitables also do not obtain in the eight beautiful classes of resultant consciousness. The relations unobtainable are three in number, namely, adhipati, pacchajata and asevana; and the remaining twenty-one are obtainable.

The higher classes of rupa, arupa and transcendental consciousness, do not obtain more than twenty-two relations. The synchrony of relations should be understood as existing in the four moral classes of kama-consciousness connected with knowledge. If this be so, then why are those classes of consciousness more supreme and transcendental than the kama-consciousness? Because of the greatness of asevana. They are fashioned by marked exercises, and so asevana is superior to them; for this reason, indriya, jhana, magga and other relations also become superior. When these relations become supreme--each higher and higher than the other--those classes of consciousness also become more supreme and transcendental than kama--consciousness.

End of the Synchrony of Relations in the States of Mind.

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