Tipitaka >> Abhidhamma Pitaka >> The Patthanuddesa Dipani
The Buddhist Philosophy of Relations
By Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw, Aggamahapandita, D.Litt.
Translated into English by Sayadaw U Nyana, Patamagyaw of Masoeyein Monastery Mandalay


[3] In this relation, "Paccaya" is generally known as "arammana" =
"hanger" (as a pot-hook) = "object"; and paccayuppanna" is known
as "arammanika" ="hanger-on" = " subject." (Translator.)
[4] The six doors of the senses--mind, in Buddhist Philosophy,
making the sixth "sense".
[6] Note by Translator. Dhammato is equal to vatthuto or sarupato
or pabhedato. Cittuppada has three aspects of meaning.
Firstly, it means "consciousness," as in:
"Tesam cittaviyuttanam yathiiyogam ito param,
Cittuppadesu paccekam sampayogo pavuccati."
(See Part II, Sangaha).
Secondly, it means "genesis of thought", as in:
"Vithicittani satt'eva: Cittuppada catuddasa:
Catupannasa vitthhara Pancadvare Yatharaham"
(See Part IV, Sangaha.)
Thirdly, it means "mind and its concomitants," as in:
"Cittuppadanam" icc'evam Katva sangaham" uttaram,
Bhumipuggalabhedena Pubbaparaniyamitam."
(See Part IV, Sangaha.)
In each of these instances, the construction of the compound
"cittuppada" should also be noted. In the first instance, it is
constructed as follows: Uppajjatiti uppado. Cittam"eva uppado
cittuppado; in the second instance, Cittassa uppado cittuppado:
in the third instance, Uppajjati etena'ti uppado dhammasamuho.
Cittanca uppado ca cittuppado.
[7] Note by Translator Lokuttaradhammas are here meant, i e., the
four pairs made up of the four stages of the Path with the Fruit
of the same and Nibbana.
[8] Sights, sounds, odours, savours, contacts, ideas.
[9] Truth here means the sincerity of the promise he had given.
[10] Mind, here refers to one of the apperceptions which are usually
fifty-five in all, but in this connection we must exclude the two
classes of dull consciousness as well as aesthetic pleasure. The
other three dominants are their own concomitants. Translator.
[11] In no mass of earth, water, fire, or air, do these "elements"
exist in a state of absolute purity. The other "elements" are
always present, but in a very subordinate proportion.
[12] That is one who attains Nibbana unaided.
[13] Here, Science, Arts, and Handicrafts are meant.
[14] Ledi Sayadaw here seems to explain the life term of a womb-born
[15] Has been rendered as "sustained cessation". Here the cessation is
that not only of consciousness but also of mental concomitants
and mental qualities, born of mind. (Translator.)
[16] Here (hadayam) is the seat of (citta) thought.
[17] That is to say, Nibbana and concepts (or more properly, concept-
terms) do not enter time, and therefore are not subject to time's
nature, change. They do not "arise"; therefore they do not
"cease". They are "everlasting and eternal" in the sense of
being extra-temporal, not in the vulgar sense of being endlessly
continuous in time.
[18] Here abyakata is rendered as "unspecified" or "unmoral". It is
explained in the commentary as Kusala-akusalabhavena akathita,
annabhavena kathita; i.e., not to be called as moral or immoral,
but to be called as "apart-from-both", i.e., unmoral or
unspecified. The abyakatadhammas are--All classes of resultant
and inoperative consciousness and all material qualities, as well
as well as Nibbana. Translator.
[19] That is "sufficing condition" as set forth in the manner of the
Suttas or general discourses of the Buddha, as distinguished from
the manner in which it is dealt with in the Abhidhamma section of
the Scriptures.
[21] Beings whose coming into existence takes place in any other mode
than the ordinary one of birth from parents; what occidentals
might call "supernatural beings" though not all of them are to be
understood as superior to man in any vital respect. Many are
inferior to man, in power and faculty, as well as in the
opportunities open to them of winning Nibbana. Translator.
[22] Here, the origins of material qualities are meant. The word
"origin" is used in the sense of Darwin as in the "Origin of the
[23] Here, utu (lit., season) has been rendered as "temperature". It
may also be rendered by popular acceptance, as "physical change,"
"caloric energy," "heat and cold," etc.
[24] Ledi Sayadaw has not explained the cetanavattha. But it is easy
enough to understand, since it is the commission of the initial
volition or kamma.
[25] The Four Causes are (1) kamma, (2) citta (consciousness), (3) utu
(temperature) and (4) ahara (nutriment).
[26] Of these, the last three are confined to lokuttara alone. And of
these three, the first is the knowledge pertaining to the First
Path, the second that pertaining to the last three Paths and the
first three Fruitions, and the third pertaining to the last
Fruition only.
[28] Standing out of, or going beyond, its normal mode.
[29] "Certainly O Kaccana, (the soul) exists is the one extreme, and
(the soul) does not exist, is the second extreme."
This is a passage where the problem of soul, self or ego is
discussed as to its existence or non-existence as a real personal
[30] Here, the word appaccaya is not a kammadharaya compound but of
the bahubbihi class--thus: natthi paccaya etesam ti appacaya.
Asankhata is a kammadharaya compound--thus: samkariyante ti
sankhata; na sankhata ti asankhata.
[31] There are four postures for all beings: sitting, standing,
walking and lying down.
[33] Elsewhere the word "paccayuppana" is rendered as "related

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