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Tipitaka>>Sutta Pitaka>>Khuddaka Nikaya>>Nettipakarana>>Part III. Ch-i-16 Separate Treatments

Nettippakarana : Translated By Bhikku Nanamoli



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PART 3. COUNTER-DEMONSTRATIVE SUBSECTION Edit

16 Modes of Conveying: Separate Treatment Edit

1. The Ninefold Thread in the Mode of Conveying a Teaching Edit

31. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Teaching ? The Mode of Conveying a Teaching is [summarized] in the following verse:

‘Gratification, Disappointment,

Escape, Fruit, Means, the Lord Buddha’s

Commana to Devotees: this Mode

Is the Conveying of a Teaching’ (§5).

[The act-of -teaching and what-is-taught]

32. What does it teach ? [It teaches as follows:]

[In the aspects of] gratification, disappointment, escape, fruit, means, and injunction,1 <Bhikkhus, I shall teach you a True Idea that is good in the

beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with its own meaning and its own phrasing; I shall display a Divine Life that is entirely perfect and pure> (M. i, 280).

33. Herein, what is the gratification ?

< When a mortal desires, if his desire is fulfilled,

He is sure to be happy by getting what he wants >

This is the gratification. (Pe 45; Sn. 766).

34. Herein, what is the disappointment ?

[6]< Desire-born and willful, if his desires elude him,

He becomes as deformed as if pierced by a barb> (Sn. 767).

This is the disappointment.

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32/1 For these six terms see n. 5/1. Here all six words (assadam . . . anattim) are in the accusative and in apposition to the word dhammam (‘a True Idea ) in the quotation that follows. They are all governed by the verb desissami (‘I shall teach’) in the quotation. For a further exercise in the six see Pe 43-8.



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35. Herein, what is the escape ?

<He that shuns desires, as a snake’s head with his foot,

And is mindful evades this attachment to the world>

This is the escape. (Pe 46; Sn. 768).

36. Herein, what is the gratification ?

<Fields, gardens and money, cattle and horses, bondsmen and men, Women and kin: many are the desires that a man wants >

This is the gratification. (Sn.769).

36a. Herein, what is the disappointment ?

<Impotent-seeming troubles overwhelm and crush him;

Then pain invades him, as water a broken boat> (Sn. 770).

This is the disappointment.

36b. Herein, what is the escape ?

<So let a man be mindful ever in shunning sense-desires;

Let him abandon them and cross over the flood> (Sn. 771).

This is the escape.

37. Herein, what is the fruit ?

<The True Ideal guards him that walks therein,

As does a big umbrella in time of rain.

The Ideal's reward when walked in right is this:

Who walks therein has no bad destination>

This is the fruit. (Pe 44; cf. Thag.303).

38. Herein, what is the means ?

< Impermanent are all determinations, . . .

And painful too are all determinations, . . .

[And then besides] not-self are all ideas:

And so when he sees thus with understanding,

He then dispassion finds in suffering;

This path it is that leads to purification> (Pe 44; Dh. 277-9).

This is the means.

39. [7] Herein, what is the injunction ?

<Just as a man with good sight journeying

Would give wide berth to places of known danger,

So too here in this world of animation

Let wise men give wide berth to evil things> (Ud. 50).

This is the injunction.



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16 Modes of conveying in Separate Treatment

40. <Look upon the world as void, Mogharaja, > is the injunction. <Constantly mindful is the means.

<With self-view extirpated thus, You may outstrip Mortality> is the fruit (Pe 45; Sn. 1119).

[ How it is taught ]

41. Herein, the Lord Buddha teaches escape to a person who gains knowledge by what is condensed,1 he teaches disappointment and escape to a person who gains knowledge by what is expanded,2 he teaches gratification, disappointment, and escape, to a person who is guidable.

42. Herein, there are four ways and four [types of] persons. One of craving-temperament1 who is dull finds the outlet, by way of the foundations of mindfulness as support and with the mindfulness faculty, on the way that is painful with sluggish acquaintanceship. One of craving-temperament who is intelligent2 finds the outlet, by way of the [four] meditations as support and with the concentration faculty, on the way that is painful with swift acquaintanceship.3

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41/1 ‘Ugghatita—condensed’: see A. ii, 135; Pug. 41. It is questionable whether any of the meanings given in PED are right for any context, all of which seem to derive from the A. ref. Here the meaning is as rendered, as this context clearly shows. For the corresponding verb ugghateti see n. 54/1. The term is also explained at Pug. 41. The etymology needs overhauling. 41/2 4Vipancita—expanded’: the same remarks apply here as in the note above on ugghatita. PED's ‘unillusioned understanding, clear-minded, unprejudiced’ is quite off the mark. The point is that while the ugghatitannu only needs a condensed (ugghatita) statement to gain knowledge (anna) of the 4 Truths, the vipancitannu needs an expanded (vipancita) statement for the same purpose. He is therefore slower-witted than the other. The ‘guidable’ (neyya), while still slower-witted, is yet able to follow guidance. This applies to A. ii, 135. And vipancana (§55) does not mean ‘passing a sentence’ as in PED but the ‘act of expanding a condensed statement’ (as is done in, say, M. Sutta 18). Similarly the derivatives vipancayati (§54) and vipanciyanta (§56). This term is also explained at Pug. 41.

42/1 'Tanha—craving’: this is the usual rendering and will do. The word corresponds to the Skr. trsnd ‘thirst’, but is never used for ‘thirst’, which is pipasa. ‘Need’ would be a better rendering, perhaps.

42/2 iUdatt(h)aintelligent’: NettiA and C spell udattha and NettiA glosses ‘uda-attho; ulara-panno ti attho’ (p. 43). Ba and Bb support PTS. For the meaning PED (Netti refs, only) gives ‘elevated, high, lofty, clever’, but it is simply the opposite of manaa (‘dull’) here.

42/3 tAbhinna—acquaintance’: the word (subst. fm. vb. abhijanati) has 3 principal meanings: (1) direct acquaintance by personal experience, (2) acquaintance by book-knowledge or by hearing from someone else, ‘learning by heart’, which is equivalent to ‘understanding consisting in what is heard’ (§46), and (3) 6 kinds of abhinna or 5 supenormal-powers belonging to worlds and 1 knowledge-of-exhaustion-of-taints dissociated from worlds, together called the chalabhinna. Here the meaning is in the senses of (2) or (3).



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One of view-temperament who is dull finds the outlet, by way of the right endeavours as support and with the energy faculty, on the way that is pleasant with sluggish acquaintanceship. One of view- temperament who is intelligent finds the outlet, by way of the truths as support and with the understanding faculty, on the way that is pleasant with swift acquaintanceship.

43. Both kinds of craving-temperament find the outlet, by way of insight heralded by quiet,1 to the heart-deliverance due to the fading of lust. Both kinds of view-temperament find the outlet, by way of quiet heralded by insight, to the understanding-deliverance due to the fading of ignorance.2

44. Herein, those who find the outlet (cf. §§529ff.) by the ways heralded by quiet can be brought to abandoning1 by means of the Conversion-of-Relishing Guide-Line (§§644-72), while those who find the outlet by the ways heralded by insight can be brought to abandoning by means of the Lions’-Play Guide-Line (§§673-757).

[How it is apprehended]

45. [8] Where does this Mode of Conveying actually come into being % When the Master, or some respected companion in the Divine Life, teaches the True Idea to someone, then that someone, on hearing that True Idea, acquires faith.

46. Herein, inquiry, interest, estimating, scrutiny, is understanding consisting in what is heard (see D. iii, 219). Suchlike inquiry, estimating, scrutiny, mental looking-over, with what has been heard as the support, is understanding consisting in cogitation. Know-

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43/1 The allusion is to A. ii, 157. ‘Quiet’ (samatha) is a synonym for ‘concentration’ (samadhi).

43/2 Avijja—here ‘ignorance’—could be well rendered here by ‘nescience’ as the derivative-opposite of vijja (rendered here by ‘science’). Avijja is technically ‘ignorance’ of the 4 Truths, while vijja has the meanings of (1) loosely any body of knowledge or ‘science’ (in the old sense) and (2) technically the ‘triple science’ (tivijja)f as Recollection of Past Life (pubbenivasanussati), the Heavenly Eye (dibba-cakkhu), and Knowledge of Exhaustion of Taints (asava-kkhaya-nana).

44/1 ‘Hatabba—can be brought to abandoning’:/hd to abandon (?). NettiA says ‘ Yametabba; netabba ti attho’; see n. 181 /l.



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16 Modes of Conveying in Separate Treatment

ledge that, in one associating his attention with these two kinds of understanding, arises on the plane of seeing or on the plane of keeping-in-being,1 is understanding consisting in keeping-in-being. [Now] understanding consisting in what is heard [arises] from another’s utterance. Understanding consisting in cogitation [arises] from reasoned attention2 moulded3 for oneself. Understanding consisting in keeping-in-being is knowledge that arises by means of another’s utterance and by means of reasoned attention moulded for oneself4 (cf. Pe 233).

47. He in whom there are the two kinds of understanding, namely that consisting in what is heard and that consisting in cogitation, is one who gains knowledge by what is condensed. He is whom there is understanding consisting in what is heard but no understanding consisting in cogitation is one who gains knowledge by what is expanded. He in whom there is neither understanding consisting in what is heard nor understanding consisting in cogitation is guidable (cf. Pe 30).

[The Teaching as presentation of the Four Truth ]

48. What does the teaching of the True Idea teach ? The Four Truths, namely Suffering, Origin, Cessation, and the Path.

Disappointment and fruit are suffering; gratification is origin; escape is cessation; means and injunction are the path (cf. §32). These are the Four Truths.

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46/1 ‘Seeing’ (dassana) as a technical term means the 1st path, at which moment nibbana is first ‘seen’. ‘Keeping in being’ (bhavana—caus. subst. fm. bhu to be) is the corresponding technical term for the remaining three paths, which ‘keep that vision of nibbana in being’ by repeating it. This latter word has thus an important ontological significance.

46/2 ‘ Yoniso manasikara—reasoned attention’. Yoni (lit. ‘womb’) is figuratively used for the ‘reason’ from which an idea is ‘born’, i.e., a condition- sine-qua-non (paccaya), see M. iii, 142. Manasi-karameans what it says, namely ‘doing in the mind’. It is always necessarily present. Yoniso manasikara (‘reasoned attention’) as a technical term means thinking in terms of the specific conditionality of existence. The classic example is given at S. ii, 105f.; the opposite, ayoniso manasikara, is any train of thought which ignores that specifically conditioned structure of existence (see M. i, 7), and which results in the formation of wrong views and the consequent production of suffering. It is not to be confused with temporal (‘historical’) causality.

46/3 ‘Moulded for oneself’ refers primarily to the original thinking by ‘reasoned attention’ described at S. ii, 105f.

46/4 Cf. Pe 1-2.



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49. [Now] this is the Wheel of the True Idea, according as the Lord Buddha said:

<‘This is suffering\* At Benares, bhikkhus, in the Deer Park at Isipatana, the matchless Wheel of the True Idea was thus set rolling by me not to be stopped by monk1 or divine2 or god or Mara or Divinity or anyone in the world . . . > and the whole ‘Wheel-of-the-Ttue-Idea’ [Discourse should be quoted] (cf. S. v, 424).

Herein, there are terms of ungauged measure, letters of ungauged measure (cf. A. ii, 182), phrases, moods, linguistics and demonstrations of ungauged measure (cf. §27) but there is an explaining, displaying, divulging, analysing, exhibiting, and describing (cf. §28), of that very meaning [in the ninefold Thread] (see Pe 5). This is the Noble Truth of Suffering.

50. <‘This is the origin of suffering' : At Benares, bhikkhus, in the Deer Park at Isipatana, the matchless Wheel of the True Idea wasset rolling by me ...>.. .

51. [9] <'This is the cessation of suffering At Benares, bhikkhus,...>

52. <‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering': At Benares, bhikkhus, in the Deer Park at Isipatana, the matchless Wheel of the True Idea was thus set rolling by me not to be stopped by monk or divine or god or Mara or Divinity or anyone in the world> (cf. S. v, 424).

Herein, there are terms of ungauged measure, letters of ungauged measure, phrases, moods, linguistics, and demonstrations of ungauged measure, but there is an explaining, displaying, divulging, analysing, exhibiting, and describing, of that very meaning [in the ninefold Thread]. This is the Noble Truth of the Way Leading to the Cessation of Suffering.

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49/1 There is no adequate translation of samana. At MA. i, 113 it is defined as ‘anyone who has gone forth from the house-life’ and is further explained at MA. ii, 201.

49/2 The three Pali words brahma (‘divine’ as in brahma-vihara = ‘divine abiding’, brahmacariya = ‘divine life’(celibacy), ‘brahmayana = ‘divine vehicle’ S. v, 4), brahma (‘High Divinity’), and brahmana(a ‘divine’, a ‘priestly divine’, the ‘priestly-divine caste’, ‘of the divine caste’) are all closely related etymologically and semantically. There are frequent plays on these words, and each is always shadowed by the meanings of the others. Brahma (adj.) signifies the quality of perfection of the Brahma God, and the Brahmana Caste claims to derive its origins from Brahma regarded as the Creator.



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[ How the Teaching is variously presented ]

53. Herein, the Lord Buddha explains by letters, displays by terms, divulges by phrases, analyses by moods, exhibits by linguistics, and describes by demonstrations.

54. Herein, the Lord Buddha condenses1 by letters and terms, he expands2 by phrases and moods, he details by linguistics and demonstrations.

55. Herein, condensing1 is the beginning, expanding2 is the middle, and detailing is the end (see §32).

56. This True Idea and Outguiding (Discipline), when it is condensed,1 guides out (disciplines) the [type of] person who gains knowledge by what is condensed; hence ‘good in the beginning’ is said (§32). When expanded it guides out (disciplines) the [type of] person who gains knowledge by what is expanded; hence ‘good in the middle’ is said (§32). When detailed it guides out (disciplines) the [type of] person who is guidable; hence ‘good in the end’ is said (§32).

57. Herein, six terms [concern] the meaning, namely explaining, displaying, divulging, analysing, exhibiting, and describing (§28); these six terms concern the meaning. [And] six terms [concern] the phrasing, namely letter, term, phrase, mood, linguistic, and demonstration (§27); these six terms [concern] the phrasing. That is why the Lord Buddha said <Bhikkhus, I shall teach you a True Idea that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with its own meaning and its own phrasing; I shall display a Divine Life that is entirely perfect and pure> (§32).

58. [10] ‘Entirely’:1 disjoined from worlds, not mixed with world

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54/1 ‘Ugghateti—to condense’: (see n. 41/1) the meaning ‘to open, to reveal’ given in PTS Netti Index and quoted in PED is incorrect. Perhaps confused there with the ‘removal’ (ugghati) of the <‘hasina>as described at Vis. 113 and 327.

54/2 ‘Vipancayati—to expand’ (i.e., expand a condensed meaning): see n. 41 /2.

55/1 ‘Ugghatana—(act of) condensing’: not in PED.

5512 ‘ Vipancana—(act of) expanding’ (i.e., expanding a condensed statement) : see n. 41 /2.

56/1 Ugghatiyanto, vipanciyanto, and vitthariyanto, are not denominatives as stated in PTS Netti Index, but present participles of the passive voice. 58/1 This paragraph simply takes up and explains, for completeness’ sake, the final clause of the quotation (§32) which forms the basis of this Mode of Conveying, and which has so far not been dealt with. There is no reason for printing it in small type as is done in PTS.



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ideas. ‘Perfect’: perfected, with nothing lacking and nothing superfluous. ‘Pure’: immaculate, with all stains removed, established [as fit] for all [kinds of] distinctions.

59. < This is called ‘a Perfect One's footprintand something used by a Perfect Oneand something marked by a Perfect One >x (M. i, 182). With that this Divine Life is evident. That is why the Lord Buddha said ‘I shall display a Divine Life that is entirely perfect and pure'.

[For whom the Teaching is intended ]

60. For whom is this teaching of the True Idea ? For devotees. This is why the venerable Maha-Kaccana said:

‘Gratification, Disappointment,

Escape, Fruit, Means, the Lord Buddha’s

Commana to devotees; this Mode

Is the Conveying of a Teaching’ (§5).

The Mode of Conveying a Teaching is ended.

*

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2.The Ninefold Thread in the Mode of Conveying an Investigation Edit

61. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying an Investigation ? The Mode of Conveying an Investigation is [summarized] in the following verse:

‘What in the Thread is asked and answered,

As well as a verse-paraphrase,

And the Thread’s term-investigation:

This Mode Conveys Investigation’ (§6).

62. What does it investigate 2. It investigates:

(1) term, question, answer, consecutivity (§§63-115) ;*

(2) gratification, disappointment, escape; fruit, means, injunction * (Mode 1);

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59/1 Tathagataranjitam (so read) — tathagata+aranjita; see M. i, 178 for original simile.

62/1 NettiA (p. 52) explains that investigation covers the grammatical aspect of wards, whether or not the expression is in the form of a question (or an answer, or how the answer is consecutive upon the question answered), and also the six headings given at the beginning of the first Mode of Conveying, and also the 'paraphrasing-verse if any. ‘Ettha anurupam gitianugititi ayam pi attho icchito’ (p. 52).



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16 Modes of Conveying in Separate Treatment

(3) paraphrasing-verse (§116);

(4) all that is in the ninefold Thread-of-Argument (§117).

How would that be ?

[(1) Term, Question, Answer, Consecutivity]

63. It would be [firstly] according to the venerable Ajita’s question asked of the Lord Buddha in the Parayana [Chapter of the Sutta- nipata~]:

<‘[Tell] what is the world shut in1 by’

So said the venerable Ajita ‘

And whereby is it not displayed?

And what is it besmeared with? Say.

And what will be its greatest fear?>

(Sn. 1032; Pe 82).

64. These four terms asked are one question.1 Why ? Because of their comprising a single thing. [11] For in asking thus '[Tell] what is the world shut in by V he asks [the question] expressed in terms of the world, [in asking] 'And wherefore is it not displayed V he asks about the world’s undisplayedness, [in asking] ‘And what is

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63/1 4Nivuta—shut in’ and 4 nivarana—hindrance’ have to be understood not so much in the sense of a head-on blockage but rather as, say, the fences that shut traffic in on a road, or embankments of a river, which prevent lateral escape. See §§66 and 499.

64/1 Read Imani cattari padani puccchitani, so eko panho as one sentence. This exemplifies a rule (not invariably followed, see e.g., Pe 117) governing demonstrative and relative pronouns where two nouns of different gender, number or case, one or each with a demonstrative pronoun, are joined by predication in apposition. In this instance the masc. sing, so, though referring back in meaning to the neut. pi. cattari padani, must agree in gender, number and case with the second subst., here the masc. sing, panho, predicated of the first (here by the copula hoti understood). Further examples will be found below (PTS pp. 28, 42, 86: see n. 469/1), and in other books, e.g., ‘Anicca bhikkhave KAMA tuccha musa moghadhamma, mayakatam ETAM bhikkhave BALALAPANAM (M. ii, 261), where the neut. sing, etam refers in meaning back to the masc. pi. kama, but agrees in number, gender and case with balalapanam, the copula hoti being understood ('Impermanent, bhikkhus, (are) sensual desires and empty and false and inseparable from the idea of vanity, they (are) fools’ talk made up of deceit’). Failure to recognize this rule when applied can lead to much confusion of meaning and mispunctuation of unpunctuated MSS.



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it besmeared with ? Say’ he asks about the world’s besmearedness, [and in asking] ‘ And what will be its greatest fear V he asks about that same world’s greatest fear.

The world2 is of three kinds: world of defilement, world of being (existence), and world of faculties.

65. Herein, the answer is this:

<‘By ignorance is the world shut in,

Ajita’ the Lord Buddha said.

‘’Tis undisplayed through miswishing1 and neglect,

And hankering smears it, I say;

Suffering is its greatest fear’>

(Sn. 1033; Pe 13, 83).

66. Those four terms are answered by these four terms: the first by the first, the second by the second, the third by the third, and the fourth by the fourth.

'By ignorance is the world shut in9 is the answer to '[Tell] what is the world shut in by V. The world is shut in by hindrances; for all creatures have ignorance as their [in-shutting] hindrance, according as the Lord Buddha said <Bhikkhus, I say that, relatively speaking} all creatures, all breathing things, all beings, have one hindrance only, that is to say, ignorance; for all creatures have ignorance as hindrance. And bhikkhus, it is with the entire cessation of ignorance, with giving it up and relinquishing it, that creatures have no more hindrance, I say> ( ). By this the answer to the first term is appropriately construed.

67. [And again] £’Tis undisplayed through miswishing and neglect’ is the answer to 6And wherefore is it undisplayed V. When a person

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64/2 The word loka (‘world’) is used in various senses, among which may be distinguished particularly also (1) the world of other people and things (e.g., M. iii, 120), which is the ‘triple element’ (§§80, 353), (2) this body (e.g., 8. i, 62; iv, 52), and so on. Ten definitions are given at Ps. i, 122, while at Vis. 204 there is another threefold definition. As used here ‘world’ corresponds more or less to ‘universe’.

65/1 ‘Viviccha—miswishing’: Nd2 (Burm. ed., p. 13) glosses by macchariya. It seems doubtful if it is a desiderative of vid as suggested by PTS Netti Index and PED. See n. 67/l. NettiA (p. 54) says ‘ Viviccha ti vicikiccha-hetu vivicchamacchariyan ti Sangahe vuttam. Cf. veviccham at Pug. 19, etc.

66/1 ‘Pariyayato—relatively speaking’ is here glossed by karanato (‘as to reason’) in NettiA.



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is shut in by hindrances, he miswishes (vivicchati),1 and ‘miswishing’ (vivicchd)1 is what uncertainty (vicikicchd) is called. When he is uncertain (vidkicchanto) he does not settle his faith. When he does not settle his faith he does not instigate energy for the abandoning of unprofitable ideas [and] for the verification of profitable ideas. Here he abides devoted to negligence. When he is negligent he does not arouse ideas that belong to the white [side].2 Not being aroused, they are not displayed to him, according as the Lord Buddha said:

<The True are from afar displayed,

As Himalaya's Mountain is;

But the untrue are seen not here,

Like arrows in the night let fly > (Dh. 304).

<They are displayed by qualities,

By reputation and by fame> ( ).

68. By this the answer to the second term is appropriately construed.

6And hankering smears it, I say9 is the answer toAnd what is it besmeared with ? Say'.Hankering so named is what craving is called. How does that besmear ? In the way stated by the Lord Buddha:

<Who lusts no meaning ever knows,

Who lusts sees never an idea,

The murk of darkness laps a man

When he will suffer lust to be> (cf. A. iv, 96).

This craving, in a person greatly clutching [at existence] taken thus as great hankering, is that wherein the world comes to be ‘besmeared*. By this the answer to the third term is appropriately construed.

69. [And lastly] ‘Suffering is its greatest fear' is the answer to cAnd what will be its greatest fear ?'. Suffering is of two kinds: bodily and mental. The bodily kind is pain, while the mental kind is grief. All creatures are sensitive to suffering. Since there is no fear equal to [that of] suffering, how could there be any greater ? There are three kinds of painfulness: painfulness as [bodily] pain, painfulness in change, and painfulness in determinations (see D. iii, 216).1

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67/1 ‘ Vivicchati—to miswish’: see n. 65/1; this is simply a vb. formed here from the subst. in the Sn. verse.

67/2 Read sukke dhamme, cf. Pe 95 (sukkadamma) and 131 (sukkapakkho), 69/1 Cf. Pe 19-20.



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Herein, the world is, at one time or another, limitedly free from painfulness as [bodily] pain, and likewise from painfulness in change. Why is that ? Because there are those in the world who have little sickness and are long-lived. But only the element of extinction without trace left liberates from the painfulness in determinations. That is why ‘Suffering is its greatest fear’, taking it that painfulness in determinations is the world’s [inherent liability to] suffering. By this the answer to the fourth term is appropriately construed.

That is why the Lord Buddha said ‘By iqnorance is the world shut in . . .’ (§65).

70. <‘The streams keep streaming everywhere’

So said the venerable Ajita.

‘What is it that shuts off the streams?

Tell then, what is restraint of streams,

Whereby it is that streams are sealed’>

(Sw..l034; Pe 83).1

71. [13] These four terms asked are two questions (see §126). Why ? Because here [the question] is asked with a plurality of designations. With the world proceeding in this way, with the world thus defiled, what is (1) its cleansing and (2) its emergence ?

72. Accordingly he said ‘The streams keejp streaming everywhere’: when someone is unconcentrated and much given to covetousness, ill-will, and negligence, they keep streaming in him. Herein, ‘covetousness’ is the unprofitable root consisting in greed, ‘ill-will’ is the unprofitable root consisting in hate, and ‘negligence’ is the unprofitable root consisting in delusion. When someone is unconcentrated, craving keeps streaming in his six bases: craving for forms, craving for sounds, craving for odours, craving for flavours, craving for tangibles, and craving for ideas; according as the Lord Buddha said: <‘It keeps streaming’, bhikkhus: this is a designation for the six bases in oneself. The eye keeps streaming to agreeable forms and resisting1disagreeable forms. The ear .. . nose . . . tongue . . . body . ..

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70/1 A later verse in this same Sutta is discussed at S. ii, 47f.; the untraced quotation in §72 looks like part of a similar discussion.

72/1 ‘Patihannati—keeps resisting’: this serves here as verb for the subst. patigha (‘resistance’); see also §75. Not in PED, but see there under patihanti, also appatihata (‘unresisted’) and patighata (‘resistance') in §96.



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The mind keeps streaming to agreeable ideas and resisting disagreeable ideas > ( ). So it keeps streaming on in all ways2 and in

all manners. That is why he said 'The streams keep streaming everywhere'

73. [With the words] ‘What is it that shuts off the streams V he asks about deterrence of obsession. This is cleansing. [With the words] ‘Tell then, what is restraint of streams, Whereby it is that streams are sealedhe asks about eradication of underlying-tendencies. This is emergence (see §71).

74. Here are the answers:

<‘Whatever streams are in the world,

Ajita’ the Lord Buddha said,

They are shut off by mindfulness;

The streams’ restraint I tell, whereby

They can be sealed, is understanding>

(Sn. 1035; Pe 17, 84).

75. < When mindfulness occupied with the body is kept in being and made much of, the eye is not attracted1 among agreeable forms, and is unresistant among disagreeable forms. The ear . . .nose ... tongue . .. body . . . The mind is not attracted among agreeable ideas, is unresistant among disagreeable ideas > (cf. S. iv, 200). For what reason ? Because the faculties are restrained and shut off. [14] Restrained and shut off by what ^ By mindfulness’s preservation. That is why the Lord Buddha said ‘They are shut off by mindfulness’.

76. [And again] the underlying-tendencies are abandoned by understanding. When the underlying-tendencies are abandoned the obsessions are abandoned. Why1 with the abandoning of the underlying-tendencies ? Just as, when the complete uprooting of a tree with its trunk is effected, the continuity of flowers, fruits, shoots, and buds, is severed (cf. Ps. ii, 218), so too, when the underlying-tendencies are abandoned, the continuity of obsessions is severed, closed, covered up. By what ? By understanding. That is why the Lord Buddha said that ‘ Whereby they can be sealed is understanding’.

*

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72/2 Sabba (‘in all ways’): abl. adv.

75/1 4Avinchati—to be attracted’: see PED under avijjhati; serves here as alternative for savati (‘to keep streaming’) in §72. NettiA (p. 57) glosses by akaddhati.

76/1 Kissa (‘why’) is gen. pronominal adv. here, not gen. interrog-pron. in agreement with anusayassa. Cf. kissa (also ‘why’) in §94.



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77. <‘Understanding and mindfulness.’

So said the venerable Ajita.

‘And [now], good sir, this name-and-form:

Tell me then what I ask of you,

Where does this come to its surcease?’

‘As to the question that you ask,

Ajita, I [shall] tell you [now]

Where both this name and form do come

To their remainderless surcease:

With cessation of consciousness,

'Tis here this comes to its surcease’>

(Sn. 1036; Pe 84-5).

78. This question asks about the sequence [of meaning]1 (see also §§198f.). When asking about sequence [of meaning], what does it a sk about ? About the element of extinction without trace left.2

79. Three Truths are determined, inseparable from the idea of cessation: they are Suffering, Origin, and the Path; Cessation is undetermined. Herein, origin is abandoned on two planes: on the plane of seeing and on the plane of keeping in being.1 Three fetters are abandoned by seeing: embodiment view,2 uncertainty, and misapprehension of virtue and duty.3 Seven fetters are abandoned by

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78/1 If the Pe is excluded, this is probably the earliest use of anusandhi as semantic or logical ‘sequence’. PED rightly queries the guess ‘complete cessation’ given in PTS Netti Index, a mistake due to confusing a syntactical rule with the subject-matter (namely ‘extinction’) that is the rule’s example here.

78/2 For the terms sa-upadisesa (‘with trace left’) and anupadisesa (‘without trace left’) see M. ii, 257, where a non-metaphorical use suggests that they were originally medical terms, later extended by analogy to, respectively, the cessation of lust, hate and delusion during the arahant’s life and to the (future-tense) cessation of the 5-category process at the end of his life-span. Cf. Iti. 38 for this latter meaning.

79/1 Seen. 46/1.

79/2 ‘Embodiment-view’ (sakkaya-ditthi) refers to the 20 modes of identification of self (atta) with the 5 categories (see M. i, 300 and MA.)i i.e., belief that they ‘embody’ self in some manner.

79 /3 ‘misapprehension of virtue and duty’ is more literal than, say, ‘adherence to rites and rituals’ as a rendering for silabbataparamasa. See A. iv, 55; cf. definitions of paramasa at Vbh. 365 and Vis. 684. The meaning is simply the mistaken expectations of reward, not only regarding the practice of such ritualistic habits and duties as ‘ox-virtue’, etc.; (see, e.g., M. Sutta 57), but also belief that virtue alone suffices without concentration and understanding see §895).



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keeping in being: will to sensual desire, ill will, lust for form, lust for formlessness, conceit,4 agitation, and the remainder of ignorance.5

80. These are the ten fetters in the triple element [of existence]:1 five belong to the hither side and five to the further side.

81. [15] Herein, three fetters, namely embodiment view, uncertainty, and misapprehension of virtue and duty, cease with the expression of the I-shall-come-to-know-fmally-the-as-yet-not-finally-known faculty, and seven fetters, namely will to sensual desire, ill will, lust for form, lust for formlessness, conceit, agitation, and the remainder of ignorance, cease with the expression of the act-of- final-knowing faculty. Now two kinds of knowledge, namely what he knows thus ‘Birth is exhausted for me’, which is knowledge about exhaustion, and what he knows thus ‘There is no more of this beyond’, which is knowledge of non-arising5 constitute the final- knower faculty (see §890).

82. Herein, the I-shall-come-to-know-finally-the-as-yet-not-finally- known faculty and the act-of-final-knowing faculty cease in him who reaches the supreme fruit that is Arahantship.

Herein, the two kinds of knowledge, namely knowledge about exhaustion and knowledge about non-arising, are one kind of understanding; but it has two names according to imputation:1 in one who is understanding thus ‘Birth is exhausted for me’ it has the name ‘knowledge about exhaustion’, while in one who is understanding thus ‘There is no more of this beyond’ it has the name ‘knowledge about non-arising’. That is 'understanding’ (§77) in the

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79/4 Mana (as asmi-mana ‘the conceit “I am” ’—see S. iii, 128-32) is closely allied to mannana and mannita (e.g., M. iii, 246) and mannati (M. i, 1) as ‘conceit’ and ‘to conceive (conceits)’. The root of all these is man (‘to measure’, which gives mano ‘mind’). The pun between conceit as ‘conceitedness’ and as a ‘conceit’ or ‘concept’ is a living one in the Pali as in the English. ‘Pride’ destroys this word-play but can be used for atimana, whose uses are quite limited.

79/5 The reading avijjavasesa given by NettiA and Bb seems perhaps preferable, though NettiA cites as alternative the PTS reading, which both Ba and C support. If niravasesa is right, though, it would mean ‘without remainder’ (‘none left’) and not ‘inclusive’ as given in PTS Netti Index.

80/1 The ‘triple element’ is the sensual-desire element (or mode of being), the form element (or mode of being), and the formless element (or mode of being); see Pe 116, and cf. e.g., M. iii, 63.

83/1 ‘Sanketena—according to imputation’: sanketa means lit. ‘rendezvous’ or ‘appointment’, cf. §96. What is meant here is that understanding has different names according to what it is about.



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sense of act-of-understanding (cf. Ps. i, l),2 and it is ‘mindfulness (§77) in the sense of the act-of-not-floating-away [from its object]3 according as [it has] seen [it].

84. Herein, the five categories of assumption constitute ‘name-and- form’ (§77).1 And herein, the ideas that have contact as fifth2 constitute name; while the five form-faculties [beginning with the eye] constitute form; and both of these, with the associated consciousness, constitute name-and-form (cf. Pe 116).

85. It was in asking the Lord Buddha about the cessation of that [name-and-form] that the venerable Ajita spoke in the Pdrdyana thusUnderstanding and mindfulness. And [now], good sir,this name-and-form, Tell me then what I ask of you, Where does this come to its surcease V (§77).

86. Herein, mindfulness and understanding [represent] four faculties: mindfulness [represents] two faculties, namely the mindfulness faculty and the concentration faculty, while understanding [represents] two faculties, namely the understanding faculty and the

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83/2 English does not, in the case of the verb ‘to understand’, distinguish between the two forms panna (subst. ‘understanding’) and pajanana (subst. ‘(act of) understanding’) as it does, say, with the parallel forms nana (subst. ‘knowledge’) and janana (subst. ‘knowing’).

83/3 ‘Apilapana—non-floating away’: not as in PED for all Netti and similar refs. The word is the same as the abstract form apilapanata (i.e., a + pilapana + ta: see PED) and is glossed by NettiA with ogahana. The root is pin (to swim or float), not lap; see PED pilavati, and also CPD. Mindfulness is regarded as keeping the mind ‘anchored’ on its object and preventing it from ‘floating away’ from it.

84/1 In the Suttas ‘name-and-form’ (namarupa) never seems to include consciousness (vinnana)—see, e.g., M. i, 53; D. ii, 62-3; M. iii, 17 (a point more important than might be suspected)—but in later literature it is often taken (outside actual dependent-arising contexts) to include consciousness (i.e., to include all 5 categories, not only the first four; e.g., Vis. 590). This work seems undecided; this passage identifies name-and-form with all 5 categories, confirmed by §226, but the definition of the ‘name-body’ in §445 is different and nearer to that given at M. i, 53; cf. also §92.

84/2 ‘Phassapancamaka—with contact as fifth’ (cf. Vis. 626 and MA. i, 276; iii, 262 for this expression). The most likely formulation referred to here is the 6 things in §445, of which contact is the fifth. But another similar expression, phassapancaka (‘contact-pentad’), is used in the Commentaries (e.g., MA. i, 249) to refer to the first 5 indispensible concomitants of cognizance listed at Dhs. §1, namely ‘contact, feeling, perception, choice, cognizance’, cf. the definition of ‘name’ at M. i, 53 by the 5, namely ‘feeling, perception, choice, contact, and attention’, and also the group of 5 at M. iii, 26fF. ‘contact, feeling, perception, choice, cognizance’.



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energy faculty. Any act-of-having-faith, act of trusting, in these four faculties is the faith faculty.

87. Herein, any unification of cognizance with faith in predominance is concentration of will. Any power-of-deliberation, or any power- of-keeping-in-being, owed to suppression of defilements while cognizance is concentrated, is endeavour.1 [16] Herein, any in-breath and out-breath, any thinking and exploring, any perception and feeling, any memories and intentions, are determinations. So the prior concentration of will, and then the endeavour1 owed to suppression of defilement—and these determinations—, both these he keeps in being as this [first] <basis for success that possesses concentration-of-will with endeavour1 and determinations > (cf. S. v, 254), which <is supported by seclusion, supported by fading, supported by cessation, and changes to relinquishment> (S. v, 340).

88. Herein, any unification of cognizance with energy in predominance is concentration of energy . . .

89. Herein, any unification of cognizance with [natural concentration of] cognizance in predominance is concentration of cognizance . . .

90. Herein, any unification of cognizance with inquiry in predominance is concentration of inquiry. Any power-of-deliberation, or any power-of-keeping-in-being, owed to suppression of defilements when cognizance is concentrated, is endeavour. Herein, any inbreath and out-breath, any thinking and exploring, any perception and feeling, any memories and intentions, are determinations. So the prior concentration of inquiry, and then the endeavour owed to suppression of defilements—and these determinations—, both these he keeps in being as this [fourth] <basis for success that possesses concentration of inquiry, as well as endeavour and determinations >, which <is supported by seclusion, supported by fading, supported by cessation, and changes to relinquishment>.

91. All concentration has knowledge for its root, is heralded by knowledge, and has parallel occurrence1 with knowledge. With

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87/1 All eds. confirm PTS reading pahana, though NettiA gives padhana as an alternative and comments on both. The latter seems preferable in view of the Sutta formula, (chanda-) samadhi-padhana-sankhara-samannagata, for the ‘bases for success’, which are being discussed here.

91/1 ‘Anuparivattati—has parallel occurrence with’: the right meaning (not given in PED) needs arm to be taken in its not unusual sense of ‘parallel’, pari in its comprehensive sense (= ‘completely’), and vattati in the sense of ‘to occur’ (cf. pavattati, nibbattati, ctc.); i.e., ‘occurs coextensively with’.



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open and untrammelled cognizance he keeps in being cognizance with lucidity thus:

<As before, so after; as after, so before; . . .

And as by night, by day; and as by day, by night >

(A. i, 236; S. v, 277).

92. The five profitable faculties [of faith, etc.] are coexistent with1 cognizance, arise when cognizance arises, and cease when cognizance ceases;2 and name-and-form has consciousness for its cause, and it has occurrence with consciousness for its condition. When its cause is interrupted by the path, consciousness being then without nutriment, with nothing expectantly relished,3without standing, without re-linking, ceases (cf. §306). No name-and-form occurs in a new existence without cause and without condition. [17] So with the cessation of consciousness, name-and-form ceases, and also understanding and mindfulness. That is why the Lord Buddha said:

<‘As to the question that you ask,

Ajita, I [shall] tell you [now]

Where both this name and form do come

To their remainderless surcease:

With cessation of consciousness

'Tis here this comes to its surcease’> (§77).

*

93. <‘There are the masters of ideas’

So said the venerable Ajita.

‘And several initiates here:

Good sir, if asked, you have the skill

To tell me their behaviour’>(Sn. 1038; Pe 85).

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The meaning is paraphrased in §92, cf. also Dhs. p. 5. Is PED's meaning ‘to move round’ ever justified? See CPD, also n. 92/1 and Pe 82.

92/1 'Sahabhu—coexistent with’: see Dhs. §1197. This, with the idea of anuparivatti (see last note), was developed in the later commentarial literature into the theory of ‘ideas with simultaneous arising and cessation, and ideas with simultaneous arising and different cessation or different arising and simultaneous cessation’ in connexion with the occurrence of rupadhamma and arupadhamma (VbhA. 25ff.).

92/2 cf. Yamaha ii, Iff.

92/3 Abhinandati (like its subst. abhinandana) is mostly used in the sense of ‘looking forward expectantly to the future’, while nandati simply means ‘delighting’; but the distinction is not a hard one.



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94. These three terms asked are three questions. Why By construing [respectively] as the adept, the initiate,2 and also the kind of abandoning heralded by insight. For when he said 4There are the masters of ideas' he was asking about Arahantship; when he said ‘And several initiates here9 he was asking about the [seven kinds of] initiate; and when he said 'Good sir, if asked, you have the skill, To tell me their behaviour9 he was asked about the kind of abandoning heralded by insight.

95. Here is the answer:

Sensual desires he would not want,

Ajita’ the Lord Buddha said.

‘He would be undisturbed in mind;

And skilled in all ideas, a bhikkhu

Is mindful in his wanderings’> (Sn. 1039; Pe 85).1

96. All the Lord Buddha’s bodily action1 is heralded by knowledge and has parallel occurrence with knowledge. All his verbal action is heralded by knowledge and has parallel occurrence with knowledge. All his mental action is heralded by knowledge and has parallel occurrence with knowledge. His knowing and seeing is unrestricted1 in the case of the past period, in the case of the future period, and in the case of the presently-arisen period. What resistance to his knowing and seeing should there be ?[18] Resistance to knowing and seeing is any unknowing and unseeing in the case of what is impermanent, painful, and not-self. Just as a man here might see the forms of the stars but might not know what number to impute to them: this is resistance to knowing and seeing. But the Lord Buddha’s knowing and seeing is unresisted; for the Enlightened Ones, the Lord Buddhas, have unobstructed knowing and seeing.

97. Herein cognizance has to be guarded by an initiate with respect to two [kinds of] ideas: from wanting with respect to ideas provoca-

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94/1 Seen. 76/1.

94/2 ‘Asekha—Adept’ (lit. ‘one whose training is done’) is a term for one who has attained the fruit of Arahantship. ‘Sekha—Initiate’ is a term for the seven types of person, i.e., those with the four paths and 1st 3 fruits.

95 /I Investigation of, inquiry into, the nature of an Enlightened One appears in one form here, as the Mode of Conveying here being dealt with, and also in another form at §§541-94 (the same Mode in Combined Treatment). The Buddha’s Utterance as communicating an injunction to inquire is found notably in M. Sutta 47 (Vimamsaka-sutta), cf. also M. Sutta 91.

96/1 See n. 326/2 for omniscience.



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tive of lust and from hate with respect to ideas provocative of obsession.1

98. With respect to these the Lord Buddha said 4Sensual desires he would not want’ (§93) warning against any wishes, infatuations,1 aspirations, longing, or toying; and [with the words] 4He would be undisturbed in mind9 he mentioned abolition of obsession. For when an initiate wants accordingly he arouses unarisen defilement and he swells arisen defilement. But he who makes efforts with undisturbed intention (cf. Pe 146) and not wanting, <(i) produces will2 for the non-arising of unarisen evil unprofitable ideas, makes efforts, instigates energy, exerts cognizance, and endeavours; (ii) he produces will for the abandoning of arisen evil unprofitable ideas, makes efforts, instigates energy, exerts cognizance, and endeavours; (iii) he produces will for the arising of unarisen profitable ideas, makes efforts, instigates energy, exerts cognizance, and endeavours, and (iv) he produces will for the endurance, non-forgetting, increase, abundance,maintenance in being, and fulfilment, of arisen profitable ideas, and he makes efforts, instigates energy,cognizance,and endeavours>

(M. ii, 11).

99. (i) What are the unarisen evil unprofitable ideas ? They are thinking with sensual desire, thinking with ill will, and thinking with cruelty. These are the unarisen evil unprofitable ideas, (ii) What are the arisen evil unprofitable ideas ? They are the underlying- tendencies, the roots of the unprofitable. These are the arisen evil unprofitable ideas.1 (iii) What are the unarisen profitable ideas ? They are the faculties that belong to the Stream-Enterer. These are the unarisen profitable ideas. [19] (iv) What are the arisen profitable ideas ? They are the faculties that belong to him who stands [on a path].2 These are the arisen profitable ideas.

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97/1 NettiA discusses alternative readings of patighatthaniyesu and pari- yutthaniyesu without rejecting either.

98/1 Read muccha with C, Ba and Bb instead of puccha.

98/2 This passage describes the 4 Right Endeavours (sammappadhana).

99/I NettiA here refers to the kind of ‘being arisen’ called ‘arisen by having soil to grow in’ (Vis. 687). What is meant is the potentiality for arising contained in the idea of ‘underlying-tendencies’. This ‘arisen potentiality’ or liability is here considered as an arisen evil.

99/2 ‘Atthamakassa—of him who stands on [a path]’: see also §274, where the meaning is clarified by the context (cf. also Ps. ii, 193; Kv. 243-51; Yam. i, 322; ii, 197; MAA. i, 137). The explanations both in PED and CPD cannot be right, and there seems no precedent for counting the ‘eight persons’ back, starting from the possessor of the fruit of Arahantship as the first, and so arriving at the Stream-Entry path for this term. In fact it seems to be derived, not from attha (‘eight’) at all, but from a + tha (‘to stand upon’), in which case it is synonymous with patipannaka. NettiA, commenting on §274, says ‘ Atthamakassa [means] of one on the way (patipannassa) to verification of the fruit of Stream-Entry’ for the 1st mention in §274, and then again ‘atthamakassa [mentioned] again [means] of one standing on the path of Non-Return’ (pp. 95-6). In this paragraph, therefore, no. (iii) is the faculties of the possessor of the fruit of Stream-Entry, and no. (iv) those of one ‘standing on’ any of the paths. Cf. expression catumaggattha puggala (Abhidhammatthasangaha, sankhipavannana-lokuttaracitta section).



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100. That whereby he shuts off thinking with sensual desire is the mindfulness faculty. That whereby he shuts off thinking with ill will is the concentration faculty. That whereby he shuts off thinking with cruelty is the energy faculty. That whereby he <abandons, dispels, terminates, annihilates, and will not endure, evil unprofitable ideas as soon as they arise> (M. i, 11) is the understanding faculty. And any act of trusting in these four faculties is the faith faculty (cf. §96).

101. < Herein, where is the faith faculty met with ? In the four factors of Stream-Entry. Where is the energy faculty met with ? In the four Right Endeavours (see §98). Where is the mindfulness faculty met with ? In the four foundations of Mindfulness. Where is the concentration faculty met with? In the four meditations. Where is the understanding faculty met with ? In the four Noble Truths > (cf. Pe 128; S. v, 196).

102. That is why the initiate who is diligent in all profitable ideas is spoken of by the Lord Buddha [in terms of] mental non-disturbance. That is why the Lord Buddha said 'He would be undisturbed in mind’.

103. 'Skilled in all ideas’: the world is threefold as the world of defilement, the world of being (existence), and the world of faculties (§64).

104. Herein, the world of being (existence) comes about by way of the world of defilement. That causes the occurrence of the faculties. When the faculties are kept in being there is diagnosis of what is knowable.1 That [diagnosis] has to be scrutinized in two ways as diagnosis by seeing and diagnosis by abandoning. For when an initiate understands the knowable, then the knowable1 is diagnosed with perception and attention accompanied by dispassion, and two ideas in him then attain to skill: skill in seeing and skill in keeping in being.

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104/1 Reading neyyam with Ba and NettiA, and Bb the 1st time only; C supports PTS.



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That knowledge should be understood as fivefold, namely acquaintanceship, diagnosis, abandoning, keeping in being, and verification.

105. [20] Herein, what is acquaintanceship ? It is any knowledge about the individual characteristics of ideas (§§159ff.), and about the Discrimination of Ideas and the Discrimination of Meanings. This is acquaintanceship.

106. Herein, what is diagnosis ? After becoming acquainted in these ways, it is any diagnosis as follows: ‘This is profitable, this is unprofitable, this is blameworthy, this is blameless, this is black, this is bright, this is to be cultivated, this is not to be cultivated, these ideas, having been taken thus, make this fruit occur—this is their meaning when taken thus’. This is diagnosis.

107. After diagnosing in this way, three kinds of ideas remain: those to be abandoned, those to be kept in being, and those to be verified.

108. Herein, what ideas are to be abandoned ? Any that are unprofitable.

109. Herein, what ideas are to be kept in being ? Any that are profitable.

110. Herein, what ideas are to be verified ? The undetermined.1

111. He who knows this is called skilled in meanings, skilled in ideas, skilled in goodness, skilled in fruits, skilled in ways, skilled in unease, skilled in ease, possessed of great skill.

That is why the Lord Buddha said ‘Skilled in all idea' (§95).

112. ‘A bhikkhu is mindful in his wanderings' (§95): he should, for the purpose of a pleasant abiding here and now, abide mindful and aware in advancing and retreating, in looking and looking away, in flexing and extending, in wearing the patched-cloak, bowl and [other] robes, in eating, drinking, chewing and tasting, in evacuating and making water, in walking, standing, sitting, going to sleep, waking, talking and keeping silent (cf. D. ii, 292).

113. Two kinds of conduct agreed by the Lord Buddha are these: one for those already purified, and one for those still being purified. Who are those already purified ? They are the Arahants. Who are those still being purified ? They are the Initiates; an Arahant’s faculties have done their task.

114. The discoverable is fourfold as actualization of the diagnosis of suffering, actualization of the abandoning of origin, actualization of the keeping in being of the path, and actualization of the verification of cessation. This is the fourfold discoverable.

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11011 The neuter gender of yam asankhatam is notable here.



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115. He who knows this [21] is called one who advances mindful, who retreats mindful (cf. M. iii, 135), with the exhaustion of lust, the exhaustion of hate, and the exhaustion of delusion.

That is why the Lord Buddha said:

<‘Sensual desires he would not want,

He would be undisturbed in mind;

And skilled in all ideas, a bhikkhu

Is mindful in his wanderings’> (§95).

That is how it can be asked, and that is how it can be answered (see §62).

[(2) Gratification, etc.: see Mode ].

(3) Paraphrasing Verse]

116. And a Thread’s paraphrasing-verse (§62) must be properly guided in as to meaning as well as to phrasing; for phrasing destitute of meaning is idle chatter. Also the meaning of badly presented terms and phrasing is hard to apply a guide-line to (cf. A. i, 58-9, iii, 178). That is why [a paraphrase-verse] should be versified1 in a manner furnished with meaning as well as phrasing.

[(4) All that is in the Ninefold Thread-of-Argument]

117. The Thread should also be investigated thus: What kind is this Thread-of-Argument ? Is it one that consists of an original statement,1 a statement [elucidating] a sequence [of meaning] ?2 One

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116/1 C, Ba, Bb, all read sangayitabbam instead of PTS's sangahitabbam. This word perhaps ends the paragraph since the words suttan ca pavicitabbam seem to open what follows; they seem to refer back to §§6 and 62 and to be expanded in what follows.

117/1 'Ahacca-vacana—an original statement’: a free rendering of a difficult term. Cf. DhsA. 9, Miln. 148. The general sense seems to be that of a statement made by the Buddha himself, in which case it could, for instance, describe the two condensed statements made by the Buddha in M. Sutta 18, in contrast with the Elder Mahakaccana’s expansion of the second one there (see also next note). But han (‘to strike’) is required by NettiA's explanation, which is: ‘Bhagavato thana-karanadim ahacca abhihantva pavatta- vacanam; sammasambuddhena samam desitayuttan ti attho’ (p. 67), which may be rendered ‘a statement made to occur by causing the Lord Buddha’s (oral) position, instrument, etc., to strike together; fit for a fully Enlightened One’s own teaching, is the meaning’. For this technical grammarian’s use of thana-karan-adi see Rupasiddhi:Thanakaranappayatanehi vanna jayante' ‘Syllables are produced by means of the oral position (i.e., guttural, palatal, cerebral, dental, labial), the instrument (i.e., tongue, etc.), and the voicedness . (i.e., whether surd or not)’ (quoted in Burmese-script Pali dictionary Sadda- ttharatanavali).

117/2 'Anusandhi-vacana—statement of sequence [of meaning]’: another syntactical term. NettiA says ‘uttered by a hearer (disciple); for it is so called since it occurs by following sequentially upon (anusandhetva) a statement of the Lord Buddha’s’ (p. 67). This would apply to the explanatory discourse by the Elder Maha-Kaccana in, e.g., M. Sutta 18. The meaning is thus not the same as that of the sandhi at §§198ff.



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whose meaning is already guided ? One whose meaning has yet to be guided ?3 And also, is it one that deals with corruption, that deals with morality,4 that deals with penetration,5 or that deals with the Adept (see §760) ? Where in this Thread-of- Argument are all the four Truths met with: in its beginning, in its middle, or in its end ? That is how the Thread-of-Argument should be investigated.

118. That is why the venerable Maha-Kaccana said:

‘What in the Thread is asked and answered,

As well as a verse-paraphrase,

And the Thread’s term-investigation:

This Mode Conveys Investigation’ (§6).

The Mode of Conveying an Investigation is ended.

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3. The Ninefold Thread in the Mode of Conveying a Construing Edit

119. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Construing ? The Mode of Conveying a Construing is this:

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117/3 ‘Nitattha—whose meaning is already guided’ and lneyyattha—whose meaning needs guiding’ occur at A. i, 60; they can be paraphrased by ‘with explicit meaning’ and ‘with implicit meaning’ respectively, though recollecting that ‘meaning’ here means ‘meaning-as-aim’. The remaining 4 kinds are from the fourth chapter (§760).

117/4 ‘Vasand—morality’: fm. vas ‘to dwell’, see Sn. 1009, Miln. 263, Vis. 185. Here contexts show the meaning to be cultivation of merit, hence ‘morality’; but cf. Vin. iv, 120, where it is allowed to ‘treat’ or ‘cure’ (vdsetum) clay in order to prevent it from becoming ill-smelling.

li7/5 Spelling nibbedha in all eds., which implies vidh, (= Skr. vyadh); yet possibly one might read nibbheda (‘breaking out’ fm. bhid) in all instances. See abhinibbhida and n. 326/1. There seems to be some real fusion of these two and with vid (nibbida, ‘dispassion’).



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‘Looking for right and wrong construing

In the case of all the Conveyings’

Plane and resort [will] demonstrate

The Mode Conveying a Construing5 (§7).

120. What does it construe ? The four Principal Appeals to Authority (see A. ii, 167). These are the appeal to the Enlightened One as authority, the appeal to a community as authority, the appeal to several elders as authority, and the appeal to a single elder as authority. These are the four Principal Appeals to Authority.1

121. [In all such appeals to authority] <These terms and phrasing must, in the case of the Thread, be conformable to the ways of entry [to it],1 and, in the case of the Out-guiding (Discipline), be seen [there] for oneself> (A. ii, 167), and they must, in the case of the essential nature of the idea,2 be adaptable [to it].

122. [22] What is the Thread to whose ways of entry they must be conformable (see also §§351ff.) ? The four Noble Truths.

123. What is the Outguiding (Discipline) where they must be seen for oneself ? The outguiding of lust, the outguiding of hate, and the outguiding of delusion.

124. What is the essential nature of the idea to which they must be adaptable ? Dependent arising (see §462; S. ii, 25).

125. If, in the case of the Noble Truths, there is a way of entry [to them],1 and if, in the case of the Outguiding of defilements, it is

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120/1 This passage clearly takes mahapadesa to be made up of maha + apadesa, not maha+padesa. Ref. in PED to A. ii, 167 should thus be under apadesa, not under padesa, and ref. D. ii, 123 should be added there; CPD does not mention under apadesa. The meaning is thus clearer; for it is not the authority itself so much as the appeal made to the authority, the correctness of the appeal being recommended to be checked against the Suttas and the Vinaya.

121/1 For otarayitabba (‘must be conformable to the ways of entry’—i.e., to the 4 Truths) see Introduction (sect. 8).

121/2 Dhammata (lit. ‘idea-ness’—the particular idea by which the ‘thing’ is recognised) combines the notions of ‘idea’ (dhamma), ‘nature’ (pakati), and ‘essence’ (bhava—in its post-Pitaka use), rather in the sense of the English expression ‘It is of the essence . . .’. What is referred to here is dependent arising as the essential conditionedness of all being.

125/1 ‘Avatarati—there is a way of entry’: = otarati; not in PED, see CPD; but the rendering ‘to descend’ in CPD, while literal, does not suit this context



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seen for oneself, and if, in the case of the essential nature of the idea, there is no running counter [to it], then there is no generation of taints. Whatever is [so] construable from among the four Principal Appeals to Authority can be accepted, whatever it is construable by and however it is construed.

126. When [in the Thread] someone is asked a question, [the question] should be fathomed and investigated as to the terms thus: ‘How many terms are there in the question (see §§63f.) ? If all the terms are in concord about a single meaning, that is a single question. If four terms are in concord about a single meaning, that is a single question. If three terms are in concord about a single meaning, that is a single question. If two terms are in concord about a single meaning, that is a single question. If one term is in concord about a single meaning, that is a single question.’

127. When scrutinizing it, what one needs to recognize is this: ‘Now are these ideas different in meaning and different in phrasing, or have these ideas a single meaning, only1 the phrasing being different V (cf. M. i, 297).

128. How would that be ? According as the deity asked the Lord Buddha the following questions:

<‘The world: by what is it struck down ?

And then by what is it beset ?

What barb has it been entered by ?

And by what harassed1 constantly V> (S. i, 40).

129. These four terms asked are three questions: How is that recognized ? Because the Lord Buddha answered the deity as follows:

<‘Mortality strikes down the world.

And then it is beset by ageing.

And craving's barb has entered it.

And wishes harass it constantly' > (S. i, 40).

130. Herein, ageing and death are two of the determined characteristics

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well; it requires the more specific sense of ‘to allow or provide a way of entry into (i.e., the 4 truths)’. What is meant is given in full in the 12th Mode (§§351ff.).

127/1 'Eva—only’: this very commonly met with meaning not in PED. 128/1 ‘Dhupayita—harassed’: no meaning that fits given in PED; lit. ‘smoked’, but here NettiA glosses by santapita;cf. Psalms of the Brethren 448. So also dhupayana (§136). Cf. dhupayati at A. ii, 215.



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of the determined; for ageing is <alteration of what is steady> [and] death is <subsidence> (A. i, 152).1

131. Herein, there is a difference between the meanings of ageing and of death. For what reason ? [23] Because those who die in

the womb never become aged. And there is death among the gods though their physical frames do not age.1 One can get by2 ageing, but death one cannot get by, except for what is in the province of those possessing supernormal success (power; see D. ii, 99).

132. Now when it is said ‘Craving’s barb has entered it’, those without lust are seen to age and die. And if craving were the same as ageing and death, then that being so, all those who were youthful would be without craving. And [if], in the way that craving is the origin of suffering, so too were ageing and death [the origin of suffering], then that [ageing and death] would actually be the origin of suffering and craving would not be the origin of suffering; but ageing and death are not the origin of suffering, and craving is the origin of suffering. And [if], in the way that craving is exterminable by the path, so [too ageing and death were the same], then ageing and death would also be exterminable by the path.

133. By means of this kind of construction it can be examined with various other1 reasons whether the construction is seen for oneself and [whether] otherness of meaning is co-ordinated (cf. §§465ff.); And it should be examined as to phrasing as well.

134. Now in the case of the two ideas, namely 'barb’ and ‘harassment’ (§128), there is oneness of meaning; for no difference is con- struable between the meanings of ‘wishes’ and ‘craving’ (§129). When craving’s intent is not fulfilled, anger and spite arise with respect to the nine Grounds for Annoyance (see A. v, 408).

135. By means of this construction there is otherness in the meanings of ageing, of death, and of craving.

136. However, when the Lord Buddha calls this by the two names, ‘wishes’ and ‘craving’, it is in virtue of the external grounds which

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130/1 Read Jara yam thitassa annathattam; marariam vayo.

131/1 For the death of gods see Iti. 76f.

131 /2 ‘Patikkamam katum—to get by’: not in PED, lit. ‘to make a by-pass’; cf. parikkamanaya (M. i, 43). Perhaps the reading here should be parikka- mam.

133/1 This use of annamanna as ‘various others’ or ‘this and other’ is unusual, perhaps peculiar to this work, the normal meaning being ‘each other’ or ‘mutual’. NettiA says annamannehi ti annehi karanupapattthi: atthato ce annattam tadannam pi; byanjanato gavesitabban ti attho' (p. 72).



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are its object that it is called by him by the two names, ‘wishes’ and ‘craving’; for all craving has the single characteristic of cleaving to. Just as all fire has the single characteristic of heating, though it has various other names according to its consumption [assumed], that is to say, ‘log-fire’ and ‘grass-fire’ and ‘brushwood-fire’ and ‘cowdung-fire’ and ‘chaff-fire’ and ‘rubbish-fire’ (cf. M. i, 259), yet all fire has only the characteristic of heating, so too, all craving has only one characteristic, namely the characteristic of cleaving to, [24] though it is called by various other names according to the fuel-consumption [assumed] that is its object, that is to say, ‘wishes’ and ‘craving’ and ‘barb’ and‘ harassment’1 and ‘the Current’ and ‘attachment’ and ‘affection (moisture)’ and ‘torment’ and ‘the Creeper’ and ‘conceiving [in terms of “I” and “mine”]’ and ‘responsibility’ and ‘need’ and ‘thirst’ and ‘expectant-relishing’; yet all craving has only one characteristic, namely the characteristic of cleaving to, according as it is stated in the [Mode of Conveying] Synonyms (see §§285fif.):

137. <Need and longing, expectant relishing,

Enticements1 on the several elements based,

Hankering whose being is rooted in unknowing:

To all that with its root I put an end>

(Pe 17; cf. S. i, 181; see §286).

138. That is synonymous with craving, according as the Lord Buddha said: < Tissa, when someone is not without lust, not without will, not without love, not without thirst, not without fever, far form . . . for feeling . . . for perception . . . for determinations . . . for consciousness . . .> all of which argument can be cited in detail (cf. S. iii, 107).

139. This synonym for Craving1 is construable in this way: ‘All access to suffering has for its root determinations [conditioned] by craving for sensual desires.’ It is not construable in this way: ‘All

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136/1 ‘Sarita—current’ might mean ‘memory-maker’ and refer to the sara- sankappa of, say, M. iii, 132 or to the samanussarato of M. iii, 217, depending on the root.

137/1 ‘Sara—enticements’: the word is not in the Samyutta text, which differs a good deal from this quotation. NettiA (p. 99) equates with tanha but does not explain the word anywhere.

139/1 C, Ba and Bb agree that the words tanhayetam vevacanam evam yujjati are one clause. Ba and Bb append it to what goes before, while C begins the following passage with it, which seems preferable.



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access to dispassion has for its root some requisite of craving for sensual desires.’2

By means of this construction it can be examined with various other reasons.

140. For just as1 the Lord Buddha teaches ugliness to a person of lusting temperament, teaches loving kindness to a person of hating temperament, teaches dependent-arising to a person of deluded temperament—for if he taught to a person of lusting temperament the heart-deliverance of loving kindness, or the pleasant way with sluggish acquaintanceship, or the pleasant way with swift acquaintanceship, or the kind of abandoning heralded by insight, the teaching could not be construed—, so too, whatever conforms with the abandoning of lust, whatever conforms with the abandoning of hate, and whatever conforms with the abandoning of delusion, [25] can all be construed under the Mode of Conveying a Construing, after investigating it under the Mode of Conveying an Investigation, so far as the plane of knowledge extends.

141. When someone abides in loving kindness, the teaching is not construable thus: ‘111 will keeps gripping his heart,’ the teaching is construable thus: ‘111 will is abandoned and disappears in him.’

142. When someone abides in compassion, the teaching is not con struable thus: ‘Cruelty keeps gripping his heart,’ the teaching is construable thus: ‘Cruelty is abandoned and disappears in him.’

143. When someone abides in gladness, the teaching is not construable thus: ‘Boredom keeps gripping his heart,’ the teaching is construable thus: ‘Boredom is abandoned and disappears in him.’

144. When someone abides in onlooking-equanimity, the teaching is not construable thus: ‘Lust1 keeps gripping his heart,’ the teaching is construable thus: ‘Lust is abandoned and disappears in him.’

145. When someone abides in the signless, the teaching is not construable thus: ‘His cognizance occurs by means of this or that by following signs,’ the teaching is construable thus: ‘Any sign is abandoned and disappears in him.’

146. When the [conceiving ‘I] am’ is absent, the teaching is not

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139/2 ‘Kamatanhaparikkharamulako—has for its root some requisite of craving for sensual desires’ is explained by NettiA to be objective sensual desires (desired things) as the basis for subjective sensual desire (craving). Cf. distinction between vatthu-kama and kilesa-Kama at NdJ. 1.

140/1 Where PTS has yatha Bhagava, C has yath aha Bhagava, Ba and Bb yatha hi Bhagava.

144/1 Cf. M. i, 424, which has patigha here, not raga.



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construable thus ‘ “I do not see thus ‘I am this’, yet the barb of uncertainty and wondering ‘What am I ?, How am I V1 keeps gripping my cognizance,” ’ the teaching is construable thus ‘ “The barb of uncertainty and wondering is abandoned and disappears [in me].” ’

147. [Again,] when1 someone has entered upon the first meditation, the teaching is not construable thus ‘Lust for sensual desires and ill will occur2 in his distinction/ the teaching is construable thus ‘They occur in his inferior state/ or alternatively, the teaching is not construable thus ‘Perception and attention accompanied by what is without thinking occur in his inferior state/ the teaching is construable thus ‘They occur in his distinction.’

148. When someone has entered upon the second meditation, the teaching is not construable thus ‘Perception and attention accompanied by what has thinking and explorating occur in his distinction/ the teaching is construable thus ‘They occur in his inferior state/ or alternatively, the teaching is not construable thus ‘Perception and attention accompanied by what has pleasure due to onlooking-equanimity occur in his inferior state/ the teaching is construable thus ‘They occur in his distinction.’

149. [26] When someone has entered upon the third meditation, the teaching is not construable thus ‘Perception and attention accompanied by what has pleasure due to happiness occur in his distinction,’ the teaching is construable thus ‘They occur in his inferior state/ or alternatively, the teaching is not construable thus ‘Perception and attention accompanied by mindfulness whose purity is due to onlooking-equanimity occur in his inferior state/ the teaching is construable thus ‘They occur in his distinction.’

150. When someone has entered upon the fourth meditation, the teaching is not construable thus ‘Perception and attention accompanied by what has [pleasure due to] onlooking-equanimity1occur

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146/1 Where PTS has kisminci katasmin ti, Ba has kinci gatasmin ti and Bb and C kisml ti kathasmi ti, NettiA ignores. Since the allusion is certainly to M. i, 8, Bb and C are right and the resolution is as follows kim asmi? ti, katham asmi? ti.

147/1 The words yatha va pana at PTS p. 25, line 23 (= beginning of §147) must relate forward to the evam at PTS p. 26, line 38 (‘so too’ in §156). Consequently §§147-56 are one sentencein the Pali, regardable as beginning with the ‘just as ... ’ which is followed in due course by the ‘ ... so too . . .’ 147/2 ‘Samvattanti—occur’: this meaning, not infrequent, not given in PED;cf. nibbattati and pavattati.

150/1 Read upekkhasukhasahagata.



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in his distinction,’ the teaching is construable thus 'They occur in his inferior state;’ or alternatively, the teaching is not construable thus ‘Perception and attention accompanied by the base consisting of infiniteness of space2 occur in his inferior state,’ the teaching is construable thus ‘They occur in his distinction.’

151. When someone has entered upon the base consisting of infiniteness of space, the teaching is not construable thus ‘Perception and attention accompanied by form occur in his distinction,’ the teaching is,construable thus ‘They occur in his inferior state;’ or alternatively, the teaching is not construable thus ‘Perception and attention accompanied by the base consisting of infiniteness of consciousness occur in his inferior state,’ the teaching is construable thus ‘They occur in his distinction.’

152. When someone has entered upon the base consisting of infiniteness of consciousness, the teaching is not construable thus ‘Perception and attention accompanied by the base consisting of infiniteness of space occur in his distinction,’ the teaching is construable thus ‘They occur in his inferior state;’ or alternatively, the teaching is not construable thus ‘Perception and attention accompanied by the base consisting of no-owning1 occur in his inferior state/ the teaching is construable thus ‘They occur in his distinction.’

153. When someone has entered upon the base consisting of no-

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150/2 ‘Akasa—space’: PED derives from prefix a+ (Skr.+kas ‘to shine forth’ (though it is a mystery how space, which is devoid of rupa, can do that). The old Pali definitions are all negative and imply the prefix d- to be a strengthened negative (as in akincanna) + eitherkds (Skr.y'fcas) ‘to display’, ‘to shine’ or else y'kas (Skr. krs) ‘to draw a line’, ‘to plough a furrow’; akasa is then either ‘that which does not shine forth’ or ‘that on which no line can be drawn’ (cf. Simile at M. i, 127: impossibility of drawing a picture on space (akdsa)). See negative definition in Vibhavini Tika ad Abhidhammatthasangaha: ‘Na kassati ti akaso, na kaso va akaso\ The very late and Sanskritized Abhidhanappadipika Tika admits a positive definition, however: ‘Bhusam kasante dippante padattha etena ti akdso; na kassati na vilekhiyati ti va akaso'.

152/1 ‘akincannayatana—base consisting of no-owning’: PED derives akincanna from neg. prefix a-+pron. kim+ suffix-cana; but the word seems rather to be a negative derivative of +kic(‘to press’, ‘to obstruct’); see M. i, 298 ‘rago kincano’ (‘lust is an owning’), etc., explained at MA. ii, 354 by kincati — maddati. Cf. also kincanata (so read) at M. ii, 263 and MA. iv, 64 = Vis. 654. The words ‘n'atthi kinci' (M. i, 41) in the description of the akincannayatana are then a play on the two different words kinci (pron.) and kincana (subst. fm./kic). Otherwise well rendered by ‘base consisting of nothingness’.



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owning, the teaching is not construable thus ‘Perception and attention accompanied by the base consisting of infiniteness of consciousness occur in his distinction/ the teaching is construable thus ‘They occur in his inferior state;’ or alternatively, the teaching is not construable thus ‘Perception and attention accompanied by the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception occur in his inferior state,’ the teaching is construable thus ‘They occur in his distinction.’

154. When someone has entered upon the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception, the teaching is not construable thus ‘The accesses to perception occur in his distinction,’ the teaching is construable thus ‘They occur in his inferior state;’ or alternatively, the teaching is not construable thus ‘Perception and attention accompanied by cessation of perception and feeling1 occur in his inferior state,’ the teaching is construable thus ‘They occur in his distinction.’

155. The teaching is not construable thus ‘Cognizance is healthy when it does not submit to directive management,’1 the teaching is construable thus ‘Cognizance is healthy when it submits to directive management.’

156. That is how all the ninefold Thread should, after being in all ways (§62) investigated in accordance with the Mode of Conveying an Investigation, be construed in accordance with the Mode of Conveying a Construing, doing so according to the True Idea, according to the Outguiding (Discipline), [27] and according to the Master’s Dispensation.

157. That is why the venerable Maha-Kaccana said:

‘Looking for right and wrong construing

In the case of all the Conveyings’

Plane and resort [will] demonstrate

The Mode Conveying a Construing’ (§7).

The Mode of Conveying a Construing is ended.

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154/1 NettiA points out that such perception and attention in this case accompany the preparatory work done by one who has decided to enter upon the attainment of cessation of perception and feeling (p. 76).

166/1 ‘Abhinihara—directive management’: what is meant is, making and keeping a resolution, but the word also has a technical reference to the development of the 5 supernormal abhinnabelonging to worlds (see, e.g., D. i, 76).



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4. The Ninefold Thread in the Mode of Conveying Footings Edit

158. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Footings ? The Mode of Conveying Footings is this:

‘The Victor teaching an idea

Teaches what that idea has too

As footing; so with each idea:

This is the Mode Conveying Footings’ (§9).

159. What does this [Mode] teach ? [It teaches as follows:]

[Definitions of the 18 Root-Terms—see §4]

Ignorance has the characteristic of not penetrating ideas according to actuality; its footing is the [four] perversions. Craving has the characteristic of cleaving to; its footing is endearing form or alluring form. Greed has the characteristic of aspiring; its footing is the taking of what is not given. [Hate1 has the characteristic of willing ill; its footing is killing breathing things.Delusion has the characteristic of wrongly theorizing about things; its footing is wrong theory.2] Perception of beauty has the characteristic of apprehending colour, shape and features;3 its footing is non-restraint of the faculties [beginning with the eye]. Perception of pleasure has the characteristic of approaching contact affected by taints; its footing is gratification. Perception of permanence has the characteristic of unseeing of ideas that have the characteristic of being determined [that they are so]; its footing is consciousness. Per- ception of self has the characteristic of not seeing with perception of impermanence and perception of pain; its footing is the name-body (cf. Pe 121f.).

160. Science has the characteristic of penetrating all ideas; its footing is the knowable. Quiet has the characteristic of preventing distraction of cognizance; its footing is the kinds of ugliness.1

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159/1 The clauses for hate and delusion are oddly missing in all eds.; they are easily reconstructed from their counterparts in §160.

159/2 Seen. 160/2.

159/3 There is no justification for rendering byanjana in this context by ‘attire’ as is done in PTS Netti index; what is meant is such ‘personal features’ as nose, hand, etc.

160/1 ‘The kinds of ugliness’ can be taken as the 31 (or 32) parts of the body (e.g., D. ii, 293) or the 9 corpse-meditations (D. ii, 295f.), or the different corpse-meditations (as at A. i, 42).



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Non-greed has the characteristic of preventing recourse to wishes; its footing is abstention from taking what is not given. Non-hate has the characteristic of non-ill-will; its footing is abstention from killing breathing things. Non-delusion has the characteristic of not wrongly theorizing2 about things; its footing is right theory.3 Perception of ugliness has the characteristic of apprehending the discoloured [corpse-stage] and the festering [corpse-stage]; its footing is dispassion. Perception of pain has the characteristic of diagnosing contact affected by taints; its footing is feeling. Perception of impermanence has the characteristic of seeing ideas that have the characteristic of being determined; [28] its footing is rise and subsidence (fall). Perception of not-self has the characteristic of non-insistence4 in the case of all ideas;5 its footing is perception of ideas6 (cf. Pe 127f.).

[Further Definitions]

161. The five strands of sensual desire are the footing for lust for sensual desires. The five faculties [beginning with the eye] that have form are the footing for lust for form. The sixth1 base [namely that of mind] is the footing for lust for being (existence). The state of a contemplator2 of being (existence) as occurrence is the footing for the five categories of assumption.Recollection of past life is the footing for knowing and seeing.

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160/2 4Avippatipadana—without wrong theorizing’: not in PED, see CPD.

160/3 ‘ Sammapatipatti—right theory’: patipatti in this sense not in PED, see last note. The word appears in Vis. (pp. 468, 471, etc.), which doubtless borrowed it from here; cf. Pe 33, 35; Miln. 96.At A. iii, 325 micchapatipanna occurs with micchaditthika.

160/4 C confirms PTS reading; Ba and Bb sabbadhamma-abhinivesa-; but the sense demanas sabbadhammanabhinivesa- — sabbadhammanam anabhi- nivesa-.

160/5 The compound sabbadhamma should be taken as equivalent to sabbe dhamma and translated ‘all ideas’; but it could also—such is the ambiguity of compounds—be taken in the sense of ‘ideas of all’ as the conceits (mannana) based on the notion of ‘all’ (sabba: see esp. M. i, 3; 329; and S. iv, 15), though this is an improbable meaning.

160/6 An allusion, apparently, to Dh. 279 quoted at §38, but also at the same time to the fourth Foundation of Mindfulness (dhammanupassana), cf. n. 4/1.

161/1 All Oriental eds. and NettiA have (correctly) chatthayatanam. The allusion is to there being only the ‘sixth’ (i.e., mind) in the 4 formless states.

161/2 ‘Anupassita—state of one contemplating’: fem. abstr. subst-., not in PED, see CPD.



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[Definitions of the five faculties]

162. Faith has the characteristic of trusting, and its manifestation is belief. Confidence has the characteristic of being undisturbed and its manifestation is confiding (clarification).1 Faith has the characteristic of credence;2 its footing is confidence-by-having- undergone.3 Confidence has the characteristic of being undisturbed; its footing is faith.

163. Energy has the characteristic of instigating; its footing is a right endeavour. Mindfulness has the characteristic of non- drifting;1 its footing is a foundation of mindfulness. Concentrationhas the characteristic of unification; its footing is the meditations. Understanding has the characteristic of act-of-understanding; its footing is the four Truths (cf. §295; also Pe 128-9).

[Definitions of the Members of the Formula of Dependent Arising]

164. Another guide-line:

Unreasoned attention has the characteristic of directing attention to gratification; its footing is ignorance. Ignorance has the characteristic of confusing Truth; it1 is the footing for determinations. Determinations have the characteristic of developing2 renewal of

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162/1 ‘Pasada—confidence’ means lit. ‘transparency’ or ‘settledness’ (i.e., of water that was muddy and has become clear), and the word pasidati is used both for the clearing of water and for acquiring confidence. Faith is thus regarded as the settling of the disturbance of doubts and clearing of the mind by resolution or trust.

162/2 ‘Abhipatt(h)iyana—credence’: not in PED, see CPD; NettiA, which spells abhipatthiyana, glosses by ‘Saddahanam eva' (‘Simply having faith’, p. 78).

162/3 'Avecca—having undergone’: the rendering is both literal and accurate. Ger. of ava- (‘down’, ‘under’) +i (‘to go’). The meaning can be clarified by looking over the substance of M. Sutta 47 (M. i, 320). Avecca-pasada (‘confidence by having undergone’) thus means the kind of confidence (in the Three Jewels) that is due to one’s having oneself actually undergone the cessation of craving that comes with attainment of the 1st Path, since before that undergoing there was only unconfirmed faith in what had been heard about it from the word of another.

163/1 Seen. 83/3.

164/1 ‘Tam—it’, while agreeing in gender, number and case with padatthanam (neut.), refers back in meaning to avijja (f.). For this syntactical rule see n. 64/1. In the Pali this paragraph contains a string of examples.

164/2 4Virohana—developing’: not in PED; caus. n. fm. viruhati.



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being (existence); they are the footing for consciousness. Consciousness has the characteristic of causing occurrence by opening the way to reappearance;3 it is the footing for name-and-form.Name-and-form has the characteristic of conjoining the name-body and the form-body;4 it is the footing for the sixfold base.5 The sixfold base has the characteristic of defining the [six] faculties; it is the footing for contact.6 Contact has the characteristic of causing concurrence of [e.g.] eye, forms, and consciousness; it is the footing for feeling (affectivity). Feeling has the characteristic of being coessential7 with the wished-for and the un-wished-for; it is the footing for craving.8 Craving has the characteristic of cleaving to; it is the footing for assuming.9Assuming opens the way to reappearance;3 it is the footing for being (existence).10 Being (existence) has the characteristic of giving actual being (existence) to the name-body and the form-body; [29] it is the footing for birth. Birth has the characteristic of giving manifest being (existence)11 to the categories; it is the footing for ageing. Ageing

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164/3 ‘Opapaccayika—opening the way to reappearance’; fm. upapatti + aya+ka; not in PED; Netti A says of the first mention, in definition of consciousness, ‘This means that it has for its individual essence the causing of occurrence as a state of existence-as-appearance (upapatti-bhava-bhavena, cf. Ps. i, 52 for this term)’ and of the second mention, in the definition of assumption. ‘It causes the occurrence of the categories in reappearance [in the new existence]’ (p. 79).

164/4 PED, under namarupa, equates that term with namakaya—a bad mistake. See definition at §445; see also n. 84/1.

164/5 The ‘sixfold base’ (salayatana) is a term for the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind.

164/6 ‘Phassa—contact’: See definition at, e.g., M. i, 111.

164/7 ‘Anubhavana—being coessential with’: anu- = ‘parallel with’ or ‘co-’, and the bhu ‘to be’, which should not have its ontological significance obscured here by another rendering, recollecting that the formula of Dependent Arising is intended to describe the structure (and potentiality for cessation) of both positive and negative being (bhava) as well as its complexity; here the Craving for the affectivity-stimulation of feeling induces assuming future being . . .

164/8 ‘Tanha—craving’: see n. 42/1. For ajjhosana (‘cleaving to’) see, e.g., def. of ajjhosaya titthati at MA. ii, 311 ‘tanhajjhosanena gilitva parinittha- petva ganhati.

164/9 ‘Upadana—assuming’: mostly rendered by ‘clinging’; but see Intro, (sect. 14).

164/10 ‘Bhava—being (existence)’: for rendering see KhpA. Trsln. Appx. I. 164/11 ‘Patubhavana—giving manifest being’: fm. patu(r) (‘manifest’)+ bhu (‘to be’); birth (as historical beginning) brings the individualized 5-category process into manifest renewed existence.



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has the characteristic of overripening the essentials of existence;12 it is the footing for death. Death has the characteristic of interrupting the life-faculty; it is the footing for sorrow. Sorrow (soka) causes care (ussukka); it is the footing for lamentation. Lamentation causes constant crying out; it is the footing for pain. Pain is oppression of body; it is the footing for grief. Grief is oppression of cognizance; it is the footing for despair. Despair causes surrendering;13 it is the footing for being (cf. Pe 117-18).

[How Being comes about]

165. When these factors of being (existence)1 are (exist) [by their] having occurrence in harmony, [then] that [is] being (existence); that [is] the footing for the roundabout [of rebirths].

[Further Definitions]

166. The Path has the characteristic of giving outlet; it is the footing for cessation.

167. Knowledge of watering-places is the footing for knowledge of what it is to have drunk [enough] (see M. i, 220). Knowledge of what it is to have drunk [enough] is the footing for knowledge of the

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164/12 ‘Upadhi—essentials of existence’: upa + dha (to put). What is meant is any necessity for life in the widest possible sense. But cf. Pe 117: indriyanam paribhedo upanaho (sic, read upadaho or upadhi?) paripako and (p. 118) upanaya- (sic, read also upadaha- or upadhi-?) paripakalakkhana jara. 164/13 ‘Odahana—surrendering’ (if this translation is correct): the meaning ‘putting in, fig. attention, devotion’ in PED, this ref., will not do since it has no regard for the context. NettiA says ‘Avadahanam, attano nissayassa santappanam eva* (‘= avadahana, simply tormenting one’s own physical support’—p. 79).

165/1 ‘Bhavanga—factor of being’: NettiA says ‘Bhavangani means either “factors of being” or “factors called being”. Of these, the defilements are “factors of being” and the round of action’s ripening is the “factors called being”. “Harmony” means all of this’ (p. 70). The term is very frequently used by Acariya Buddhaghosa and others to explain the continuity of cognizance. While they have taken this term from the Patthana, which is the only place where it occurs in the Tipitaka (though without explanation— Ptn. 159, 160, 169, 324), no Pitaka commentary offers any explanation of it. Its meaning here is not quite the same, perhaps, and seems to be the more simple one that each item (from ‘ignorance’ down as far as ‘assumption’) in the formula of Dependent Arising is to be considered as a ‘factor of being’ (itself a member of the formula).



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[right] amount.1 Knowledge of the [right] amount (mattannuta) is the footing for self-knowledge (attannuta)? Self-knowledge is the footing for the state of having previously performed merit. The state of having previously performed merit is the footing for living in befitting places. Living in befitting places is the footing for waiting on true men. Waiting on true men is the footing for right disposition in self-guidance (see A. ii, 32). Right disposition in self-guidance is the footing for the kinds of virtue. The kinds of virtue are the footing for gladness. Gladness is the footing for tranquillity. Tranquillity is the footing for pleasure. Pleasure is the footing for concentration. Concentration is the footing for knowing and seeing how [things] are. Knowing and seeing how [things] are is the footing for dispassion. Dispassion is the footing for fading of lust. Fading of lust is the footing for deliverance. Deliverance is the footing for knowing and seeing of deliverance.

168. In this way all kinds of general-support, all kinds of conditions, are a footing.1

169. That is why the venerable Maha-Kaccana said:

‘The Victor teaching an idea

Teaches what that idea has too

As footing; so with all ideas:

This is the Mode Conveying Footings’ (§8).

The Mode Conveying Footings is ended.

*

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5

5. The Ninefold Thread in the Mode of Conveying Characteristics Edit

170. [30] Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Characteristics ? The Mode of Conveying Characteristics is this:

____________________________________________________________

167/1 NettiA reads pattannuta for mattannuta and explains as ‘knowledge of what one has reached through keeping in being’ (p. 79). But all eds. confirm PTS, which suggests bhojane mattannuta (see M. iii, 2), though the connexion is not then very clear.

167/2 ‘Attannuta—knowledge of self’ is ‘knowing oneself to be possessed of the five factors of endeavour (see A. iii, 65)’ according to NettiA. This rejects taking atta here as pp. of a + da(‘knowledge of what has been taken up’), cf. asamatta (§§575f.).

168/1 Cy Ba and Bb support PTS, but NettiA reads yo koci upanissayo balavapaccayo, though it cites an alternative reading evam yo koci upanisa yogato ca paccayato ca, which suggests a remarkable corruption worthy of the Pe texts. The sentence is repeated below at §463.



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‘When one idea is mentioned, all

Ideas of like characteristic

Are mentioned too: this constitutes

The Mode Conveying Characteristics’ (§9).1

171. How does it characterize? [It does so as follows: When] certain ideas have a single [common] characteristic, then when one of those ideas is stated, the rest of those ideas are stated.

172. How would that be ? According [for example] as the Lord Buddha said: <Bhikkhus, the eye is unstable, small, trifling, fleeting: besides (?) it is painful, destructible, liable to dislodgement, ashes (?),x a determination (?); it is a victim for slaughter in the midst of enemies > ( ). Now when this eye is stated, the rest of the bases in oneself [beginning with the ear] are stated. For what reason ? Because all the bases in oneself have a single [common] characteristic in the sense of victim for slaughter2.

173. And according as the Lord Buddha said: <Radha, do not look back1 with yearning to past form; do not expectantly relish future form; practise the way to dispassion, fading of lust,ceasing, giving up, and relinquishment, as to presently-arisen form> ( ). Now when this form category is stated, the rest of the categories are stated. For what reason ? Because in theYamakovada Sutta (S. iii, 113) all the five categories of assumption have a single characteristic in the sense of victim for slaughter.

174. And according as the Lord Buddha said:

<They whose mindfulness of body

Is constantly well instigated

Do never what should not be done

And ever do what should be done> (Dh. 293; Pe 91).

So when Mindfulness Occupied with the Body is stated, Mindfulness Occupied with Feeling and that Occupied with Cognizance and that Occupied with Ideas are stated (see D. Sutta 22, M.Sutta 119). And likewise when anything whatever that is seen or heard or

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170/1 I.e., one being stated, the rest are implied positively or negatively. 172/1 This untraced quotation, which NettiA and Tika gnore, is full of difficulties. It is not clear how parato (rendered ‘besides’) is to be taken; it could mean ‘alien’. Also the words kukkulam and sankharam are obscure in this context.

172/2 Read vadhakatthena.

173/I In view of ‘patipajja’ at end of sentence, read hohi for hoti.



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sensed1 is stated, what is cognized is stated. And the Lord Buddha said accordingly: [31] <Therefore, bhikkhus, abide contemplating the body as a body, ardent, aware and mindful, guiding out covetousness and grief about the world> (cf. M. iii, 83).

Now ‘ardent’ [here means] the energy faculty, ‘aware’ the understanding faculty, ‘mindful’ the mindfulness faculty, and ‘guiding out covetousness and grief’ the concentration faculty. So when someone abides contemplating the body as a body the four Foundations of Mindfulness come to fulfilment through keeping in being. For what reason ? Because of the four faculties’ state of having a single characteristic.

175. When the four Foundations of Mindfulness are kept in being the four Right Endeavours come to fulfilment through keeping in being. When the four Right Endeavours are kept in being the four Bases for Success (Roads to Power) come to fulfilment through keeping in being. When the four Bases for Success are kept in being the five Faculties [beginning with Faith] come to fulfilment through keeping in being. When the five Faculties are kept in being the five Powers1 come to fulfilment through keeping in being. When the five Powers are kept in being the seven Enlightenment Factors come to fulfilment through keeping in being. When the seven Enlightenment Factors are kept in being the Noble Eight- Factored Path2 comes to fulfilment through keeping in being. And all ideas that tend to enlightenment and partake of enlightenment come to fulfilment through keeping in being. For what reason ? Because all ideas that tend to enlightenment and partake of enlightenment have a single characteristic with their characteristic of giving outlet. They come to fulfilment through keeping in being owing to their singleness of characteristic (see also §§451-2).

_________________________________________________________

174/1 ‘Muta—sensed’: a comprehensive term for what is smelt, tasted and touched (see Nd2 ad Sn. 789); apparently never means ‘thought, supposed, imagined’ as given in PED, which is probably due to faulty etymology. The root is not at present certain. It may be noted that a Sanskrit version of the Pah dittha-suta-muta-vinnata is drste . . . srute cintite vijnate (see Lamotte, p. 608) which is divergent from the Pali commentaries’ explanation of muta (see Niddesa, etc.).

175/1 The ‘5 Powers’ (bala) are the same five as the ‘5 faculties’ (indriya) but considered from the point of view, not of their ‘potentiality’ or ‘predominance’ when arisen as faculties, but of their ‘unshakability’ when kept in being as powers against their respective opposites (see Ps. i, 21).

175/2 ‘Eight-factored path’ is merely more literal than the more elegant and familiar ‘eightfold path’.



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176. Also unprofitable ideas are abandoned and disappear owing to their singleness of characteristic. When the four Foundations of Mindfulness are kept in being the Perversions are abandoned, the Nutriments come to diagnosis, one becomes free from assuming as regards the Assumptions, one is unfettered from the Bonds, one is dissociated from the Ties, one is untainted by the Taints, one has crossed over the Floods, one is barbless as regards the Barbs, the Steadying-Points for Consciousness1 come to one’s diagnosis, and one goes no bad way as regards the Goings on the Bad Ways (cf. §§484-7). [32] In this way also one’s unprofitable ideas are abandoned and disappear.

177. Or else, wherein a faculty having form [such as the eye, etc.] is taught, therein too are taught the form element, the form category, and the form base.

178. Or else, wherein pleasant feeling is taught, therein too are taught the pleasure faculty, the joy faculty, and the origin of suffering as a Noble Truth.

179. Or else, wherein painful feeling is taught, therein too are taught the pain faculty, the grief faculty, and suffering as a Noble Truth.

180. Or else, wherein neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling is taught, therein too are taught the onlooking-equanimity faculty, and all dependent arising.1 For what reason ? Because ignorance underlies neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling (see M. i, 303); with ignorance as condition, determinations; with determinations as condition, consciousness; with consciousness as condition, name- and-form; with name-and-form as condition, the sixfold base; with the sixfold base as condition, contact; with contact as condition,

________________________________________________________

176/1 ‘ Vinnanatthiti—steadying-point for consciousness’: these are explained to some extent in §§304, 306 (see also refs, in Index). Four kinds are given at D. iii, 228 and seven (on a different basis) at D.iii, 253. PED rather obscures than clarifies; for ‘duration’ and ‘phase’ are not directly intended, but rather the particular ‘original choice’ by which consciousness first roots itself on its basic object, upon which ramification takes place into the experience of life. At death the ‘steadying-point’ is lost and another assumed by the action of craving, and so a new life ramifies out again upon that. And so on. (See also S. ii, 65 quoted at §840).

180/1 NettiA says ‘The construction is: The whole formula of Dependent Arising is taught too; for the neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling is underlain owing to the underlying tendency to ignorance (see M.i, 303). So this kind of feeling implies ignorance, and ignorance implies the whole Dependent- Arising formula, of which it is the initial member’ (p. 83).



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feeling; with feeling as condition, craving; with craving as condition, assuming; with assuming as condition, being; with being as condition, birth; with birth as condition ageing and death have actual being, and also sorrow and lamentation, pain, grief, and despair; that is how there is an origin to this whole category of suffering (cf. S. ii, 1).

181. Now this [Dependent Arising] can be brought to abandonment by way of that which is on the side of corruption through its being affected by lust, affected by hate, and affected by delusion; and it can be brought to abandonment by way of the noble ideas that are without lust, without hate, and without delusion.1

182. In this way, as regards those ideas that have a single characteristic in their function1 and in their characteristic and in their generality, and also in their death and reappearance, when one of these ideas is stated the rest of such ideas are also stated.

183. That is why the venerable Maha-Kaccana said:

When one idea is mentioned, all

Ideas of like characteristic Are mentioned too: this constitutes The Mode Conveying Characteristics’ (§9).

The Mode of Conveying Characteristics is ended.

*

__________________________________________________________

181/1 For hatabba see n. 44/1. NettiA (p. 83) explains thus: ‘ “And” has the meaning of the negative (byatireka, i.e., cessation), whereby he illustrates how this Dependent Arising is twofold as “with” and “against”, as will be stated later. What is called “that on the side of corruption” (namely “arising”) is the former and the other (namely “cessation”) the latter’. Here the hatabba phrase can probably be taken in the sense of ‘brought to the abandonment of craving by appropriate reasoning’.

182/1 NettiA distinguishes as follows: ‘ “Function” means that of, say, earth’s upholding as a constituent of form, or contact’s making coincide (see n. 164/6), which is formless, or any arisen condition-idea’s conditioning of any appropriately conditionally-arisen idea. “Characteristic” means any in- dividual-essence such as earth’s hardness, or contact’s touching. “Generality” means any such kind as the “deformability” (ruppana) of form (rupa), the “bent-for-naming” (namana) of name (nama). “Death and reappearance” means the dissolution and rearising of determined ideas, or the co-arising and co-ceasing of form and formless (see n. 92/1)’.



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6. The Ninefold Thread in the Mode of Conveying a Fourfold Array Edit

184. Herein, what is the Conveying of a Fourfold Array ? [It is] this:

‘By way of phrasing, (i) the Linguistic,

(ii) the Purport, and (iii) the teaching’s Source,

And (iv) the Consecutive-Sequence:

This Mode Conveys a Fourfold Array’ (§10).

By way of the phrasing, the Thread’s Linguistic, its purport (intention), its source [as the circumstance of its utterance], and its consecutive-sequence, should be examined.

[(i) Linguistic]

185. [33] Herein, what is the linguistic ? It is any language employing terms, any knowledge of ideas by name.1

186. For when a bhikkhu knows the name of a meaning and knows the name of an idea, and he applies1 it accordingly, he is called skilled in meanings and skilled in ideas, skilled in phrasing, skilled in language, skilled in consecutivity (syntax), skilled in the teaching, skilled in designations of past [tenses], skilled in designations of future [tenses], skilled in designations of presently-arisen [tenses], skilled in designations of the feminine [gender], skilled in designations of the masculine [gender], skilled in designations of the neuter [gender], skilled in designations of the singular [number], skilled in designations of the plural [number] (cf. Pe 91-2).2 All regional linguistics (cf. M. iii, 234-5) and all regional languages can be treated in this way. This is ‘language employing terms’.

[(ii) Purport (intent)]

187. Herein, what is the purport (intent)? [Take, for example the following passage:]

_________________________________________________________

185/1 N.b. nama (‘name’) is also the grammarians’ collective term for nouns, adjectives and pronouns, as one of the ‘four Parts of Speech’ in Oriental grammar (nama, akhyata, upasagga, nipata —‘names, verbs, prepositions (prefixes), and particles’).

186/1 The semantic connexion here between abhiniropeti and nirutti implies a punning association of nirutti with uh instead of vac (cf. vutta; Skr. uk).

186/2 Note differences in these terms at Pe 91-2.



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<The True Ideal guards him that walks therein

As does a big umbrella in time of rain.

The Idea's reward, when walked in right, is this:

Who walks therein has no bad destination> (§37).

What is the Lord Buddha’s purport (intent) here ? [It is that] those who desire to be liberated from the states of deprivation will be those who walk in the True Idea: this is the Lord Buddha’s purport here.

188. [Again:] '

<Just as a robber taken in house-breaking

Is haunted by and responsible1 for his act,

So too a man hereafter, when departed,

Is haunted by and responsible for his act> (cf. M. ii, 74).

What is the Lord Buddha’s purport (intent) here ? [It is that] when acts have been done by someone’s own choice and stored up to be felt (experienced) as pain, their un-wished-for and disagreeable ripening will be coessential [with a future state]. This is the Lord Buddha’s purport here.

189. [Again:]

< Who with the rod is cruel to beings

That are desirous to find pleasure

Shall find no pleasure when departed,

For all the pleasure he may seek > (Dh. 131).

What is the Lord Buddha’s purport here ? [It is that] those who would seek pleasure, let them not do evil acts: this is the Lord Buddha’s purport here.

190. [34] [Again:]

<A dullard drowsy with much gluttony,

Engrossed in sleep, who wallows as he lies

Like a great porker stuffed with fatting food,

Comes ever and again back to the world> (Dh. 325).

What is the Lord Buddha’s purport here ? [It is that] those who desire to be distressed1 by ageing and death will be such as know the [right] amount in eating, keep the doors of their faculties

_________________________________________________________

188/1 ‘Sa-kammuna . . . bajjhate—is responsible for his act’; for this sense of bajjhati (lit. ‘is bound’), not in PED, see §912, also KhpA. 28f.

190/1 ‘Attiyitum—lit ‘to feel hurt by’; an allusion to A. i, 145.



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guarded, are devoted to wakefulness in the first and last [of the three] watches of the night (see M. iii, 2), practise insight with regard to profitable ideas, and respect their companions in the divine life whether elder or new or middle [bhikkhus]:2 this is the Lord Buddha’s purport here.

191. [Again:]

<The Deathless State is diligence;

That of Mortality, neglect:

The diligent will never die;

As good as dead the negligent> (Dh. 21; Pe 92).

What is the Lord Buddha’s purport here % [It is that] those who desire to pursue the search for the Deathless will abide diligent. This is the Lord Buddha’s purport here.

[(iii) Source]

192. Herein, what is a source ? [It is the reason for the utterance of a Thread, for example,] according as the cattle-owner Dhaniya1 said to the Lord Buddha

< 'A man with children finds relish through his children;

And a cattle-owner likewise through his cattle.

These essentials of existence are a man’s relish;

Who has them not will never relish find’ > (Sn. 33),

and as the Lord Buddha replied

<‘A man with children finds sorrow through his children;

And a cattle-owner likewise through his cattle.

These essentials of existence are a man’s sorrow;

Who has them- not will never sorrow find’ > {Sn. 34; cf. Pe 55).

Here2 it is known that with this as circumstance, with this as source, the Lord Buddha speaks of an external chattel as an essential of existence.

_________________________________________________________

190/2 An ‘elder bhikkhu’ has ten or more years’ seniority since full admission (upasampada), a ‘middle bhikkhu’ has five to ten, and a ‘new bhikkhu’ has less than five. Full admission can be given as soon as the 20th year from conception is completed.

192/1 In the Sn. text it is not Dhaniya but Mara who says this.

192/2 Idha seems to belong better to the preceding ndyati than to the succeeding bhagava . . . aha.



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193. And according as, when the Evil One, Mara, let fall a large stone from the Yulture-Peak Rock, the Lord Buddha said

<‘Even if you choose to move

The whole of Vulture-PeaK, for sure

No fully freed Awakened One

Would be perturbed on that account’ > (S. i, 109),

[and]

Were heaven to split, were earth to quake, were all

The things that breathe to fear, were you to plunge

A dagger in his heart, no Wakened One

Takes shelter in essentials of existence’ > (S. i, 107).

Here it is known that with this as circumstance, with this as source, the Lord Buddha speaks of the body as an essential of existence.

194. And according as he said .

<The steadfast will never call that a strong bond

Made of iron or consisting of wood or of thongs.1

But greed flushed with lusting for jewels [and gems]

And concern for a wife and for children as well: . . .’>

But greed flushed with lusting for jewels [and gems]

(S. i, 77; see next para).

Here it is known that with this as circumstance, with this as source, the Lord Buddha speaks of craving for external things.

195. And according as he said

<‘ ’Tis these that the steadfast will call a strong bond,

Which pulls a man down, subtle, hard to get free from;

Yet this too they sever and wander [in freedom],

Unconcerned, and [all] sensual pleasures foregone’ >

(S. i, 77; Pe 25, 214).

Here it is known that with this as circumstance, with this as source, the Lord Buddha speaks of abandoning craving for external things.

196. And according as he said

_________________________________________________________

194/1 PED (this ref.) equates pabbaja (here rendered by ‘thongs’) with babbaja (a kind of grass with a tangle of roots), but that does not work out well from the context. Pabbaja here could be made up of pabba (‘section’, ‘joint-to-joint-length of creeper’, etc.) and ja (‘born of’ . ‘made of’). &A ignores.



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<lThis sick impure foul thing, stinking,

Oozing with carcase-exudations

[Unceasingly] by day and night:

[Only] a fool could relish it'> (cf. Thag. 394).

Here it is known that with this as circumstance, with this as source, the Lord Buddha speaks of abandoning craving for things in oneself.

197. And according as he said

[36]<Cut off affection for the self,

As with the hand an autumn lily;

And so pursue the path of peace,

The Quenching the Sublime One taught'> (Dh. 285).

Here it is known that, with this as circumstance, with this as a source, the Lord Buddha speaks of abandoning craving for things in oneself.

[(iv) Consecutive Sequence]

198. Herein, what is Consecutive Sequence ? It is according to what the Lord Buddha said, namely:

< ‘Caught in the net of sensual murk,

And blocked by craving's bondage,

Fenced in by fences of neglect Like fishes in a funnel-trap,

They follow after ageing and death

As does the sucking-calf its mother'> (Pe 24; Ud. 76).

What is stated is craving for sensual desires. What consecutive sequence is that construable by ?

199. It is according as he said

<Who lusts no meaning ever knows,

Who lusts sees never an idea;

The murk of darkness laps a man

When he will suffer lust to be> (§68).

200. So it is that same craving that is expressed by [the terms] ‘murk5 and being ‘caught’ (§198). And when it is said ‘caught in the net of sensual murk, And blocked by craving’s bondage’ (§198), and when it is said ‘Who lusts no meaning ever knows, Who lusts sees never an idea’ (§199), it is that same craving that is expressed by these terms [which illustrate] obsession.



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201. The ‘murk’ (§198) is the origin of suffering, and that is the craving that gives renewal of being.

202. And when it is said ‘sensual’ (§198) this is sensual-desire as defilement; and when it is said ‘caught in the net’ (§198) obsession is shown by those same sensual desires as means. Consequently craving is called a ‘fence’ (§198) by way of defilement and by way of obsession. It is such as these that ‘follow after ageing and death5 (§198).

203. [37] The following verse, as it is presented by the Lord Buddha, is given in order to show by what power1 they ‘follow after ageing and death’:

<Who has no steadying points, no diversification,2

Who has outstripped the Chain and Bar beside:

Not even the world with all its gods can know

The conduct of that Stilled One free from craving > (Ud. 77).

204. The ‘diversifications’ are craving, views, and conceit, and the determinations thereby actively determined. The ‘steadying- points’ are the underlying-tendencies 1 The ‘Chain5 is obsession by craving, which is the thirty-six ways explored by the net of craving (see A. ii, 211ff.). The ‘Bar’ is delusion. The determinations [determined] by the diversifications, and the steadying-points, and the Chain, and the Bar: whoever has surmounted all those is called ‘free from craving’.

__________________________________________________________

203/1 Read ais two words either yathanikkhittagatha balena or . . . phalena? §205 suggests the latter but §209 the former.

203/2 For papanca (‘diversification’ or ‘dialectic’) in the sense in which ‘p.’ is used in the Suttas as the contrary of nibbana (called appapanca and nippapanca), see KhpA. trsln, Appx. I ‘Nirodha see also §297. It could be emphasized that papanca in these contexts is not well translated by ‘multiplicity’, which would make nibbana (as nippapanca) unilaterally ‘unity’. The Pali terms for ‘multiplicity’ and ‘unity’ are nanatta and ekatta respectively, which are used for ‘form’ (rupa-sanna: M. i, 41) and its opposite, namely the four formless (arupa) states. Such rendering of papanca and nippapanca must invite the only too easy confusion between the (sankhata) arupa-dhatu and the asankhata-dhatu (nibbana). But both form and the formless are alike ‘determined’. The ‘diversification’ or ‘dialectic’ between mere ‘multiplicity’ and ‘unity’ being itself a determination, whereas nibbana remains undetermined. For multiplicitunity and nibbana see, e.g., Sn. 714. Nibbana would seem misconceived as ‘an absolute-opposed-to-particularity’ (lkasina\advaya’), or as, philosophically, ‘the Absolute’.

204/1 But cf. §§484ff. for the ‘steadying-points’ (thiti). This definition of thiti by anusaya is unusual. See also n. 176/1.



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205. Herein, determinations due to obsession can be felt (experienced) here and now [in their ripening] or they can be felt on next reappearance, or they can be felt in some subsequent period. So craving gives fruit in three ways: here and now [in this existence], or on next reappearance, or in some subsequent period.

206. So the Lord Buddha said: < Whatever action he does effected out of greed by body or speech or mind, makes his existence coessential with its ripening, either here and now or on next reappearance or in some subsequent period> (cf. A. i, 134).

This is construed with a consecutive sequence of the Lord Buddha’s statements.

207. Herein, obsession is action [whose ripening] can be felt here and now, or it is action [whose ripening can be felt] on next reappearance, or it is action [whose ripening can be felt] in some subsequent period. So action ripens1 in these three ways: here and now [in this existence] or on next reappearance or in some subsequent period. According as it is said:

208. <And when a fool is one who here kills breathing things, . . . holds wrong view, in consequence he feels the ripening of that here and now or on next reappearance or in some subsequent period> ( ).

[38] This is construed by a consecutive sequence of the Lord Buddha’s [statements].

209. Herein, the obsession is abandonable by means of the power of deliberation, the determinations are abandonable by means of the power of seeing, and the thirty-six ways explored by craving are abandonable by means of the power of keeping-in-being. So craving is abandonable in three ways.

210. ‘Freedom from craving’ (§203) is the element of extinction with trace left, but with the dissolution of the body it is the element of extinction without trace left. ‘Diversification’ (§203) is what keeping bound together1 is called.

211. And when the Lord Buddha says <He diversifies instigated by a past, a future, or a presently-arisen form cognizable by the eye> (

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207 /I Vipaccati. Perhaps neither this word nor paccati nor their derivatives should be translated by ‘to cook’ in kamma contexts, especially where mention is made of the hells, despite the fires, ‘Ripening out’ of bad action in hell is what is meant, in the sense of its finding its moment for ripening and at the same time expending itself. The metaphor seems from the ripening of fruit, rather than from the kitchen-stove.

210/1 Anubandha—keeping bound together’: In the sense of keeping ideas of opposites tied together or in the sense of ‘obstructing’? Netti A says only ‘Tanhadinam anuppabandhanapavatti’ (p. 86).



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), and when the Lord Buddha says <Radha, do not look back with yearning to past form, do not expectantly relish future form, practise the way to dispassion, fading of lust, ceasing, giving up, and relinquishment, as to presently-arisen form> (§173), this is construed by the consecutivity of the Lord Buddha’s [statement].

212. And while the diversifications, and the determinations, and the relishing of the past, future and presently-arisen, are a singularity, yet the teaching of the True Idea stated by the Lord Buddha with various other terms, with various other letters, with various other phrases, is of ungauged meaning (cf. §49).

213. That is how the Thread is demonstrated by collating Thread with Thread, adding the sequence together by consecutivity.1

[4 kinds of Consecutive Sequence]

214. Now this consecutive sequence is of four kinds: meaning- sequence, phrasing-sequence, teaching-sequence, and demonstration- sequence.

215. (i) Herein, meaning-sequence is the six terms, namely explaining, displaying, divulging, analysing, exhibiting, and describing (§53).

216. (ii) Phrasing-sequence is the six terms, namely letter, term, phrase, mood, language, and demonstration (§53).

217. (iii) Teaching-sequence\ he does not meditate with earth as support and yet he meditates as a meditator. He does not meditate with water . . . fire . . . [39] air . . . the base consisting of infiniteness of space . . . the base consisting of infiniteness of consciousness . . . the base consisting of no-owning . . . the base consisting of neither perception nor non-perception . . . He does not meditate with this world or the other as support, and yet he meditates as a meditator. And what is in between both—the seen, heard, sensed,1 cognized, reached, sought, thought, explored, and cogitated over with the mind—he does not meditate with that as support too and yet he meditates as a meditator.2 In the world with its gods, its Maras, and its High Divinities, in this generation with its monks and divines, its princes and men, when one such as this meditates with cognizance unsupported, he is not known (cf. A. v, 324f.). Just as

__________________________________________________________

213/1 Sandhim seems a better reading than saddhim here.

217/1 See n. 174/1.

217/2 This sequence means the normal order of enumeration found in the Suttas. It is called yathanusandhi at MA. i, 175, as one of 3 kinds mentioned there.



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Mara the Evil One, seeking the clansman Godhika’s consciousness, neither knew nor saw it (S. i, 120f.; Pe 11); for with the abandoning of craving he had gone past diversification, and he had no more support for views. And as Godhika, so too Vakkali (S. iii, 119ff.). When such as these are meditating with unsupported cognizance they are not known by the world with its gods, its Maras, and its High Divinities, by this generation with its monks and divines, its princes and men.

This is teaching-sequence.

218. (iv) Herein, what is demonstration-sequence ?

Those with supported cognizance (cf. §364) can be demonstrated by means of the unprofitable side; those with unsupported cognizance (cf. §364) can be demonstrated by means of the profitable side.

Those with supported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of corruption; those with unsupported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of cleansing.

Those with supported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of the occurrence of the roundabout; those with unsupported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of the non-occurrence of the roundabout.

Those with supported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of craving and ignorance; those with unsupported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of quiet and insight.

Those with supported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of consciencelessness and shamelessness; those with unsupported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of conscience and shame.

Those with supported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of unmindfulness and unawareness; those with unsupported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of mindfulness and awareness.

Those with supported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of what is no reason (see M. iii, 140) and [40] by means of unreasoned attention (see M. i, 7); and those with unsupported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of what is a reason and by means of reasoned attention.

Those with supported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of idleness and difficult admonishability; those with unsupported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of instigation of energy and easy admonishability.1

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218/1 ‘Dovacassata—difficult admonishability’ and ‘sovacassata—easy admonishability’ mean literally ‘the state of one to whom it is difficult—easy— to speak (in order to point out his faults)’. They never mean respectively



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Those with supported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of faithlessness and negligence; those with unsupported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of faith and diligence.

Those with supported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of hearing what is not the true object of faith and by means of nonrestraint; those with unsupported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of the true object of faith and by means of restraint.

Those with supported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of covetousness and ill-will; those with unsupported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of non-covetousness and non-ill-will.

Those with supported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of the hindrances and the fetters; those with unsupported cognizance by means of the heart-deliverance due to fading of lust and by means of the understanding-deliverance due to fading of ignorance.

Those with supported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of the annihilation view and by means of the eternity view; those with unsupported cognizance can be demonstrated by means of the element of extinction with trace left and the element of extinction without trace left.

This is demonstration-sequence.

219. That is why the venerable Maha-Kaccana said:

‘By way of phrasing, the Linguistic,

The Purport, and the teaching’s Source,

And the Consecutive-Sequence:

This Mode Conveys a Fourfold Array’ (§10).

The Mode of Conveying a Fourfold Array is ended.

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7. The Ninefold Thread in the Mode of Conveying a Conversion Edit

220. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Conversion ? It is this:

‘The Mode that, when there is one Footing,

Searches for a footing that remains

And then converts the opposites

Is that Conveying a Conversion’ (§11).

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‘ill-spoken’ and ‘well spoken’. See Dhs. 1325 and 1327; also A. v, 90 (suvaca = khamo padakkhinagahi anusasanim). ‘Well-spoken’ = kalyanavaca (A. v, 155).



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221. <Instigate [yourselves], launch out, devote

[Yourselves] in the Enlightened One’s Dispensation;

Scatter the armies of Mortality

As does an elephant a hut of reeds>

(Pe 71; S. i, 157).

[The words] ‘Instigate yourselves, launch out’ are the footing for energy. [The words] ‘Devote yourselves in the Enlightened One’s Dispensation’ are the footing for concentration. [The words] ‘Scatter the armies of Mortality as does an elephant a hut of reeds’ are the footing for understanding.

[The words] ‘Instigate yourselves, launch out’ are the footing for the energy faculty. [The words] ‘Devote yourselves in the Enlightened One’s Dispensation’ are the footing for the concentration faculty. [The words] ‘Scatter the armies of Mortality as does an elephant a hut of reeds’ are the footing for the understanding faculty.

[41] These footings constitute the teaching [beginning with ‘Instigate yourselves’].

222. The instigation is for creatures who are either already devoting [themselves] or who are not yet devoting [themselves].

223. Herein, those not yet devoting [themselves] do not devote [themselves] owing to their being rooted in negligence. That negligence is of two kinds: rooted in craving and rooted in ignorance.

224. Herein, as to that [negligence] rooted in ignorance, such [negligence] as is shut in by such unknowing that it does not understand how the five categories are inseparable from the idea of arising and subsidence is rooted in negligence.

Such [negligence] rooted in craving is of three kinds: (i) when someone seeks for the arising of unarisen properties he falls into negligence; [and when he seeks] (ii) the sign of preservation, and

the sign of use, of the arisen properties, he falls into negligence.

These are the four kinds of negligence in the world: one kind due to ignorance and three kinds due to craving.

225. Herein, the name-body is the footing for ignorance, [and] the form-body is the footing for craving. Why is that ? In the kinds of being (existence) having form there is cleaving to them, and in the formless kinds of being (existence) there is confusion [about them].

Herein, the form-body1 is the form category, [and] the name- body is the four formless categories (cf. §§84 and 445).

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226/1 Seen. 84/1.



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227. With assumption in virtue of what is it that the five are categories of assumption ? In virtue of craving and ignorance.

228. Herein, craving is two kinds of assumption, namely sensual- desire assumption and virtue-and-duty assumption, while ignorance is two kinds of assumption, namely view assumption and selfdoctrine assumption1

229. Any categories of assumption (see M. iii, 16) [so called] in virtue of these four kinds of assumption, are suffering. The Lord Buddha teaches the True Idea for the [respective] diagnosis and abandoning of them: for the diagnosis of suffering and the abandoning of its origin.

230. Herein, any one of the three kinds of negligence rooted in craving (1) seeks for the arising of unarisen properties, and (2) works for the preservation, and (3) the sign of use of the arisen properties.

231. Quiet guards against and prevents that [negligence] by means of full penetration. How is that ? When one knows, in the case of sensual desires, the gratification as gratification, the disappointment [42] as disappointment, the escape as escape, and also degradation, corruption, and cleansing, and the benefits of renunciation, then any inquiry, any scrutiny, therein is insight. These two ideas come to fulfilment through keeping in being, that is to say quiet and insight. When these two ideas are kept in being, two ideas are abandoned, namely craving and ignorance. When these two ideas are abandoned the four kinds of assuming cease; with cessation of assuming, cessation of being; with cessation of being, cessation of birth; with cessation of birth, ageing and death cease, and also sorrow and lamentation, pain, grief and despair; that is how there is a cessation to this whole category of suffering.

232. So there are the first two truths, namely Suffering and Origin; and quiet and insight are the Path; and cessation of being is Extinction. These are the four Truths. That is why the Lord Buddha said ‘Instigate yourselves, launch out, . .

*

233. <Just as a tree, though felled, sprouts up again

As long as firm its root is and intact,

So too this pain springs ever and anon

With tendency to craving unimpaired> (Dh. 338).

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228/1 For ‘assumption (assuming)’ see n. 164/9. Here and at §257 the 4 kinds are the same as in the Suttas (e.g., M. i, 67), but at §§484-7 and 678 silabbatupadana is replaced by bhavupadana. Does the latter appear outside this work except at Pe 94?



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This is the underlying-tendency to craving. To what kind of craving ? To craving for being (existence). The condition for that idea is ignorance; for it is with ignorance as condition that there is craving for being (existence). These are the two defilements namely craving and ignorance. And these are the four kinds of assumption (see §228).

234. Any categories of assumption [so called] in virtue of these four kinds of assumption are Suffering. The four kinds of assumption are Origin, while the five categories are the suffering. The Lord Buddha teaches the True Idea for their [respective] diagnosis and abandoning: for the diagnosis of Suffering and the abandoning of Origin.

235. [43] That whereby one eradicates the underlying-tendency to craving is quiet; that whereby one shuts off ignorance, the condition for the underlying-tendency to craving, is insight. These two ideas come to fulfilment through keeping in being, namely quiet and insight.

236. Herein, the fruit of quiet is the heart-deliverance due to fading of lust; the fruit of insight is the understanding-deliverance due to fading of ignorance.

237. So there are the first two truths, namely Suffering, and its Origin; and quiet and insight are the Path; and the two kinds of deliverance are Cessation. These are the four Truths. That is why the Lord Buddha said ‘Just as a tree . . (§233).

*

238. <No doing any kind of evil,

Perfecting profitable skill,

And purifying one’s own heart:

This is the Buddhas’ Dispensation

(Pe 54, 91; Dh. 183; D. ii, 49).

What is called ‘any kind of evil’ is the three kinds of misconduct, namely bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, and mental misconduct. These are the ten unprofitable courses of action, namely killing breathing things, taking what is not given, and misconduct in sensual-desires; false speech, malicious speech, harsh speech, and gossip; and covetousness, ill will, and wrong view.1

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238/1 The 1st 3 are known as bodily, the next 4 as verbal, and the last 3 as mental, unprofitable action.



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239. These are two kinds of action, namely choice and concomitant of cognizance (cf. Pe 35-6).1

240. Herein, killing breathing things, malicious speech and harsh speech are moulded by hate; taking what is not given, misconduct in sensual-desires, and false speech are moulded by greed; and gossip is moulded by delusion. These seven kinds of acting are action as choice.1

241. Covetousness is greed as a root of the unprofitable; ill will is hate as a root of the unprofitable; wrong view is the wrong path. These three kinds of acting are action as concomitant of cognizance. That is why it was said ‘action as choice and action as concomitant of cognizance5 (see §239).

242. When a root of the unprofitable comes to [expression by] the means [consisting of body or speech], it comes to [expression as] one [of the four] bad ways, namely those through will, hate, fear, or delusion.

243. [44] Herein, when it comes to [expression as] the bad way through will, it is moulded by greed; when it comes to [expression as] the bad way through hate, it is moulded by hate; when it comes to [expression as] the bad ways through fear and delusion, it is moulded by delusion.

244. Herein, greed is abandoned by means of [contemplating] ugliness, hate by means of loving kindness, and delusion by means of understanding. Likewise, greed is abandoned by means of onlooking-equanimity, and hate by means of loving kindness and compassion, and delusion is abandoned and disappears by means of sympathetic-gladness. That is why the Lord Buddha said ‘No doing any kind of evil, .' (§243).

245. And what is called ‘any kind of evil5 is the eight wrongnesses, namely wrong view, wrong intention, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness, and wrong

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239/1 This twofold division seems peculiar to this work and the Pe. From the following paragraphs, the first obviously stands for bodily and verbal action together and the second for mental.

240/1 The analysis of action here is more easily grasped if the following distinctions are kept in mind. A ‘course of action’ (kammapatha) is a completed ‘historical act’ regarded as continuing from the first planning of it down to the carrying of it out, which ‘course’ involves body and/or speech. The ‘choice’ (cetana) here is the momentary mental ‘willing’ (or ‘affirmation’) at each and every stage of the ‘course’. ‘Mental action’—‘action as concomitant of cognizance’ here—is simply covetousness, ill will, and wrong view, and their respective profitable opposites. See Dhs A. 82ff.



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concentration. These are called ‘any kind of evil’. Any non-effecting, non-doing, non-practising, of these eight wrongnesses is called ‘no doing any kind of evil’.

246. When the eight wrongnesses are abandoned, the eight rightnesses reach excellence (sampajjanti). Any effecting of, producing excellence in (sampadana), the eight rightnesses is called ‘perfecting (upasampada) profitable skill’.

247. ‘And purifying one’s own heart’ is the effecting, keeping in being, of the <Ancient Path> (S. ii, 105),1 it is mindfulness of that. When the heart is purified, the categories become purified. That is why the Lord Buddha said <Bhikkhus, a divine life is lived under a Perfect One for the purpose of purification of the heart > ( )

248. The purifying is of two kinds, namely the abandoning of hindrances and the eradication of underlying-tendencies. Also there are two planes of purifying, namely the plane of seeing and the plane of keeping-in-being.

249. Herein, that by the penetration of which one purifies is Suffering. That from which one purifies is the Origin. That by which one purifies is the Path. And that which is purified is Cessation (cf. Pe 91). These are the four Truths. Hence the Lord Buddha said ‘No doing any kind of evil . ........(§238).

*

250. <The True Idea guards him that walks

therein,

As does a big umbrella in time of rain.

[45] The Ideal’s reward when walked in right is this:

Who walks therein has no bad destination>

(§37).

What is called ‘the True Idea’ is of two kinds, namely (1) faculty- restraint and (2) the Path. A ‘bad destination’ is of two kinds, as follows: compared with gods and human beings, the states of unease

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247/1 The ‘Ancient Path’ does not refer to a path other than the ‘Noble Path’ as suggested by note 1 at PTS Netti, p. 222. The alternative (va) in the commentary seems to wish to refer the word ‘ancient’ (atita) either to ‘the ancient noble path discovered by former Buddhas including the Buddha Vipassi’ or to ‘the noble path discovered by the ancient Buddha Vipassi’. It is the same path that all Buddhas discover.



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are a bad destination; but compared with extinction, all kinds of reappearance are a bad destination.

251. (1) Herein, in the case of virtue as restraint, there is the keeping of it untorn (see A. iv, 53, and §299 below), and this True Idea when walked in right guards one from the states of unease. Accordingly the Lord Buddha said <Bhikkhus, there are two kinds of destination for one who is virtuous: the gods and human beings> ( ).

And accordingly the Gamani Asibandhakaputta said to the Lord Buddha in the town of Nalanda <‘Venerable sir, there are Divines of the West Country (f),1 who use a kamanaalu(ascetic’s drinking- vessel),2 who wear water-weed garlands, who [morning and evening] go down to the water, and who worship fires. When someone is deceased and dead they cajole and coerce3 him, trying to get him a footing in4 heaven. Now, venerable sir, is the Lord Buddha capable of so doing that all the world, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappears in a good destination, in the heavenly world V—‘As to that, Gamani, I shall ask you a question in return; answer it as you like. How do you conceive this, Gamani ? Here a man might be a killer of breathing things, a taker of what is not given, misconducted in sensual desires, a speaker of falsehood, a malicious speaker, a harsh speaker, a gossip, covetous, with ill will in his heart, and wrong in his view. Then a large body of people met and foregathered, and they begged and implored and beseeched with hands extended palms together “Oh let this man, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a good destination, in the heavenly world”, how do you conceive this, Gamani, because of that large body of people’s begging, because of their imploring, because of their beseeching with hands extended palms together, would that man, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a happy destination in the heavenly world V'No, venerable sir ’—‘Gamani, suppose a

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251/1 See SA. iii, 104.

251/2 Kamanaaluka — Kundika (Abhp. 443). SA has only ‘sakamanaaluno ‘Kassa jalassa manao pasannabhavo kamanao, tam lati ti kamanaalu9 (Abhp. Tika).

251/3 NettiA glosses uyyapenti (‘urge’) by upari yapenti (= SA. iii, 104), and sannapenti (‘coerce’) by samma yapenti (p. 92; SA: samma napenti— a misspelling?). So sannapenti appears as a spelling of samyapenti (cf. sannojana for samyojana), and both words are causatives fm. ya with prefixes u(d) and sam respectively. Neither is in PED. (Sannapeti is also a possible causative form of sanjanati, but that is not meant here.)

251/4 NettiA has uggamenti for okkamenti, supported by C; Ba and Bb support PTS.



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man threw a big solid stone into a deep pool of water, and then a large body of people [46] met and foregathered, and they begged and they implored and they beseeched with hands extended palms together “Oh sirs, let the solid stone emerge, oh sirs, let the solid stone float up, oh sirs, let the solid stone float to dry land”, how do you conceive this, Gamani, because of their begging, because of their imploring, because of their beseeching with hands extended palms together, would that solid stone emerge, would it float up, would it float to dry land V‘No, venerable sir'—‘So toe, Gamani, when a man is a killer of breathing things, . . . and wrong in his view, for all that a large body of people might meet and foregather and might beg and implore and beseech with hands extended palms together “Oh let this man, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a good destination, in the heavenly world”, yet that man, on the dissolution of the body, after death, might reappear in a state of unease, in a bad destination, in perdition, in hell. How do you conceive this, Gamani ? Here a man might have abstained from killing breathing things, . . . right in his view. Then a large body of people met and foregathered and they begged and implored and beseeched with hands extended palms together “Oh let this man, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a state of unease, in a bad destination, in perdition, in hell”, how do you conceive this, Gamani, because of that large body of people's begging, because of their imploring, because of their beseeching with hands extended palms together, would that man, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a state of unease, in a bad destination, in perdition, in hell V—‘No, venerable sir.’—‘Gamani, suppose a man sank a ghee-pot or an oil-pot in a deep water-pool and fixed it so that any sand or gravel there might be in it would go to the bottom and any ghee or oil there might be in it would go to the top, and then a large body of people met and foregathered and they begged and implored and beseeched with hands extended palms together “Oh sirs, let the ghee, the oil, sink; oh sirs, let the ghee, the oil, go down”, how do you conceive this, Gamani, [47] because of that large body of people's begging, because of their imploring, because of their beseeching with hands extended palms together, would that ghee, that oil, sink down, go down V—‘No, venerable sir.'So too, Gamani, when a man abstains from killing breathing things, . . . right in his view, for all that a large body of people might meet and foregather and might beg and implore and beseech with hands extended palms together “Oh let this man, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a state of unease, in a bad destination, in perdition, in hell”, yet that man, on the dissolution of the body, after



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death, might reappear in a good destination, in the heavenly world' > (S. iv, 312ff.).

So it is this True Idea that, when walked in right, guards one from the states of unease.

252. (2) Herein, it is the keenness, the outstandingness, of the Path that is the ‘True Idea’ which, when walked in right, guards one from all kinds of reappearing. Accordingly the Lord Buddha said:

<So let his cognizance be guarded/

Having for pasture right intention,

Giving right view first place through knowing

Rise and fall; transcending drowsing

And lethargy, the bhikkhu may

Abandon all bad destinations> (Ud. 38).

253. Herein, the cause of the bad destinations is craving and ignorance. These are the four kinds of assuming (see §228).

254. Any categories of assuming [so called] in virtue of these four kinds of assuming are Suffering. The four kinds of assuming are Origin, while the five categories are Suffering. The Lord Buddha teaches the True Idea for their [respective] diagnosis and abandoning : for the diagnosis of Suffering and for the abandoning of its Origin.

255. Herein, the five faculties that have form are the footing for craving while the mind-faculty is the footing for ignorance.

256. One who guards the five faculties that have form keeps concentration in being and deters craving, while one who guards the mind-faculty keeps insight in being and deters ignorance.

257. With the deterrence of craving two kinds of assuming are abandoned, namely sensual-desire assuming and virtue-and-duty assuming, while with the deterrence of ignorance two kinds of assuming are abandoned, namely view assuming and self-doctrine assuming.

258. [48] When the four kinds of assuming are abandoned, two ideas come to fulfilment through keeping in being, namely quiet and insight: this is called the Divine Life.

259. Herein, the fruit of the Divine Life is the four fruits of the monk’s state, namely the fruit of Stream-Entry, fruit of Once- Return, fruit of Non-Return and the highest fruit which is Arahantship. These are the four fruits of the Divine Life (cf. Pe 130, 135).

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252/1 Resolving rakkhitacittassa into rakkhitacitto assa.



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260. So there are the first two Truths, namely Suffering and its Origin (§254); and quiet and insight and the Divine Life are the Path; and the fruits of the Divine Life and the Undetermined Element, which is the object of these,1 are Cessation. These are the four Truths. That is why the Lord Buddha said ‘The True Idea guards . . .’ (§250).

261. Herein, that by the penetration of which it guards is Suffering. That from which it guards is Origin. That by which it guards is the Path. And that which guards is Cessation (cf. §249). These are the four Truths.

262. That is why the venerable Maha-Kaccana said:

‘The Mode that, when there is one Footing,

Searches for a footing that remains

And then converts the opposites

Is that Conveying a Conversion’ (§11).

The Mode Conveying a Conversion is ended.

*

________________________________________________________


8. The Ninefold Thread in the Mode of Conveying an Analysis Edit

263. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying an Analysis ? [It is this:]

‘It analyses idea, footing,

Plane [of types of men], the shared

And unshared: this Mode should be known

As that Conveying Analysis’ (§12).

264. The two kinds of Thread, namely that dealing with morality and that dealing with penetration (see §§117 and 270) are the two ways, namely that dealing with merit and that dealing with the fruit [of the Divine Life] (see §444), which are the two kinds of virtue, namely virtue as restraint and virtue as abandoning.

265. Herein, it is for the purpose of the way dealing with merit that

_______________________________________________________

260/1 Tadarammana ca asamkhatadhatu: the ‘undetermined element’

(asankhatadhatu—a term reserved solely to nibbana) is sometimes called in the Commentaries the ‘object’ (arammana—lit. ‘what is hung on to’ or ‘what is leant on’) of ‘cognizance dissociated from worlds’. The use here of the compound tadarammana is not the normal commentarial one, renderable by ‘having that as its object’ (freely ‘registration’: see I7/.*. 459-60); but here the meaning is ‘which is the object of that’ (cf. use at Pe. 108).



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the Lord Buddha teaches a Thread dealing with morality. He [who needs this kind of teaching] is steadied [by it] in virtue as restraint, and he is one who lives the Divine Life by that kind of Divine Life.

266. [49] Herein, it is for the purpose of the way dealing with the fruit [of the Divine Life] that the Lord Buddha teaches a Thread dealing with penetration. He [who needs this kind of teaching] is steadied [by it] in virtue as abandoning, and he is one who lives the Divine Life by that kind of Divine Life.

267. Herein, what is a Thread dealing with morality ? A Thread dealing with morality is this: talk on giving, talk on virtue, talk on heaven and the disappointment in sensual desires and the benefits in renunciation (see M. i, 379).

268. Herein, what is a Thread dealing with penetration ? A Thread dealing with penetration is this: any displaying of the four Truths.

269. In a Thread dealing with morality there is no act-of-under- standing, there is no Path, there is no Fruit [of the Path]. In a Thread dealing with penetration there is the act-of-understanding, there is the Path, there is the Fruit [of the Path].

270. These are [two of] the [first] four1 types of Thread (see §§117 and 760) [which] should, after being in all ways (§62) investigated in accordance with the Mode of Conveying Investigation, be construed2 in accordance with the Mode of Conveying Construing as to these four types of Thread’s teaching, fruit, virtue, and Divine Life (see §§264-5), in so far as the plane of knowledge extends (cf. §156).

*

271. (1) Herein, what kinds of ideas are [shared] in common ?1

____________________________________________________________________________________

270/I This sentence is a very elliptic and difficult one; but it seems impossible to obtain from it, with or without the commentary, what is given at PTS p. 223, note 1 (and what does that really mean?). NettiA, after saying only ‘desanaya ti desananayena' goes on * “After being in all ways investigated in accordance with the Mode of Conveying an Investigation”: it should, by means of the Mode of Conveying an Investigation, be investigated as to all parts by processing it under the eleven heads (in §62). “Should be construed in accordance with the Mode of Conveying a Construing”: by this he shows that the Modes of Conveying an Investigation and of Conveying a Construing (read vicayahara-yuttihara) are the field of preparatory work for the Mode of Conveying an Analysis. “In so far as the plane of knowledge”: by this he shows how wide a field the Mode of Conveying an Analysis has’ (p. 94). 270/2 C and NettiA both yojetabbani; Ba and Bb support PTS.

271/1 Shared in common by ordinary men and Stream-Enterers, firstly, see §272.



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Two kinds of ideas are [shared] in common, namely [shared] in common by a name and [shared] in common by a thing [or person] or also any other such kind.

272. Defilements to be abandoned by seeing (see M. i, 7f.) are common to [ordinary men whether they are] creatures certain of wrongness1 or those not thus certain. Lust for sensual desires and ill will are common to the ordinary man and to the Stream Enterer. The further-side fetters are common to the ordinary man and to the Non-Returner. Any attainment belonging to the worlds that an [initiate] Noble Disciple attains is common to [him and to] those without lust. For ideas shared in common remain thus each within the successive limits of their own provinces, and the type of person possessed of any one of these ideas does not [as such] surpass the [limit set by any such] idea.

These kinds of ideas are shared in common.

273. Herein, what kinds of ideas are not shared in common has to be examined as to whether the teaching is about Initiates or Adepts [in the case of Noble Persons] or those capable or incapable [of enlightenment in this life, in the case of ordinary men].

274. Lust for sensual desires and ill will are [50] common to the Stream Enterer standing upon1 [the Path and to the ordinary man, but] the essential nature of the idea [of Stream Entry] is not common [to both]. And the further-side fetters are common to the Non-Returner standing upon1 [that path and to those below him, but] the essential nature of the idea [of Non-Return] is not common [to both]. The name [‘Initiate’] is common to all the seven kinds of initiate, [but] the essential nature of the idea [of each kind] is not common [to the rest]. The name [‘on the way’] is common to all [the four] kinds of those on the way [of their respective paths, but] the essential nature of the idea [of each kind] is not common [to all the rest]. Initiates’ virtue is common to all kinds of Initiate [but] the essential nature of the idea [of each kind] is not common [to the rest]. That is how it has to be examined according to the inferior, superior, and medium, by one who sees the distinctions.

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272/1 ‘Certain of rightness’ (sammatta-niyata) means one who has attained the eight-factored path for the first time. ‘Certain of wrongness’ (micchatta- niyata) means one who has not attained the path and has performed some action, or holds some wrong view, which is certain in the badness of its ripening immediately on rebirth. ‘Not thus certain’ applies to anyone else who has not attained the path. Cf. §562, also Pe 32.

274/1 See n. 99/2.



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275. (2) The plane of seeing is (3) the footing for finding a footing in certainty.1 (2) The plane of keeping in being is (3) the footing for the reaching of the higher fruits. The painful way with sluggish acquaintanceship is the footing for quiet. The pleasant way with swift acquaintanceship is the footing for insight.

The ground-for-making-merit-consisting-in-giving (see A. ii, 241) is the footing, shared in common, for [hearing about the True Idea from] another’s utterance. The ground-for-making-merit-consisting-in-virtue is the footing, shared in common, for understanding- consisting-in-cogitation (see §46). The ground-for-making-merit- consisting-in-keeping-in-being is the footing, shared in common, for understanding-consisting-in-keeping-in-being. The ground-for- making-merit-consisting-in-giving is the footing, shared in common, for [hearing about the True Idea from] another’s utterance and for understanding-consisting-in-what-is-heard. The ground-for-making- merit-consisting-in-virtue is the footing, shared in common, for understanding-consisting-in-cogitation and for reasoned attention. The ground-for-making-merit-consisting-in-keeping-in-being is the footing, shared in common, for understanding-consisting-in-keeping- in-being and for right view.

Living in befitting places (see A. ii, 32) is the footing, shared in common, for seclusion and for concentration. Waiting on True Men is the footing, shared in common, for the three kinds of confidence due to undergoing (see e.g. §788) and for quiet. Eight disposition in self-guidance is the footing, shared in common, for conscience and for insight.

Giving up the unprofitable is the footing, shared in common, for inquiry into the profitable and for the concentration faculty. The well-proclaimedness of the True Idea is the footing, shared in common, for the planting of the profitable root and for the attainment of the fruits [of the paths]. The Community’s having progressed by the good way is the footing, shared in common, for the Community’s goodness. The excellence of the Master is the footing, shared in common, for instilling confidence in the unconfident and for strengthening the already confident. The state of not having resisted the Patimokkha Rule [51] is the footing, shared in common, for the deterrence of contumacious persons and for the comfort of pious persons.

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275/1 The term niyamavakkanti (== niydmokkanti: see S. iii, 225) refers to the Stream-Entry path, otherwise called ‘seeing’. ‘Keeping in being’ in these contexts refers to the 3 higher paths.



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276. That is why the venerable Maha-Kaccana said :

'It analyses idea, footing,

Plane [of types of men], the shared

And unshared: this Mode should be known

As that Conveying Analysis’ (§12).

The Mode Conveying an Analysis is ended.

*

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9.The Ninefold Thread in the Mode of Conveying a Reversal Edit

277. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Reversal ? [It is this:]

‘That into opposites reversing

Ideas of profit and unprofit

Shown to be kept in being and left

Is called the Mode Conveying Reversal’ (§13).

278. In a mature person with right view wrong view is abolished, and the many unprofitable ideas that might arise in him with wrong view for their condition are also abolished in him, and the many profitable ideas that gain actual being with right view for their condition come to perfection in him through keeping in being (cf. M. iii, 76).

In a mature person with right intention . . .

. . . right speech . . .

. . . right action . . .

. . . right livelihood . . .

. . . right effort . . .

. . . right mindfulness . . .

. . . right concentration . . .

. . . right deliverance . . .

In a mature person with right knowing and seeing of deliverance wrong knowing and seeing of deliverance is abolished, and the many evil unprofitable ideas that might arise in him with wrong knowing and seeing of deliverance for their condition are also abolished in him, and the many profitable ideas that gain actual being with



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right knowing and seeing of deliverance for their condition come to perfection in him through keeping in being.1

279. Killing of breathing things has been abandoned in one who abstains from killing breathing things.

Taking what is not given has been abandoned in one who abstains from taking what is not given.

What is not the divine life has been abandoned in one who lives the divine life.

False speech has been abandoned in one who speaks truth. Malicious speech has been abandoned in one who speaks un- maliciously.

Harsh speech has been abandoned in one who speaks in a timely manner.

Covetousness [52] has been abandoned in one who is uncovetous.

Ill will has been abandoned in one who has no cognizance of ill will.

Wrong view has been abandoned in one who has right view.

280. If there are any who censure the eight-factored path, then from their assertions certain legitimate deductions to be seen for oneself come up which are censurable (M. iii, 77) [as follows].

281. For when those worthy ones censure the idea of right view, the consequence is that those who have wrong view must be honoured and praised by those worthy ones.

For when those worthy ones censure the idea [of] right intention .

. . . right speech . . .

. . . right action . . .

. . . right livelihood . . .

. . . right effort ...

. . . right mindfulness . . .

. . . right concentration ...

. . . right deliverance . . .

For when those worthy ones censure the idea of right knowing and seeing of deliverance, the consequence is that those who have wrong knowing and seeing of deliverance must be honoured and praised by those worthy ones (cf. M. iii, 77).

282. And if there are any who say ‘Sensual desires should be

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278/1 The ‘10 rightnesses’ are usually made up of the 8 factors of the path plus ‘right knowledge’ and ‘right deliverance’ (M. iii, 78). This Mode of Conveying is drawn directly from M. Sutta 117, end.



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enjoyed, sensual desires should be rejoiced in, sensual desires should be repeated, sensual desires should be used, sensual desires should be kept in being, sensual desires should be made much of’ (cf. M. i, 130), then abstention from sensual desires is not the True Idea according to them.

Or if there are any who say ‘The True Idea is devotion to selftorment’ (cf. M. i, 92f.), then the True Idea that is the outlet is not the True Idea according to them.

And if there are any who say ‘The True Idea is painful’ (cf. M. i, 93f.), then the True Idea that is pleasant is not the True Idea according to them.

283. According as a bhikkhu’s perception of beauty in all determinations is abandoned when he abides contemplating ugliness, according as his perception of pleasure is abandoned when he abides contemplating pain, according as his perception of permanence is abandoned when he abides contemplating impermanence, and according as his perception of self is abandoned when he abides contemplating not-self (cf. Ps. i, 46-7), then whatever idea he elects or approves, [thereby] he has implicated the contrary-opposite of any such idea as un-wished-for.

284. That is why the venerable Maha-Kaccana said:

‘That into opposites reversing

Ideas of profit and unprofit

Shown to be kept in being and left

Is called the Mode Conveying Reversal’ (§13).

The Mode of Conveying a Reversal is ended.

*

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10. The Ninefold Thread in the Mode of Conveying Synonyms Edit

285. [53] Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Synonyms ? [It is this:]

‘Knower of Threads is he that knows

How many synonyms for one

Idea there are in the Thread: this Mode

Is that Conveying Synonyms’ (§14).

286. According as the Lord Buddha demonstrates a single idea by means of many synonyms. [For example:]



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<Need and longing, expectant relishing, Enticements on the several elements based, Hankering whose being is rooted in unknowing:

To all that with its root I put an end> (§137).

287. What is called ‘need’ (asa) is any longing (asimsana) for a benefit about to be ;*■ ‘need’ arises in one thus ‘Surely it will come’.

288. What is called ‘longing’ is any aspiration for a presently arisen benefit, or else, on seeing someone better, ‘longing’ arises in one thus ‘May I be like that’.1

289. Fostering the production of a benefit is what is called ‘expectant relishing’, or one expects thus a dear relative, or one expects thus a dear idea, or one expects [something] thus as unrepulsive.

290. ‘The several elements’ are the eye element, form element, and eye-consciousness element; ear element, sound element, and ear- consciousness element; nose element, odour element, and nose- consciousness element; tongue element, flavour element, and tongue-consciousness element; body element, tangible element, and body-consciousness element; mind element, idea element, and mind- consciousness element (cf. M. iii, 62).

291. ‘Enticements’: some believe in forms, some believe in sounds, some believe in odours, some believe in flavours, some believe in tangibles, some believe in ideas (cf. §568).

Herein, the twenty-four terms, namely the six kinds of grief with the house-life as support (see M. iii, 218), the six kinds of joy with the house-life as support (see M. iii, 217), the six kinds of grief with renunciation as support (see M. iii, 218), the six kinds of joy with renunciation as support (see M. iii, 217), being on the side belonging to craving, are synonyms for craving.

But the six kinds of onlooking-equanimity with the house-life as support (see M. iii, 219) are on the side belonging to views. That same [onlooking-equanimity] in the mood of aspiration, as relishing of the True Idea, love of the*True Idea, cleaving to the True Idea, is synonymous with craving (cf. §506).

293. Cognizance, [54] mind, and consciousness,1 are synonyms for cognizance (cf. S. ii, 94).

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287/1 Bhavissassa: gen. of future participle.

288/1 Read patthana, seyyataram va disva ’ediso . . .

293/1 Read mano vinnanam as two words.



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294. Mind faculty, mind element, mind base, and act-of-being- conscious, are synonyms for mind.

Understanding faculty, understanding power, training in the higher understanding, understanding category, investigation-of- ideas enlightenment factor, knowledge, right view, judgment, insight, knowledge about an idea, knowledge about a meaning, knowledge about an inference, knowledge about exhaustion, knowledge about non-arising, the I-shall-come-to-know-finally-the-as-yet-not- finally-known faculty, the final-knowing faculty, the final-knower faculty, vision (eye), science, discovery, breadth, wit, light, or also any other such kind: these are synonyms for understanding (cf. §440).

295. All the five faculties, when disjoined from worlds, are understanding. Furthermore, faith has the sense of dominance, energy the sense of instigation, mindfulness the sense of non-floating away [from its object], concentration the sense of non-distraction, and understanding the sense of act-of-understanding (cf. §§162-3).

296. And as it is said in the Recollection of the Enlightened One: <That Lord Buddha is such since he is accomplished, fully enlightened,1 perfect in science and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader of men to be tamed, teacher of gods and men, enlightened, Blessed> (Pe 131; A. iii, 285), [and further] he who has come to produce the Powers,2 reached the kinds of Intrepidity, arrived at the Discriminations, left behind the four bonds, passed beyond going the bad ways, extracted the barbs, cured the wounds,3 crushed the thorns, remedied the obsessions, outstripped the tether, unknotted the ties, passed beyond inclination, disrupted darkness; who is the possessor of eyesight, who has surmounted the worldly ideas, who is dissociated from favouring and opposing among wished-for and unwished-for ideas, who has no recourse to amassing, who has passed beyond the tether, who has done with battling, who is the most eminent, who is the torch-bearer,4 light-maker, illuminator, gloom- dispeller, conflict-abandoner, measureless in qualities, immense in qualities, incalculable in qualities, maker of radiance, maker of irradiance, illuminator of the True Ideal, enlightened, blessed.

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296/1 Perhaps sambuddha ought to be rendered ‘self-enlightened’ in contrast to anubuddha (‘enlightened by another’).

296/2 Read balanipphattigato.

296/3 ‘Nirulhavano—who has cured the wound’ : nirulha not in this sense in PED.

296/4 ‘Okkadharo—torch-bearer’: form not in PED, where see ukkd; C. and Bb have ukkadharo, but Ba supports PTS.



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These are synonyms for the Recollection of the Enlightened One.

297. And as it is said in the Recollection of the True Idea [55] <The True Idea is well 'proclaimed by the Lord Buddha, to be seen for oneself not delayed (timeless), inviting inspection, onward-leading, and directly experienceable by the wise> (A. iii, 285), <That is to say, the disillusionment of vanity, the outguiding of thirst, the elimination of reliance, the termination of the round, the void, the very hard to get, the exhaustion of craving, fading, cessation, extinction> (Pe 131; cf. A. ii, 34), [and further:]

The Undetermined, the Infinite, and the Untainted,

The Truth, the Further Shore, the Subtle, very hard to see,

The Ageless, Everlasting, and Un-worn-away,

Making no showing,1 undiversifying, peace,

The Deathless, the Supreme, the Blissful, and the Safe, Exhaustion of thirst, the Wonderful, the Marvellous,

The Unplagued, whose nature it is to be unplagued,

Extinction (see S. iv, 368-71)—this is what the Sublime one taught—

The Unborn, and the Un-brought-to-being (Ud. 80), the

Hazard-Free,

The Unmade (Ud. 80), and the Sorrowless, the Sorrow-free,

The Unmenaced, whose nature it is to be unmenaced, Extinction—this is what the Sublime One taught—

Profound, and very hard to see as well,

Surpassing too, and unsurpassed,

That is unlike, that has no like,

Foremost and best, as it is called.

Shield, shelter, without conflict,2 without blemish,

Spotless, immaculate, as it is called,

The Lamp (Isle), and Bliss, the Immense, the Standing-point, Non-owning, non-diversifying called.

These are synonyms for the, Recollection of the True Idea.

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297/1 ‘Anidassana—that makes no showing’: the word appears at M. i, 329 (where spoken by the Buddha, not by Brahma—see Burmese Chattha -Sanglti ed. of M.) and repeated at D. i, 223, and it is also a term in the 9th dyad of the Abhidhamma Matika or ‘Schedule’ (Dhs. p. 3). Usually translated ‘invisible’. See KhpA. trsln. Appx. I/bhu.

297/2 PTS Netti Index gives ‘refuge’ for sarana here, taking it as equivalent to the Parana’ at S. iv, 372. It is easy to confuse sar-ana (subst. fm. y'sar ‘to flow’) with sa-rana (‘with conflict’), opposite of arana (see M. iii, 235):

‘Arano ti arajo nikkileso(MA. v, 32).



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298. And as it is said in the Recollection of the Community <The Community of the Lord Buddha’s hearers has progressed by the good way, the Community of the Lord Buddha’s hearers has progressed by the straight way, the Community of the Lord Buddha’s hearers has progressed by the true way, the Community of the Lord Buddha’s hearers has progressed by the proper way, that is to say, the four pairs of men, the eight types of mature persons. This Community of the Lord Buddha’s hearers is fit for gifts, fit for hospitality, fit for offerings, fit for reverential salutation, as the incomparable field of merit for the world> (A. iii, 286), [56] [and further] perfect in virtue, perfect in concentration, perfect in deliverance, perfect in knowing and seeing of deliverance; it is creatures’ core (cf. M. iii, 80), creatures’ fine- essence, creatures’ fine-extract, creatures’ pillar, creatures’ blossom of fragrance,1 to be honoured by gods and human beings. These are synonyms for the Recollection of the Community.

299. And just as it is said in the Recollection of Virtue < Those kinds of virtue that are untorn, unrent, unblotched, unmottled, noble, desired by Noble Ones, liberating, commended by the wise, not misapprehended, and conducive to concentration> (A. iii, 286), [and further] virtue as an ornament for adorning the topmost limb,1 and virtue as a treasure laid by in the sense of surmounting all defects, and virtue as an archer’s craft for hitting the bull’s eye, and virtue as a rule in the sense of non-transgression, and virtue as [wealth of] corn in the sense of terminating poverty, and virtue as a looking-glass for the purpose of surveying ideas [of quiet and insight], and virtue as a [storied] palace in the sense of [a place for] surveying, and virtue that by its having parallel occurrence with all the [four] planes,2 ends in the Deathless. These are synonyms for the Recollection of Virtue.

300. And as it is said in the Recollection of Generosity <On an

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298/1 ‘ Surabhi-pasuna—blossom with fragrance’: read as one compound. Surabhi (fragrance, scent) not in PED, see Jd. vi, 236, Abhp. 146; pasuna not in PED. NettiA: ‘Surabhi-kusuman ti atthc>’ (p. 102). See Abhp. Tlkd ad Abhp. 16.

299/1 Read uttamangopasobhanataya and resolve into uttamanga (‘head’) -f- upasobhanataya. The note ‘(m.)’ in PTS Netti Index (‘uttamanga (m.)’) has mistaken the sandhi o (— a -\-u) for a masc. nom. sing, termination.

299/2 This means that it is coextensive with the 3 planes of being (those of sensual-desire, of form, and of formlessness), and also with the unincluded (apariydpanna) fourth plane (not of being, either positive or negative), which is dissociated from worlds and concerned with cessation (the deathless extinction).



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occasion on which a Noble Hearer lives in a house, freely generous, open-handed, delighting in relinquishing, used to being asked, and delighting in giving and sharing . . .> (A. iii, 287). These are synonyms for the Recollection of Generosity.

301. That is why the venerable Maha-Kaccana said:

‘Knower of Threads is he that knows

How many synonyms for one

Idea there are in the Thread: this Mode

Is that Conveying Synonyms’ (§14).

The Mode of Conveying Synonyms is ended.

*

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11. The Ninefold Thread in the Mode of Conveying Descriptions Edit

302. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Descriptions ? [It is this:]

‘The Lord Buddha one idea teaches

By means of manifold descriptions:

This mood can thus be known to be

The Mode that does Convey Descriptions’ (§15).

303. [57] Any teaching by [explanatory] talk about the nature [of anything] is a description [in terms of] presentation.1 And what is the teaching as [explanatory] talk about the nature [of anything] ? It is the four Truths, according as the Lord Buddha said: <This is suffering> (§49). This is a description. It is a description [in terms of] presentation [applied] to the five categories, the six elements, the eighteen elements, the twelve bases, and the ten faculties.2

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303/1 ‘Nikkhepapannatti—description in terms of presentation’: NettiA: ‘It presents (nikkhipati lit. “throws out”) in a guidable continuity (i.e., in a trainable person’s mind) a meaning of the Lord Buddha’s, according as intended by him, thus it is called a “presentation” (nikkhepa) (p. 102). The Tika adds ‘Nikkhipati ti patitthapeti, yatha cattaro suttanikkhepa (MA. i, 15) adi attha- kathasu vuccati' (p. 70). The kinds of ‘description’ given here have no connexion with the sets listed at Pug A. (see Ppn. ch. viii, note 11: there rendered ‘concept’).

303/2 The ‘ten faculties’ are, according to NettiA, ‘8 faculties possessing form (i.e., eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, feminity, masculinity, and life—see,



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304. <Bhikkhus, if there is lust, if there is relish, if there is craving, for physical nutriment,1 there consciousness finds a steadying-point and develops. Wherever consciousness finds a steadying-point and develops, there is the finding of a footing for name-and-form. Wherever there is the finding of a footing for name-and-form, there is maturing of determinations. Wherever there is maturing of determinations, there renewed being is made to occur in the future. Wherever renewed being is made to occur in the future, there is future birth, ageing and death. Wherever there is future birth, ageing and death, that is accompanied by sorrow, bhikkhus, accompanied by trouble, accompanied by despair, I say. If there is lust . . . for contact, . . . despair. If there is Vast . . . for mind-choice, . . . despair. If there is lust. . .for consciousness, . . . despair> (Pe 49, 97; S. ii, 101ff.).2

305. This is description [in terms] of giving-being [applied] to suffering and to its origin.

306. <Bhikkhus, if there is no lust, if there is no relish, if there is no craving, for physical nutriment, there consciousness does not find a steadying-point or develop. Wherever consciousness does not find a steadying-point or develop, there is no finding of a footing for name- and-form. Wherever there is no finding of a footing for name-and- form, there is no maturing of determinations. Wherever there is no maturing of determinations, there no renewal of being is made to occur in the future. Wherever no renewal of being is made to occur in the future, [58]there is no future birth, ageing and death. Wherever there is no future birth, ageing and death, that is sorrowless, bhikkhus, untroubled and free from despair, I say. If there is no lust . . . for contact, . . . free from despair. If there is no lust . . . for mind-

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e.g., Vis. 491), the mind-faculty, and the feeling-faculty (counting the five, namely pleasure, joy, pain, grief, and onlooking-equanimity, as one)’ (p. 102). This numbering is an unusual one. For another 10 see §405.

304/1 The idea of ‘nutriment’ (ahara)— = condition (paccaya)— is fundamental to Buddhist thought. The word means lit. ‘bringing to’ and is used basically for physical food, but extended by analogy to the other three kinds, and is thus synonymous with ‘condition sine qua non’ (paccaya). Cf. ‘All creatures subsist by nutriment’ (A. v, 50-1), a fact that one ‘should have direct acquaintance of’ (D. iii, 273). A state of being (existence) postulated as self-subsistent without nutriment of any kind would therefore be regarded as a mere mythical abstraction not possible of verification or distinguishable effectively from nothing.

304/2 This quotation and its counterpart in §306 describe the conditionality of experience as dynamic with emphasis on how existence (being) develops through ignorance and determinations. Cf. quotation at §840.



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choice, . . . free from despair. If there is no lust . . . for consciousness, . . .free from despair> (S. ii, 102f.; Pe 49, 97).

307. This is a description [in terms] of diagnosis [applied] to suffering, a description in terms of abandoning applied to origin, a description in terms of keeping in being applied to the path, a description in terms of verification applied to cessation.

308. <Bhikkhus, maintain concentration in being: a bhikkhu who is diligent, prudent, mindful, concentrated, understands how [things] are.

Aow does he understand how [things] are ? The eye is impermanent: That is how he understands how it is. Forms are impermanent: That is how he understands how it is. Eye consciousness is impermanent: That is how he understands how it is. Eye contact is impermanent: That is how he understands how it is. Whatever is felt, whether pleasant or painful or neither painful-nor-pleasant that arises with eye contact for its condition, that too is impermanent: That is how he understands how it is. The ear is impermanent . . . sounds are impermanent . . . The nose is impermanent. . . odours are impermanent . . . The tongue is impermanent . . .flavours are impermanent . . . The body is impermanent. . . tangibles are impermanent. . . The mind is impermanent: That is how he understands how it is. Ideas are impermanent: That is how he understands how it is. Mind consciousness is impermanent: That is how he understands how it is. Mind contact is impermanent: That is how he understands how it is. Whatever is felt, whether pleasant or painful or neither-painful-nor-pleasant, that arises with mind contact for its condition, that too is impermanent: That is how he understands how it is> (cf. S. iv, 80).

309. This is a description in terms of keeping in being applied to the path, a description in terms of diagnosis applied to suffering, a description in terms of abandoning applied to origin, a description in terms of verification applied to cessation.

310. [59] < Dispense with form, Radha, shatter it, put it out of play, by means of understanding, practise the way to exhaustion of craving. With exhaustion of craving there is exhaustion of suffering. With exhaustion of suffering there is extinction. Dispense with feeling . . . Dispense with perception . . . Dispense with determinations . . . Dispense with consciousness, shatter it, put it out of play, by means of understanding, practise the way to exhaustion of craving. With exhaustion of craving there is exhaustion of suffering. With exhaustion of suffering there is extinction> (cf. S. iii, 190).

311. This is a description in terms of cessation applied to cessation, a description in terms of dispassion applied to gratification, a



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description in terms of diagnosis applied to suffering, a description in terms of abandoning applied to origin, a description in terms of keeping in being applied to the path, a description in terms of verification applied to cessation.

312. <'This is suffering’: that is how he understands how it is.This is the origin of suffering that is how he understands how it is. ‘This is the cessation of suffering that is how he understands how it is.

'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering’: that is how he understands how it is> (M. i, 183; Pe 41).

313. This is a description in terms of penetration applied to the truths, a description in terms of presentation applied to the plane of seeing, a description in terms of keeping in being applied to the path, a description in terms of verification applied to the fruit of Stream- Entry.

314. <‘These are taints’: that is how he understands how it is.This is the origin of taints’: that is how he understands how it is. ‘This is the cessation of taints’: that is how he understands how it is. ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of taints’: that is how he understands how it is> (M. i, 183).

315. This is a description in terms of arising applied to knowledge of exhaustion, a description in terms of opportunity applied to knowledge of non-arising, a description in terms of keeping in being applied to the path, a description in terms of diagnosis applied to suffering, a description in terms of abandoning applied to origin, a description in terms of instigation applied to the energy faculty, a description in terms of ‘removal’1 applied to ‘grubs’ (see M. i, 220; A. v, 347ff.), a description in terms of presentation applied to the plane of keeping in being, a description in terms of counteraction2 applied to evil unprofitable ideas.

316. <‘This is suffering’: such was the vision, the knowledge, the understanding, the science, the light, that arose in regard to ideas not heard by me before. ‘This is the origin of suffering’: such .. 'This is the cessation of suffering’: such . . . ‘This is the way leading to cessation of suffering’: such was the vision, the knowledge, the understanding, the science, the light, that arose in regard to [60] ideas not heard by me before> (cf. S. v, 424f.).

317. This is a description in terms of teaching applied to the truths, a description in terms of presentation applied to understanding-

_________________________________________________________

315/1 ‘Ahatana—removal’: not in PED.

315/2 ‘Abhinighata—counteraction’: not in PED, see CPD; cf. also nighata.



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consisting-in-what-is-heard, a description in terms of verification applied to the I-shall-come-to-know-finally-the-as-yet-not-finally- known faculty, a description in terms of ‘setting rolling’ (making occur) applied to the ‘Wheel (Blessing) of the True Idea’.

318. <‘This suffering must be diagnosed’: such was the vision, the knowledge, the understanding, the science, the light, that arose in regard to ideas not heard by me before. 'This origin of suffering must be abandoned’: such . . . 'This cessation of suffering must be verified such . . . 'This way leading to the cessation of suffering must be kept in being9: such was the vision, the knowledge, the understanding, the science, light, that arose in regard to ideas not heard by me before >

(cf. /S. v, 424f.).

319. This is a description in terms of keeping in being applied to the path, a description in terms of presentation applied to understanding- consisting-in-cogitation, a description in terms of verification applied to the final-knowing faculty.

320. <‘This suffering has been diagnosed’: such was the vision, the knowledge, the understanding, the science, the light, arose in regard to ideas not heard by me before. 'This origin of suffering has been abandoned’: such . . . ‘This cessation of suffering has been verified’: such . . . ‘This may leading to the cessation of suffering has been kept in being’: such was the vision, knowledge, the understanding, the

science, light, that arose in regard to ideas not heard by me before> (cf. S. v, 424).

321. This is a description in terms of keeping in being applied to the path, a description in terms of presentation applied to under- standing-consisting-in-keeping-in-being, a description in terms of verification applied to the final-knower faculty, a description in terms of ‘setting rolling’ applied to the ‘Wheel of the True Idea’.

*

322. <The Stilled One dropped the being-determinant

That gives existence measured and unmeasured,

And happy in himself and concentrated

He sundered, like a mail-coat, self-existence>

{Pe 68; S. v, 263).

323. [61] ‘Measured’ is the determinations-element. ‘Unmeasured’ is the extinction-element.

‘That gives existence measured and unmeasured’ is a description



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in terms of acquaintanceship applied to all ideas, a description in terms of presentation applied to the Discrimination-of-Ideas.

324. ‘The Stilled One dropped the being-determinant’ is a description in terms of giving-up applied to origin, a description in terms of diagnosis applied to suffering.

325. ‘And happy in himself and concentrated’ is a description in terms of keeping-in-being applied to Mindfulness-Occupied-with- the-Body, a description in terms of steadiness applied to unification of cognizance.

326. ‘He sundered, like a mail-coat, self-existence’ is a description in terms of ‘breaking out’1 applied to cognizance, a description in terms of assuming2 applied to omniscience, a description in terms of ‘bursting open’ applied to the ‘egg-shell of ignorance’ (cf. M. i, 104).

That is why the Lord Buddha said:

‘The Stilled One dropped the being-determinant

That gives existence measured and unmeasured . . .’ (§322).

*

327. <How could a man to sensual desires stoop1

Who pain has seen and that wherefrom it sources ?

Who knows they make for clinging in the world

Should mindful train in guiding them away> (Pe 15; S. i, 117).

________________________________________________________

326/1 ‘Abhinibbida—breaking out’: the root ought to be bhid, not vidh or vid, and the correct spelling here is, in fact, not abhinibbida or abhinibbidha (as in PED and PTS Netti Index note) but abhinibbhida (as in §574 = PTS Netti p. 98); see CPD. The meaning is ‘breaking out’, and the direct allusion is to M. i, 104 (there spelt abhinibbhida). The three roots mentioned, however, show a tendency to coalesce. NettiA says here ‘Abhinibbida-pannatti (sic) cittassa ti ayusankharossajanavasena cittassa abhiniharapannatti’ (p. 104), but commenting on §574 says lNa ca bhabbo abhinibbidha (sic) gantun ti kilesa- bhisankharam abhinibbijjhanato (sic) abhinibbidha-sankhatam (sic) ariya- maggam abhigantum na ca bhabbo’ (p. 140). N.b. spellings as they appear in the edition quoted. Do these explanations imply that the commentator did not regard them as the same word? Did he connect them with M. i, 104? 326/2 ‘Upadana-pannatti—description in terms of assuming’: NettiA glosses with gahana-pannatti. Technically omniscient knowledge (see also §594) belongs only to worlds (NettiA pp. 147-8). The term ‘omniscience1(sabbannu- ta) seems to make its first appearance at Ps. i, 131. The Buddha disclaimed simultaneous knowledge of all (M. ii, 127). For a discussion see Ppn. ch. vii, note 7.

327/1 ‘Nameyya’ lit. ‘to bend’ and ‘to name’ is glossed here in NettiA with abhinameyya (not in PED or CPD; SA. does not explain the word).



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328. ‘Who pain’ is a description in terms of a synonym applied to pain (suffering) and it is a description in terms of diagnosis applied to it.

329. ‘And that wherefrom it sources’ is a description in terms of giving-being applied to origin and it is a description in terms of abandoning applied to it.

330. ‘Has seen’ is a description in terms of a synonym applied to the eye of knowledge and it is a description in terms of penetration applied to it.

331. ‘How could a man to sensual desires stoop’ is a description in terms of sensual desires applied to craving for sensual desires and it is a description in terms of insistence applied to it.

332. ‘Who knows they make for clinging in the world’ is a description in terms of ‘seeing an enemy’ applied to sensual desires; for sensual desires have the simile of a pit of coals (M. i, 130), the simile of a lump of flesh (M. i, 130), are like a conflagration (A. iv, 128f.), and have the similes of a chasm and a serpent’s head (M. i, 130; also §35).

333. ‘Mindful. . . them’ is a description in terms of dispersal applied to abandoning, a description in terms of presentation applied to Mindfulness-Occupied-with-the-Body, and a description in terms of keeping-in-being applied to the path.

334. ‘Should train in guiding . . . away’ is a description in terms of penetration applied to outguiding of lust, outguiding of hate, and outguiding of delusion.

335. ‘A man’ is a description in terms of a synonym applied to a devotee.

336. Now when a devotee understands that ‘they make for clinging’ then without the arising of sensual desires he arouses profitable ideas, he makes efforts for the arising of unarisen profitable ideas. [62] This is a description in terms of effort applied to the reaching of the as yet unreached, a description in terms of presentation applied to discontent with what deals with the hither-side.

337. Herein, <He makes efforts for the steadiness of arisen 'profitable ideas > (M. ii, 11): this is a description in terms of diligence applied to keeping in being, a description in terms of presentation applied to the energy faculty, a description in terms of preservation applied to profitable ideas, a description in terms of steadiness applied to the training in the higher cognizance.

That is why the Lord Buddha said:



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‘How could a man to sensual desires stoop

Who pain has seen and that wherefrom it sources ? . .

(§338)

*

338. <The world is held in bondage by delusion

And only looks as though 'twere capable:

Wrapped in bewilderment a fool is held

In bondage by essentials of existence;

To him who sees, it will appear devoid

Of features, he will have no owning there1> (Ud. 79).

339. ‘The world is held in bondage by delusion’ is description in terms of teaching applied to the perversions.

340. ‘And only looks as though ’twere capable’ is a description in terms of the distorted applied to the world.

341. ‘A fool is held In bondage by essentials of existence’ is a description in terms of giving-being applied to recourse to evil wishes, a description in terms of function1 applied to the obsessions, a description in terms of strength applied to the defilements, a description in terms of development applied to determinations.

342. ‘Wrapped in bewilderment’ is a description in terms of teaching applied to the murk of ignorance, and a description in terms of a synonym applied to it.

343. ‘It will appear devoid Of features’ is a description in terms of seeing applied to the heavenly eye, a description in terms of presentation applied to the eye of understanding.

344. ‘To him who sees ... he will have no owning there’ is a description in terms of penetration applied to creatures: <Lust is an owning, hate is an owning, delusion is an owning> (cf. M. i, 298).

That is why the Lord Buddha said:

‘The world is held in bondage by delusion . . .’ (§338).

*

345. <Bhikkhus, there is an unborn, an un-brought-to-being, an unmade, an undetermined. If that were not unborn, un-brought-to-being, unmade, undetermined, no escape from the born, the brought-to-being, the made, the determined, would be evident here. And it is because

________________________________________________________

338/1 For kincana as ‘owning’ see n. 152/1.

341/1 Cf. Pe 102.



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there is an unborn, an un-brought-to-being, an unmade, an undetermined, that therefore the escape from the born, the brought-to-being, the made, the determined, is evident> (Vd. 80f.).

346. [63] ‘If that were not unborn, un-brought-to-being, unmade, undetermined’ is a description in terms of the teaching applied to extinction, and a description in terms of synonyms applied to it.

347. ‘No escape from the born, the brought-to-being, the made, the determined would be evident here’ is a description in terms of synonyms applied to the determined, and a description in terms of guiding-example1 applied to it.

348. ‘And it is because there is an unborn, an un-brought-to-being, an unmade, an undetermined’ is a description in terms of synonyms applied to extinction, and a description in terms of illustrative proof applied to it.

349. ‘That therefore the escape from the born, the brought-to-being, the made, the determined, is evident’ is a description in terms of synonyms applied to extinction, a description in terms of outlet applied to the path, a description in terms of escape applied to the roundabout [of rebirths].

That is why the Lord Buddha said: ‘If that were not. . .’ (§345).

*

350. That is why the venerable Maha-Kaccana said:

‘The Lord Buddha one idea teaches

By means of manifold descriptions;

This mood can thus be known to be

The Mode that does Convey Descriptions’ (§15).

The Mode of Conveying Descriptions is ended.

*

__________________________________________________________

347/1 ‘Upanayana;—guiding-example’: the ordinary logical term for the example in the classical Indian syllogism. NettiA says ‘Herein, (in this instance, as to) “description in terms of guiding-example” the describing of the guiding-example gives the middle term (hetu) in the contrary opposite. (As to) the “description in terms of illustrative proof” (§348) the description is the displaying of the establishment (siddhi) of the proposition’s content (patinnatassa atthassa) (p. 106).



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12. The Ninefold Thread in the Mode of Conveying Ways of Entry to the Truths Edit

351. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Ways of Entry ?

[It is this:]

‘Dependent-Rising, Faculties,

Categories, Elements, Bases:

The Mode that by these means gives entry

Is that Conveying Ways of Entry’ (§16).

352. < Above, below, in every way released,

And seeing not at all that ‘I am this

Thus liberated, he has crossed the flood

Not crossed before, for non-renewal of beings >

(Pe 24; Ud. 74).

353. ‘Above’ is the form-element and the formless element. ‘Below’ is the sensual-desire element. ‘In every way released’: that is the Adept’s deliverance in the triple element [of existence]. That itself is the Adept’s five faculties. This is the way of entry by Faculties.

354. These same Adept’s five faculties are science. With arising of science [there is] cessation of ignorance (nescience); with cessation of ignorance, cessation of determinations; with cessation of determinations, cessation of consciousness; with cessation of consciousness, cessation of name-and-form; with cessation of name-and-form, cessation of the sixfold base; with cessation of the sixfold base, cessation of contact; with cessation of contact, cessation of feeling; with cessation of [64] feeling, cessation of craving; with cessation of craving, cessation of assuming; with cessation of assuming, cessation of being; with cessation of being, cessation of birth; with cessation of birth, ageing and death cease, and [also] sorrow and lamentation, pain, grief, and despair; that is how there is a cessation to this whole category of suffering. This is the way of entry by the [two] aspects of Dependent Arising.

355. Those same Adept’s five faculties are comprised within the three Categories, namely the Virtue Category, the Concentration Category, and the Understanding Category.1 This is the way of entry by Categories.

________________________________________________________

355/1 These are the 3 divisions of the 8-factored path as given at M. i, 301. NettiA (p. 106) says that since right intention is counted in the same category as right view ‘because of its helpfulness to right view’ (see MA. ii, 36If.).



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356. Those same Adept’s five faculties are included in determinations. These determinations—[in this case] free from taints and not factors of being—are comprised within the idea-element. This is the way of entry by Elements.

357. That idea-element is included in the idea-base, which base is [in this case] free from taints and not a factor of being. This is the way of entry by Bases.

358. ‘And seeing not at all that “I am this” ’: this is the eradication of the embodiment-view. That is the Initiate’s deliverance. That itself is the Initiate’s five faculties. This is the way of entry by Faculties.

359. Those same Initiate’s five faculties are science. With the arising of science ... (complete as in §354)... So the whole Dependent Arising. This is the way of entry by the [two] aspects of Dependent Arising.

360. That same science is the Understanding Category. This is the way of entry by Categories.

361. That same science is included in determinations. These determinations—[in this case] free from taints and not factors of being—are comprised within the idea-element. This is the way of entry by Elements.

362. That idea-element is included in the idea-base, which is [in this case] free from taints and not a factor of being. This is the way of entry by Bases.

363. It is one liberated by means of the Initiate’s deliverance and the Adept’s deliverance who ‘has crossed the flood not crossed before, for non-renewal of being’.

[65] That is why the Lord Buddha said:

‘Above, below, . . .’ (§352).

*

364. <The supported is liable to dislodgement; the unsupported is not liable to dislodgement. When there is no liability to dislodgement, there is tranquillity. When there is tranquillity, there is no bent-for- naming. When there is no bent-for-naming, there is no coming-and- going. When there is no coming-and-going, there is no decease-and- reappearance. When there is no decease-and-reappearance, there is no

_________________________________________________________

so too, the five faculties having been called ‘science’ (§354), the first four can be classed within the path-categories because of their ‘helpfulness’ to understanding, since understanding corresponds to right view.



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here or beyond or in between: this is the end of suffering> (Pe 18, 110; Ud. 81, cited at M. iii, 266).

365. ‘The supported is liable to dislodgement’: support is of two kinds, namely support by craving and support by view. Herein, any choice on the part of one who is lusting is support by craving, and any choice on the part of one who is confused is support by view.

366. Now choice is determinations. It is with determinations as condition that consciousness [has actual being]; with consciousness as condition, name-and-form; . . . And so with the whole Dependent Arising (cf. Pe 110)1 [down to . . . with birth as condition, ageing and death have actual being, and [also] sorrow and lamentation, pain, grief, and despair; that is how there is an origin to this whole category of suffering.] This is the way of entry by the [two] aspects of Dependent Arising.

367. Herein any feeling in one who lusts is pleasant feeling, and any feeling in one who is confused is neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling. These feelings belong to the feeling category. This is the way of entry by Categories.

368. Herein, pleasant feeling is two faculties, namely the [bodily] pleasure faculty and the [mental] joy faculty, and the neither- painful-nor-pleasant feeling is the onlooking-equanimity faculty. This is the way of entry by Faculties.

369. Those same faculties are included in determinations. These determinations—[in this case] affected by taints and factors of being—are comprised within the idea-element. This is the way of entry by Elements.

370. That idea-element is included in the idea-base, which base is [in this case] affected by taints and a factor of being. This is the way of entry by Bases.

371. ‘The unsupported is not liable to dislodgement5: unsupported by craving and in virtue of quiet, and unsupported by view and in virtue of insight.

372. Any insight is science. With arising of science [there is] cessation of ignorance; with cessation of ignorance, cessation of determinations; with cessation of determinations, cessation of consciousness; . . . and thus the whole Dependent Arising. [66] This is the way of entry by the [two] aspects of Dependent Arising.

__________________________________________________________

366/1 This passage is drawn from /Vs 16th Mode and placed here in improved form.



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373. That same insight is the understanding category. This is the way of entry by Categories.

374. That same insight is two faculties, namely the energy faculty and the understanding faculty. This is the way of entry by Faculties.

375. That same insight is included in determinations. These determinations—[in this case] free from taints and not factors of being—are comprised within the idea-element. This is the way of entry by Elements.

376. That idea-element is included in the idea-base, which base is [in this case] free from taints and not a factor of being. This is the way of entry by Bases.

377. 'When there is tranquillity’: tranquillity is of two kinds, namely bodily and mental. Any bodily pleasure is bodily tranquillity, and any mental pleasure is mental tranquillity. One who has bodily tranquillity feels pleasure. When he is pleased, his cognizance is concentrated (cf. M. i, 37). One who is concentrated understands how [things] are. When he understands how [things] are, he finds dispassion. Finding dispassion, his lust fades. With the fading of lust he is liberated. There is the knowledge ‘I am liberated’. He understands ‘Birth is exhausted, the divine life has been lived out, what was to be done is done, there is no more of this beyond* (cf. M. iii, 280).

378. He has ‘no bent-for-naming’ in regard to forms or sounds or odours or flavours or tangibles or ideas because of the exhaustion of lust, because of the exhaustion of hate, because of the exhaustion of delusion.

379. He is liberated in the complete exhaustion of form owed to the exhaustion, fading, ceasing, giving up, and relinquishing, of such form as that whereby he might describe a Perfect One as standing or walking. He does not take for granted that ‘there is a Perfect One’ (cf. §908); and he does not take for granted that ‘there is not’; he does not take for granted that ‘there is and there is not’; he does not take for granted that ‘there neither is nor is not’ (cf. M. i, 486; S. iv, 383); but rather [he knows] that he comes to be calculated as profound, immeasurable (cf. §783), incalculable, quenched, because of exhaustion of lust, because of exhaustion of hate, because of exhaustion of delusion.

380. He is liberated in the complete exhaustion of feeling . . .

381. ... of perception . . .

382. ... of determinations . . .



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383. He is liberated in the complete exhaustion of consciousness [67] owed to the exhaustion, fading, ceasing, giving up, and relinquishing, of such consciousness as that whereby he might describe a Perfect One as standing or walking. He does not take for granted that ‘there is a Perfect One’; and he does not take for granted that ‘there is not’; he does not take for granted that ‘there is and there is not’; he does not take for granted that ‘there neither is nor is not’; but rather [he knows] that he comes to be calculated as profound, immeasurable, incalculable, quenched, because of extinction of lust, because of extinction of hate, because of extinction of delusion.

384. ‘Coming’ is coming here. ‘Going’ is any being (existence) after passing away [from this life]. Both the coming and the going are no more.

385. ‘Nor here’: [he sees no self] in the six bases in oneself.

386. ‘Nor beyond’: [he sees no self] in the six external bases.

387. ‘Nor in between’:1 he sees no self in the ideas aroused by contact.2

388. ‘This is the end of suffering’ is Dependent Arising. That is of two kinds, namely belonging to worlds and disjoined from worlds. Herein, that belonging to worlds is [that beginning]<With ignorance as condition, determinations> down as far as <ageing and death> (S. ii, 1). That disjoined from worlds is [that beginning] <A virtuous man has no remorse> down as far as<There is no more of this beyond> (see §806).

That is why the Lord Buddha said ‘The supported is liable to dislodgement, the unsupported is not liable to dislodgement. . . this is the end of suffering’ (§364).

389. <Whatever sorrows, lamentations, pains

Of many kinds, are found here in the world,

That they exist is owed to something dear;

With naught held dear they never come to be.

So they are blissful, free from sorrowing,

That nothing in the world hold dear at all.

_________________________________________________________

387/1 UdA. under ubhayantarena discusses the impropriety of the concept of the 'bhavantara' (‘interval between existences, between death and rebirth’). 387/2 This refers to the feeling (affectivity), etc., that arises simultaneously with the arising of consciousness (see, e.g., M. iii, 279, 285; also cf. §308). ‘Contact’ is in the sense of ‘presence to’, see description at M. iii, 285.



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So would you sorrowless and stainless be,

Hold nothing dear whatever in the world> (Pe 14; Ud. 92).1

390. ‘Whatever sorrows, lamentations, pains Of many kinds, are found here in the world, That they exist is owed to something dear’: this is painful feeling. ‘With naught held dear they never come to be’: this is pleasant feeling. [68] Feelings are the feeling category. This is the way of entry by Categories.

391. With feeling as condition, craving; with craving as condition, assuming; with assuming as condition birth; with birth as condition, ageing and death . . . and so all the rest. This is the way of entry by the [two] aspects of Dependent Arising.

392. Herein, pleasant feeling is two faculties, namely the pleasure faculty and the joy faculty. Painful feeling is two faculties, namely the pain faculty and the grief faculty. This is the way of entry by Faculties.

393. Those same faculties are included in determinations. These determinations—[in this case] affected by taints and factors of being—are comprised within the idea-element. This is the way of entry by Elements.

394. That idea-element is included in the idea-base, which base is [in this case] affected by taints and a factor of being. This is the way of entry by Bases.

395. ‘So they are blissful, free from sorrowing, That nothing in the world hold dear at all. So would you sorrowless and stainless be, Hold nothing dear whatever in the world’: this is the abandoning of craving. With cessation of craving, cessation of assuming; with cessation of assuming, cessation of being; . . . and so all the rest. This is the way of entry by the [two] aspects of Dependent Arising.

396. That same abandoning of craving is quiet. That quiet is of two kinds, namely the mindfulness faculty and the concentration faculty. This is the way of entry by Faculties.

397. That same quiet is the concentration category. This is the way of entry by Categories.

398. That same quiet is included in determinations. These determinations—[in this case] free from taints and not factors of being—

_________________________________________________________

389/1 The same sentiments appear in the Suttanipata verses quoted at §192 and are presented very trenchantly in M. Sutta 87 and at Ud. 91-2. But cf. Sn. 262. There is no contradiction, since what is the ‘greatest blessing’ in existence is ipso facto no blessing in its impermanence:



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are comprised within the idea-element. This is the way of entry by Elements.

399. That idea-element is included in the idea-base, which is [in this case] free from taints and not a factor of being. This is the way of entry by Bases.

*

400. <[69] < When a mortal desires, if his desire is fulfilled,

He is sure to be happy by getting what he wanted.

Desire-born and wilful, if his desire fails him,

He becomes as deformed as if pierced by a barb.

Who shuns desires as a snake's head with his foot,

And is mindful, evades this attachment to the world> (§§33-5).

401. Herein, the ‘happiness’ is approval. What is stated by ‘he becomes as deformed as if pierced by a barb’ is resistance. Now approval and resistance are sides of craving. The ten bases having form1 are the footing for craving. This is the way of entry by Bases.

402. Those same bases having form are the form-body associated with name.1 Both together are name-and-form. With name-and- form as condition, the sixfold base; with the sixfold base as condition, contact; with contact as condition, feeling; with feeling as condition, craving; . . . and so all the rest. This is the way of entry by the [two] aspects of Dependent Arising.

403. That same name-and-form is the five categories. This is the way of entry by Categories.

404. That same name-and-form is the eighteen elements. This is the way of entry by Elements.

405. Herein, the form-body is the five faculties having form,1 and the name-body is the five formless faculties. These are ten faculties. This is the way of entry by Faculties.

406. Herein, what is stated by ‘Who shuns desires, as a snake’s head with his foot, And is mindful, evades this attachment to the world’

__________________________________________________________

401/1 The ‘ten bases having form’ would seem to be the 5 pairs, namely eye-cum-forms, . . . body-cum-tangibles. NettiA ignores. This reckoning is taken from Pe 99. A different numerical reckoning is given at Vis. 590.

402/1 Read namasampayutto as one compound.

405/1 The ‘five faculties having form’ can be taken as those of the eye, ear, nose, tongue, and body, and the ‘five formless faculties’ as those of faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration, and understanding. These ‘10 faculties’ are thus not the same 10 as those in §303, at least according to the description of the former given by NettiA, which ignores these.



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is the element of extinction with trace left. This is the way of entry by Elements.

407. That same extinction element with trace left is science. With arising of science, cessation of ignorance (nescience); with cessation of ignorance, cessation of determinations; . . . and so all the rest. [70] This is the way of entry by the [two] aspects of Dependent Arising.

408. That same science is the understanding category. This is the way of entry by Categories.

409. That same science is two faculties, namely the energy faculty and the understanding faculty. This is the way of entry by Faculties.

410. That same science is included in determinations. These determinations—[in this case] free from taints and not factors of being—are comprised within the idea-element. This is the way of entry by Elements.

411. That idea-element is included in the idea-base, which base is [in this case] free from taints and not a factor of being. This is the way of entry by Bases.

That is why the Lord Buddha said ‘When a mortal desires . . .’ (§400).

412. At this point the [formula of] Dependent [Arising], the Faculties, the Categories, the Elements, and the Bases, have come to be made ways of entry and meeting-places. That is how Dependent [Arising], Faculties, Categories, and Bases, can be made ways of entry.

413. That is why the venerable Maha-Kaccana said:

‘Dependent-Rising, Faculties,

Categories, Elements, Bases:

The Mode that by these means gives entry

Is that Conveying Ways of Entry’ (§16).

The Mode of Conveying Ways of Entry is ended.

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13. The Ninefold Thread in the Mode of Conveying a Clearing-Up Edit

414. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Clearing-Up ? [It is stated in] the verse:



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‘Seeking if in a question answered

What in the verse did instigate

Its asking is cleared up or not:

This Mode Conveys a Clearing-Up’ (§17).

415. For instance, in the Parayana [Chapter of the Suttanipata] the venerable Ajita asked the Lord Buddha the question [and received the answer thus:]

<'[Tell] what is the world shut in by ?

And wherefore is it not displayed ?

And what is it besmeared with ? Say.

And what will be its greatest fear V

‘By ignorance is the world shut in,

Ajita’ the Lord Buddha said.

’Tis undisplayed through miswishing and neglect.

And hankering smears it, I say.

Suffering is its greatest fear’ > (§§63, 65).

416. In the case of the question ‘[Tell] wliat is the world shut in by V the Lord Buddha [with his answer] ‘By ignorance is the world shut in’ clears up a term but not the instigation.1 In the case of the question ‘And wherefore is it not [71] displayed V The Lord Buddha [with his answer] ‘ ’Tis undisplayed through miswishing and neglect’ clears up a term but not the instigation. In the case of the question ‘And what is it besmeared with ? Say’ the Lord Buddha [with his answer] ‘And hankering smears it, I say’ clears up a term but not the instigation. [But] in the case of the question ‘And what will be its greatest fear V the Lord Buddha [with his answer] ‘Suffering is its greatest fear’ clears up a term, and the instigation is cleared up too.

That is why the Lord Buddha said ‘By ignorance is the world shut in . . .’ (§415).

*

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416/1 ‘Arambha—instigation’ (i.e., the ‘initially prompting subject-matter’): rabh ‘to begin, to instigate’. This use of the word seems peculiar to this work and to Pe (e.g., p 101). NettiA has nothing enlightening to say. Cf. arambha-dhatu (‘element of instigation’ or ‘of initiative’: S. v, 66) and use of ger. arabbha as adv. in sense of ‘instigated by’, ‘inspired by’, ‘contingent upon’ (§17; also Vis. 197). This root is sometimes inclined to coalesce with lanib (to hang, cf. alambana and arammana) and radh (to satisfy, to invite, with which it shares its pp. araddha).



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417. [Again there are the following question and answer:]

<The streams keep streaming everywhere

So said the venerable Ajita.

‘What is it that shuts off the streams ?

Tell then, what is restraint of streams,

Whereby it is that streams are sealed V

‘Whatever streams are in the world,

Ajita' the Lord Buddha said

‘They are shut off by mindfulness;

The streams' restraint I tell, whereby

They can be sealed, is understanding’ > (§§70 and 74).

418. In the case of the question The streams keep streaming everywhere; What is it that shuts off the streams V the Lord Buddha [with his answer] ‘Whatever streams are in the world, They are shut off by mindfulness’ clears up a term but not the instigation. In the case of the question ‘Tell then, what is restraint of streams, Whereby it is that streams are sealed V [with the answer] ‘the streams’ restraint I tell, whereby They can be sealed, is understanding’ the instigation is cleared up.

That is why the Lord Buddha said ‘Whatever streams are in the world . . (§417).

419. [Again,] in the case of the question

<‘Understanding and mindfulness

So said the venerable Ajita

‘And [now], good sir, this name-and-form,

Tell me then what I ask of you,

Where does it come to its surcease ?’>( §77)

[with the answer]

<‘As to the question that you ask,

Ajita, I [shall] tell you [now].

Where both this name and form do come

To their remainderless surcease:

With cessation of consciousness,

’Tis here this comes to its surcease' > (§77).

the instigation is cleared up.



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That is why the Lord Buddha said ‘As to the question that you ask . .

420. [72] Wherever the instigation is cleared up in this way the question is answered; but wherever the instigation is not cleared up that question is not yet answered.

421. That is why the venerable Maha-Kaccana said:

‘Seeking if in a question answered

What in the verse did instigate

Its asking is cleared up or not:

This Mode Conveys a Clearing-Up’ (§17).

The Mode of Conveying a Clearing-Up is ended.

*

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14. The Ninefold Thread in the Mode of Conveying Terms of Expression Edit

422. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Terms of Expression ? [It is this:]

‘Ideas when demonstrated by

[Both] unity and diversity

Need thereby suffer no disjunction:

This Mode conveys Expression’s Terms’ (§18.)

423. Those [ideas] should be remembered according as they are demonstrated there where they appear [in their contexts as follows].

424. ‘Suffering’ is a unity.

Herein, what is Suffering ? <Birth is suffering, ageing is suffering, sickness is suffering, death is suffering, association with the loathed is suffering, dissociation from the loved is suffering, not to get one’s wish is suffering, in brief the five categories of assumption are suffering > (S. v, 421; cf. Pe 5): form is suffering, feeling is suffering, perception is suffering, determinations are suffering, consciousness is suffering. This is a diversity.

425. ‘The Origin of Suffering’ is a unity.

Herein, what is the Origin of Suffering? <It is that craving which renews being (existence), is accompanied by relish and lust, relishing this and that, namely craving for sensual desires, craving for being (existence), craving for non-being (non-existence) > (S. v, 421). This is a diversity.



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426. ‘Cessation of suffering’ is a unity.

Herein, what is cessation of suffering ? <It is the remainderless fading of that same craving, its ceasing, giving it up, relinquishing it, letting it go, non-relying on it, and rejecting it> (S. v, 421). This is diversity.

427. ‘The way leading to cessation of suffering’ is a unity.

[73] Herein, what is the way leading to cessation of suffering ? <It is the Noble Eight-factored Path, that is to say, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration> (S. v, 421-2). This is a diversity

428. ‘Path’ is a unity.

Herein, what is a path ? It is the path leading to hell, the path leading to the animal womb, the path leading to the ghost realm, the path leading to the Asura (Demon) womb, the path leading to heaven, the path leading to humanity, the path leading to extinction. This is a diversity.

429. ‘Cessation’ is a unity.

Herein, what is cessation ? It is deliberate cessation, un- deliberate cessation cessation of approval, cessation of resistance; cessation of conceit, cessation of contempt, cessation of domineering, cessation of envy, cessation of avarice, cessation of all defilements. This is a diversity.

430. ‘Form’ is a unity.

Herein, what is form ? Form is the four great entities (cf. M. i,

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429/1 ‘Patisankha-nirodha—deliberate cessation’ and ‘appatisankhanirodha— undeliberate cessation’: neither compound is in PED and latter not in CPD (Vol. 1); see Kv. 226 and Kv. trsln. (‘Points of Controversy’) 137, note; also Miln. (cf. also Pe 151, line 15 nirodhasamapatti(m) appatisankhaya). NettiA says ‘Patisankhanirodha is cessation due to deliberating (patisankhaya), due to keeping in being opposition (to arising—patipakkhabhavanaya); or when opposition has not occurred in that way, it is the non-arising of what is ready to arise, owing to opposition to its arising being already in existence. Appa- tisankhanirodha is the cessation of determined ideas along with their individual natures: what is meant is cessation from moment to moment’ (p. 109). That these two terms should be present here and absent from the Pe is noteworthy. The second, according to NettiA, means the cessation incessantly taking place in the process of impermanence. Cf. KvA (Burm. ed., p. 140) and KvAA (Burm. ed., p. 56). There seems no reason for supposing that the later independent Sanskrit Mahayana development of these terms is in any way implied here (for which see, e.g., O. Rosenberg, Die Probleme der Buddhistischen Philosophic, Heidelberg, 1924, p. 128; E. Obermiller, The Doctrine of Prajna- paramita, Leningrad, 1932; and E. Lamotte, Histoire du Bouddhisme Indien, Louvain, 1958, p. 675).



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185), and any description of form assuming the four great entities (M. iii, 17).

431. Herein, what are the four great entities ? They are the earth element, the water element, the fire element, the air element. These elements can be comprised in two moods, namely in brief [as above] and in detail.

432. How does one comprise the elements in detail ? One comprises the earth element in detail in twenty moods, one comprises the water element in detail in twelve moods, one comprises the fire element in detail in four moods, and one comprises the air element in detail in six moods.

433. In what twenty moods does one comprise the earth element in detail ? [74] There are in this body head-hairs, body-hairs, nails, teeth, skin; flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidney; heart, liver, midriff, spleen, lights; bowels, entrails, gorge, dung (cf. M. i, 421), and brain-in-the-head (Ps. i, 7). One comprises the earth element in detail in these twenty moods.

434. In what twelve moods does one comprise the water element in detail ? There are in this body bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat; tears, grease, spittle, snot, oil-of-the-joints, and urine (cf. M. i, 422). One comprises the water element in detail in these twelve moods.

435. In what four moods does one comprise the fire element in detail ? There is that whereby one is warmed, whereby one ages, whereby one burns, and whereby what is eaten, drunk, chewed, and tasted, gets completely digested (cf. M. i, 422). One comprises the fire element in detail in these four moods.

436. In what six moods does one comprise the air element in detail ? There are up-going forces, down-going forces, forces in the paunch, forces in the belly, forces that course through the limbs, and in-breath and out-breath (cf. M. i, 422). That is how one comprises the air element in detail in six moods.

437. He who thus in detail recharacterizes, estimates, fathoms, inquires into, and reviews, the elements as to individual-essence1 in these forty-two moods sees nothing at all worth taking, whether body or bodily part. Just as one who investigated a cesspool would see nothing at all worth taking, just as one who investigated a privy would see nothing worth taking, so [75] too he who thus in detail re-characterizes, estimates, fathoms, inquires into, and reviews, the

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437/1 See n. 453/1. For this para see also Vis. ch. viii, §47 /p. 241.



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elements as to individual-essence in these forty-two moods sees nothing at all worth taking, whether body or bodily part.

438. That is why the Lord Buddha said: <Now both the earth element in oneself and the external earth element should be seen, with right understanding how they are, in this way: ‘I am not this,1 this is not mine, this is not I, this is not my self9 On seeing it thus, with right understanding how it is, he finds dispassion in the earth element, and lust for the earth element fades from his heart. Now both the water element in oneself and the external water element . . . both the fire element in oneself and the external fire element. . . both the air element in oneself and the external air element should be seen, with right understanding how they are, in this way: ‘I am not this, this is not mine, this is not I, this is not my self.’ On seeing it thus, with right understanding how it is, he finds dispassion in the air element, and lust for the air element fades from his heart> (cf. M. i, 421). This is a diversity.

439. ‘Ignorance’ is a unity.

Herein, what is ignorance ? It is unknowing about suffering, unknowing about the origin of suffering, unknowing about cessation of suffering, and unknowing about the way leading to cessation of suffering (cf. Pe 116); unknowing about the past, unknowing about the future, unknowing about the past and future; unknowing about specific conditionality and dependently arisen ideas; it is any such unknowing, unseeing, non-actualization, failure to be enlightened by another, failure to enlighten oneself, non-penetration, failure to characterize, failure to recharacterize, failure to counter-charac- terize, [76] disregard, inexperience, witlessness, folly, unawareness, delusion, illusion, confusion, ignorance, flood of ignorance, bond of ignorance, underlying tendency to ignorance, obsession by ignorance, lock of ignorance, delusion as a root of the unprofitable. This is a diversity.

440. ‘Science’ is a unity.

Herein, what is science ? It is knowledge about suffering, knowledge about the origin of suffering, knowledge about cessation of suffering, knowledge about the way leading to cessation of suffering; knowledge about the past, knowledge about the future, knowledge about the past and future; knowledge about specific conditionality and dependently arisen ideas; <it is any such under-

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438/1 This phrase, nev' csaham, is extra to the usual statement of this formula.



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standing, act-of-understanding, investigation, reinvestigation, investi- gation-of-ideas, characterization, recharacterization, counter-characterization, wisdom, skill, cleverness, elucidation, cogitation, scrutiny, breadth, wit, guidance, insight, awareness, goad, understanding faculty, understanding power, understanding weapon, understanding [storied] palace, understanding light, understanding illumination, understanding lucidity, understanding jewel, non-delusion, investigation-of- ideas, right view, investigation-of-ideas enlightenment factor, path- factor included in the path (Dhs. 292; cf. Pe 122). This is a diversity.

441. ‘Attainment’ is a unity.

Herein, what is attainment ? There is percipient attainment, unpercipient attainment, neither-percipient-nor-unpercipient attainment, attainment percipient of non-entity,1 attainment of cessation.2 This is a diversity.

442. ‘Meditator’ is a unity.

Herein, what is a meditator ? There is the Initiate meditator, there is the Adept meditator, there is the neither-Initiate-nor-Adept meditator, there is the ‘thoroughbred’ meditator, there is the ‘colt’ meditator (see A. v, 323; cf. Pe 146), there is the meditator governed by views, there is the meditator governed by craving, there is the meditator governed by understanding. [77] This is a diversity.

443. ‘Concentration’ is a unity.

Herein, what is concentration ? There is concentration with conflict, concentration without conflict;1 concentration with risk, concentration without risk; concentration with ill will, concentration with non-ill-will; concentration with happiness [i.e., the first two meditations], concentration free from happiness [i.e., the last two meditations]; materialistic concentration, non-materialistic concentration;2 concentration with prompting-determinations, concentra-

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441/1 ‘ Vibhutasannasamapatti—attainment percipient of nonentity’: NettiA: ‘The attainment of the base consisting of infiniteness of consciousness; for it is owing to the non-entity (vibhavanato) [through its being now ceased and past] of the consciousness [now ceased and being contemplated] that was cognizing the first Formless State (i.e., space) and of the [conascent] perception that was perceiving the first Formless State that it is so called (cf. Vis. ch. x, §§60-5/pp. 339-40). But some read vibhutarupasanna, and in their opinion this would mean the rest of the Formless States’ (p. 113). This explanation takes the ambiguous vibhavati in its negative sense. See n. 843 /I But here the reference is perhaps to ‘pathavisanna vibhuta\ etc., at A. v, 325. 441/2 Read nirodhasamapatti as at §580.

443/1 For sa-rana and a-rana see n. 297 /2.

443/2 ‘Amisa—materialistic’: the word normally refers to such material physical needs as food and medicine, and samisa is what is concerned with



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tion without prompting-determinations;3 concentration kept in being unilaterally, concentration kept in being bilaterally, concentration whose keeping in being is both ways kept in being;4concentration with thought and exploring, concentration without thought and with mere exploration, concentration without thought and without exploring (see D. iii, 219); concentration dealing with an inferior state, concentration dealing with steadiness, concentration dealing with distinction, concentration dealing with penetration (see Ps. i, 48); concentration belonging to worlds, concentration disjoined from worlds; wrong concentration, right concentration. This is a diversity.

444. ‘Way’ is a unity.

Herein, what is a way ? There is the way of luxury, the way of austerity, the middle way (A. i, 295); the way of the impatient, the way of the patient; the way of quieting, the way of taming (see D. iii, 229); the painful way with sluggish acquaintanceship, the painful way with swift acquaintanceship, the pleasant way with sluggish acquaintanceship, the pleasant way with swift acquaintanceship (see D. iii, 228). This is a diversity (see also §264).

445. ‘Body’ is a unity.

Herein, what is a body ? There are the name-body and the form- body. Herein, what is the form-body ? It is head-hairs, body- hairs, nails, teeth, skin; flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidney; heart, liver, midriff, spleen, lights; bowels, entrails, gorge, dung; bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat; tears, grease, spittle, snot, oil- of-the-joints, urine; and brain-in-the-head (see Ps.i, 7). [78] This is the form-body (cf. §226). The name-body consists of feeling, perception, choice, cognizance, contact, and attention. This is the name-body (see §226). This is a diversity.

446. In this way, while some idea [say, ‘birth’] has the same essence

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that, while niramisa is what is dissociated from that. ‘The flesh and the spirit’ conveys the same opposites.

443/3 ‘Sasankhara—with prompting-determination’ and ‘asankhara—without pr.-d.’ are not in PED; the latter is in CPD. See also Dhs. 146 and A. iv, 72. 443/4 NettiA: ‘ “Concentration kept in being unilaterally” is that in one who is a Bare-(dry-)insight worker (see below). “Concentration kept in being bilaterally” is that in one whose vehicle is quiet (Vis. ch. xviii. §3/p. 587); and “concentration whose keeping in being is both-ways kept in being” is concentration in a Body-Witness (see M. i, 478; Pug. 14; Vis. ch. xxi, §§74-5/ p. 659); for he is one whose keeping (of concentration) in being is kept in being in both ways (with maximum of quiet and Insight)’ (p. 114). For the term ‘bare-insight worker’ (sukkha vipassaka) see Vis. chs. xviii and xxi.



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[namely ‘suffering’ in this instance] as that of some [other related] idea, [say, ‘ageing’ in this instance], that former idea finds unity with this latter idea through [their common] unity, yet it has diversity from it in virtue of that whereby it has its differentiating (particular) characteristic.

So when one is asked about the Tread[-type, which term covers all modes of the Teaching,] or about prose-expositions or about verse, the inquiry should be made as follows: ‘How, then, does he ask according to unity or according to diversity V. If asked according to a unity, then it should be answered according to the unity. If asked according to a diversity, then it should be answered according to the diversity. If asked expressed in terms of creatures, the answer should be expressed in terms of creatures. If asked expressed in terms of ideas, the answer should be expressed in terms of ideas (see §§860 and 943). According as it is asked, so it should be answered.

447. That is why the venerable Maha-Kaccana said:

‘Ideas when demonstrated by

[Both] unity and diversity

Need thereby suffer no disjunction:

This Mode conveys Expression’s Terms’ (§18).

The Mode Conveying Terms of Expression is ended.

*

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15. The Ninefold Thread in the Mode of Conveying Requisites Edit

448. Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying Requisites ? [It is this:]

‘Ideas that generate each an idea

In due relation are conditions;

And by its picking out the cause

This Mode Conveys the Requisite’ (§15).

449. Any idea that generates1 an idea is a requisite of that idea.

450. What is the Requisite’s characteristic ? The Requisite has the characteristic of a generator.

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449/1 I.e., an idea that is another idea’s condition sine qua non, as, say, ignorance is for determination.



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451. Two kinds of ideas generate, namely a cause and a condition.

452. Herein, what is a cause’s characteristic ? What is a condition’s characteristic ? A cause has the characteristic of not being shared in common, while a condition has the characteristic of being shared in common.1

453. How might that be ? In the same way that for the occurrence of a [seed’s] sprout the seed is not shared in common [with the sprout] while earth [79] and water are common to both [seed and sprout]; for while the earth and the water are each a condition for the sprout, still individual essence is its cause;1 or in the same way that milk left in a pot is2 curd, and yet there is no simultaneous con-

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452/1 This distinction and these two definitions are perhaps peculiar to this work.

453/1 For ‘sabhava—individual essence’ see Ppn. ch. viii, n. 68, where the term is discussed and various commentarial derivations given. The only Pitaka ref. seems to be that at Ps. ii, 178 (either ‘born form is void of individual essence’ or ‘born form is void by individual essence’ according to how' the instr. (sabhavena) is taken in that passage, which has given PsA much trouble). See also Miln. 90, 164, 212, 360; also Pe 104. Very frequent in the Commentaries. The use of the word here as a synonym for ‘cause’ (hetu) is different from the commentarial use as a synonym for ‘nature’ (pakati) or any idea (dhamma) that is not merely a name or a negation. NettiA: ‘ “Its individual essence is its cause”: the same (existing) essence (samana-bhava), the seed, is the cause. But is it not a fact that the seed is not like (sadisa) the sprout, etc.?—There is no (saying) that it is not; for there is no arising of that kind (of sprout) from any other kind, (of seed)’ (p. 115). The Netti's argument here contains a hidden (and apparently unintentional?) ambiguity, namely, that between the seed-as-thing (individual) and the seed-as-nature (principle). Vis categorically denies the non-Buddhist doctrine of ‘inherence’ or ‘immanence’ (samavaya), by which the cause is held to inhere in the result (Vis. 513), and Vis A rejects the theory of sabhava as an adequate and sufficient cause (Ppn., ch. xvi, note 23); cf. also the wrong theory attributed to Makkhali Gosala at D. i, 53 with use of bhava (some read sabhava). The word svabhava had great currency in Indian Sanskrit philosophy, both Mahayana-Buddhist and non-Buddhist, and it took on many shades, sometimes approaching Aristotle’s use of ‘essence’ as distinct from ‘attributes’. To repeat, the word never seems to have been Used at all by the Buddha. *

453/2 This is an instance where it would be incorrect to translate bhavati by ‘becomes’. NettiA senses an ontological difficulty when it says ‘ “Is curd (dadhi bhavati)” is said according to the Identity Guide-Line (Ekatta-naya —see Vis. 585) or according to the Metaphor of Non-Breach (abhedopacara —see Ppn ch. viii, n. 65), but not in any other way; for milk is not (na hoti) curd, which is why “and yet there is no simultaneous occurrence of milk and curd” is said’ (p. 115). To translate by ‘becomes’ leaves nothing for the commentary to explain and conceals the difficulty of deciding the ‘first moment’ when it iscurd.



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-currence of milk and curd, so too there is no simultaneous concurrence of the cause and the condition.

454. Now this roundabout [of rebirths] has occurrence with cause and with condition; for this is said: <With ignorance as condition, determinations; with determinations as condition, consciousness; . . . and so with all the formula of Dependent Arising (cf. S. ii, 1). Consequently ignorance is the cause and unreasoned attention the condition (cf. Pe 104 and §462).

455. Previous ignorance is the cause of subsequent ignorance. Herein, the previous ignorance is underlying tendency to ignorance, while the subsequent ignorance is [open] obsession by ignorance. The previous underlying tendency to ignorance is the cause, in causality-by-immediate-proximity, of the subsequent obsession by ignorance, like the seed and the sprout in the growing but wherever any fruit [of that seed] occurs, this [seed] is [then only] the cause- in-remote-relation of that [fruit]; for cause is of two kinds, namely cause-in-immediate-proximity [as that of the seed for the sprout] and cause-in-remote-relation [as that of the seed for the fruit].2 So the cause of ignorance is also of two kinds, namely cause-in- immediate-proximity and cause-in-remote-relation.

456. Or in the same way that vessel, wick and oil are, as it were, the light’s condition, but not its cause-as-individual-essence—for one cannot, without a flame, light the vessel, wick and oil, which are the light’s condition—; the individual-essence-as-cause being like the light. So the individual-essence is the cause, while the other- essence is the condition;1 the in-itself is the cause while the external- to-it is the condition; the generator is the cause while the accessory2

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455/1 4Paribruhana—growing’: not in PED.

455/2 Cf. Vis. 532 (anantarapaccaya and samanantarapaccaya) and 536 (anantarupanissayapaccaya) for discussion. It is not clear whether the Netti has the Patthana in view or not. Samanantara-hetu and parampara-hetu seem to be confined to this work and the Pe (cf. Pe 77 and 104-5).

456/1 This use of sabhava (‘individual essence’) and parabhava (‘other essence’) is taken straight from the Pe (p. 104). It makes this argument a purely ontological one. Bhava is caus. subst. fm./bhu, i.e., a ‘making be’, a ‘keeping in being’, an ‘essence’, a ‘-ness’ or ‘-hood’, in the sense of recognizable distinctive quality.

456/2 This definition of hetu (‘cause’) as on a lower level of generality to paccaya (‘condition’) seems peculiar to this work. In the Suttas no difference is discernible. In the Abhidhamma hetu tends to be restricted to the six hetu, namely greed, etc., while paccaya can be either antecedent (e.g., kamma), or postnascent (i.e., cetasikadhamma against any contemporary rupa-dhamma that arose earlier but ceases with or later owing to the longer presence (thiti)),



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is the condition; the not-shared-in-common is the cause while the shared-in-common is the condition.

457. The meaning of continuity, the meaning of non-interruption, the meaning of fruit, the meaning of being-made-to-occur, the meaning of renewal of being, the meaning of relinking, the meaning of obsession, the meaning of impediment, the meaning of underlying- tendency, the meaning of non-eradication, the meaning of ignorance, the meaning of non-penetration, the meaning of being undiagnosed, are consciousness’s meaning of seed (cf. A. i, 224).

458. Where there is non-interruption there is continuity, where there is continuity there is [80] occurrence, where there is occurrence there is fruit, where there is fruit there is relinking,1where there is relinking there is renewal of being, where there is renewal of being there is impediment, where there is impediment there is obsession, where there is obsession there is non-eradication, where there is non-eradication there is underlying tendency, where there is underlying tendency there is non-penetration, where there is non-penetration there is ignorance, where there is ignorance there is undiagnosed consciousness affected by taints, where there is undiagnosed consciousness affected by taints there is the meaning of seed (see §3°4). ... .

459. The virtue category is the condition for the concentration category, the concentration category is the condition for the understanding category, the understanding category is the condition for the deliverance category, the deliverance category is the condition for the knowing-and-seeing-of-deliverance category.

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or conascent (i.e., cetasika dhamma that arise and cease together, or that arise with rupa-dhamma but cease earlier). Also hetupaccaya is one of the 24 kinds of paccaya listed in the Patthana (see Vis. ch. xvii). Buddhist doctrine does not allow a first cause (§644; Vis. ch. xvii, §§35ff./p. 525).

458/1 ‘Patisandhi—relinking’ (or ‘rebirth-linking’): PED'a article is inadequate, and also misleading with its unfortunate choice of ‘metempsychosis’ (besides overlooking the only Sutta ref. M. iii, 230, which has a different, non-technical, meaning). Some technical Abhidhamma and Commentary refs, are: Ptn, 320, etc., Ps. ii, 72, etc., Vis. 460. Commentarial meaning: while cuti-citta is used for the last cognizance of a dying person, patisandhi- citta is used for the first cognizance upon rebirth, which follows immediately upon—‘links up with’—the death-cognizance. There is thus unbroken continuity without any ‘thing’—consciousness or anything else—having any permanency. Only the ‘momentum’ of kamma is communicated or ‘passed on’ by the dying cognizance to the relinking cognizance in virtue of ignorance and craving.



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460. Knowledge of watering-places is the condition for knowledge of what it is to have drunk [enough], knowledge of what it is to have drunk [enough] is the condition for knowledge of the [right] amount, knowledge of the [right] amount is the condition for knowledge of self (§167).

461. Or in the same way that <eye consciousness arises depending upon eye and forms > (M. i, 111; iii, 285): Herein, the eye is a condition through the conditionality of predominance, while forms are a condition through conditionality of object, light1 is a condition through co-supporting, and attention, as the individual-essence, is the cause (cf. §454).

462. While consciousness’s condition is determinations, its individual essence is its cause.1 While name-and-form’s condition is consciousness, its individual essence is its cause. While the sixfold base’s condition is name-and-form, its individual essence is its cause. While contact’s condition is the sixfold base, its individual essence is its cause. While feeling’s condition is contact, its individual essence is its cause. While craving’s condition is feeling, its individual essence is its cause. While assuming’s condition is craving, its individual essence is its cause. While being’s condition is assuming, its individual essence is its cause. While birth’s condition is being, its individual essence is its cause. While ageing- and-death’s condition is birth, its individual essence is its cause. While sorrow’s condition is ageing-and-death, its individual essence is its cause. While lamentation’s condition is sorrow, its individual essence is its cause. While pain’s condition is lamentation, its individual essence is its cause. While grief’s condition is pain, its individual essence is its cause. While despair’s condition is grief, its individual essence is its cause.

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461/1 The addition of ‘light’ (aloka) as one of the conditions for the arising of eye-consciousness is later than the Tipitaka, in which it is not mentioned in that capacity. Cf. Vis. 488-9 (quoting the ‘Former Teachers’). This must be the earliest mention in any extant Pali work, though cf. the passage in Nd2 (234) cakkhunapuriso aloketi rupagatani\ Cf. 1). iii, 223—‘alokasanna\ 462/1 From what has gone before (§§452 and 456) this must mean prior consciousness in continuity, and so with the rest. NettiA says ‘Determinative- acts of merit (demerit and imperturbability) are the condition for relinking- consciousness (at rebirth). Herein, that which is the individual-essence is the cause. And here by “determinations” is intended any arising of cognizance, profitable or unprofitable, that belongs to worlds’ (p. 116). The Pitaka refs, for Dependent Arising are as follows: D. Sutta 15; M. Suttas 9 and 38; S. Nidana Samyutta; A. i, 177; Vbh. Paccayakaravibhanga; Ps. i, 50-2.



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463. In this way all kinds of general-support are a requisite (cf. §168).

464. That is why the venerable Maha-Kaccana said:

‘Ideas that generate each an idea

In due relation are conditions;

And by its picking out the cause

This Mode Conveys the Requisite’ (§19).

The Mode of Conveying Requisites is ended.

*

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16. The Ninefold Thread in the Mode of Conveying a Co-ordination Edit

465. [81] Herein, what is the Mode of Conveying a Co-ordination ?

[It is this:]

‘Ideas with those whose roots they are,

And those shown by the Sage to have

One meaning, should be co-ordinated:

This Mode Conveys Co-ordination’ (§20).

466. As many footings as furnish ways of entry should all be co-ordinated with any single footing [mentioned], in the same way as, in the Mode of Conveying a Conversion, several footings are made to furnish ways of entry.

467. Herein, co-ordination is of four kinds, namely (i) footing, (ii) synonym, (iii) keeping in being, and (iv) abandoning (cf. §§107ff.).

[(i) Footing']

468. Herein, what is co-ordination of footing ?

<No doing any kind of evil,

Perfecting 'profitable skill,

And purifying one's own heart:

This is the Buddhas' Dispensation> (§238).

469. What is the footing for that ? The three kinds of good conduct, namely bodily good conduce, verbal good conduct, and mental good conduct. These are a footing.1

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469/I For the construing of the words Tini sucaritani . . . idam padatthanam see n. 64/1. NettiA: ‘This (idam) triple good conduct (sucaritam) is a footing (-padatthanam) because it is the field and foundation for the Enlightened Ones’ Dispensation, for their advice’ (p. 117).



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470. Herein, any bodily and verbal good conduct are the virtue category. In the case of mental good conduct, any uncovetousness and non-ill-will are the concentration category, and any right view is the understanding category (see §238). These are a footing.

471. Herein, the virtue category and the concentration category are quiet, and the understanding category is insight. These are a footing.

472. Herein, the fruit of quiet is the heart-deliverance due to fading of lust, and the fruit of insight is the understanding-deliverance due to fading of ignorance. These are a footing.

*

473 The <wood>x is the footing for the <woodedness> (Dh. 283). What is the ‘wood’ and what is the ‘woodedness’ ? The ‘wood’ means the five strands of sensual desire, while the ‘woodedness’ means craving. This is a footing.

474. [82] The ‘wood’ means the apprehending, by signs (M. i, 180), of ‘woman’ or ‘man’, while the ‘woodedness’ is the apprehending of such and such limbs as features thus ‘Oh an eye ! Oh an ear ! Oh a nose ! Oh a tongue ! Oh a body !’. This is a footing.

475. The ‘wood’ means the undiagnosed bases in oneself and external thereto, and the ‘woodedness’ means any fetter that arises dependent on these (cf. D. ii, 302). This is a footing.

476. The ‘wood’ is the underlying-tendency and the ‘woodedness’ is the manifest-obsession. This is a footing. ,

477. That is why the Lord Buddha said:

<Having cut down the wood and woodedness> (Dh. 283).

This is co-ordination of footing.

*

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473/1 The whole Dh verse should have preceded here but is missing. An explanation of the word vana is given at MA. i, 11 ( = KhpA. Ill) as follows, ‘It is what one would (vanayate), thus it is a wood (vana); it creates fondness in creatures for its own excellence; the meaning is that it arouses affection in them towards itself. Or alternatively, it would (vanute), thus it is a wood (vana); the meaning is that with the cries of cuckoos ... it is, as it were, begging all creatures to “come and enjoy me” ’. The word-play on vana and vana is also found at Vis. 293. Vanatha is ‘woodedness’, i.e., ‘overgrowth’ or ‘blanketed over with woods’, rather than PED's ‘underwood’; for suffix -tha (= -ness) cf. sama-tha.



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[(ii) Synonym]

478. Herein, what is co-ordination of synonym ? The heart- deliverance due to fading of lust is the Initiate’s fruit, and the understanding-deliverance due to fading of ignorance is the Adept’s fruit. These are synonyms.

479. The heart-deliverance due to fading of lust is the Non-Returner’s fruit, and the understanding-deliverance due to fading of ignorance is arahantship, the highest fruit. These are synonyms.

480. The heart-deliverance due to fading of lust surmounts the element of sensual desire, and the understanding-deliverance due to fading of ignorance surmounts the threefold element [of sensual- desire, form, and formless existence]. These are synonyms.

481. Understanding faculty, understanding power, training in the higher understanding, understanding category, investigation-of- ideas enlightenment factor, equanimity enlightenment factor, knowledge, right view, judgment, adjudgment, conscience, insight, knowledge of the True Idea (cf. §294): all these are synonyms.

This is co-ordination of synonym.

[(iii) Keeping in being]

482. Herein, what is co-ordination of keeping-in-being ? It is according as the Lord Buddha said: <Therefore, bhikkhus, abide contemplating the body as a body, ardent, aware and mindful, guiding out covetousness and grief about the world> (§174).

[83] Now ‘ardent’ means the energy faculty, ‘aware’ the understanding faculty, ‘mindful’ the mindfulness faculty, and ‘guiding out covetousness and grief about the world’ the concentration faculty (§174).

So when someone abides contemplating the body as a body, the four foundations of mindfulness come to fulfilment through keeping in being. For what reason ? Because of the four faculties’ state of single characteristic (§174).

483. When the four foundations of mindfulness are kept in being, the four right endeavours come to fulfilment through keeping in being. When the four right endeavours are kept in being, the four bases for success (roads to power) come to fulfilment through keeping in being. When the four bases for success are kept in being, the five faculties come to fulfilment through keeping in being . . . And so all. For what reason ? Because all the ideas that



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lead to enlightenment, that partake of enlightenment, have a single characteristic in the characteristic of outlet. They come to fulfilment through keeping in being owing to singleness of characteristic (cf.§175). ...

This is co-ordination of keeping in being.

*

[(iv) Abandoning]

484. Herein, what is co-ordination of abandoning ?

One who abides contemplating the body as a body abandons the perversion that there is beauty in the ugly, physical nutriment comes within his diagnosis, he is without assuming in regard to sensual-desire assuming, he is unbound in regard to the bond of sensual desire, he is dissociated in regard to the bodily tie of covetousness, he is taintless in regard to the taint of sensual desire, he has crossed over the flood of sensual desire, he is barbless as regards the barb of lust,1 form as a steadying-point for consciousness passing on2 comes within his diagnosis, his lust for the form element is abandoned, and he does not go a bad way through will.

485. One who abides contemplating feelings as feelings abandons the perversion that there is pleasure in the painful, contact as nutriment comes within his diagnosis, he is without assuming in regard to existence-assuming,1 he is unbound in regard to the bond of existence, he is dissociated in regard to the bodily tie of ill-will, he is taintless in regard to the taint of existence, he has [84] crossed over the flood of existence, he is barbless in regard to the barb of hate, feeling as a steadying-point for consciousness passing on comes within his diagnosis, his lust for the feeling element2 is abandoned, and he does not go a bad way through hate.

486. One who abides contemplating cognizance as cognizance abandons the perversion that there is permanence in the impermanent, consciousness as nutriment comes within his diagnosis, he is

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484/1 The 4 ‘barbs’ (salla) here are lust, hate, conceit, and delusion, as in §§674ff. But in Pe (p. 245) they are lust, hate, delusion, and views. 3 kinds appear in §753. These enumerations are not found in the Suttas, apparently. 484/2 See n. 176/1.

485/1 Bhavupadana (‘existence-assuming’) is not found in the Tipitaka. See 228/1. '

485/2 For the terms vedana-dhatu (‘feeling-element’), sanna-dhatu (‘perception-element ’: §486), and sankhara-dhatu (‘determinations-element’:

§§323, 487), see, e.g.*, S. iii, 10.



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without assuming in regard to wrong-view assuming, he is unbound in regard to the bond of views, he is dissociated in regard to the bodily tie of misapprehension of virtue and duty, he is taintless in regard to the taint of views, he has crossed over the flood of views, he is barbless in regard to the barb of conceit, perception as a steadying-point for consciousness passing on comes within his diagnosis, his lust for the perception-element is abandoned, and he does not go a wrong way through fear.

487. One who abides contemplating ideas as ideas abandons the perversion that there is self in the not-self, mind-choice as nutriment comes within his diagnosis, he is without assuming in regard to selfdoctrine assuming, he is unbound in regard to the bond of ignorance, he is dissociated in regard to the bodily tie of insistence that ‘only this is the truth5, he is taintless in regard to the taint of ignorance, he has crossed over the flood of ignorance, he is barbless in regard to the barb of delusion, determinations as a steadying-point for consciousness passing on comes within his diagnosis, his lust for the determinations-element is abandoned, and he does not go a bad way through delusion.

This is co-ordination of abandoning.

488. That is why the venerable Maha-Kaccana said:

‘Ideas with those whose roots they are,

And those shown by the Sage to have

One meaning, should be co-ordinated:

This Mode Conveys Co-ordination5 (§16).

The Mode of Conveying a Co-ordination is ended.

*

The 16 Modes of Conveying in Separate Treatment are ended.

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