Wikipitaka - The Completing Tipitaka

This Glossary is created to help clarifying some translation issues of the Tipitaka. Also, this is a good start for searching if you are looking for some technical terms.

We realize that there is no standard way to translate the Tipitaka, as scholars could never settle on any translation. For example, the famous term Dukka is generally translated suffering, but some scholars prefer oppression, dissatisfaction, or disease. So, this Glossary is a starting point for us in unifying and standardize the Tipitaka translation.

How to use the glossary[]

This Glossary is in alphabetical order. However, some alphabets might not yet been added to the list due to the lack of terms in with the alphabets.

Searching Wikipitaka always include this glossary. So, if you come to this page through searching, you might want to look at your keyword in the glossary to get some more keywords for further search.


Glossary is adapted from Dictionary of Buddhism: Thai-English by P.A. Payutto. This dictionary also has a list of Thai words, but it also has Pali root and English translations. Many Sanskrit words are added to help many people who understand Sanskrit like languages such as Hindi etc.

Glossary of Pali Terminology[]

Abbreviations used :

adj. Adjective
v. verb
lit. Literally
* newly coined Pali term
{mis.} Misleading
{T.} in Thai usage
n. Noun

Note : c is pronounced as ch as in China unless otherwise specified.


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Abbhanjati - v. to anoint; n. anointment.
Abbhukkirati, Sincati ;Sinchati , 'ch' as in china v. to sprinkle.
Abboharika - insignificant; negligible; ineffective.
Abhidhamma abhi dharma The Higher Doctrine; Further Dhamma; the analytic doctrine of the Buddhist Canon; books containing the ultimate/final meaning of Buddha's teaching.
Abhidhammabhanana* - funeral chanting {of Abhidhamma excerpts}; requiem chanting.
Abhidhammapitaka Abhidharma pitaka The Abhidhamma Pitaka; the third and the final basket/collection of the higher doctrine containing the ultimate/final meaning of Buddha's teaching.
Abhijjha - covetousness.
Abhinna abhi gyan {five or six kinds of} Higher Knowledge; Superknowledges; Supernormal Powers; higher psychic powers.
Abhisamacara ~acharan higher training in proper conduct; higher practice of the train- ing; rules about decent conduct; specialized or minor precepts.
Abhisamaya - attainment; realization; penetration.
Abhisambodhi - the supreme enlightenment.
Abhisameti; Papunati; Sacchikaroti - to attain; realize; reach; achieve; experience for oneself.
Abhivada Abhivadan to bow to the ground; to pay respect by making the five-point prostration; to prostrate.
Abhivadanacela* abhivadan~ cloth for placing the forehead on when bowing down; prostrating cloth.
Abyakata; Avyakata Avyakta adj. unexplained; inexplicable; indeterminate; neutral; unexplained.
Abyapada - non-hatred; absence of ill-will; loving-kindness.
acara aachar;acharan; 'ch' as in china conduct; behaviour.
acariya acharya ; 'ch' as in china a teacher; regular instructor.
Acchariya Ashcharya adj. wonderful; marvellous; astonishing; exceptional; extraordinary;{T.} genius.
acinnakamma - habitual kamma; habitual act. honesty; integrity.
Acinteyya achinteyya; 'ch' as in china the {four} unthinkables.
Addhapallankanisajja - v. to sit flat with both legs tucked back to one side; sit sideways.
adesanapatihariya adeshana pratiharya miraculous ability of mind-reading , knowing & changing other people's behaviour by command{adesh} ; marvel of thought- reading & making it change.
Adhamma adharma misconduct; unrighteousness; injustice; false doctrine. adj. unjust;unrighteous.
Adhicittasikkha adhik chitta siksha; 'ch' as in china training in higher mentality; mental discipline.
Adhikamasa Adhik masa intercalary month; {a year with} an extra eighth lunar month.
Adhikarana - a case; question; affair; lawsuit; dispute; disciplinary case of dispute; legal process; legal question.
Adhikaranasamatha - settling of a case, a question, a dispute or a lawsuit; transaction; settlement of legal processes.
Adhikarapatta* adhikar patra certificate of appointment; credentials; eccl. warrant.
Adhikasuradina* Adhik Surya Din {T.} intercalary solar day; {a year with} an extra day {29 February}.
Adhikavara Adhik Vara intercalary lunar day; {a year with} an extra day {15th of the seventh waning moon}.
Adhimokkha - determination; resolution; conviction.
Adhipannasikkha adhik pragya siksha training in higher direct wisdom/ direct knowledge/ experiential knowledge.
Adhipateyya adhipatya 1. supremacy. 2.{T.} sovereignty.
Adhisilasikkha adhik sheel siksha training in higher morality.
Adhitthana adhishtthan resolve; decision; resolution; determination. v. to determine {a robe or a bowl} for regular personal use. Also sitting in meditation with resolve for a period.
Adhitthitacivara - the determined robes; the three robes determined for regular personal use.
adibrahmacariya adi brahmacharya rudiments of the training in the Holy celibate Life (Brahmacariya); fundamentals of the Sublime Life; fundamental or major precepts.
adikammika - 1. name of the first main division of the Vinaya Pitaka. 2. the beginner; the first transgressor; the first doer.
adinava, vajja, dosa - fault; blemish; defect; corruption; depravity; disadvantage.
Adinnadana Adinya dana taking what is not given; stealing.
Adosa advesh non-hatred; non-anger; amity; hatelessness.
Adukkhamasukha Adukkham asukha neither sorrow nor happiness; indifferent feeling. adj. neither painful nor pleasurable.
agantuka agantuk a guest; new-comer; stranger.
Agati Agati wrong way of behaviour; prejudice; bias.
Aggasavaka agra shavak the most distinguished disciples; {the two} Chief Disciples, i.e. Sariputta and Mahamoggallana
aghata aghaat malice; hatred; revengefulness.
Agocara agochara; 'ch' as in china wrong pasture; wrong resort; non-resorts for alms; improper haunts; evil haunts.
Ahamkara ahankar lit. the making of the utterance I; egoity; egotism; ego-consciousness; the concept of 'I'; 'I'-making; {T.} arrogance; haughtiness; being proud; false pride.
ahara ahara food; nutriment.
Ahetukaditthi ahetu drishti lit. the theory of causelessness; the theory that there is no cause of a phenomenon; doctrine of non-causality.
Ahimsa, Avihimsa ahinsa non-violence; non-harming; inoffensiveness; non- injury.
Ahosikamma ~karma defunct kamma; an act or thought which has no longer any potential force.
ajivaka - a kind of non-Buddhist ascetics, mostly naked.
ajivaparisuddhisila Ajivika Parishuddhi Sheel discipline as regards purity of livelihood; Purity of Conduct connected with Livelihood.
Akalamarana akal maran untimely death.
Akaraniyakicca akaraniya kritya deed which should not be done; improper action; unbefitting action.
akasa akash space
akasanancayatana akash ananta ayatana the Sphere of Unbounded Space; the Realm of Infinity of Space.
Akatannu akritagya ungrateful.
akincannayatana Akinchana ayatana; 'ch' as in china the Sphere {or Realm} of Nothingness.
Akiriyaditthi akriya drishti lit. the theory of non-action; the theory that there is no after-effect of action; view of the inefficacy of action.
Akkodha akrodha non-anger; freedom from hatred.
Akusala akushal adj. unwholesome; harmful; demeritorious; immoral; kammically unwholesome; unskilful. n. demerit; bad action.
Akusalacitta akushal chitta; 'ch' as in china demeritorious thought, harmful mind; immoral consciousness; sinful mind.
Akusalakamma akushal karma an evil action; harmful deed; unwholesome action; sinful deed.
Akusalakammapatha Akushal Karma Path {the ten-fold} way of bad action; unwholesome/harmful course of action.
Akusalamula akushal mool {the three} roots of evil; the roots of bad actions; kammically unwholesome roots; demeritorious roots.
Akusalavitakka akushal vitark unwholesome thought, harmful thinking; sinful thoughts.
Alajji alajjit shameless monk; immoral monk.
Alobha Alobha non-greed; greedlessness; liberality; generosity.
Amata Amrit the deathless state {nirvana/moksha}; immortal state ; ambrosia{due to blissful};Nibbana; immortal; the ninth {final} state of jhana/samadhi/trance.
Amisa Aamish food; flesh; materiality; material things. adj. material; physical; carnal.
amisadana Aamish Daan donation of requisites {i.e. food, lodging, etc.}; material gifts.
Amoha Amoha non-delusion; wisdom; knowledge; undeludedness; experiencing samadhi/jhana/enlightenment state.
Amsa ansh 1. a part; side. 2. shoulder. 3.{T.} shoulder piece; chest cloth; the sleeveless one-shouldered singlet of a monk.
Amulhavinaya - verdict of past insanity.
Anabhijjha - non-covetousness; non-avarice.
Anagami - a Non-Returner; one who has attained the third stage of progress. This is achieved after experience of 8th jhana/trance(samadhi) state after which one will not be reborn on earth, rather one will be reborn only once in upper-heaven{brahmaloka} among arch-angels{brahmas} there.
Anagamimagga anagami marg the Path of Never-Returning; the Path of the Non- Returner {see above}.
Anagamiphala - the Fruit of Never-Returning; the Result of the Non-Returner {see anagami above}.
Anagarika Anagarika lit. a homeless one; one who enters the homeless/ascetic life without formally entering the Sangha{order}.
Anagatavattu* - a prophet.
anapanasati Aan Apan Smriti Name of an initial meditation practice regarding mindfulness/attention/awareness on in & out breathing; mindfulness regarding breathing; {Buddha became fully enlightened using this very meditation, though later he developed the higher types called Vipassana etc.(sati/smriti means meditation)}
Anatta anatmta adj. no-soul; soulless; not-self. n. non-self; non-ego.
Anattata anatmata soullessness; egolessness.
Andaja andaja egg-born creatures; the oviparous.
Anesana - wrong way of earning one's living; improper search; improper livelihood.
Anga Anga organ; factor; constituent.
Angara Angara 1. charcoal; ashes. 2. ash; the ashes, especially of the Buddha.
Anguttaranikaya Anguttara Nikaya the collection of discourses arranged in accordance with number; Adding-One Collection; Collection of Numerical Sayings; the Book of the Gradual Sayings; name of the fourth main division of the Sutta Pitaka.
Anicca Anitya adj. impermanent; transient; changing.
Aniccata anityata impermanence; transiency.
anisamsa - profit; merit; good result; advantage.
Anittharammana - unpleasant or unagreeable object.
Aniyata aniyat Indefinite Rules; undetermined offence.
Anjalim karoti Anjalim karoti v. to lift the joined palms as a token of reverence; put the hands together {at the chest or forehead} in salutation.
Anta Ant extremes {the two extremes}.
Antagahikaditthi ant gahika drishti {the ten} views taking extreme sides; the view of the extremist; extremist view.
Antaravasaka antara vastra inner garment; the undergarment of a Buddhist monk, nun or novice;the under robe.
Antevasika Ante vasika lit. one who lives in; a monk who lives under his teacher; a pupil; apprentice.
Antimavatthu - an extreme offence; ultimate or worst transgression; Defeat; Parajika offence.
Anubyanjana Anuvyanjan subsidiary characteristics.
Anucara Anuchar; 'ch' as in china follower; attendant; companion; accompanier; retainer; retinue; entourage.
Anuloma Anulom conforming; in proper order; in forward order.
Anumodana Anumodan 1. thanks-giving; chanting the holy stanzas of blessings. 2. rejoice; approval; appreciation; con- gratulation.
Anupadinnaka - adj. not grasped by craving or false view; kammically ungrasped.
Anupadisesa-nibbana - Nibbana without any remainder of physical existence; Nibbana without the Five Aggregates remaining.
Anupannatti - auxiliary regulation; supplementary rule; additional rule.
Anupasampanna - one who has not yet received the full ordination; novices and the laity; unordained one.
Anupubbikatha - a gradual instruction; graduated sermon; regulated exposition of the ever more valued and sublime subjects.
Anurakkhanapadhana anurakshan~ the effort to maintain or augment arisen good.
Anusasana Anushashan advice; instruction, discipline.
Anusasanacariya anushashan acharya; 'ch' as in china a chaplain; minister; religious or moral instructor for discipline.
Anusasanipatihariya Anushashani-pratiharya the miracle of teaching/guiding/convincing another person ; the wonder worked by the instruction {of the Dhamma}.
Anusavana - announcement; proclamation.
Anusavanacariya - ordination-proclaiming teacher; {Second} Ordination- Teacher.
Anusaya anushay latent dispositions; underlying tendencies; {the seven} Evil Inclinations or Biases.
Anussati anu smriti constant mindfulness/awareness in meditation; {the ten} Reflections; recollection. (word sati/smriti means meditation)
Anutika Anu tika a sub-subcommentary.
Anuvadadhikarana - legal questions concerning accusations.
Apacayana - reverence; humility.
Apacayanamaya - {merit} to be gained through being humble or respectful.
Apadana - Lives of Arahants; name of the thirteenth division of the Khuddaka Nikaya.
Apalokana avalokan v. to look towards for approval; consult; obtain an approval by consultation.
Apalokanakamma avalokan karma the act of obtaining consent or permission by consultation.
Aparapariyavedaniya-kamma - indefinitely effective kamma/karma to be known.
apattadhikarana Apatti Adikarana legal questions concerning offences; legal processes concerning committed offences, the awarding of them and the atonement for them.
apatti apatti a religious offence; offence.
apattidesana apatti desana the confession of an offence. v. to confess an offence.
Apaya Apaya state of loss and woe; unhappy existence; sorrowful ways; rebirth as animal, peta(preta), asura(demon) or in hell.
Apayabhumi Apaya bhumi {the four} planes of loss and woe; {the four} states of misery; {the four} lower worlds; unhappy existence(see previous).
Apayamukha Apaya-mukh cause of ruin; ways of squandering wealth; ruinous ways of life; vicious ways of conduct.
apodhatu apo dhatu lit. the liquid element; fluidity; water; cohesion; the element of cohesion.
Appamada apramad Non-sloth; alertfulness; attentive; mindful; non-negligence; zeal; diligence; earnestness; carefulness.
Appamanna apramana the Unbounded States; the Illimitables.
Appanasamadhi - fixed self absorption/trance; established self absorption/trance; full self absorption/trance; attainment-self absorption/trance.
Appicchata - paucity of wishes; frugality; desiring little; simplicity.
Arahanta Arahat Arihant Supremely enlightened like Buddha; one who has attained Nibbana/moksha; an Arahant; Arahat; worthy one; the Holy One; perfected one;
Arahantaghata Arihant-ghatak the murder of an Arahant, of supremely enlightened(highest offence in universe) .
Arahattamagga arihant marg the Path of the Worthy One; the Path of Arahatship; path of supreme enlightenment leading to nibbana {see Arahanta}.
Arahattaphala arihant phal the Fruit of the Worthy One; the final stage of holiness; final freedom; supreme enlightenment or nibbana(moksha) ; freedom from rebirths {see Arahanta}.
arakkhasampada arakkhsha-sampada the achievement of protection; to be endowed with wariness or watchfulness.
Arama, Vihara Aram, Vihar Wat; a monastery; temple monastery;{mis.} temple; place of stay for monks.
aramavatthu, Viharavatthu - monastery compound.
aramika, aramika-kumara, Bhikkhusissa, Dahararamika, Kappiyakaraka Bhiksu-shishya monastery boy; monastery pupil; temple boy; a monk's pupil; attendant.
arammana - sense-objects; an object of consciousness.
Arannavasi aranya vasi one who dwells in the forest; forest-dwelling monk; the forest order.
Ariyadhana Arya dhan the sublime treasure; noble treasure; noble wealth; foremost/supreme wealth; spiritual wealth is meant here such as divine merit/punya & knowledge of Arihants.
Ariyamagga Arya marg 1. the {four} Noble/Supreme Paths {as taught by Buddhas} leading to nirvana {liberation}; Sublime Paths of the Holy Life. 2. the Noble Eightfold Path .
Ariyaphala arya phal the {four} Noble/Supreme Fruits ; Fruits of the holy celibate life {of meditation} lived as taught by Buddhas leading to enlightenment /Nirvana /Arihant state and may be with attainment of various magical powers {see Samannaphala Sutta in Dighanikaya }.
Ariyapuggala Arya purusha a noble/supreme individual; holy person; Enlightened; Arihants.
Ariyasacca arya satya the Noble/Supreme Truth; {Cattari Ariyasaccani} the Four Noble Truths; the Four Holy Truths; 1. Sorrow{Dukkha} exists in world 2. Its cause craving of transient(anicca/anitya) worldly 3. Its end exists (nirodha) 4. Its path exists(Ariyamagga of Buddhas).
Arupajhana aroop dhyan the {four} Absorptions of the Formless Sphere.
Arupaloka aroop lok the formless world; the world of the formless; the Formless Realms; the Immaterial Sphere.
Aruparaga aroop raag desire for life in the formless worlds; greed for the formless; greed for immaterial existence; attachment to formless realms.
Arupavacara aroop vachara; 'ch' as in china adj. belonging to the Formless Plane.
Arupavacarabhumi aroop vachara bhumi; 'ch' as in china the Formless Plane; Formless Sphere; Immaterial Sphere.
Asadisadana Asadhya daan Unparalleled Gift; incomparable alms-giving.
asalhapuja Asadh Puja worship on the full-moon day of the asalha month {the eighth lunar month} in commemoration of the First Sermon and the foundation of the Buddhist order.
Asankhatadhamma - that which is not conditioned by any cause; the Unconditioned; Nibbana/Nirvana/Moksha i.e. liberated nirvana state is beyond conditioning, it cannot be modified.
Asankheyya asankhya incalculable.
asannakamma Aasann karma death-proximate kamma; a kamma done immediately before death; proximate kamma.
asava Aasav mental intoxication or defilement; worldly influxes; accumulation; outflows; corruption; canker; taint; pollution.
asavakkhayanana Asav Kshaya Gyan the knowledge of the cessation of mental intoxication; knowledge of the destruction of cankers; knowledge that the outflows are extinct.
Asekha Ashishya one who does not require any further training; an Arahant who attained Nirvana; the adept
Assada Aswad enjoyment; attraction; satisfaction; gratification; advantage.
Assasa Ashwas in-breathing; inhalation.
Asubha ashubh 1. ugly; loathsome. n. loathsomeness; impurity. 2. a corpse.
Asurakaya - the plane of Asura demons; demons
Atekiccha ati kritya adj. incurable; unamendable; irremediable. n. the four major offences, called Parajika, which entail expulsion from the Order.
Atimana ati maan pride; arrogance; contempt; disdain; scorn.
Atirekacivara atireka cheevar; 'ch' as in china an extra robe.
Atirekalabha atirek labh extra acquisitions.
Atitabhava ateeta bhava a previous birth; former life.
Atithibali Atithi bali offering to guests; reception.
Atta, Jiva atma 1. self; soul; atma; atman; ego; personal entity. 2. mind; the whole personality.
Attabhava aatmbhav personality; individuality.
Attadhipateyya aatmadhipati self-dependence; self-reliance; supremacy of self; dominant influence by oneself {or by self-regard}.
Attakilamathanuyoga - Self-Mortification; the constant attachment to Self-Mortification.
Attannuta atma~ the quality of one who knows oneself; knowing oneself.
Attasammapanidhi Atma samyak ~ setting oneself in the right course; aspiring and directing oneself in the right way; perfect self-adjustment; thorough pursuit or development of one's personality.
Attavadupadana atma vadi ~ attachment to the self-{or soul-} theory; the belief in a persistent self or soul; clinging to the ego belief.
Attha arth 1. meaning; the spirit; the correct sense; essence. 2. benefit; advantage; gain; welfare; the good. 3. goal; purpose.
Atthacariya arthchariya benefaction; useful conduct or behaviour; doing a favour; life of service; doing good.
Atthakatha arth katha a commentary.
Aṭṭhaṅgik magga Ashtangik marg The Eightfold path is the step by step method for awakening as described by Lord Buddha. It comprises of 1.Right view 2.Right intention 3.Right speech 4.Right action 5.Right livelihood 6.Right effort 7.Right meditation(sati) 8.Right samadhi(trance)state
Atthannuta arth~ the quality of one who knows what is useful or who knows the correct meaning of something; knowledge of the meaning; knowing the purpose; knowing the consequence.
Atthapatisambhida arth prati sambhida knowledge of the meaning {of words}; the Discrimination of the Meaning; analytic insight of consequence.
Attharati - v. to spread; stretch; lay out; carry out{the kathina robe-making ceremony}.
Avahara - action of stealing.
Avamangala, Petadakkhinadana ,preta-dakshina-dana bad luck; ill omen; adj. unlucky; inauspicious {T.} funeral; rites for the dead; funereal occasion; memorial service.
avasaparivena avasa~ the compound of a monastery; the Wat compound.
Avici avichi; 'ch' as in china the Avici Hell; the lowest hell.
Avijja avidya ignorance; nescience; lack of knowledge; delusion.
Avirodhana avirodh non-obstruction; non-opposition; non-violation; non-deviation from the Dhamma.
ayacana Yachana prayer. v. to pray; chant; say a prayer.
ayatana - the Twelve Spheres; the Twelve Bases; Six bases are five sense-organs plus mind; the rest are six sense-fields or sense-objects including mind-object.
Ayonisomanasikara - disorderly or distracted attention; wrong thinking; unsystematic attention; improper or unwise consideration; lack of analytic reflection.
ayu - 1. age; life-span. 2. longevity; long life.
ayusankhara ayu sanskar factors/constituents of life; vital principle. .
ayusankhara-vossajjana Ayu sanskar visarjan to relinquish the vital force; the Buddha's announcement of his coming death.


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Baddhasima baddh seema boundary established by the Sangha{order}; consecrated area; consecrated place of assembly;{T.} consecrated assembly hall.
Bahulakamma Bahul Karma great karma; great effort;
Bahusacca bahul satya much learning; great learning; profound knowledge.
Bahussuta bahul sutta one who has great knowledge; a very learned man; well-taught man; man of great learning.
Bala baal a child; childlike , a fool; spiritually defective person ; not having knowlege.
Bala Bal power; strength; health; energy.
Bali Bali religious offering {donation in Buddhism}.
Bhagava/Bhagwa Bhagwan in sanskrit the Bhagwan{God}; The Buddha;{This title is repeatedly used to address Gautam Buddha everywhere in the original Pali version of Tipitaka} In India this title especially 'Bhagwan' is used for God as well as for those enlightened persons who have become one with God . The root for this word is 'Bhagna' meaning to shatter, to eliminate & to break {the 3 bonds/fetters of material word i.e. Raga/liking/desire, dosa/dvesh/disliking/hatred, moha/deception/ignorance } . So the words Bhagava,Bhagawa & Bhagawan also represent for the person who has broken all the sanharas or sins of the material world , became absolutely holy & attained all the transcendental states i.e. trance states of self absorption in purity ; and has divine beneficient abilities & magical powers too whose blessings can transform lives.
Bhandagarika Bhandagarika a store-keeper or treasurer.
Bhandukamma - close shaving; act of shaving close.
Bhanga Bhanga dissolution; cessation; dissolving or waning moment.
Bhasita Bhashit a saying.
Bhatta Bhaat food; meal; boiled rice.
Bhattagga bhaat ghar dining room, refectory, meal house.
Bhattaharika* Bhattaharika food carrier; tiffin carrier.
Bhattakicca Bhaat kritya taking a meal.
Bhattuddesaka - one in charge of the distribution of food; an elder who supervises the distribution of food; super- intendent of meals; issuer of meals.
Bhava Bhav becoming; existence; process of becoming; state of existence.
Bhava bhaav fixed nature; condition; state of being.
Bhavana Bhavana development; mental culture; meditation; developing understanding; grasping.
Bhavanamaya Bhavanamayi {merit} gained through, or connected with, meditation; merit accomplished by mental culture; mental culture as a way of making merit.
Bhavanamayapanna Bhavana mayi Pragya {divine} wisdom/knowledge resulting from mental development through direct experience in meditation; understanding through practice {note: This is best knowledge out of all types of panna, others are 1.sutamayapanna/by-listening/reading 2. cintamayapanna/by-thinking/logic/reasoning}.
Bhavanapadhana Bhavana Pradhan the effort to develop unrisen good; the effort to develop wholesome states.
Bhavanga bhavang life-continuum; the subliminal consciousness; constituent of becoming; the passive state of mind.
Bhavatanha Bhava trishna craving for existence; craving for rebirth; craving for sensual pleasures connected with the view of eternalism.
Bhavetabbadhamma Bhavetavya Dharma that {knowledge} which is to be developed/grasped/understood, i.e. the Noble Eightfold Path & the knowledge gained by experience/revealed in meditation, note: several transcendental {divine} or practical aspects which are generally not taught, these are to be understood by experience using meditation.
Bhaveti, Pureti, Bhaveti v. to understand, cultivate, develop, practise; fulfill.
Bhaya Bhaya fear; fright; danger.
Bhayagati Bhaya gati wrong way of behaviour consisting in fear; prejudice caused by fear.
Bhesajja bheshajya medicine; drug.
Bhikkha Bhiksha alms; begged food.
Bhikkhacara Bhiksha-charan going about for alms; begging for alms.
Bhikkhu, Pabbajita Bhikshu, Pravarjit 1. title used when speaking of a Buddhist monk; venerable. 2. a Bhikkhu; Buddhist monk; monk;{in other religions} a priest; minister; clergyman; etc.
Bhikkhuni Bhikshuni a Bhikkhuni; Bhikshuni; Buddhist nun.
Bhikkhusissa, aramika, Kappiyakaraka Bhiksu-shishya monastery boy; monastery pupil; temple boy; a monk's pupil.
Bhoga Bhoga wealth; riches; possession; enjoyment.
Bhojana Bhojana food; meal.
Bhojanemattannuta - moderation in eating.
Bhojaniya Bhojaniya fit to be eaten; soft food.
Bhumi Bhumi 1. ground; plane; stage;foundation; level. 2.plane of existence; plane of consciousness.
Bhummadevatthana* bhumi dev sthana {guardian-} spirit house.
Bhunjati bhojyati, bhogyati v.{of a monk or novice} to eat; take food.
Bhuta Bhuta, Bhoota 1. the elements of which the body is composed. 2. a living being; born creature. 3. a ghost. 4. an Arahant.
Bijaniyama Bija-niyama physical organic order; biological laws.
Bodhi Bodhi Enlightenment. v. to be enlightened; attain enlightenment.
Bodhinana Bodhi Gyan Enlightenment; supreme knowledge.
Bodhipakkhiya-dhamma Bodhi Paksha Dharma {the thirty-seven} qualities contributing to enlightenment; virtues partaking of enlightenment.
Bodhirukkha Bodhi Vriksh the Bo tree; the Bodhi Tree; pipal tree; the Ficus Religiosia.
Bodhisatta Bodhisattva the Bodhisatta; Bodhisattva; a Buddha-to-be; Enlightenment- being; candidate for Buddhahood; one who has resolved to attain enlightenment for the helping of his fellow beings.
Bojjhanga Bodhi anga {the seven} Constituents {or Factors} of Enlightenment; enlightenment factors.
Brahma Brahma {In Buddhism} one of many higher divine beings of either of the With-Form Spheres or of the Formless Worlds; Archangel; happy and blameless celestial being; inhabitant of the higher heavens.
Brahmacari Brahmachari one who leads a holy or chaste life of celibacy (Brahmacariya); celibate.
Brahmacariya Brahmacharya Lit. Holy celibate Life (Brahmacariya); Life without sexual activity; celibate life; chaste life; strict chastity; implied: The path of Buddhas consisting of celibacy, non-violence (sheel) & meditation leading to enlightenment (actually eightfold path).
Brahmadanda brahma dand lit. sublime punishment; punishment by suspending or breaking off conversation and communication; sanctioned punishment by silent treatment.
Brahmaloka Brahma-loka the Brahma {arch-angel} world; the sublime-Material and Immaterial Worlds.
Brahmana Brahmin a Brahmin; man of the Brahmin caste; a priest.
Brahmavihara Brahma-vihara {the four} Divine States {of mind}; the four noble sentiments; the Highest Conduct; the sublime states of mind {including celibate life without sexual activity}.
Buddha Buddha the Buddha; Lord Buddha; the Enlightened One; the Awakened One. Elsewhere in Pali canon he is also addresed as Bhagava or Bhagwa {God} ; He is also addressed as Sattha {Teacher} .
Buddhabhasita Buddha-bhasita what was said by the Buddha; the Buddha's sayings.
Buddhacakka Buddha-chakra the Buddhist monastic order.
Buddhacariya Buddha Acharan; 'ch' as in china the Buddha's conduct; the Buddha's course of conduct; the Buddha's career or style of life; the Buddha's life activities; the way of the Buddha.
Buddhaguna Buddha-guna the quality {virtue or character} of the Buddha.
Buddhakala Buddha-kaal the time of the Buddha {or a Buddha}; the advent of the Buddha.
Buddhakicca Buddha kritya the Buddha's daily routine; duty of the Buddha.
Buddhamamaka Bouddh one devoted to the Buddha; one who professes Buddhism; Buddhist.
Buddhantara Buddh-antaral a Buddha-interval; the period between the appearance of one Buddha and the next.
Buddhanussati Buddha anushaya smriti recollection of the Buddha; reflection on the virtue of the Buddha.(word sati/smriti means meditation)
Buddhapada Buddhapad the Buddha's footprint.
Buddhaparisa Buddha parishad the Buddhist assembly; the four assemblies of Buddhists; Buddhists {collectively}.
Buddhapatima Buddha Pratima a Buddha image/statue.
Buddhapavatti* - the life of the Buddha; life-story of the Buddha.
Buddharupa Buddha rupa the figure of the Buddha; a Buddha image.
Buddhasaka*B.E. Buddha-saka*B.E the Buddhist Era .
Buddhasasana Buddha Shashan Buddhism; the teaching of the Buddha; The system of Buddhist practice
Buddhavacana Buddha Vachan the word of the Buddha;{T.} any sayings or teachings of the Buddha.
Buddhavamsa Buddha-vanshawali the History of the Buddhas; name of the fourteenth division of the Khuddaka Nikaya.
Buddhavasa* Buddha awas 'residence of the Buddha'; the sanctuary or public precincts of a monastery.
Buddhicarita Buddhi charitra Character/behaviour of the enlightened person; lit. the intellectual; the wise; one whose behaviour or character is wisdom; an intelligent-natured person.
Byadhi vyadhi disease; sickness; ailment.
Byapada vyapad ill-will; hatred; malevolence; aversion.


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Caga Tyaga 1. charity; generosity; sacrifice; self-denial; liberality; munificence; benefaction. 2. abandoning; giving up; renunciation.
Caganussati Tyaga-anushaya-smriti reflection on subject of generosity/donation; recollection of liberality.(word sati/smriti means meditation)
Cagasampada Tyaga sampada achievement of charity.
Cakka chakra; 'ch' as in china wheel with spokes, circle, the set of four virtues, being like the four wheels of a carriage, constituting the means to prosperity; virtues wheeling to prosperity.
Cakkavala chakra~; 'ch' as in china a world-circle; solar system; universe.
Cakkavatti chakra-varti; 'ch' as in china world-king; a universal monarch, endowed with the seven valuables or treasures, an emperor.
Cakkhu chakshu; 'ch' as in china the eye.
Cakkhudvara chakshu dvar; 'ch' as in china the eye-door; eye venue; eye sense organ
Cakkhuvinnana chaksu vigyan; 'ch' as in china eye-consciousness; eye awareness.
Candagati* chandra-gati the system of a lunar calendar.
Candala chandal; 'ch' as in china an outcaste; the untouchable.
Cankama chankramana; 'ch' as in china walking up and down; a terraced walk. v. to walk up and down.
Carana charan; acharan; 'ch' as in china behaviour; conduct; good conduct.
Carika charika; 'ch' as in china 1. a traveller; wanderer; way-farer. 2. a wandering place. 3. a journey; wandering. 4.{T,} v. to wander; go on a journey.
Carita charitra the intrinsic nature of a person; {the six types of} characteristic behaviour; character; temperament.
Carittaniyama, Pujavidhi - rite; ritual; ceremony.
Cariyapitaka Achar pitaka ; 'ch' as in china Modes of Conduct{of Buddha in earlier lives}; name of the fifteenth division/book of the Khuddaka Nikaya regarding conduct of Bodhisattva.
Cariyavatta* achar vrata; 'ch' as in china 1. customs and manners to be observed; duties concerned with conduct. 2. conduct and duties; moral conduct and the performance of duties.
Cattari Ariyasaccani Chatvari Arya sacchani; 'ch' as in china the Four Noble/supreme Truths; the Four Holy Truths {1.sorrow in the world(Dukkha), 2.cravings {of transient worldly} as the cause of sorrow, 3. cessation of sorrow is possible , 4. existence of the path that leads to salvation from sorrow}
Catubbidhavara* Chatu~; 'ch' as in china the fourfold blessing; the four excellent things, viz., long life, beauty, happiness and health.
Catuddasi chaturdashi; 'ch' as in china the 14th day of a fortnight.
Catudhatuvavatthana chatu-dhatu ~ analysis of the four elements; determining of the elements; contemplation on the four essential qualities of which the body is composed.
Catummaharajika chatur maharajika; 'ch' as in china the Four Guardian Deities; the realm of the Four Great Kings.
Caturangasannipata chatur anga sannipata; 'ch' as in china the Great Assembly of Disciples marked by the union of four factors.
Catutthajjhana chaturtha dhyan the fourth Jhana; the fourth absorption.
Catuvagga chatu varga a chapter of four monks.
Cetana chetana; 'ch' as in china awareness; consciousness; volition; will; intention.
Cetasika chaitsik; 'ch' as in china related to consciousness; mental concomitants; mental factors; mental states; mental activities; the adjuncts of consciousness; mental adjuncts; mental coefficients.
Cetasikadukkha chaitsik dukkha; 'ch' as in china mental pain.
Cetasikasukha chaitsik sukkha; 'ch' as in china mental happiness.
Cetiya chaitya; 'ch' as in china 1. a person, place or object worthy of worship; reminder. 2.{T.} a sepulchral monument; pagoda; shrine; dagoba; bell-shaped stupa{with a slender spire}; tapering-spired stupa; Phra Chedi.
Cetiyamahapuja*, Viharasamajja*, ~ussava*, ~maha* chaitya~ temple fair.
Cetopariyanana cheto pariyaya gyan; 'ch' as in china knowledge of others' thoughts; telepathy.
Cetovimutti cheto vimukti; 'ch' as in china nirvana of mind, deliverance of mind, salvation of mind.
Chabbannaramsi chah~; 'ch' as in china the ray of six colours.
Chakamavacaradevaloka chah kamavachar devalok; 'ch' as in china the six heavens of sensual pleasures.
Chalabhinna Chah Labhanvit; 'ch' as in china holder of the sixfold supernormal knowledge;holder of the six psychic powers.
Chanda achand; 'ch' as in china 1. will; aspiration; the will to do; resolve; zeal; desire; impulse; wish; loving interest; desire for truth and understanding. 2. consent; declaration of consent to an official act by an absentee; proxy vote. metrics; prosody; a metre; metrical composition.
Chandagati - the wrong way of behaviour consisting in predilection; prejudice caused by love; partiality.
Chatta chatra; 'ch' as in china royal canopy; sunshade; parasol.
Chaya Chaya 1.{T.} the Pali monastic name of a Buddhist monk; ordination-name. 2. shade; shadow.
Cintamayapanna chintan mayi pragya; 'ch' as in china understanding through reasoning; wisdom resulting from reflection.
Citaka Chita a funeral pile; crematorium; pyre; crematory; catafalque.
Citakalimpana, Sarirajjhapana Chita~; 'ch' as in china light the funeral pyre.
Citta chitta; 'ch' as in china thought; mind; a state of consciousness, thoughtfulness; active.
Cittakkhana chitt kshan a thought-moment.
Cittaniyama chitta niyama; 'ch' as in china psychic order; psychic law; order of mind.
Cittanupassana chitta anushaya pashyana; 'ch' as in china the observation of mind ; the contemplation of mind; contemplation of various states of mind; mindfulness as regards mental states.
Cittasankhara chitta sanskar; 'ch' as in china mental formation; mental attribute; character/nature of mind {of a person}; mental functions i.e. perception and feeling.
Cittavijani, thanantaravijani - an ornamental long-handled fan used as insignia of a monastic rank; fan as rank insignia; rank fan; official fan; fan insignia.
Cittavisuddhi chitta vishuddhi; 'ch' as in china purity of mind; purification of consciousness.
Cittuppada chitta utpada; 'ch' as in china the rise of a thought; thought; intention.
Civara cheevar; 'ch' as in china 1. the yellow robe{of a Buddhist monk or novice}; any of the three garments of the monk. 2.{T.} the upper or inner robe.
Codaka - reprover; accuser; plaintiff.
Codana - reproof; charge; accusation; plaint.
Culasanghamandalapamokkha* chool sangh mandal pramukh; 'ch' as in china the Ecclesiastical Regional Governor.
Cullavagga chool varga; 'ch' as in china Smaller Section; name of a book of the Vinaya Pitaka.
Cuti chyuti; 'ch' as in china shifting {out of one existence to another}; decease; the final thought-moment of a particular life; death.
Cuticitta chyuti chitta; 'ch' as in china death experiencing mind ; dying or death experiencing mind; the mind disconnecting the present life.
Cutivinnana chyuti vigyan; 'ch' as in china death-consciousness; dying or death-consciousness; the consciousness dis- connecting the present life.
Cutupapatanana chyuti utpatti gyan; 'ch' as in china the knowledge of the decease and rebirth of beings; the clairvoyant supernormal vision dealing with the death and rebirth of beings; the perception of the appearing and disappearing of various beings according to the consequences of their past deeds.


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Dadhi dahi curd; sour milk.
Dakkhina dakshina a gift; donation; dedicatory gift; an intercessional expiatory offering; donation given to a holy person with reference to unhappy beings in the Peta existence, intended for the alleviation of their sufferings.
Dakkhinanikaya - the Southern School of Buddhism, i.e. the Theravada.
Dakkhinanuppadana* Dakshina anupadana offering made to a monk or monks on behalf of the dead.
Dakkhinavatta dakshina vrata winding to the right; clockwise; respectfully circumventing a person clockwise.
Dakkhineyya-puggala dakshineyya~ an individual deserving a donation; one worthy of a donation {i.e. monk}.
Dakkhinodaka Dakshina odaka water of dedication; consecrated water; holding water in hand as dedication as a matter of donation of something.
Dakkhinodakapatana Dakshino~ v. pouring the water of dedication {to transfer merit to other beings}.
Dalhikamma ~karma making firm; strengthening by repeating, as reordination.
Dama dum self-command; self-control; taming; subjugation; training; mastery; adjustment.
Dana - Lit. giving; gift; alms-giving; charity; generosity; benevolence; liberality; a gift; donation; alms; benefaction.
Danamaya Daan-maya {merit} gained through, or connected with, alms-giving; the way of making merit, consisting in alms-giving or charity.
Danapati Daan-pati (may also be dhanpati) 1. lord of alms; master in liberality. 2. one in charge of alms-giving; chief donor.
Danapati, Nimantaka danapati, nimantrak the host; sponsor; chief donor.
Dandakamma danda karma punishment; penalty.
Dasabala Dasa-bala 1. the Ten Powers of the Buddha. 2. one who is endowed with ten supernormal powers, i.e. the Buddha.
Dasabalanana Dasa-bala-gyan the ten supreme intellectual powers of the Buddha.
Dasajati Dasa-jatya the ten longest birth-stories of the Buddha, regarded as the most important.
Dasaparami dasa-parmita the ten perfections; the ten principal virtues practised by a Bodhisatta.
Dasarajadhamma das raj dharma the tenfold code of the king; the tenfold virtue or duty of the king; the ten royal virtues; virtues of a ruler.
Dasavara Dasa-var the ten blessings; ten boons.
Dassana darshan 1. seeing; sight; intuition. 2. view; opinion; theory.
Dathadhatu danta-dhatu the tooth relic {of the Buddha}.
Dayaka Daayak almsgiver; donor; benefactor; the lay supporter of Bhikkhus; lay giver; lay supporter.
Dayika Daayika a female donor.
Desakala desh kaal a season for merit-making and local festivals.
Desana deshna preaching; discourse; sermon; instruction. v. to preach; expound the Doctrine; give a sermon.
Deti Det v. to offer, give or present {to a monk or a prince}.
Deva Deva;Devata lit. a shining one; god; deity; divine being; angel.
Devadhamma deva dharma divine virtue/conduct; the conduct of angels/devas; the virtues that make divine, i.e. moral shame and dread.
Devaduta Deva-doot lit. gods' messenger; divine messenger; a symbolic name for those things which remind man of his future and rouse him to earnest striving.
Devaloka Deva-lok world of gods; heaven; celestial realm.
Devarupa* Deva-roop an image of a deity; idol.
Devata Devata a celestial or heavenly being; deity; angel; same as deva.
Devatabali Devata-bali an offering to the deity.
Devatanussati devata anushaya smriti recollection of heavenly beings; reflection on deifying virtues as found in oneself.
Deyyadana Deyya dana a gift fit to be given; gift; donation.
Deyyadhamma deyya dharma that which has the quality of being given; gift; offerings/donations/alms {to monks etc.}
Dhamakaraka - a filter; water-strainer.
Dhamma dharma 1. the Dharma; the Dhamma; the Doctrine; the Teachings{of the Buddha}. 2.the Law; nature. 3. the Truth; Ultimate Reality. 4. the Supramundane, especially nibbana. 5. quality; righteousness; virtue; morality; good conduct; right behaviour. 6. tradition; practice; principle; norm; rule; duty. 7. justice; impartiality. 8. thing; phenomenon. 9. a cognizable object; mind-object; idea. 10. mental state; mental factor; mental activities. 11. condition; 12. cause; causal antecedent; 13. attribute, property, 14. path of Buddha, 15. Eightfold Path
Dhammabhisamaya Dharma abhisamaya understanding of the Truth; conversion to the Dhamma; enlightenment.
Dhammacakka dharma chakra The Wheel of the path {of Buddhas that leads to nirvana/liberation}; the Wheel of the Law; the Wheel of Truth; the eight spoked {eightfold} wheel on path of righteousness.
Dhammacakkappavattanasutta Dharma chakra pravartana sutra the discourse of setting in motion the Wheel of the Doctrine; the Discourse of the Foundation of the Kingdom of Righteousness; the First Sermon of Lord Buddha near Benaras.
Dhammacakkhu dharma chakshu the insight developed with experience of Dhamma within {in/by meditation}; lit. the Eye of Truth; the Eye of Wisdom; divine eye .
Dhammacarika Dharma charika; 'ch' as in china wandering Dhamma-preacher; spiritual-welfare worker.
Dhammacariya dharma acharana or acharya observance of righteousness; righteous conduct; {Also dharma teacher}.
Dhammacetiya Dharma chaitya a shrine in which sacred texts are housed; a shrine of the Doctrine; doctrinal monument.
Dhammadana Dharma daan the Gift of Truth; giving gift of the Dhamma{Buddha's path} such as sheel{morality) & meditation leading to enlightenment.
Dhammadesana Dharma anudeshana expounding the Dhamma; preaching the path of Buddha; exposition of the Doctrine; a sermon.
Dhammadesanamaya Dharma anudesanamaya {merit} connected with, or to be gained through preaching {the path of Buddha}; the way of making merit consisting in moral instruction.
Dhammadesanapuja*, Dhamma kathikadeyya* Dharma~ , DharmaKatha~ offerings/donation for a sermon given.
Dhammadhara Dharma dhar Dhamma bearer; one versed in the Dhamma; an expert in the Dhamma.
Dhammadhatu Dharma dhatu 1. a mental object. 2. the cosmic law.
Dhammadhipateyya Dharma adhipatya regard of the Dhamma{the Law or righteousness} as being supreme; supremacy of the Dhamma; dominant influence by the Dhamma; rule of the true law; rule of righteousness.
Dhammadhitthana Dharma adhishthan exposition in terms of ideas/path {of Buddhas}; teaching with reference to ideas/path.
Dhammaduta* Dharma doot Dhamma-messenger; Buddhist field-preacher; Buddhist missionary.
Dhammagayaka* Dharma gayak a chanter of verses of Buddha's teachings.
Dhammaguna dharma guna virtue or quality of the Dhamma.
Dhammakamata Dharmic mati the quality of one who loves the Dhamma; love of Truth & righteousness.
Dhammakatha dharma katha ethical discussion; religious talk; talk on the Dhamma/path of Buddha; Dhamma- lecture.
Dhammakathika dharma kathika one who preaches the Doctrine {the path of Buddhas}; a preacher.
Dhammakkhandha dharma khanda a portion of the Dhamma; a main article of the Doctrine; a textual unit; a category of the Dhamma.
Dhammaniyama Dharma Niyam order of the norm; law of the Dhamma; certainty or orderliness of causes and effects; general law of cause and effect.
Dhammannuta Dharma anuttara the quality of one who knows the Law/Dhamma ; knowing the cause or origin; knowing the principles.
Dhammanudhammapatipatti Dharma-anushaya-dharma~ practice in perfect conformity to the Dhamma.
Dhammanupassana Dharma-anushaya-pashyana the Contemplation of Mind-object; contemplation/meditation of {inner}phenomena; Reflection on the virtues/subject of the Dhamma/natural law; mindfulness as regards the Dhamma; awareness of inner experiential phenomenon.
Dhammanussati Dharma-anushaya-smriti Meditation on experiential Dhamma , the truth experienced in meditation and in samadhi/trance states; Also sometimes recollection of the doctrine/path.(word sati/smriti means meditation)
Dhammapada Dharmapad 1. Way of Truth; An Anthology of Sayings of the Buddha; name of the second division of the Khuddaka Nikaya.2. a line or stanza of the Doctrine; a word of the Doctrine; talk or discourse on the Dhamma.
Dhammapakasanadhikara* Dharma prakashan adhikari Board of Sangha's {order's} Propagation.
Dhammapariyaya Dharma pariyaya matter related to Dharma/path of Buddha; disquisition.
Dhammapatisambhida Dharma pati sambhida Discrimination of the Law; analytical knowledge of the Law; discriminating knowledge of reasons, conditions or causal relations.
Dhammappamanika Dharma pramanika those who measure or judge by righteousness; those whose faith depends on the Dhamma or on righteous behaviour.
Dhammarammana Dharma~ a mind-object; cognizable object; cognoscible object.
Dhammasabha Dharma sabha the Hall of Truth; a hall for the discussion of the Dhamma; a place for religious meeting.
Dhammasakaccha Dharma~ discussion about the Doctrine; religious discussion.
Dhammasala Dharma Shala preaching hall; study hall; hall for religious lectures
Dhammasana Dharma asana the Dhamma-seat; a seat on which a monk sits while preaching; pulpit.
Dhammasangani Dharma sangini Classification of Dhammas; Enumeration of Phenomena; name of the first book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka.
Dhammasenapati Dharma senapati general of the Dhamma; Commander in Chief of the Law; an title of the Venerable Sariputta.
Dhammassavana Dharma Shravana hearing the Dhamma; hearing the preaching of the Dhamma/path of Buddha; hearing a sermon; listening to the good teaching.
Dhammassavanamaya Dharma shravanmaya {merit} connected with, or to be gained through, hearing a sermon; the way of making merit consisting in listening to the Dhamma/path of Buddha.
Dhammata Dharma-mat general rule; nature; the law of nature; cosmic law.
Dhammavadi Dharma vadi one who speaks according to the Dhamma; speaker of the doctrine; speaker of the rightful things.
Dhammavibhaga Dharma vibhag classification of dhammas; enumeration of the Dhamma; Dhamma classification.
Dhammavicaya Dharma vichaya; 'ch' as in china investigation of the Truth or the Doctrine;{T.} research on the Dhamma; search of Truth.
Dhammavijaya Dharma vijay conquest by piety; conquest by righteousness.
Dhammavinaya Dharma vinay Dhamma-Vinaya; the Norm-Discipline; the Doctrine and the Discipline.
Dhammayuttika-nikaya* - the Dhammayutika Sect; Law-Abiding Sect;
Dhammika* Dharmika one learned in the Doctrine; Doctrine-knower; one who has passed the examination of any of the three grades of Dhamma-study; eccl. graduate of Dhamma studies; Dhamma graduate; Dhamma scholar
Dhammikatha Dharma Katha religious talk regarding Dhamma; discussion concerning the Doctrine; Dhamma talk.
Dhatu Dhatu 1. an element; natural condition; that which carries its own characteristic mark. 2. a relic, especially that of the Buddha or an Arahant.
Dhatucetiya dhatu chaitya a shrine over the Buddha's relic; dagoba. . .
Dhatukatha Dhatukatha Discussion with reference to the Elements; name of the third book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka.
Dhiti dhriti energy; courage; steadfastness; firm character; resolution; wisdom.
Dhupa dhoop an incense-stick; joss-stick.
Dhupabhajana* - incensory; censer.
Dhura - burden; load; duty; charge; office; responsibility.
Dhutanga - {the thirteen} Austere Practices; constituents of ascetic practice to remove defilements.
Dibba divya divine; heavenly; celestial.
Dibbacakkhu divya chakshu divine eye; heavenly eye; clairvoyance.
Dibbasota divya strota divine ear; heavenly ear; clairaudience.
Dighanikaya dirgha nikaya name of the first main division of the Sutta Pitaka; lit. the Collection of Long Discourses; Dialogues of the Buddha.
Ditthadhamma drishta dharma the visible order of things; present condition; this world; the present life; temporality.
Ditthadhammavedaniya-kamma drishta dharma vedaniya karma immediately seen effective kamma; kamma ripening during the life-time.
Ditthadhammikattha Drishya~ gain for this life; present benefit; temporal welfare; sources of happiness in the present life.
Ditthavikamma - an open statement of one's view; explanation of views; view clarification.
Ditthi drishti 1. a theory; view; belief; opinion; speculation; dogma. 2. misbelief; erroneous opinion; false theory; philosophy.
Ditthi-samannata drishti samanvata equality in view; unity in view.
Ditthivisuddhi drishti vishuddhi purity of understanding; purification of view.
Ditthujukamma - straightening of one's own views.
Ditthupadana - clinging to erroneous opinions; attachment to views.
Domanassa domanasya a painful mental feeling; {mental} displeasure; sad-mindedness; grief.
Dosa dvesha hatred; anger; ill-will; aversion.
Dosa, Vajja, adinava dosh fault; blemish; defect; corruption; depravity; disadvantage.
Dosacarita dvesha charitra the hateful; one of hating temperament; a quick-tempered person.
Dosagati Dosh-gati wrong way of behaviour consisting in hatred; prejudice caused by hatred.
Dubbhasita dur bhasita an offence of wrong speech.
Duccarita Dushcharitra bad conduct; wrong action.
Duggati durgati {the 3 or 4} States of Unhappiness; woeful courses of existence; evil states;woeful existences.
Dukkarakiriya dushkar kiriya the practice of austerities; self-mortification.
Dukkata durkata an offence of wrongdoing.
Dukkha Ariyasacca Dukha Aryasatya the Noble Truth of Suffering {the first of four noble/supreme truths}.
Dukkha Dukkha 1. suffering; misery; woe; pain; ill; sorrow; trouble; discomfort; unsatisfactoriness; problematic situation; stress; conflict. adj. unsatisfactory; miserable; painful; subject to suffering; ill; causing pain. 2. physical or bodily pain; difficulty; unease; ill-being.
Dukkhanirodha Ariyasacca Dukha-nirodha Aryasatya the Noble/supreme Truth of the Cessation of Suffering; the Noble Truth of the Extinction of Suffering {third of four noble truths}.
Dukkhanirodhagaminipatipada Ariyasacca Dukha-nirodha-gamini-pratipada Aryasatya the Noble/supreme Truth of the Path that leads to the Cessation {or, the Extinction} of Suffering {the final of four noble truths taught by Buddha}.
Dukkhasamudaya Ariyasacca Dukha-sam-udaya Aryasatya the Noble/supreme Truth of the Cause {or, the Origin} of Suffering; the Noble Truth of the Condition of the Arising of Suffering {second of four noble truths taught by Buddha}.
Dukkhata Dukkhatya the state of being subject to suffering; painfulness; stress; conflict.
Dukkhavedana Dukha-vedana painful sensation/feeling.
Dussakutika - an umbrella-like tent.
Dussila dush sheel of bad conduct; void of morality;immoral.
Dutiyajjhana dvitiya dhyana the second Jhana; the second absorption.
Dvara Dvara 1. door; avenue. 2. a sense-door; sense-avenue. 3. door of action.
Dvevacika dvevachika;'ch' as in china lit. pronouncing two words or two times; especially those who pronounce the words, taking only two refuges, viz., the Buddha and the Dhamma, Tapussa and Bhallika being the first ones.


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Ekaggata ekagrata one-pointedness {of mind}; mental one-pointedness; concentration.
Ekamsam Ekamsam v. to arrange the upper robe over one shoulder{the left one}.
Etadagga - foremost; first or best of that class or type.


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Gahasikhara griha shikhar gable; pediment.
Gahattha Grahastha a householder; layman; the laity {not a monk; not ascetic}
Gamasamuhasanghadhipati* gram samuha sangh adhipati the Ecclesiastical Commune-Chief; Eccl. Sub-District Head.
Gamavasi Gram vasi {T.} a town-monk, village dweller
Gamikavihara* Gamika-vihar private monastery; community monastery.
Gana -Gan group; denomination; monastery section.
Ganadhipati* gana adhi pati 1. chief monk of an administrative division; eccl. chief officer; eccl. governor. The term Ecclesiastical, or its abbreviation Eccl. can be prefixed to the title of a government administrative officer at different levels to designate its equivalent in the Ecclesiastical Order, e.g. Eccl. District Officer, for . 2. chief monk of a monastery section.
Ganapuraka gana purusha one who completes the quorum; quorum-completing monk.
Gandha Gandha odour; odorous object; smell.
Gandhabba Gandharva 1. a heavenly musician, 2. a being ready to take a new existence.
Gandighara ghanta ghar belfry; bell tower.
Gantha, Potthaka, Pakarana Grantha, Pustak, Prakarna {T.} a scripture; text; canon; religious book.
Ganthadhura Grantha dhar knower{master} of scriptures, the burden of studying the Scriptures; the burden of the books.
Garava garv respect; reverence; esteem; attention; appreciative action.
Garudhamma Gaurav Dharma {the eight} strict conditions or chief rules to be observed by the Buddhist nun throughout her life.
Garukakamma Gaurav kari karma Weighty Action; karma of serious or strong effect.
Garutthaniyabhikkhu* - the title of a monastic dignitary ; Venerable Teacher.
Garutthaniyapuggala - a respectable person.
Gatha Gatha a verse; stanza of 4 half-lines
Gati Gati {the five} courses of existence; destiny; destination.
Gehamangala* Gruha-mangala house-blessing ceremony; blessing to the house.
Gehapathamaparibhogamangala*, Gehappavesana-mangala* Grih pratham paribhoja mangala, grih-praveshana-mangala First donation of food on aquiring a new house;
Ghana ghrana the nose.
Ghanadvara ghrana dvar nose-door; nose-avenue.
Ghanasanna ghrana sangya perception of smell.
Ghanavinnana ghrana vigyan nose-consciousness; process of idenfication of smells , fragrances & scents & forming idea about these.
Gharavasa griha vasa 1. the household life. 2. {T.} a householder; layman; the laity.
Gharavasa-dhamma griha-vas-dharma virtues for a good household life; rules of household conduct; qualities of a good layman.
Ghosappamanika ghos-pramanik those who measure or judge by voice; those whose faith depends on sweet voice or good repute; those attached to voice.
Gihipatipatti* Grihi pati ~ practices for the layman; code of morality for the laity.
Gilanabhesajja Gilani Bheshajya drug; medicine for the sick.
Gilanapaccaya Gilani pratya support for the sick; requisites for the sick; medicine.
Gocara gochara; 'ch' as in china 1. field or sphere of sense perception; a sense-object. 2. a suitable place; resort for alms; alms resort.
Gocaragama gochara gram a village where a monk goes for alms or obtains his food; alms-resort village.
Gotama Gautam name of the clan to which the Buddha belonged.
Gotta gotra clan; ancestry; lineage.
Guna Guna 1. quality; property. 2. good quality; virtue; merit.
Gunadhamma Guna Dharma goodness; virtue; good conduct.
Gunassami* gunasya swami a title unofficially used in speaking to or of a monk of a higher rank; The Right Venerable.


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Hadayavatthu Hridya vastu heart-base; mind base; the heart; the physical base of mental life.
Hamsapada - crimson.
Hasituppadacitta Harshit utpada chitta; 'ch' as in china smile producing consciousness.
Hatthapasa hasta pasa the distance within a hand's reach.
Hetu Hetu a cause; causal condition; root- cause.
Hinayana Heen yaan the Lesser Vehicle; the Smaller Vehicle; the Southern School of Buddhism; Theravada.
Hiri - moral shame.


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Iccha Iccha 1. desire. 2.{T.} .
Iddhi riddhi success; supernormal power; psychic power; magical power.
Iddhipada riddhi pada the Four Paths of {magical} Accomplishment; Means of Accomplishment; the means of accomplishing one's own end or purpose; the four Roads to Power; basis for success.
Iddhipatihariya Riddhi pratiharya a wonder of psychic power; marvel; miracle.
Iddhividhi riddhi viddhi psychic powers; different psychic powers; various magical powers.
Indajalikavatthu* Indrajalika vastu an amulet; talisman.
Indriya Indriya 1. the sense-faculties; the sense-forces. 2. spiritual faculties; faculties.
Indriyasamvarasila Indriya samvar sheel discipline as regards sense-restraint; Sense-Restraint; purity of conduct consisting in the restraint of the senses.
Iriyapatha - deportment; posture.
Isi Rishi an experienced & knowledgeable sage; seer; hermit; ascetic.
Issa Irsha envy; jealousy.
Itivuttaka - 'Thus it was said' Discourses of Buddha; name of the fourth division of the Khuddaka Nikaya.


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Jagariyanuyoga Jagriti anushaya yoga practice of watchfulness; avoidance of sleep; wakefulness.
Jalabuja - womb-born creatures; those born from the womb; the viviparous.
JambudipaJamun, Jambu jambu-dvipa the continent of the rose-apples, i.e. India; ancient name of the Indian sub-continent.
Janakakamma janaka karma reproductive kamma; regenerative kamma.
Jannukahi nipatati - v. to sit on one's heels; kneel.
Jara Jara old age; decay.
Jataka Jataka 1. a birth story; the stories of the Buddha's previous lives. 2. Birth Stories; name of the tenth division of the Khuddaka Nikaya.
Jati Janm birth; rebirth.
Jatila jatil a class of ascetics with matted hair, usually worshipping fire alongwith chants, sometimes classed under Isi; matted-hair ascetic.
Javana - impulsion; apperception; impulsive moment; a phase or stage of the process of consciousness at which there is full perception and at which kamma is performed, usually lasting for seven thought-moments.
Jayamangalagatha jaye mangal gatha stanzas for the blessing or glory of victory.
Jhana Dhyan Meditative self absorption; trance; ecstasy; a state of serene contemplation attained by meditation; {mis.} , {note: Jhana a.k.a zen also associated with samadhi state}. Jhana(Samadhi) are of 9 self-illuminated states which reveal divine wisdom. See sutta 2.152 of Samyutta Nikaya(SN) for details.
Jhapanakicca ~kritya cremation.
Jhapanatthana ~sthana crematorium.
Jina - 1. the conqueror; the victor; the Buddha. 2. Jain; Jaina.
Jinaputta, Jinorasa jina-putra a disciple of the Buddha.
Jiva, Atta jiva, atman soul; the self; atman.
Jivha Jivha the tongue.
Jivhadvara jivha-dvar tongue-door; tongue-avenue, tongue sense organ .
Jivhavinnana jivha vigyan tongue-consciousness.
Jivita Jeevit;Jeevan life; vitality.
Jivitindriya Jivitindriya vitality; life-principle; psychic life; the faculty of life.
Junha-pakkha, Sukka-~ , Shukla paksha the waxing moon.


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Kalala - the embryo in the first week after conception.
Kalamarana kaal marana timely death.
Kalannuta kaal anuttara the quality of one who knows the proper time; knowing the proper time; knowledge of how to choose and keep time.
Kalyanamittata Kalyan Mitrata good friendship; good company; association with the virtuous.
Kama Kaam sense-desire; desire; sensuality; an object of sensual enjoyment; sensual {or sexual} pleasures.
Kamabhava Kaam Bhava the sphere or state of existence dominated by sensual {or sexual} pleasures; Sensuous Existence; Sense Sphere.
Kamachanda Kaam-achanda sensual desire; excitement of sensual {or sexual} pleasure.
Kamaguna Kaam Gun sensual pleasures; attribute of sensual {or sexual} enjoyment; .
Kamaloka Kaam Lok the world of sense-desire; the Sense Sphere; the world of sensual {or sexual} pleasures.
Kamaraga Kaam Rag sensual passion; sensual lust; sense-desire; sensuality; desire for sensual {or sexual} pleasures.
Kamasamvara Kaam Samvara sexual restraint.
Kamasukha Kaam Sukh worldly happiness; happiness arising from sensual {or sexual} pleasures.
Kamasukhallikanuyoga - self-indulgence; sensual indulgence; the constant attachment to sensual {or sexual} pleasures.
Kamatanha Kaam Trishna sensual craving; craving for sensual {or sexual} pleasures.
Kamavacara Kaam vachara ; 'ch as in china belonging to the Sense Sphere.
Kamavacarabhumi Kaam vachara bhumi; 'ch' as in china the Sensuous Plane of Existence; the Sense Sphere; the Sensuous Sphere.
Kamavitakka Kaam Vitark thought of sensual {or sexual} pleasures.
Kamesumicchacara Kaamesu mithyachar; 'ch' as in china sexual misconduct; sensual misconduct; unlawful sexual intercourse; adultery.
Kamma Karma 1. karma; kamma; a volitional action; action; deed; good and bad volition. 2. work; job; activity; transaction.
Kammabhava Karma-Bhava kamma-process; the active process of becoming.
Kammakilesa Kilesh-karma an action causing impurity; depravity of action; vice of conduct.
Kammaniyama Karma Niyam order of act and result; the Law of Kamma.
Kammapatha Karma Path course of action; way of action; kamma as the way leading to the woeful or blissful existences.
Kammatthana Karma-sthana subjects of meditation; meditation exercises; the act of meditation or contemplation; ground for mental culture.
Kammavaca Karma vacha ; 'ch' as in China the formal words of an act; text of a formal act, i.e. a motion together with one or three proclamations that may follow.
Kammavacacariya Karma Vacha Acharya; 'ch' as in China Act Announcing Teacher;{First} Ordination- Teacher.
Kamupadana Kaam upadana sensuous clinging; attachment to sensuality.
Kanda Kand 1. a chapter, portion or part {of a religious book}. 2. a sermon.
Kanha-pakkha, Kala-~ Krishna paksha the waning moon.
Kankha Shanka doubt; uncertainty.
Kannika, Kutapilandhana* - the curved finial {of a gable}; gable-finial;{elongated ornate} gable spire.
Kannikaropana* - {T.} the ceremony of mounting the gable-finial.
Kappa Kalpa 1. an aeon; world-aeon; world-age; world-cycle; world-period. 2. the life-term; life-period; the duration of life.
Kappabindu - a smudge that makes a new robe allowable; dark mark or small black dot applied to a new robe to make it lawful. v. to make a robe allow- able by applying a disfiguring smudge{by which the owner can also identify it}; mark with a smudge.
Kappana Tarpan merit dedicated to the departed.
Kappanavatthu* - monastic revenue estate.
Kappiyakaraka - one who makes things suitable for a monk; attendant of a monk.
Kappiyakaraka, Bhikkhusissa, aramika ~ Bhiksu-shishya monastery boy; monastery pupil; temple boy; a monk's pupil.
Karuna Karuna compassion; pity.
Kasaya, Kasavavattha kashaya , kashaya vastra cloth dyed with astringent decoction; the yellow robe; ochre robes.
Kasina - a meditational device; object of meditation; the method of inducing con- centration by gazing at any of the ten objects, viz., earth, water, fire, air, blue, yellow, red, white, space and light.
Katannu Kritagna,Kritagya adj. grateful; obliging; knowing the done favour.
Katannukatavedi Kritagna~ one who is thankful for benefits received and recip- rocates them.
Katannukatavedita Kritagna~ the quality of being a grateful person; gratitude; gratefulness.
Katannuta Kritagyata gratitude; gratefulness; appreciation.
Katattakamma - casual act; cumulative or reserve kamma.
Katavedi - one who reciprocates the done favour.
Kathavatthu - 1. Points of Controversy; name of the fifth book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka. 2. a subject of discussion.
Kathina - the Kathin ceremony; the annual robe-presentation ceremony{in the month following the end of the Rains Retreat}; post lenten robe-offering; Post-Retreat Robe- Presentation.
Kaya Kaya 1. the body; material body. 2. the body of psychic factors, namely, Vedana, Sanna and Sankhara.
Kayabandhana Kaya-bandhana a girdle; waistband.
Kayaduccarita kaya dushcharitra; 'ch' as in china misconduct by the body; bodily misconduct; misconduct in action.
Kayadvara kaya dvar 1. the body-door; body avenue; the outlet of bodily senses. 2. the body-door; the channel of bodily action.
Kayagatasati Kayagat smriti mindfulness/meditation with regard to the body & body features and their transience; Also reflection or contemplation on the 32 impure parts of the body.(word sati/smriti means meditation)
Kayakamma Kaya karma bodily action; actions performed by the body.
Kayanupassana kaya anushaya pashyana mindfulness as regards the body ; a method of meditation on body; the contemplation of the body.
Kayasamphassa kaya sam sparsh bodily contact; bodily touch.
Kayasankhara kaya sanskar bodily formation, body attribute, body action.
Kayasucarita kaya-su-charitra; 'ch' as in china good conduct in action; good conduct by the body; bodily good conduct.
Kayavinnana kaya vigyan body-consciousness; consciousness by means of touch.
Kayavinnatti - bodily intimation; bodily expression.
Kayaviveka kaya vivek seclusion of the body.
Kayikadukkha kayik dukkha physical pain; bodily pain; physical suffering.
Kayikasukha kayik sukha physical happiness; bodily happiness.
Kesoropanadivasa* Kesho-ropana-divasa Shaving Day; the eve of a Buddhist holy day.
Ketumala - garland of rays round the Buddha's head; the halo.
Khadaniya Khadyanya hard or solid food.
Khama kshama patience; tolerance; pardon.
Khamapana kshama prarthana asking for pardon.
Khandha skandha aggregate; category;
Khanikapiti kshanik preeti momentary joy; instantaneous joy; {can also be momentary samadhi/trance}.
Khanikasamadhi kshanik samadhi momentary self absorption/trance.
Khanti Shanti patience; forbearance; tolerance; endurance; firmness; fortitude.
Khattiya Kshatriya 1. a man of the warrior caste; the warrior-ruler; nobles. 2. a king.
Khinasava kshina asava an Arahant; the canker free one; sin free; one whose mind is free from mental obsessions.
Khuddakabuddhapatibimba* Kshudra Buddha Pratibimb a small Buddha image {often used as an amulet or talisman}; amuletic Buddha image.
Khuddakanikaya kshudra nikaya Smaller Collection; the Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon; name of the fifth of the five main divisions of the Sutta Pitaka.
Khuddakapatha kshudraka patha Shorter Texts; the Text of Small Passages; name of the first division of the Khuddaka Nikaya.
Khuddakapiti kshudra preeti slight sense of joy; lesser bliss
Kiccadhikarana Kritya adhikarana business to be enacted by the Sangha; legal questions concerning obligations; duties.
Kiccavatta* - religious routine; daily religious observances.
Kilesa kilesh defilements; impurities; impairments; sorrow
Kilesakama kilesh karma sensuality as defilement; subjective sensuality; desire; lust; sorrow causung deeds
Kinkaraniyesu dakkhata - the willingness to give a helping hand.
Kiriyacitta kiriya chitta; 'ch' as in china functional consciousness; inoperative consciousness.
Kodha krodha anger; furious or wrathful passion.
Kosa* kosh mortuary urn; funeral urn; depository; keep; hold
Kosajja - idleness; indolence; sloth.
Kuhana - deceit; fraud; hypocrisy; trickery.
Kukkucca kukuksha remorse; brooding; confusion; repentance; worry.
Kulupaka kul upaka a family-frequenter; family-friend monk; family mentor.
Kusala kushal adj. Beneficial; meritorious; moral; skilful; kammically wholesome. n. merit; good action; virtue; the good; whole- some action; right.
Kusalacetana kushal chetana; 'ch' as in china right or wholesome volition; good intention; righeous awareness/thinking
Kusalacitta kushal chitta ; 'ch' as in china meritorious thought; moral or wholesome consciousness.
Kusalakamma kushal karma wholesome or meritorious action; right conduct.
Kusalakammapatha kushal karma patha the tenfold way of good action; the tenfold wholesome course of action.
Kusalamula kushal mool {the three} roots of good; root of good action; kammically wholesome root; the wholesome roots.
Kusalavitakka kushal vitark wholesome thought; righteous thinking.
Kuti kutiya an abode of a Buddhist monk or novice; a monk's cell; a monk's lodging; dormitory; living quarters of monks.


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Labha Laabh gain; acquisition.
Laddhi - a theory; view; doctrine.
Lakkhana lakshan a characteristic; sign; mark; distinguishing mark; prognosticative mark; quality.
Likhati Likhati v. to inscribe; incise; engrave.
Lobha Lobha greed; covetousness; acquisitiveness.
Lohituppada - wounding of a Buddha; causing a Buddha to suffer a contusion or to bleed.
Loka Loka the world; a world; plane of existence.
Lokadhamma Lok dharma {the eight} worldly conditions; things of the world; general conduct of the world; worldly vicissitudes.
Lokadhatu Lokadhatu a unit of the Universe; world; sphere; another term for Cakkavala.
Lokadhipateyya Loka-adhipateyya dependence on public opinion; following the influence of the world; supremacy of the world; dominant influence by {the censure of} the world.
Lokavajja - worldly fault; breach of the ordinary moral law; action reprehended in the world; that which is blamable by the world. .
Lokiya Lokiya adj. mundane; worldly; belonging to the world.
Lokuttara Lokottar adj. supramundane; transcendental; beyond these worlds.
Lokuttarabhumi Lokuttara Bhumi the Supramundane Plane {of consciousness}.
Lokuttaradhamma Lokuttara Dharma {the nine} supramundane states: the Four Paths, the Four Fruits and Nibbana; the path leading beyond worldly/material i.e transcendental; also nine samadhi/trance states.
Lukhappamanika - those who measure or judge by shabbiness; those whose faith depends on shabbiness or miserable life.


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Macchariya Matsarya meanness; avariciousness; stinginess; possessiveness.
Maccu mrityu death.
Maccuraja mrityu raaj the king of death; the Death lord {also known as Maar}, devil, shatan , shaitan.
Mada Mada intoxication; pride; sexual excess.
Maddava - gentleness; softness.
Magga marg the Path; the Way; the Noble Path; the Noble Eightfold Path; the Path leading to the Cessation of Suffering.
Magganayaka* marg nayak lay leader of a congregation {or, of a lay community}.
Maghapuja Magh-puja Worship on the Full-Moon Day of the third lunar month in commemoration of the Great Assembly of Disciples.
Maha* Maha great
Mahabhinikkhamana maha abhinishkraman the Great Renunciation; the going forth of the Bodhisattva {Prince Siddharth} into the ascetic life.
Mahabhutarupa Maha-bhuta-rupa {the four} primary elements; great essentials; material qualities of matter.
Mahachatta Maha Chatra ; 'ch' as in china a big sunshade.
Mahajataka Maha-jataka the Great Birth Story; story of the Buddha when he was born as Prince Vessantara.
Mahajatakadesana* Maha-jataka-desana {T.} Great Birth Sermon; a sermon on the great birth story of the Bodhisatta Vessantara.
Mahakamma maha karma celebration. v. to celebrate.
Mahanikaya* Maha nikaya the Mahanikaya Sect; Great Sect; Greater Sub-Order {of the Thai Monkhood}; greater denomination.
Mahapatima-patitthana maha pratima pratisth sthan base {for the principal Buddha image}; pedestal.
Mahapurisa maha purush Great Man.
Mahapurisalakkhana maha purush lakshan {the thirty-two} marks of the Great Man.
Mahasanghamandalapamokkha* maha sangh mandal pramukh the Chief Superintendent of the{Central, North, South, East, or Dhammayuttika} Ecclesiastries; Chief of the ... Eccl. Jurisdiction; Eccl. Governor General.
Mahasankanti maha sankranti {T.} the festival celebrated on the day of the passage of the Sun to Aries, the first sign of the Zodiac; Songkran Festival; water-throwing festival; the traditional Thai New Year.
Mahatherasamagama* maha sthivar samagam Maha-thera Council; Council of Elders; the Sangha Supreme Council.
Mahayana Mahayana the Great Vehicle; the school of the Great Vehicle {of salvation}; the Northern School of Buddhism.
Majja Madhya an intoxicant.
Majjhima patipada Madhyam pratipada the Middle Path; the Middle Way; the via media; the golden mean. .
Majjhima Madhyama middler; a monk who has been ordained between 5 and just under 10 years.
Majjhimadesa madhyam desh the middle country including the Ganges basin.
Majjhimanikaya Madhyam nikaya Collection of Middle-length Discourses; Further Dialogues of the Buddha; name of the second of the five main divisions of the Sutta Pitaka.
Majjhimayama Madhyam yama the middle watch {from 10:00 p.m. to 2:00 a.m.}.
Makkha - depreciation of another's worth; detraction.
Mala Mal dirt; impurity; stain; refuse; dust.
Mamankara Mam-kara lit. the making of the utterance 'my'; selfish attachment; the notion of 'my'; 'my'-making. .
Mamsavirati* mansa virati abstinence from meat; vegetarianism.
Maan maan conceit; pride; inordinate feeling;lust for power.
Man man mind; thinking function;thinking faculty.
Manasikara - thinking; thought process; attention; pondering; attentiveness; advertence; mental application; reflection.
Manatta - penance
Mandapa Mandapa a pavilion; temporary shed; square spired pavilion.
Mangala, Mangala-samaya Mangal festivity; good omen; auspice; auspicious ceremony; {the thirty-eight} blessings. adj. auspicious.
Mangalavatthu* mangal vastu amulet; talisman; fetish; lucky piece; charm; good-luck charm.
Manodhatu Manodhatu the mind-element; element of apprehension; the ideational faculty.
Manoduccarita mano dushcharitra; 'ch' as in china evil mental action; evil of mind or thoughts; misconduct by mind; mental misconduct {of harming or breaking moral rules within thoughts}.
Manodvara Mano-dvara the mind-door; mind-avenue; mind sense organ {one out of 6 , others are eye, nose, tongue, ear & touch but it can perceives all others}.
Manokamma mano karma mental action; action done by mind.
Manomayiddhi manomay riddhi the magic power of the mind; mind-made magical power.
Manosucarita mano su charitra good mental action; good conduct in thought.
Manovinnana mano vigyan mind-consciousness; the mind cognition.
Manovinnanadhatu mano vigyan dhatu mind-consciousness element.
Manta mantra a charm; spell; incantation; sacred or magical formula or invo- cation; verbal formulas used as incantations in the magic of sound.
Manussa manushya a human being.
Manussadhamma manushyasya dharma humanity; humane; virtue/conduct of man; the Five Precepts.
Manussaloka manushya loka the human world; the human realm; the world of humans.
Mara Maar the Evil One; Death; the Tempter; death lord, satan, shaitan.
Marana Marana death.
Maranabhava* Maranabhava death {of a monk or novice}.
Maranasati marana smriti mindfulness/attention/reflection of death; meditation on death {that death comes to all hence prepare for it}.(Word sati/smriti means meditation)
Matapituupatthana matra pitra~ the support of mother and father; ministering to parents; looking after parents.
Matha; Samantapaghana Matha a building for housing monks.
Matika - 1. matrix; schedule; list; heading. 2.{T.} funeral chanting {of Abhi- dhamma matrices or schedules}.
Mattannuta mattra anuttara moderation; temperance; sense of proportion.
Matugama - a woman; womenfolk; women {collectively}.
Matughata matri ghata matricide.
Maya Maya illusion; deceit; trick; the display of an illusion.
Methunadhamma maithun dharma sexual intercourse behavior; coupling; coitus phenomenon {of creatures}.
Metta metri, maitri compassion; loving-kindness; friendliness; goodwill.
Mettaya pharana Maitri~ radiation of loving-kindness/compassion. v. to wish others {or all beings} to be well and happy.
Micchaditthi mithya drishti wrong view; false view.
Middha Mriddha torpor; drowsiness; languor.
Mittapatirupaka mitra pratirupak a false friend; one pretending to be a friend.
Moha Moha delusion; ignorance; dullness.
Mohacarita Moha-charitra; 'ch' as in china the unintelligent; the ignorant; one whose habit is infatuation; a man of foolish habits; the stupid- or dull- natured; one of deluded temperament.
Mohagati Mohagati wrong way of behaviour consisting in delusion; prejudice caused by delusion or stupidity.
Mokkha moksha moksha,salvation; deliverance; Nirvana; liberation; the state of disentanglement; release; freedom.
Mokkhadhamma moksha dharma moksha, salvation; deliverance; freedom; Nirvana; the phenomenon experienced by perfects/Arihants such as Buddhas.
Moli - topknot {of hair on the crown of the head}.
Mudita Mudita sympathetic joy; altruistic joy.
Muditakamma* mudit karma congratulation; showering affection; convey of happiness.
Mukhapatha Mukhapatha word of mouth; verbal recital; oral tradition.
Mula-kammatthana mula karma sthan basic meditation subject {comprising the five exposed parts of the body, viz., head hair, body hair, nails, teeth and skin}.
Mulapannatti, Pannatti Mool~ root regulation; main rule; principal or primary rule.
Mundakaupasika* mundaka upasika a shaven-headed female devotee who wears white robes and observes five or eight precepts; white-robed female lay follower.
Musavada mithya vaad false speech; lying.
mutthassati Mithya Smriti confused attention, muddled attention, deranged attention.(word sati/smriti means meditation)


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Naccagitavaditavisuka-dassana Naccha geet vadita vishuka darshan dancing, singing, music, and unseemly shows{or stage plays}.
Nagaor - 1. a serpentlike water-god. 2.{T.} an applicant for ordination; ordinand.
Nagarasanghapamokkha* nagar sangh pramukh the Ecclesiastical Provincial Governor.
Nakkhattakilana Nakshatra~ the celebration of a festival; festivity.
Nama/Nam Man mind; name; mental factors;mentality.
Namakkara namaskar salutation; the act of paying homage; homage; veneration;{T.} salutation with joined palms.
Namarupa Man-roop Mind and Matter; mind and form; mind and body; mentality and corporeality.
nana Gyan knowledge; real knowledge; wisdom; insight.
nanadassana Gyan-darshan knowing and seeing; perfect knowledge; all-comprising knowledge; a vision of truth; insight; vision through wisdom; experiencing/knowing divine knowledge.
nanadassana-visuddhi gyan-darshan-vishuddhi purity of knowledge and vision; purity of vision regarding intuitive{divine} wisdom; purification by knowledge and vision.
Naraka, Niraya Naraka abyss; hell; purgatory.
Nasana, ~na Nash~ causing to perish; expulsion.
nati nati a kinsman; relative.
natibali nati-bali offering to kinsfolk; the helping of one's relatives.
natisalohita - relations and blood relations.
natisangaha nati~ good treatment towards kinsmen; the helping of one's relatives.
Natthikaditthi natthika drishti lit. the theory of nothingness; nihilism; nihilistic view.
natti - a motion.
Navakabhikkhu nav bhikshu a neophyte; newly ordained monk{of less than 5 years' standing}.
Navakamma Nava Karma building new; construction; making repairs.
Navanita Navaneet fresh butter;{according to some, ghee}.
naya nyaya right path; right method; the Noble Path; truth; Nibbana.
Nekkhamma nishkramana renunciation; giving up the world; escape from sensuality; absence of greed; independence of sensual desire and pleasures; self-denial; self- abnegation.
Nekkhammavitakka nishkraman vitark thought of renunciation; thought free from selfish desire.
Nevasannanasannayatana nev sangya asangya ayatana the realm of neither Perception nor Non-perception {of worlds/lokas}; the eighth state of samadhi/trance out of nine.
Neyya gyaneyya one who is to be led or instructed; one requiring guidance; a trainable or teachable person.
neyyadhamma gyaneyya dharma any-thing that should be learnt or understood; the knowable on path.
Nhayati snan v.{of a monk or novice} to bathe.
Nibbana Nirvana Nirvana; Nibbana; the extinction of the fires of greed, of hatred and of ignorance; the Unconditioned; the supreme goal of Buddhism; the Summum Bonum of Buddhism; the Final Goal; the extinction of all defilements and suffering; moksha.
Nibbida - dispassion; disinterest; disenchantment.
Niccabhatta Nishchya Bhata; 'ch' as in china a continuous food supply; monthly food allowance.
Niccasila Nischya Sheel; 'ch' as in china regular precepts; uninterrupted observance of virtue; the good conduct to be observed uninterruptedly, i.e. the Five Precepts.
Nidana Nidana 1. source; cause; origin; reference. 2.{T.} a story.
Niddesa Nirdesha 1. Expositions; name of the eleventh division of the Khuddaka Nikaya. 2. description; analytic explanation.
Nigamasanghadhipati* nigam sangh adhipati the Ecclesiastical District Officer.
Nigantha Nirgrantha lit. one who is freed from all ties; or one who abandoned old scriptures; a member of the Jain Order; ascetic in Jainism.
Nig-gahakamma nigraha karma suppression; punishment; censure; reproach; rebuke; chastisement of a perverse monk.
Nikaya Nikaya 1. a collection; group; any of the five main divisions of the Sutta Pitaka. 2. a sect; school; denomination.
Nikkhepapada nikshepa pada a verse or words of summary; thesis; verse or passage set up for detailed treatment in a discourse; a saying quoted for discoursing; discourse-opening verse; topic; theme; subject; subject matter; gist; point of a discussion; query.
Nimantaka, Danapati nimantrak, danapati the host; sponsor; chief donor.
Nimantana nimantrana invitation {for a monk} v. to invite{a monk}.
Nimanteti nimantran v. to invite {monks}, especially for a collective action.
Nimitta Nimitta sign; omen; mark; portent; cause; mental image; mental reflex; boundary marker.
Nimmanarati Nirmana rati the realm of the gods who rejoice in{their own} creations; name of the fifth heavenly abode of which Sunimmita is the king.
Ninda Ninda blame; reproach; fault-finding; calumny. v. to blame; calumniate; speak ill of a person.
Niraya Niraya hell; woeful state; see apaya; rebirth as animal, ghost(peta/pret), Asura(demon) or in hell.
Nirodha Nirodh the Cessation or Extinction of Suffering; cessation; extinction. This is also the name of final 9th Samadhi/trance state achieved in meditation leading to Arahat/Arihant state (perfection) i.e experience of eternal intransient most blissful Nirvanic state when all worldly phenomenon stops/extinguished leading to stoppage of all future rebirths (i.e. final merger into transworldly, intransient Nirvanic state of infinite energy).
Niruttipatisambhidawith - regard to the true meaning and the Law; the Discrimination of Language; knowledge of dialects or philological analysis; analytical knowledge of the language.
Nissaggiyapacittiya Neisargic Prayashchit an offence entailing expiation with forfeiture.
Nissaranavimutti Nissarana vimukti deliverance by escaping from defilements; freedom by deliverance; Nibbana.
Nissaya - that on which anything depends; foundation; help; resource; support; protection; guidance; tutelage; dependence; habit.
Nissayamuttaka - lit. released from dependence, or independent of protection; a legally independent monk; a monk who has completed five years of living in dependence on the preceptor.
Nivarana - {the five} hindrances; obstacles.
Nivaseti, Parupati - v. to don; wear; put on{the yellow robe}.
Nivata Namrata humbleness; humility; lowliness; gentleness.
Niyama Niyama certainty; fixed method; regular order; the state of certainty; the five orders of processes which operate in the physical and mental realms; natural and regular orders governing all things; natural law.
Niyasakamma, Niyassa~ ~karma the formal act of subordination; giving guidance; causing {a monk} to live {again} in dependence.


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Oja Oja nutritive essence; nutriment; (maybe glow).
Okkantikapiti - oscillating bliss; showering joy.
Opapatika - creatures having spontaneous births.
Ottappa - moral fear; moral dread.
Ovada - admonition; exhortation; advice.
Ovadapatimokkha - the Principal Teaching; the Fundamental Teaching; exhortatory Patimokkha.


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Pabbajaniyakamma pravajra niya karma the act of banishment; exile; the punishment made to a monk deserving to be expelled.
Pabbajita, Bhikkhu Pravarjit, Bhikshu 1. title used when speaking of a Buddhist monk; venerable. 2. a Bhikkhu; Buddhist monk; monk;{in other religions} a priest; minister; clergyman; ascetic; recluse; monk; the ordained; religious; renunciate; monastic
Pabbajja, upasampada Pravarjya, Upasampada giving up the world i.e. adopting the ascetic life; ordination. v. to go forth; give up or renounce the world; become an ascetic, a Bhikkhu or a novice; be ordained; join or enter the Order.
Paccantadesa Pratyantar-desh the out-skirts of a country; bordering regions.
Paccavekkhana Paccha vekkhana; 'ch' as in china reflection; consideration; reviewing.
Paccaya Pratya 1. condition; aiding condition; factor. 2. {the four} requisites, viz., clothing, food, dwelling and medicine; necessities.
Paccayakara Pratya kar; 'ch' as in china the Mode of Dependency.
Paccayasannissitasila - discipline as regards the four requisites; conduct in connection with the necessities of life.
Paccekabuddha Pratyekbuddha a solitary Buddha; a Silent Buddha; a Buddha who has won enlightenment by himself, but does not teach others; one who gains liberation for himself alone.
Pacchabhatta Paccha bhaat afternoon; after the mealtime of the monk.
Pacchasamana Paccha-samana a junior monk who walks behind a senior on his rounds; accompanying monk; attendant.
Pacchimabhattakala* pachim Bhat kaal the limited time for the second and last meal of the monk; lunchtime for Buddhist monks,{11.00 A.M. to 12.00 noon}; forenoon meal.
Pacchimajati Pacchima jati the last birth.
Pacchimaovada pacchima uvad; 'ch' as in china the last instruction; the last advice or exhortation.
Pacchimavaca pacchima vacha; 'ch' as in china the last word; the last saying.
Pacchimayama Pacchima-ayama the last watch {from 2:00 to 6:00 a.m.}
Pacchimika - the later period for keeping the rains.
Paccuddharana - to give up the use {of an old robe}; remove; revoke.
Paccuggamana - rising to receive.
Paccupatthana - appearance; mode of appearance; phenomenon.
Pacittiya prashchitya; 'ch' as in china 1. Minor Offences; one of the books of the Vinaya; 2. an offence entailing expiation.
Padakkhina Pradakshina respectful clockwise walk around {a great person or shrine}, circumambulation. v. to circumambulate; make a triple circumambulation.
Padatthana - a proximate cause.
Padhana - effort; exertion; striving; the Four Great Efforts.
Padhanabuddhapatima* Pradhan Buddha Pratima the principal Buddha image {in the Uposatha hall}; main Buddha image.
Pahana Prahan giving up; abandoning; removal; eradication; overcoming.
Pahanapadhana Prahan~ the effort to discard evils that have arisen; the effort to overcome unwholesome states.
Pahatabbadhamma Pra-hat-avya-dharma that which is to be eradicated or abandoned, i.e. the Cause of Suffering.
Pakarana Prakarna a literary work; book; canonical text; scripture.
Pakasana, Vipulakarana Prakashan propagation; dissemination; spreading.
Pakkha Paksha a fortnight; one half of the lunar month; {lunar} half-month.
Palasa - rivalry; envious rivalry; domineering.
Pali Pali 1. Pali language; the language adopted by the Theravadins as the language in which to preserve the memorized teachings of the Buddha. 2. Tipitaka; the text of the Pali Canon; the Buddha's teachings as contained in the Tipitaka.
Palibodha - obstruction; hindrance; obstacle; impediment; drawback.
Pallanka - a couch; throne; crossed legged sitting.
Pallankam abhujati - to sit{flat on the haunches} cross-legged.
Pallankappamana pallanka pramana lap-front measure; the method of measuring the size of a cross- legged sitting Buddha image.
Pamada Pramad sloth; unattentive; lazy; unmindful; carelessness; negligence; indolence; remissness; torpor.
Pamojja Pramod delight; joy; gladness; cheerfulness.
Pamsukula - lit. soiled or loathesome as dirt; like a dust heap; discarded; disposed of; unwanted. 1. rags from a dust heap; a robe made of rags taken from dust-bins; discarded cloth; rag-robe. 2.{T.} a yellow robe dedicated to a deceased person. v. to take such robes after contem-plating on the impermanence of compounded things; meditate and take a funeral{or memorial} robe.
Pamsukula-civara, Assamika-vattha - Forest Robe; {probably, } cloth discarded in the forest or on a charnel ground; discarded cloth;{T.} a robe left for the monks to take as a discarded cloth. leave a robe {together with other offerings} for the monks to take as a discarded cloth; hold a Forest-Robe Presentation Ceremony.
Pamsukulacivaranikkhipana - {T.} v. to lay a robe {as an offering to a monk at a funeral or memorial ceremony}; lay down a funeral robe.
Panatipata prani pat taking life; killing.
Pancadhamma pancha dharma; 'ch' as in china the five ennobling virtues.
Pancadvara pancha dvar; 'ch' as in china the five sense-doors: eye, ear, nose, tongue and body.
Pancakkhandha Pancha Khanda; 'ch' as in china the Five Aggregates; the five groups of existence; the five causally conditioned elements of existence forming a being or entity, viz., body{rupa}, sensations{vedana}, perception{sanna/sangya}, attribute formations {sankhara/ sanskar} and consciousness{vinnana/vigyan}.
Pancappatitthitena vandana Pancha ~ ; 'ch' as in china five-point prostration; the method of veneration or obeisance by prostrating oneself or kneeling and touching the ground with five parts of the body, viz., the knees, elbows and forehead.
Pancasila Panch sheel the Five Precepts; the Five Rules of Morality; the Five Training Rules {Speaking Truth, Non-violence, Non-stealing, no-intoxicants, sexual-abstinence/celibacy. }
Pancavaggiya Pancha vargiya; 'ch' as in china belonging to the group of five; the five Bhikkhus; the five ascetics; the five mendicants, namely, Anna-kondanna, Vappa, Bhaddiya, Mahanama, and Assaji.
Pandaka - a eunuch.
Pandava - a small drum.
Panha prashn a question; inquiry; problem.
Panidhana - aspiration; determination; resolution.
Panna pragya {pratyaksh + gyan} Insight/glow/self-illumination;Also experiential knowledge/wisdom(alongwith); discernment; note: it is also the knowledge experienced due to meditation & specifically in jhana(self absorption)state/trance when the transcendental is perceived; According to §16 (ch1) in Dhammasangani(in Abhidhamma), it is also a glow(obhaso), light(aloko), self-illumination (within brain & spine) appearance of which with focus leads to subduing of all wrong traits(sankharas sans. sanskar); about which Buddha says : 'savi sanhara aniccati, yo pannaya passati'.
Pannacakkhu pragya chakshu; 'ch' as in china the eye/faculty of experiential {divine} Wisdom/Insight especially in self absorptive trance(in jhana/samadhi).
Pannasampada pragya sampada achievement of wealth of {divine} wisdom/illuminated-insight by experience {in trance/jhana}; the blessing of higher knowledge.
Pannatti, Mulapannatti - root regulation; main rule; principal or primary rule.
Pannattivajja - formulated fault; breach of the training rules; that which is blamable by the regulation.
Pannavimutti pragya vimukti liberation through experiential {divine} wisdom achieved in jhana/trance(samadhi); emancipation through insight.
Papa Paap sin; evil; wrong action; demerit; bad; wicked; demeritorious; material pleasures.
Papanca Prapancha; 'ch' as in china 5-sensory-deception ; illusion; setup {similar to maya}; proliferation.
Papunati; Sacchikaroti; Abhisameti - to attain; realize; reach; achieve; experience for oneself.
Paradarakamma Par dara karma adultery; unlawful ; intercourse with others' wives.
Parajika probably Parajit+Karma 1. Major Offences; the first of the two divisions of the Suttavibhanga of the Vinaya. 2. a grave offence involving expulsion from monkhood; Defeat. 3. one who has committed the grave offence of expulsion; defeated one.
Paraloka, punabbhava parlok, punar-bhava rebirth; re-existence; future life, the other world; the world beyond; the world to come.
Paramattha Parmarth 1. the highest good; the highest ideal; the highest gain; the highest benefit; the final goal; the Absolute Truth; the Ultimate Reality; Nibba na. 2.{the four} Ultimates; Ultimate Realities.
Paramatthasacca Parmarth satya the absolute truth; ultimate truth.
Parami Paaramita {the ten} Perfections; stages of spiritual perfection achieved by a Bodhisatta on his path to Buddhahood {or by those who are determined to become Pacceka-buddhas or Arahant disciples of a Buddha}.
Paranimmitavasavatti Par Nimitta vasa vatti the realm of gods who lord over the creations of other gods; name of the sixth heavenly abode of which Vasavatti is the king.
Paravadi - the opponent {in argument or controversy.}
Paribbajaka Parivajrak a wandering religious mendicant; ascetic; hermit.
Paribhogacetiya paribhog chaitya a tree, shrine, dwelling, bed, etc. used by the Buddha and consequently remindful of him and sacred; the monument of the Buddha's utility; shrine by use {or by association}.
Pariccaga parityag donation; charity; sacrifice.v. to donate; give; give up.
Pariccheda pariccheda; 'ch' as in china a chapter; fascicule.
Parideva - lamentation, weeping over dead.
Parikamma parikrama 1. repetition; pronouncing incantations; recitation {or to recite} for the purpose of making sacred ; 2. arrangement; preparation; preliminary action.
Parikkhara - requisite;{the eight} requisites of a Buddhist monk: the three robes, the bowl, a razor, a needle, the girdle and a water-strainer; accessory; equipment.
Parinibbana pari nirvana the final or complete Nibbana; the complete extinction of all passions; the final release from the round of rebirth; the Great Decease of the Buddha; death { after the last life-span of an Arhant }.
Parinna parigyan accurate or exact knowledge; full understanding; comprehension.
Parinneyyadhamma parigyaneya dharma that which is to be known accurately; that which should be understood or comprehended, i.e. suffering {or all conditioned things }; path to transcendental knowledge.
Parinnu*, Palinnu* - one versed or learned in Pali studies; one who has passed the examination of any of the seven higher {3 to 9} grades of Pali studies; eccl. graduate of Pali studies; Pali graduate; Pali scholar.
Parisa parishad surrounding people; an assembly; company: association; the four assemblies of the Buddhist devouts: the assemblies of monks, nuns, male and female lay devotees.
Parisannuta parishad anuttara the quality of one who knows the assembly; knowing the assembly; knowledge of groups of persons.
Parisuddhisila Parishuddhi sheel the four kinds of Higher Sila; the fourfold moral purity; morality for purification; morality consisting in purity.
Paritta - verses of protection or safeguard; protective chants; holy stanzas.
Parittabhanana - {T.} {used for auspicious ceremonies} to chant holy stanzas.
Parittasutta* pavitra sutra sacred thread; sacred cord.
Parittavatthu, Indajalikavatthu* - something said to have magic power; magic object; amulet; talisman; charm; fetish.
Parittodaka* - consecrated water; blessing water; lustral water; holy water.
Parittodaka-abbhukkirana*;sincana* ; sinchana; 'ch' as in china to sprinkle the holy water.
Parivara - Epitome of the Vinaya; the Accessory; name of the last book of the Vinaya Pitaka.
Parivara - 1. retinue; suite; pomp; followers; following. 2. accessories.
Parivasa - probation.
Parivisana - v. to serve with food; wait upon at a meal.
Pariyatti - the {Buddhist} Scriptures; study of the Scriptures; the Teachings to be studied.
Pasada - confidence; satisfaction; joy; calm and clarity of mind; appreciation; faith.
Pasamsa prashansha praise; commendation.
Passaddhi or pasaddhi Prashrabdhi tranquillity; quietude; calmness; repose; serenity; relaxation ; {note : this often misunderstood word is the state of tranquility just before self absorptive trance/jhana(samadhi), it is the quietude of both mind & body achieved after long buddhist meditation such as in vipassana, and after that rapture happens when the transcendental becomes known}.
Passasa Prashvas out-breathing; exhalation.
Pathamadesana Pratham anudeshana the First Sermon; the First Discourse {of Lord Buddha after his enlightenment}.
Pathamajjhana Pratham Dhyan the first Jhana; the first absorption.
Pathamasavaka Pratham Shravak the first disciple: Annakondanna.
Pathamayama Pratham Ayam the first watch {from 6:00 to 10:00 p.m.}
Pathavidhatu Prathvi dhatu lit. the earth-element; the element of solidity/heaviness/gravity; the sub- stratum of matter.
Patibhaganimitta Pratibhag nimitta conceptualized image; counterpart sign; counter image.
Patibhana Pratibhan perspicuity; sagacity; shrewdness; ready wit.
Patibhana-patisambhida - the Discrimination of Sagacity.
Paticcasamuppada Pratitya Samuppada the Dependent Origination; the Law of Causation; the Chain/cycle of Causation {birth to death then rebirth}; the Law of Dependent Arising; the Chain of Phenomenal Cause and Effect; the Conditional Arising and Cessation of All Phenomena;{the twelve links of} conditioned co-production; the mechanism of cycle of rebirths of all creatures i.e. Avijja{sans. avidya/ignorance} causes-> Sanharas {sans. Sanskaras/karma/behavior attributes} -> Vinnana {sans. vigyan/consciousness} -> NaamRupam {mind & Body} -> Salayatanam {sans. Shadayatan/six sense doors} -> Fasso {sans. sparsh/contact} -> Vedana {sans. samvedana/sensations} -> Tanha {sans. Trishna/craving} -> Upadanam {attachment} -> Bhavo {becoming/to-be} -> Jati {sans. janm/rebirth} {see Mahavagga1.1 of Vinay pitaka } after this Lord Buddha teaches the cessation of this cycle {using meditation and especially to focus on vedana/sensations with equanimity in order to cut the root of craving}.
Patidesaniya prati anudeshniya an offence to be confessed.
Patiggahaka Prati grahak a recipient; one who receives.
Patigha pratigha repulsion; irritation; anger; ill-will; grudge.
Patihariya Pratiharya marvel; wonder; miracle.
Patikulasanna Pratikool Sangya consciousness of impurity; perception of loathsomeness.
Patiloma Pratilom reverse; opposite; contrary; backward; in reverse order.
Patima Pratima an image; figure.
Patimokkha-samvarasila - discipline as prescribed by the Patimokkha; moral discipline as regards the Fundamental Precepts; restraint with regard to the monastic disciplinary code.
Patimokkhuddesa ~anudesh recitation of the Fundamental Precepts of the Buddhist monks. v. to recite or chant the Fundamental Precepts.
Patinnatakarana - doing according to what is admitted; proceeding on the acknowledgement{by the accused monk}.
Patipada pratipada path; way; method; mode of progress; means of reaching a goal; practice; line of conduct.
Patipadanana-dassanavisuddhi Pratipada-gyan Darshan-vishuddhi purity of knowledge and vision of progress.
Patipassaddhivimutti - deliverance by tranquillization.
Patipatti - the practice.
Patirupadesavasa Pratirupa desh vasa living in a suitable region; residing in a suitable locality; dwelling in a favourable place.
Patisambhida - {the four} Discrimination; analytic insight; Analytical Knowledge; discriminating knowledge.
Patisambhidamagga ~marg the Way of Analysis; the Way of Discriminating Knowledge; name of the twelfth division of the Khuddaka Nikaya.
Patisandhi Prati sandhi relinking; rebirth; reunion; conception.
Patisandhikkhana Prati sandhi Kshana relinking moment; the initial thought-moment of life; the initial thought-process.
Patisandhivinnana Prati Sandhi Vigyan rebirth-consciousness; relinking consciousness.
Patisankharana - restoration; reparation; repair; mending.
Patisanthara - friendly welcome; kind reception; hospitality; greeting.
Patisaraniyakamma ~karma formal act of reconciliation.
Patissava - promise; assent.
Patitthanabuddhapatima* Pratishthana Buddha Pratima a Buddha image/statue of a larger size fit to be placed more or less permanently for worship; Buddha image {to be} set {on an altar} for worship; altar Buddha-image.
Pativedha Prativedh penetration; realization; comprehension; attainment; insight; knowledge.
Patmokkha, Patimokkha - the Fundamental Precepts; the fundamental rules of the Order; the 227 disciplinary rules binding on Bhikkhus; a collection of the fundamental precepts of the Order recited every fortnight; fortnightly recitation of the fundamental precepts; Disciplinary Code.
Patta Patra a bowl; alms-bowl.
Pattadharaka patra dharak bowl-support; bowl-stand.
Pattanikujjana - the formal act of exclusion from association; excommunication.
Pattanumodana patra~ rejoicing in others' merit.
Pattanumodanamaya patra~ {merit} connected with, or to be gained through, rejoicing in others' merit.
Pattapidhana patra~ lid or cover for an alms-bowl; alms-bowl lid.
Pattathavika - the bag with a sling, used for carrying an alms-bowl in; bowl-case; bowl-bag.
Patthana Prasthapana {Firm} Establishment of (e.g. as in Sati-Patthana: {Firm} Establishment of meditation).
Also,The Book of Causal Relations; name of the seventh book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka.
Pattidana, Dakkhinadisana pratidaan giving of merit; transference of merit; letting others share or participate in doing good.
Pattidanamaya pratidaanmay {merit} connected with, or to be gained through, the giving out of one's accumulated merit; the transference of merit or letting others share in doing good as a way of making merit.
Pavacana Pravarchan; 'ch' as in china the fundamental text; the Scriptures; the Dhamma and the Vinaya; the Doctrine and the Discipline.
Pavarana - 1. invitation; giving occasion or opportunity; allowance. 2. invitation to ask. 3. invitation to speak; the act of inviting others to advise one or to speak of one's offences or any unbecoming behaviour; the ecclesiastical ceremony at the end of the rains retreat, in which monks invite one another to speak of any offences or unbecoming behaviour they have seen, heard or suspected to have been committed during the rains. v. to invite to ask or to speak.
Pavaranadivasa - the last day of the rains-residence, on which the Pavarana ceremony is performed; Pavarana Day; end of the rains-retreat; Retreat-Ending Day.
Peta preta a departed being; ghost; ghost-being; hungry ghost; the ghost of the departed.
Petavatthu preta vastu Stories of the Departed; name of the tenth division of the Khuddaka Nikaya.
Pettivisaya, Pittivisaya Pret vishay the plane of the departed; the world of manes; the realm of ghost-beings.
Peyyavajja priya vacha; 'ch' as in china lit. drinkable words; kindly speech.
Phala Phala fruit; result; consequence; effect.
Phanita - treacle; molasses; sugar.
Pharanapiti ~priti diffused rapture/joy.
Pharusavaca ~vacha; 'ch' as in china harsh speech; harsh language.
Phassa sparsh contact; touch; mental impression.
Photthabba - tangible object.
Pindadana Pind-daan v. to offer food to the monks on their almsround.
Pindapata Pindapaat food received in the alms-bowl {of a Bhikkhu} ; alms-gathering; almsfood. v. to go for alms; go for collecting alms; go for alms-gathering; go on an almsround; receive food-offerings.
Pisunavaca ~vacha; 'ch' as in china malicious speech; slandering; tale-bearing.
Pitaka pitak a basket; any of the three main divisions of the Pali Canon.
Piti preeti joy; rapture; delight; zest; third state of samadhi/trance out of nine mentioned by Buddha; {note: piti is also generally associated with bliss experienced during all samadhi/trance states}.
Pittivisaya, Pettivisaya Pret vishay the plane of the departed; the world of manes; the realm of ghost-beings.
Pitughata Pitru-ghata patricide.
Piyavaca Priya vacha; 'ch' as in china pleasant speech; kindly speech.
Posi - appellation used by a monk for his parents or his patron or supporter.
Pubbakamma poorva karma a former deed; a deed done in a former existence.
Pubbakarana poorva~ preliminary works.
Pubbakari poorva~ one who does a favour before; a previous benefactor.
Pubbakicca poorva kritya preliminary function; preliminary duties.
Pubbanha-sajjhaya*, Pata-bhana* - morning chanting.
Pubbanimitta poorva nimitta a foregoing sign; prognostic; portent.
Pubbapetabali poorva pret bali offerings dedicated to the deceased.
Pubbekatapunnata Poorva krit punyata the state of having done meritorious actions in the past; to have done good deeds in the past; having prepared oneself with good background.
Pubbenivasanussatinana Poorva nivas anusmriti gyan Reminiscence of Past or Previous Births; the recollection of former lives; supernormal know- ledge which enables one to remember the various past courses of one's own existences.
Pubbesannivasa Poorva sah nivasa living together in the past; previous association; cohabitation in a previous life.
Pucchavissajjana Prashna visarjan catechism; question and answer.
Puggaladhitthana - exposition in terms of persons; teaching with reference to persons; teaching by means of personification.
Puggalannuta - the quality of one who knows individuals; knowing the individual; knowledge of individuals.
Puggalapannatti - Description of Individuals; Designation of Individuals; name of the fourth book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka.
Puja Puja worship {external and mental}; honour; veneration; homage; devotional attention; devotional offering.
Pujanapitha* pujan peeth set of altar tables.
Pujaniyapuggala pujaniya~ a venerable person; person worthy of honour; one entitled to homage.
Pujaniyatthana* pujaniya sthan a place of worship; place of sanctity; religious place; shrine; holy or sacred place; sanctuary.
Pujaniyavatthu* pujaniya vastu an object of worship.
Pujavidhi, Carittaniyama* Pujavidhi rite; ritual; ceremony.
Punna Punya merit; meritorious action; virtue; righteousness; moral acts; good works. adj. meritorious; good.
Punnakarana punya karana merit-making; performing meritorious action. v. to make merit; do merit; do good; perform meritorious action.
Punnakiriyavatthu punya~ {the three or ten} items of meritorious action; way of making merit.
Punnami poornima the full-moon day.
Punnamidivasa poornima diwas the full-moon day.
pupphadhana* pushp-daan a vase.
Pureti, Bhaveti - v. to fulfil; cultivate; develop; practise, understand.
Purimika - the earlier period for keeping the rains.
Putaplavana* patra plavna 'leaf-vessel floating'
Puthujjana prithak jana a worldling; worldly person; ordinary man; not following the path or opposed to the path.


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Raga Raag liking; lust; passion; excitement; greed; attachment.
Ragacarita Raag charitra the lustful {nature} ; one whose habit is passion; one of passionate behaviour; the lustful-natured; one of lustful temperament.
Rajabali Raja bali offering to the king or the government, as by paying taxes.
Rajaganayati, Culasangharaja*of monks} - a dignitary belonging to the Royal Chapter
Rajavaravihara*, Rajavasa* - royal monastery.
Rajavidhi*, Rajapujavidhi* Rajavidhi a royal ceremony.
Rasa Rasa 1. taste; sapid object; flavour. 2. function.
ratanaghara* - back plate
Ratanapakara - consecrated wall; a parapet {surrounding a sacred building}.
Ratanattaya - the Three Jewels; The Three Gems; Triple Gem.
Rattannu - an elder of long standing.
Rupa Rupa 1. matter; form; material; body; shape; corporeality. 2. object of the eye; visible object. 3. Silver
Rupajhana Rupa-Dhyan Jhanas {Absorptions} of the Fine-Material Sphere.
Rupaloka Rupa-lok the world of form; the Form Sphere.
Ruparaga Rupa-raag desire for life in the world of form; craving for form; attachment to realms of form; greed for fine-material existence.
Ruparammana - visible object.
Rupavacarabhumi rupa vachara bhumi ; 'ch' as in china the Plane of Form; the Form Plane; Fine-Material Sphere.


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Sabbannu - the Omniscient One; an epithet of the Buddha.
Sabbannutanana - omniscience.
Sabhava swabhav nature; condition; state; reality.
Sabhavadhamma swabhav dharma principle of nature; natural condition; natural phenomenon; knowledge of nature {of a person/self} .
Sabrahmacari sah brahmachari a fellow monk; fellow in the holy celibate life (Brahmacariya); co-celibate.
Sacca satya truth; truthfulness.
Sacchikaroti; Papunati; Abhisameti Satya krutya to attain; realize; reach; achieve; experience for oneself.
Sacchikatabbadhamma Satya Kartavya Dharma that which is to be realized, i.e. knowledge/path of the Cessation of Suffering or Nibbana.
Sadarasantosa sa dara santosh contentment with one's own wife.
Saddarammana - audible object; sound.
Saddha shraddha faith; confidence.
Saddhacarita shraddha charitra the devout; the faithful-natured; one of faithful temperament.
Saddhadeyya shraddha deyya a gift of faith; a gift offered through faith.
Saddhamma satya dharma the true Dhamma; true beneficent doctrine/path; doctrine of the good; good law; good principle.
Saddhammapatirupaka satya dharma prati rupaka inverse of true beneficent doctrine/path; pseudo-Dhamma.
Saddhasampada shraddha sampada achievement of faith.
Saddhiviharika - a co-resident; pupil.
Sadharanakaradhikara* sadharan karya adhikari Board of Public Works.
Sagga Swarg a place of happiness; heaven; heavenly abode; abodes of angels/gods.
Sahadhammika Saha-Dharmic co-religionists; fellow Dhamma-farer.
Sajiva - the code of discipline; all the disciplinary rules abiding on the life of the monk.
Sajjhaya, Uddesa, Padabhana, ~gayana, ~bhanana, Parittakarana - recitation; chanting {especially of protective verses}; rehearsal. v. to recite {the Buddha's teachings}; chant; chant the holy stanzas.
Sajjhayanasala* - chanting hall; hall for daily meeting and chanting.
Sakaccha - conversation; discussion.
Sakadagami or sakdagami - the returner; one who has attained the second stage of the Path {with either 5,6 or 7 of samadhi/trance states} and will be reborn as human or angel{deva} maximum 3 times, continues to meditate and then will attain the final emancipation {nirvana}.
Sakadagamimagga ~marg the Path of Once-Returning {see above}.
Sakadagamiphala - the Fruit of Once-Returning {see Sakadagami}.
Sakalamahasangha-parinayaka sakal maha sangh pari nayak top leader of the entire Great Sangha; head of the national Sangha; the secondary title attached to the title of {Sangharaja}, i.e. the Supreme Patriarch, or chief of the Buddhist Order of a country.
Sakavadi - the affirmative; proposer.
Sakkaccam sahattha deti - v. to present {something to a monk} with the hand.
Sakkara satkar honour; worship; hospitality.
Sakkayaditthi sa kaya drishti self-illusion; the delusion of self as body; belief in a personal self; theory of soul; egoistic view.
Sala shala hall; pavilion; wayside shelter; study and merit-making hall; public building; preaching hall; multipurpose hall.
Salakabhatta - food to be distributed by tickets; ticket-food.
Salayatana - the six senses; sense-bases; sense-organs; sense-spheres.
Samadana - undertaking; observance; acceptance. v. to undertake; take upon oneself.
Samadhi Samadhi(rel. to samahit) Intense focus/concentration achieved in meditation alongwith self absorption/trance; experienced alongwith states of higher non-material/transcendental consciousness in jhana states which leads to (self-illumination) panna\enlightenment & divine-wisdom.
Samaggi - concord; unity; harmony; unanimity; union.
Samajivita samyak ajivika balanced livelihood; regular life; living economically; living within one's means.
Samana shramana a Buddhist monk; a recluse; also used for Jain monks .
Samana-brahmana shraman brahman recluses and brahmins; ascetics and priests; the recluses and mendicants of non-Vedic or non-Brahmanical systems {such as Buddhism and Jainism} and the brahmins of the priestly caste of the Vedic religion.
Samanadhamma shraman dharma duties of a monk; monastic observances.
Samanasanna shraman sangya awareness of one's monkhood; consciousness of proper behaviour of a monk; a monk's sense of duty; perception of monk(according to dhamma).
Samanasaruppa shraman swarup a monk's proper behaviour; the appearance and character appropriate for a monk.
Samanasatti* shraman~ eccl. honorific rank; title.
Samanattata - impartiality; state of equality; even and equal treatment; equality and participation; can also be the state of monkhood.
Samanera shramanera a {male} novice/trainee {on the path of becoming monk}; one who is ordained by taking the Three Refuges and observes the Ten Precepts.
Samaneri shramaneri a female novice; female trainee {on the path of becoming nun}
Samannalakkhana samaam lakshan the Common Characteristics {of component things}, viz., impermanence, state of conflict and not-self.
Samantayacana* - request for donation; collection of voluntary contributions.
Samanuddesa shraman~ a novice{related teaching}.
Samatha Samata Equanimity, calm; tranquillity; a state of neither liking nor disliking; quietude of heart, emotions, desires, cravings ,wants , thoughts.
Samathabhavana samata bhavna Development of samadhi/self absorption/trance with samatha{equanimity i.e. beyond likes & dislikes} ; the method and practice of concentrating the mind along with quetitude; tranquillity/equanimity development.
Samaya, Ditthi, Pasanda - a religion.
Sambhavesi - lit. seeking birth or existence. 1. a living being at the first stage of life or during the birth-process; a being worldling. 3.{T.} a spirit seeking {or awaiting} rebirth.
Sambuddha Sambuddha one who has been well enlightened or has thoroughly understood; a Buddha; the Buddha.
Samicikamma samichi karma; 'ch' as in china proper act of respect; opportune gestures of respect.
Sammaajiva samyak ajivika Right Livelihood; Right Living; Right Means of Livelihood; Right Pursuits.
Sammaditthi samyak drishti Right View; Right Understanding.
Sammakammanta samyak karmant Right Action; Right Conduct; Right Behaviour.
Sammappadhana Samyak~ {the Four} Great Efforts; Supreme Efforts; Right Efforts.
Sammasamadhi samyak samadhi Right self absorption; Right Focus{within} leading to right trance states.
Sammasambuddha samyak sambuddha the Fully {or Perfectly} Enlightened One.
Sammasankappa samyak sankalp Right Thought; Right Mental Attitude; Right Motives; Right Aspiration.
Sammasati samyak smriti Right Mindfulness; Right Attentiveness; right meditation{aware within , with equanimity/samatha} as taught by Buddhas.(word sati/smriti means meditation)
Sammati; Sammuti Sammati convention; agreement; consent; authorization; appointment; election.
Sammatisacca; Sammutisacca Sammati satya conventional truth.
Sammatisangha; Sammutisangha Sammati sangha sangha by convention; con- ventional sangha; community of ordained monks.
Sammavaca samyak vacha; 'ch' as in china Right Speech.
Sammavayama samyak vyayam Right Effort; Right Endeavour; Right Exertion.
sammosa - confusion; falling into oblivion.
Sammukhavinaya Sammukha-vinaya verdict in the presence {of a Sangha, the persons and the matter concerned, and the Doctrine and Discipline}.
Sampada Sampada achievement; fulfilment; accomplishment; attainment; success; happiness.
Sampajanna Sampurna Gyan complete comprehension; discrimination; circumspection; clear consciousness; awareness {wrt meditation , it means being conscious completely about all i.e. body{kaya}, sensations{vedana}, mind{thoughts} & dhamma{causative} within (in both: outerbody & inner samadhi/trance) , see satipatthana}
Samparaya - a future life; the beyond; the hereafter; spirituality.
Samparayikattha - gain for the hereafter; future benefit; spiritual welfare; sources of happiness in the future life.
Sampatti Sampatti success; attainment; achievement; accomplishment; advantage; fulfilment; happiness; bliss; fortune; wealth; prosperity; perfection; soundness; validity.
Samphappalapa ~pralap frivolous talk; idle talk; vain talk.
Samsara, Samsaracakka sansar , sansar-chakra lit. faring on; the Round of Rebirth; the Round of Exist- ence; the Wheel of Rebirth; the Wheel of Life; the Life Process; Rebirth process; the Process of Birth and Death.
Samsedaja sam swedaja moisture-born creatures.
Samucchedavimutti ~vimukti deliverance by extirpation.
Samudaya Samudaya the Cause of Suffering; the Origin of Suffering.
Samutthana - origination; cause.
Samvara Samvara 1. to be composed; self-controlled; restrained; decorous. 2.commingled; mixed {food}.
Samvarapadhana - the effort to prevent the arising of unrisen evils; the effort to avoid unwholesome states.
Samvasa - communion.
Samvega Samvega sense of urgency.
Samvejaniyatthana samveganiya sthana a place apt to rouse the sense of urgency; {the Four} Holy Places of Buddhism {related to life of Buddha i.e. birthplace Lumbini, Enlightenment at BodhGaya, Place of First Sermon & Place of Nirvana at Kushinagar }.
Samyojana Samyojana {the ten} Fetters {that bind man to the round of rebirth}.
Samyuttanikaya Samyutta Nikaya Collection of Connected Discourses; Book of the Kindred Sayings; name of the third main division of the Sutta Pitaka.
Sangaha Sangaha 1. to treat kindly; give help; favour; aid. 2. to compile; collect; comprise; include; group.
Sangahavatthu - objects of sympathy; objects of favour; principles of kindly treatment; principles of service and social integration.
Sangha Sangha Sangha; the Order; the monastic order in Buddhism. community; assemblage; a chapter of {not less than four} Buddhist monks; the Buddhist clergy; the Buddhist church.
Sanghabheda Sanghabheda schism; causing dissension among the Order; the creation of a schism in the Sangha.
Sanghadana Sanghadana offering to the Order; gift to the Sangha; offering dedicated to the Sangha; gift dedicated to the Community as a whole.
Sanghadhikara* sangha adhikari an official, administrative officer of Buddhist faith.
Sanghadisesa - an offence entailing initial and subsequent meetings of the Sangha; Formal Meeting.
Sanghaguna Sangha guna {the nine} virtues of the Sangha.
Sanghakamma sangha karma an act or ceremony performed by a chapter of Buddhist monks assembled in solemn conclave; a formal act.
Sanghamandala Sangha mandala the Order; the Monastic Order; the Sangha; the monkhood.
Sanghamanti-gana, ~-samajja* sangha mantri gana Council of Sangha Ministers; Eccl. Cabinet.
Sanghanayaka* Sangha nayak Head of the sangha, leader of buddhists monastic practice.
Sanghanivasa*, Sanghaniketa* Sanghanivasa, Sanghaniketa monastic residence; monks' lodging.
Sanghanussati Sangha-anushaya-smriti recollection of the virtues of the Order {of monks}; reflection on the virtue of the Sangha.
Sanghapalanadhikara* Sangh palan adhikari Board of Sangha's {church's} Administration.
Sangharaja Sangha Raja {His Holiness} the Supreme leader of Buddhist faith.
Sanghasabha Sanghasabha Eccl. Assembly {of monks}.
Sanghasana* Sangh asana monks' seat; dais or raised platform for monks.
Sanghati - the outer robe of a Buddhist monk.
Sanghavasa* Sanghavasa the monastic precincts; living quarters of the monks.
Sanghikavatthu - monastery estate.
Sangiti Sangiti rehearsal; a Council; general convocation of the Sangha in order to settle questions of doctrine and to fix the text of the Scriptures.
Sangitikatha* sangiti katha preaching or chanting on the account of the First Council of Buddhism {after nirvana of Buddha}.
Sankhara (or sanhara) sanskar karma resultant{of deeds}, compulsive behaviour conditioning, character, reaction, attitude, compounded things; component things; the world of phenomena; all things which have been made up by pre-existing causes, {as in Sabbe Sankhara anicca}. volitional activities; kamma formations; mental formations; mental predispositions; volitional impulses; impulses and emotions; volition; all the mental factors except feeling and perception having volition as the constant factor,{as in the Five Aggregates and in the Law of Causation}. 3. essential conditions; the sum of the conditions or essential properties for a given process or result; constructing or formative factors, {as in ayusankhara, Kayasankhara}. 4. conducive factors; instigation {as in Sasankharika, Asankharika}
Sankharoti; Abhisankharoti - to think under the influence of some passion, emotion or motive; proliferate.
Sankhatadhamma - understanding conditioned by causes ; things produced by combination of causes; conditioned or compounded things; the phenomenon that can be conditioned/modified/programmed by circumstances i.e. behaviour of a person w.r.t pain or pleasure experienced by interaction with persons/objects/actions .
Sanna sangya perception; idea; ideation; idea formed by observation i.e. 1. in low light a rope on a road can be deduced as a snake by a person 2. A beautiful girl can be understood as a matter of lust by a man & she can also be understood as food by a tiger.
Sannama, Samyama sanyam restraint; selfcontrol; abstinence.
Sannapatta* sangya patra commission; royal certificate of appointment.
Santana - 1. continuity of subliminal consciousness; the ever moving, flowing panorama of successive mental states. 2. intrinsic or inherent qualities of character; inborn trait; innate character.
Santati - continuity {especially of consciousness}; a series of moments.
Santi shanti peace; tranquillity; calmness.
Santutthi, Santosa santushti contentment; satisfaction with whatever is one's own.
Sappaya - 1. adj. beneficial; wholesome; suitable; favourable. 2. favourable condition.
Sappi - ghee; clarified butter.
Sappurisa satpurusha a good, worthy man; righteous man; gentleman.
Sappurisadhamma sat purush dharma virtue of the righteous; {the seven} qualities of a good man.
Sarabhanna swara-abhi-gyan intoning; a particular mode of recitation {allowable to monks}.
Sarambha - contention; vying; presumption.
Sarana saranam refuge; help; protection; guide;remembrance.
Saranagamana Sarana gamana taking refuge {in the Triple Gem}; going for refuge.
Saraniyadhamma sharaniya dharma states of conciliation; virtues for fraternal living.
Sarira sharira the {physical} body.
Sarirajjhapana, Citakalimpana sarira~ the cremation ceremony; funeral; obsequies;
Sasana Shasan Buddhist practice; Buddhism; teaching; message; doctrine; the Dispensation; rule {time period} ; discipline
Sasanacariya Shasan acharya; 'ch' as in china a religious teacher related to Buddhism; moral instructor; missionary.
Sasanadhikara* - Department of Religious Affairs.
Sasanasampatti* Shasan sampatti property related to Buddhism; temporalities.
Sasanasikkhadhikara* sasan siksha adhikari Board of Education.
Sasanika Shasnik an adherent of Buddhist practice; follower.
Sassataditthi shashvat drishti eternalism; the doctrine of the continuance of the soul after death; the doctrine that soul and the world are eternal.
Satekiccha - adj. curable; amendable; remediable. n. monastic offences which can be corrected through some kinds of punishment, i.e. all offences except the four grave ones called Parajika.
Satheyya - hypocrisy; craft; treachery.
Sati smriti Meditation; Meditative practice as taught by Buddha i.e. Anapana, Vipassana, Samatha, Metta etc.; mindfulness; attentiveness; detached watching within; self-awareness; watchfulness within {see next}. It always means meditation in Lord Buddha's teachings (sometimes reflection).
Satipatthana or satipattana smriti prasthapana {Firmly} Establishing of/Setting up of meditation/watchfulness. {the four} Types of meditation as taught by Buddha i.e Kayanupashyana {on transience of body features}, Vedananupashyana {on sensations}, Cittanupashyana {on mind/thoughts} & Dhammanupashyana {on phenomenon/causation of e.g. emotions}; Sati/smriti word means meditation as it was prevalent in ancient India and it is meant to be in all teachings of Lord Buddha.
Sativinaya smriti vinay verdict of innocence; procedure for the acquittal of an Arahant who has fully-developed mindfulness.
Satta - a being; living being; creature; person.
Sattahakaraniya saptah karaniya business to be attended to within seven days; grounds or occasions on which monks are permitted to leave the rains-residence for the limited time of seven days.
Sattavasa - {the nine} spheres inhabited by beings; abodes of beings.
Sattha,Satthu - the Master; the Teacher; the Great Master; the Buddha.
Saupadisesa-nibbana Sa-upadhi-shesa-nirvana Nibbana realized with the body remaining; Nibbana with the substratum of life remaining.
Savaka shavak a disciple; hearer; follower.
Sayambhu swambhu the Self-Existent; an epithet of the Buddha.
Sayanha-sajjhaya*, Saya-bhana* - evening chanting.
Sekha; Sekkha Shishya the learner, i.e. one who is in the course of perfection; one who has reached one of the stages of holiness, except the last, and has yet to undergo a higher training.
Sekhiyadhamma; Sekhiyavatta Shishya-dharma; shishya-vrata {the seventy-five} rules for training; the code of etiquette{for trainees}.
Senasana shayan asana sleeping and sitting; bed and seat; dwelling; lodging.
Seyya shayya bed; bedding; sleep; rest; lying down; reclining.
Seyyam kappeti - v.{of a monk or novice} to sleep.
Sihaseyya Singh shayya lying like a lion; lying on the right side.
Sihaseyyakappakabuddhapatima*, Sayanapatima* Singha Shaiyya ~ Buddha Patima Reclining Buddha statue.
Sikkha Shishya learning; study; training; discipline.
Sikkham paccakkhati - to give up the Training; leave monkhood. .
Sikkhamana shishya~ a female novice undergoing a probationary course of two years {before receiving the higher ordination}.
Sikkhapada Shiksha pada a disciplinary rule; rule of morality; precept; training rule.
Sikkhattaya Shiksha traya the Threefold Learning; the Threefold Training; the Three Studies: 1.morality{sheel}, 2.self absorption/trance {samadhi} and 2. experiential wisdom; {preferably, training in higher morality, in higher {divine} consciousness, and in higher {divine} wisdom}.
Sila, Sikkhapada, Sucarita; acara sheel, Shikshapad, sucharitra, aachar morality; moral practice; moral conduct; code of morality; Buddhist ethics; a precept; rule of morality.
Silabbataparamasa - adherence to mere rules and rituals; clinging to rules and vows; overestimation regarding the efficacy of rules and observances.
Silabbatupadana - clinging to mere rules and rituals; adherence to rites and ceremonies; attachment to the belief in the efficacy of religious ceremonies and rituals.
Silacaravatta* Sheel aachar vrat moral conduct, manners and duties; moral habits, mien and deportment; the way of behaving and observing one's duties.
Silamaya sheelmay {merit} to be gained through, or connected with, morality.
Silanussati sheel-anushaya-smriti Recollection on subject of morality; {5 prominent morals are non-violence, truthfulness, non-stealing, non-intoxication & no-sexual-activity}, there are more conduct rules for monks & nuns; reflection on the advantages of morality or on one's own morals.
Silasamannata sheel samanata equality in moral conduct; unity in moral or disciplinary practices.
Silasampada sheel sampada achievement of virtue; fulfilment of moral conduct.
Silavisuddhi sheel vishuddhi purity of morality; purification of morality.
Sima seema a boundary; limit; precinct; consecrated area {established by sanctioned boundaries}.
Sima-nimitta, Nimitta Seema-nimitta a boundary marker, boundary-marking stone.
Simanimittanidhana seema nimitta nidhana ceremony of depositing boundary marking stones; burial of boundary markers.
Simanimittuparisilapatta - boundary-marking slab {usually made of stone and erected over a buried boundary-marking stone to show its place}
Simasammati seema sammati v. to establish the boundary of the Sangha communion area. n. consecration of the Assembly Hall boundary.
sincana*; Parittodaka-abbhukkirana* Sinchana ; 'ch' as in china to sprinkle the holy water.
Sincati, Abbhukkirati ;Sinchati , 'ch' as in china v. to sprinkle.
Sitthadipa - a candle.
Sitthadipadhara* - candlestick.
Soka Shok grief; sorrow.
Solasa solah sixteen.
Somanassa saumanasya a pleasurable mental feeling; mental pleasure; glad-mindedness; joy; delight.
Soracca - gentleness; meekness; suavity; gentility; refinement; mannerliness; graciousness.
Sotadvara strot dvar the ear-door; ear-avenue; ear sense organ.
Sotapanna strotapana a {Nirvana} Stream-Enterer; Stream-Winner; one who following the path of {morality & meditation of} Buddha, has attained the first stage of enlightenment/ samadhi/ trance/ jhana/zen & thus developing firm faith on triratna {trinity} of 1. all Buddhas, 2. Dhamma{their path/law} & 3.Sangha{holy order}; With this attainment a person will get only 7 more high rebirths either among humans or devas/angels, continue to meditate & finally achieve nirvana; one will surely not get bad rebirths among animals, hungry ghosts, violent demons nor in hell.
Sotapattimagga strotapatti marg the Path of Stream-Entrance{to Nirvana}; Path of Stream-Attainment {to nirvana} see above .
Sotapattiphala strotapatti phala the Fruition of Stream-Entry; Fruit of Stream-Entrance {leading to Nirvana} see sotapanna above.
Sotavinnana strot vigyan ear-consciousness.
Sovacassata - state of being easy to speak with; amenability to correction; obedience; admonishability.
Subhasita Subhasita pleasant speech; well spoken words; a proverb.
Sucarita sucharitra right conduct; good conduct; uprightness.
Sudda Shudra a person of the lowest caste; the workers; those who contribute the necessary physical labour; a Sudra; servant; menial; workpeople.
Suddhavasa Suddha vasa {the Five} Pure Abodes {in the Form Sphere} where the Non- Returners are reborn (as arch-angels in brahmaloka).
Suddhipatta* shuddhi patra identity card; identification papers.
Sugata Sugata the Happy One; the Well-Farer; the Buddha.
Sugati Sugati {the two or twenty-seven} Happy States; blissful states of existence; good rebirth.
Sukha sukh 1. happiness; ease; joy; comfort; pleasure. 2. physical or bodily happiness or ease.
Sukkhavipassaka shushk vipassaka dry-visioned insight meditator ; bare-insight worker.
Sunnavihara* shunya vihara deserted monastery; uninhabited monastery.
Suramerayamajja- pamadatthana - {taking} intoxicants tending to cloud the mind; intoxicants causing carelessness.
Suriyagati* surya gati the system of a solar calendar.
Suta shrut that which is heard or learnt; hearing; learning.
Sutamayapanna shrut mayi pragya understanding acquired by learning/listening; wisdom resulting from study/listening sutras/dhamma-talk.
Sutta; Suttanta sutra a discourse; dialogue; lecture; sermon; talk ; aphorism.
Suttapitaka; Suttantapitaka; Sutta Sutra pitaka the discourses section of Tripitaka; the original sermons and dialogues of the Buddha, the second main division of the Pali Canon containing discourses.
Suttanipata sutra nipaat Collected Discourses; Woven Cadences of Early Buddhists; name of the fifth division of the Khuddaka Nikaya.
Suvannalepa Suvarnalep v. to gild; cover with gold leaf; put a gold leaf on. adj. gilded; covered with gold leaves.
Suvannapatta suvarna patra {T.} gold leaf.


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Tacapancaka-kammatthana tvacha panchaka karma sthana the skin pentad of meditation subjects; the subject for meditation comprising the five constituents ending with the skin {the four others being hair, body hair, nails and teeth};
Tadangapahana - abandoning by substitution of opposites.
Tadangavimutti ~vimukti deliverance by substitution of opposites.
Tajjaniyakamma tyagniya karma the formal act of censure.
Talapatta tal patra a palm leaf.{T.} a fan made of palm-leaves, with a long handle, used by a monk in ceremonies; ceremonial fan. .
Tanha trishna craving; desire; thirst.
Tapa tapasya 1. religious austerity; penance. 2. exertion; mental devotion; ascetic practice, meditation.
Tapasa Tapas, tapasvi a hermit; ascetic; meditator.
Tassapapiyasika - inflicting a penalty on one who is at fault; decision for specific depravity.
Tathagata Tathagata 1. The Accomplished One; one who went beyond {death } and also came back; the Truth- winner; an title of the Buddha. 2. an Arahant. 3. a liberated being. 4. Fully-enlightened one.
Tatiyajjhana tritiya dhyan the third Jhana; the third absorption.
Tatramajjhattata Tatasth-madhyastata equanimity; equipoise; mental balance.
Tavatimsa - the realm{or heaven} of the Thirty-three{crore} gods/angels; name of the second heavenly abode, of which Sakka(Indra) is the king.
Tejodhatu tejyo dhatu fire-element; the element of heat; heat
Tejokasina tejyo kasina fire-contemplation; fire{candle} as a meditational object.
Temasa tri masa three months, those of the rainy season.
Tepitaka tri pitaka lit. the Three Baskets; the Tipitaka; the three divisions of the Buddhist Canon, viz., Vinaya, Sutta and Abhidhamma, generally known as the Pali Canon.
Tevacika tri vachika ; 'ch' as in china lit. pronouncing three words or three times ; especially one who pronounces the threefold formula of refuge, the first being Yasa's father.
Thambha stambha obstinacy; immobility; hardness; obduracy.
thana* sthana pedestal{as of a Buddha image}.
thananukkama* Sthana-anukram the ecclesiastical order of retinue; assistants or staff members; entourage.
thananusatti sthana-anushaya-smriti the authority based on one's rank or dignity.
Thavika - a small bag in which the monk carries things; a monk's bag; satchel.
Thena - a thief;{T.} unbecoming religious; shameless monk.
Thera sthivara an elder; a senior member of the Order; a senior monk {of at least ten years' standing}.
Theragatha sthivara gatha Psalms of the Brethren; Verses of the Elders; name of the eighth division of the Khuddaka Nikaya.
Theranuthera sthivara~ senior monks in general.
Theravada Sthivara vaad the Doctrine of the Elders; Teaching of the Elders; the Southern School of Buddhism.
Theri Sthivari a woman elder; senior nun.
Therigatha Sthivari gatha Psalms of the Sisters; Verses of the Women Elders; name of the ninth division of the Khuddaka Nikaya.
Theyyacetana ~chetana;'ch' as in china intention to steal.
Theyyacitta ~chitta;'ch' as in china intention to steal.
Theyyasamvasa - living clandestinely with the monks; disguising oneself as a monk; communion by theft.
Thina - sloth; unwieldiness; impliability; morbid state of mind.
Thinamiddha - sloth and torpor; sloth and drowsiness; torpor and languor; stolidity and drowsiness.
thiti, thiti sthiti duration; static moment; the moment of standing.
Thullaccaya sthool~ a grave offence; Serious Transgression.
Thupa Stupa {round-topped} towerlike stupa with a pronged crownpiece, relic mound; reliquary mound; tope; cairn; monument erected over the ashes of a holy person.
Thuparahapuggala stupa araha ~ persons worthy of a tope/stupa; those whose relics should be enshrined.
Tibhava, Tebhumi tri bhumi the Three Spheres, viz., the Sense Sphere, the Form Sphere and the Formless Sphere; three realms; three worlds; three planes of existence.
Ticivara tri cheevara the three robes of a Bhikkhu, consisting of the under, the upper and the outer robes; Triple Robe.
Tidvara tri dvar the three doors or avenues of action: body, speech, and mind.
tika tika 1. a sub-commentary. 2.{T.} a letter of invitation or invitation card to a monk. 3. {T.} written request for donation. 4.{T.} petition; appeal.
Tilakkhana tri lakshan the Three Characteristics; the Three Signs of Being; also called the Common Characteristics.
Tiloka triloka the three worlds. .
Tinavattharakavinaya - procedure for covering over {as} with grass, {a reconciliation of both parties without need for clearing up the rights and wrongs}.
Tipitakalaya*; Potthakagara*; Ganthalaya* Tripitakalaya, Pustakalaya, Granthalaya monastery library; Scripture Library; library of sacred writings.
Tiracchanakatha tiracchain katha a variety of worldly talk; childish talk; aimless talk.
Tiracchanavijja tiracchain vidya a low art, pseudo-sciences; any study tending to be an obstacle on the way to Nibbana.
Tiracchanayoni tiracchain yoni the animal kingdom; the realm of the brute creation; bad rebirth of animals , insects etc.
Tisarana tri sarana the Threefold Refuge; Three Refuges; Triple Guide.
Tisaranagamana tri saran gaman taking the Threefold Refuge; going to the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha for refuge.
Tisaranagamanupasampada tri sharan gaman upasampada ordination by taking the Threefold Refuge.
Titthiya Taittiriya an adherent of another religion; heretical teacher; Taittiriya brahman.
Tiveda tri vedas lit. the three knowledges; the three Vedas; the three divisions of the Brahmanic canon of authorized religious teaching and practice, viz., Irubbeda{Rigveda}, Yajubbeda{Yajurveda} and Samaveda, to which the fourth, Athabbada{Atharvaveda}, was added later.
Tusita Tushita the heavenly realm of delight; the heaven of the satisfied gods; name of the fourth heavenly abode, of which Santusita is the ruler.


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Ubbegapiti; Ubbenga-piti Avaig-preeti uplifting joy; thrilling emotion.
Ucchedaditthi Uccheda drishti annihilationism; the doctrine of the annihilation {of the soul after death}; belief in the annihilation of the soul.
Udakasatika udak~ a bathing-cloth.
Udana - an utterance; a paean; Paeans of Joy; the Solemn Utterances of the Buddha; name of the third division of the Khuddaka Nikaya.
Uddesikacetiya ~chaitya shrine by dedication; memorial object of worship referring to the Buddha, i.e. a Buddha image.
Uddhacca uddhat restlessness; unrest, distraction; flurry.
Uddhaccakukkucca uddhat restlessness and worry; flurry and worry; restlessness and anxiety.
Uggahanimitta - mental image; learning sign; sign to be grasped.
Ukkhepaniyakamma Upekshaniya karma the formal act of suspension; ostracism.
Upacara - neighbourhood; surrounding area.
Upacarasamadhi - proximate self absorption/trance; approaching self absorption/trance; neighbourhood-self absorption/trance; access self absorption/trance.
Upadana upadaan attachment {to worldly} ; clinging; grasping.
Upadanakkhandha upadaan khanda aggregate {as object} of clinging/attachment.
Upadayarupa - the Derivatives; derivative or secondary material properties dependent on the Four Great Essentials; material qualities derived from the Four Great Essentials; derivative matter.
Upadinnaka - lit. grasped by craving and false view; kammically acquired; kammically grasped.
Upaghatakakamma ~karma destructive kamma.
Upajjhaya upadhyay a spiritual teacher; preceptor.
Upakkilesa Upa-kilesha impurity; defilement.
Upama Upama simile; parable.
Upanaha - ill-will; grudge; enmity.
Upapajjavedaniyakamma ~karma subsequently effective kamma; kamma ripening in the next life.
Upapilakakamma - obstructive kamma; counteractive kamma.
Upasaka Upasaka lit. one who comes or sits near; a lay devotee; a devout or faithful layman; lay Buddhist.
Upasampada Upasampada full {or higher} ordination; taking up the Bhikkhuship; Full Admission to the Sangha; Ordination Cere- mony. v. to be ordained; enter the monkhood; join the Order.
Upasampada, Pabbajja Upasampada, Pravarjya giving up the world; adopting the ascetic life; ordination. v. to go forth; give up or renounce the world; become an ascetic, a Bhikkhu or a novice; be ordained; join or enter the Order.
Upasampadacariya, Kammavacacariya + Anusavanacariya upasampada-acharya , karma-vacha-acharya ; 'ch' as in china the two monks who chant the formal words of an act{especially, of ordi nation}; Act-Announcer; Ordination-Teacher.
Upasampanna - the ordained; a Bhikkhu or Bhikkhuni.
Upasangharaja* - any of the highest dignitaries in the hierarchy of the Thai Sangha, second only to the Supreme Patriarch.
Upasika Upasika a female devotee; a female lay follower.
Upatthaka upasthak attendant; lay supporter.
Upatthambhakakamma - supportive kamma.
Upaya Upaya means; method; resource; expedient.
Upayasa - despair.
Upekkha Upeksha 1. equanimity; even mindedness; neutrality; poise. 2. indifference; neutral feeling; neither pleasurable nor painful feeling.
Uposatha - 1. observance; the observance of the Eight Precepts. 2. biweekly recitation of the Vinaya rules by a chapter of Buddhist monks; the days for special meetings of the order, and for recitation of the Patimokkha. 3. the Uposatha hall; consecrated assembly hall.
Uposathadivasa - the Buddhist holy day {for fasting & confession , twice a month} day of merit-making; observance day.
Uposathagga, Uposathagara Uposath agara the uposatha hall; a chapter house; a hall or building in a monastery in which ecclesiastical acts or ceremonies are performed; consecrated assembly hall;{mis.} church; temple
Uposathasila Uposath sheel the Eight Precepts observed by lay devotees on Uposatha days.
Uppabbajati, Vibbhamati - v. to leave the Order; leave monkhood; disrobe. .
Uppada utpad arising; genesis.
Uttarasanga - the upper robe.
Uttarimanussadhamma Manushy-ottar-Dharma super human state; extraordinary attainment; super-human attainment.
Utthanasampada - the achievement of persistent effort.
Utuniyama - physical inorganic order; physical laws.


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Vaca vacha; 'ch' as in china speech; word; saying.
Vaccakuti svaccha kuti;'ch' as in china the water closet; toilet {for monks}; privy.
Vaciduccarita vachik dushcharitra ; 'ch' as in china misbehaviour in words; misconduct by speech; verbal mis- conduct.
Vacidvara vachik dvar; 'ch' as in china speech as a door of action; speech-door.
Vacikamma vachik karma; 'ch' as in china verbal action; deed by word; action performed by speech.
Vacisankhara vachik sanskar; 'ch' as in china verbal formation, i.e. Vitakka and Vicara; verbal volition; nature of speech{of a person}.
Vacisucarita vachik su charitra; 'ch' as in china good/righteous action in speech; good conduct in word.
Vacivinnatti vachik vinati; 'ch' as in china verbal intimation; verbal expression.
Vada vaad theory; saying; doctrine; creed.
Vagga varga a group; party; chapter of a book.
Vajja, adinava, dosa - fault; blemish; defect; corruption; depravity; disadvantage.
Vamsa Vamsa tradition; chronicle; lineage.
Vandana, Namassana Vandana v. to salute with joined palms.
Vanna varna 1. colour of the skin; appearance; complexion; beauty. 2. caste. 3. fame; repute
Vara Var boon; blessing; favour.
Vassa varsha a year; rainy season; the rains; rains-retreat; rains-residence; the Buddhist Lent.
Vassadipa, Vassikapadipa Vassadipa candle for the rains; Lenten candle.
Vassavasa varsha vasa Vassa-residence; the rains-retreat; rains-residence; keeping the Buddhist Lent; keeping the rainy season; dwelling permanently at a suitable place throughout the three months of the rainy season.
Vassikasatika varsha~ cloth for the rains; rains-cloth.
Vassupanayikadivasa - the first day of the rains-retreat; beginning of the rains-residence; Rains-Entry Day.
Vata vrata ascetic practice; religious observance such as fasting etc..
Vatavantu, Yati vratavant one who takes up a religious practice or observes a religious vow; ascetic; recluse; hermit.
Vatta - the round of rebirth; the round of existences; the cycle of rebirth.
Vatthukama vastu kaam objective sensuality; lovely sense-objects; sensual pleasures.
Vaya - 1. decay; loss 2.{the three} ages; periods of life.
Vayama - effort; endeavour; exertion; striving.
Vayodhatu - lit. the air-element; motion; the element of motion; vibration.
Vedana samvedana sensation {connected to feeling}.
Vedananupassana samvedana anushaya pashyana The attention/meditation on sensations; mindfulness as regards sensations; in Buddhist practice , meditation on sensations of body is the main object to cut roots of sin{samhara/sanskar} by remaining in equanimity{samatha} leading to quietitude leading to trance/samadhi then enlightenment.
Veneyya - one who is accessible to instruction; one who is ready to receive the Teaching {of the Buddha}; a tractable person; trainable person; teachable person.
Vera vair enmity; hostile action; hatred; revenge.
Vesarajja - intrepidity; perfect self confidence.
Vessa Vaishya a member of the third caste; merchant and agriculturalist; tradesfolk.
Veyyavacca - service; helpful activity; attention; duty.
Veyyavaccakara - a servant; attendant; monks' agent; one who renders a service; lay bursar {of a monastery}
Veyyavaccamaya - {merit} to be gained through, or connected with, rendering one's services.
Vibhanga - the Book of Divisions; the Book of Treatises; name of the second book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka.
Vibhavatanha ~trishna craving for self-annihilation; craving for {or attachment to} sensual pleasures connected with the view of nihilism; craving for non-existence.
Vicara Vicar thought process; discursive thinking; deliberation.
Vicaya vichay; 'ch' as in china investigation;{T.} research.
Vicikiccha - doubt; perplexity; scepsis; scepticism; indecision; uncertainty.
Vidhana Vidhana arrangement; performance; ceremony.
Vidhikara* Vidhikara master of ceremonies.
Vihara, Arama Vihara, Arama 1. a dwelling-place {for monks}; retreat; monastery; abode. 2. a state of mind; mode of life. 3.{T.} a temple; Wat; a monastery; repository of Buddha images; Buddha-image hall; shrine- hall.
Viharadhipati*, Adhikarapati* vihar-adhipati, adhikar-pati the abbot who is an Ecclesiastical Sub-District Chief as well.
Viharapati* vihar pati the abbot, chief administrator of monastery .
Vihimsavitakka vihinsa vitark cruel thought; thought of cruelty; thought of violence.
Vijja vidya knowledge; transcendental wisdom; the Threefold Knowledge
Vikala Vikaal improper time; wrong time; unseemly hours; afternoon and night.
Vikappa - to share ownership {of an extra bowl or robe} with another monk.
Vikkhambhanavimutti - deliverance by suppression.
Vimamsa Vimamsa investigation; reasoning; reflection; examination; testing.
Vimana Vimana a celestial mansion; fairy-palace; a mansion in heaven
Vimanavatthu Vimana vastu Stories of Heavenly Mansions; Stories of the Mansions; name of the ninth division of the Khuddaka Nikaya.
Vimokkha vimoksha Vimutti, deliverance;Nirvana; Moksha; emancipation; release; salvation; liberation; freedom.
Vimutti vimukti deliverance;Nirvana; Moksha; emancipation; release; salvation; liberation; freedom.
Vimuttisukha vimukti sukh Bliss of vimukti / Emancipation/ nirvana/ moksha/ salvation/ liberation;bliss of freedom.
Vinaya Viniyama 1. discipline; the monastic regulations; the code of monastic discipline; the rules of discipline of the Order. 2. training; guidance. 3. organization; system.
Vinayadhara Vinayadhara one versed in the Discipline; an expert in the disciplinary code.
Vinayadhara-gana, ~-samajja* - Eccl. judicature.
Vinayapitaka Vinaya pitaka the Basket of Discipline; the Discipline Basket; the Book of Discipline.
Vinipata - bad falling; place of suffering; perdition; birth of demons.
Vinnana vigyan consciousness; act of consciousness; {T., mis.} soul; spirit.
Vinnanancayatana vigyan~ayatana the Realm of Infinity of Consciousness; the Realm of Boundless Consciousness.
Vinnatti Vinati 1. intimation; expression. 2. begging; {unlawful} request {for food and other requisites}; hinting.
Vinnu vigya a wise man.
Vipaka - consequence; effect; result; resultant; fruit.
Vipakacitta vipak chitta; 'ch' as in china resultant consciousness; kamma resultant.
Vipallasa - derangement; perversion; perversity.
Viparinama Viparinama change; transformation; alteration; wrongly resulting.
Vipassana vipashyana a foremost meditation technique taught by Buddha consisting of watchfulness within with equanimity for insight development & awakeing of samadhi/trance state; intuitive vision; introspection; comtemplation; intuition.
Vipassana-bhavana Vipassana-bhavana vipassana meditation practice & insight development with it{see above}.
Vipassanadhura - task of vipassana meditation practice; the burden of comtemplation; obligation of insight development.
Vipatti Vipatti failure; falling away; misfortune; downfall; disadvantage; abortion; invalidity.
Vippatisara - remorse; repentance.
Vipulakarana, Pakasana Prakashan propagation; dissemination; spreading.
Viraga viraag detachment; dispassionateness; absence of lust; destruction of passions.
Virati Virati abstinence; {the three} abstinences.
Viriya veerya effort; energy; vigour; endeavour; exertion; perseverance.
Viriyarambha Viriya-arambha beginning of exertion; application of exertion; stirred-up energy; energetic effort.
Visajjana visarjan answer; explanation;exposition; elucidation.
Visakhapuja Vishakapuja Worship on the Full-Moon Day of the sixth lunar month in commemoration of the Buddha's Birth, Enlightenment and Passing; the Buddhist New Year; the Festival of the May Full Moon; widely known as Wesak or Vesak, but preferably,Vesakh or Wesakh.
Visaya vishay 1. range; reach; scope; sphere; realm; power; capacity. 2. sense-object.
Visesa Vishesha unusual virtue; extraordinary state; specific attainment.
Visuddhi vishuddhi purity; purification; stage of purity.
Visumgamasima - a land grant {set apart for the Sangha of a monastery}; consecrated boundaries; consecrated area; concession; a tract of land {now, usually a small rectangular plot of ground} officially granted to the Sangha for establishing the boundaries of the jurisdiction of a community of monks {now, for consecrating as the site of the Uposatha hall of a monastery}.
Vitakka vitark initial application; thought conception; thought.
Vitakkacarita vitark charitra the discursive; the ruminating-natured; one of speculative temperament.
Vithicitta - thought process; process of cognition; a single unit of cognition; different serial processes of cognition; conscious mind.
Vivadadhikarana Vivad adhikarana legal questions concerning disputes; contention {concerning the Doctrine and the Discipline}
Vivahakala, Vivahamangala Vivaha kaal wedding; marriage ceremony.
Vivatta Vivarta freedom from rebirth; absence of the cycle of existence; Nibbana.
Viveka Vivek discernment; knowing right & wrong; seclusion; solitude; detachment.
Vyakarana Vyakarana answer; explanation; declaration; exposition; prediction; {grammer}


Pali Word Sanskrit Word English Translation
Yakkha yaksha 1. a spiritual being. 2. an attendant of Kuvera or Vessavana. 3. a messenger of Yama. 4. deity. 5. Sakka. 6. any of the Four Great Kings of four directions 7. powerful ghost {can be good or bad}
Yama Yama the Lord of the Underworld; ruler of the kingdom of the dead; death; the realm of the Yama gods; name of the third heavenly abode, of which Suyama is the king.
Yamaka - The Book of Pairs; name of the sixth book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka.
Yamakapatihariya - the Twin Wonder; the Twin Miracle; the miracle of the double appearances, consisting in the appearance of phenomena of opposite character in pairs, as streaming forth of fire and water at the same time.
Yanna yagna, yagya 1.{in Hinduism} fireworship with chanting & charity {sacrifice too in olden times} 2. {in Buddhism} alms-giving; charity.
Yasa yash glory; fame; repute; success; honour; high position.
Yathabhutananadassana yattha bhuta gyan darshan absolute knowledge; the knowledge and vision according to reality; knowing and seeing things as they are.
Yati, Vatavantu vratavant one who takes up a religious practice or observes a religious vow; ascetic; recluse; hermit.
Yebhuyyasika - decision according to the majority.
Yoga Yoga 1. effort; endeavour; application; undertaking. 2. bond; tie; attachment; joining; mixing; meeting {yoga means meeting of the mundane consciousness with superconsciousness state}
Yogavacara Yogavacara one who practises spiritual exercise; meditator.
Yogi Yogi one who devotes himself to spiritual things; an earnest student; one devoted to mental training; meditator.
Yojana Yojana a measure of length; a distance of about 10 miles, or 16 kIlometres.
Yoni Yoni 1. origin; way of birth; place of birth; realm of existence; source; {the four} Modes of Births. 2. thoroughness; knowledge; insight.
Yonisomanasikara - proper attention; systematic attention; having thorough method in one's thought; proper consideration; wise consideration; thorough attention; critical reflection; genetical reflection; analytical reflection.

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