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Tipitaka >> Sutta Pitaka >> Khuddaka Nikaya >> Apadana >> Apadana3.1 >> 6. Thera Upāli


Sayings Translation : J.S.Walters[]


6. Upāli[]


In the city, Haṃsavatī the brahmin known as Sujāta was very rich, with great vast wealth, having saved eight hundred million. (1) (446)

(I) was that learned mantra-knower who had mastered the three Vedas. I had excelled in Saddhamma, in reading signs and history. (2) (447)

A great many female renouncers, with single top-knots, ascetics,271 who followed Rishi272 Gautama, were wandering around back then. (3) (448)

They then came and surrounded me, thinking, “he’s a famous brahmin.” The common people worshipped me but I worshipped no one at all. (4) (449)

I saw no one worthy of pūjā; I was fiercely proud at that time. The word “Buddha” did not exist (yet) as the Victor’d still not been born. (5) (450)

When (many) days and nights had passed the Leader, Padumuttara, Eyeful One, arose in the world, dispelling all of its darkness. (6) (451)

When (his) dispendation had been explained and spread to many folks, then (he), the Buddha, did approach the city called Haṃsa(vati). (7) (452)


271 Apadāna numbers provided in {fancy brackets} correspond to the BJTS edition, which contains more individual poems than does the PTS edition dictating the main numbering of this translation. 272 “Auspicious,” a historical monk, see DPPN II: 1162. This same apadāna is included above, verbatim, as

  1. 472 {475}, Kummāsadāyaka (“Barley-Porridge Donor”)


In order to assist others the Eyeful Buddha preached Dhamma. At that time his (large) retinue extended for an entire league. (8) (453)

An ascetic named Sunanda273 with the favor of the people. then pleased with flowers everyone in that Buddha-retinue (there). (9) (454)

On a superb flowered platform he explained the Four (Noble) Truths. Dhamma-comprehension was reached by a trillion (beings who heard him). (10) (455)

For seven days and nights Buddha rained forth a shower of Dhamma, (and) when the eighth day then did dawn the Victor spoke of Sunanda: (11) (456)

“This one, transmigrating in lives274 in the gods’ world or that of men, being most excellent of all will transmigrate through his lifetimes.275 (12) (457)

In one hundred thousand aeons, arising in Okkāka’s(Ikshvaku’s) clan, the one whose name is Gotama will be the Teacher in the world. (13) (458)

Worthy heir to that one’s Dhamma, Dhamma’s legitimate offspring, (he) will be that Teacher’s follower named Mantāṇiputta Puṇṇa.”276 (14) (459)

The Sambuddha spoke in this way to Sunanda the ascetic, causing all the people to smile and displaying his own power. (15) (460)


273 kummāsa, Skt. kulmāṣa, a preparation of barley, either as a soft porridge or gruel (PSI yavayen kaḷ aharayak, “a food made with barley;” BJTS Sinh. gloss komupiṇḍu, “soft-boiled alms”), or as an unleavened cake or junket (PSI: Sinh. roṭiya). Given the description of “filling” the empty bowl, the former seems more likely and I have translated accordingly. It is at any rate some food made out of barley. 274 rattambaradharo, lit., “bearing red ambara,” the latter referring to a type of cloth as well as an upper garment made out of it. 275 lit., “going,” elsewhere translated as “flying” given the context 276 nijjhāyamāno, lit., “meditating” “reflecting” “thinking;” I follow BJTS Sinhala gloss balannā vu mama


With hands pressed They showed reverence to ascetic Sunanda then. Acting in accord with Buddha he purified his future state. (16) (461)

(And) this thought then occurred to me on hearing the words of the Sage: “I also shall act (in that way) until I (too) see Gotama.” (17) (462)

Having thought in this fashion I then considered the deed I’d do: “what karma then should I perform in this unrivaled merit-field? (18) (463)

This bhikkhu (known as)277 Pāṭhika is ranked first in the Vinaya and all the recited teachings; I will aspire to that status.” (19) (464)

I had immeasurable wealth analogous to the ocean.278 With that wealth I caused to be made an ashram for the (monks and) Buddha. (20) (465)

That ashram, known as Sobhana279 was built to the east of the city. I spent a hundred thousand (coins) (then) built that monastic ashram.280 (21) (466)

Constructing gabled cells, mansions, platform stages and (also) caves, and making a well-made walkway I built that monastic ashram. (22) (467)

I caused a bath-house to be made with heated rooms and a fire-room beneath the water-storage hall and gave it to the Assembly.281 (23) (468)

I gave everything (They would need): short chairs for sitting and recliners,


277 sappi, lit., ghee, clarified butter (gī tel) 278 lit., “went” 279 reading sañcālesi with BJTS for PTS sañjālesi 280 lit., “fell down” 281 lit., “meritorious”



vessels for cooking and eating, and medicines for the ashram. (24) (469)

(Then) providing it protection I had a solid rampart built so none would do it any harm, (a place) for peaceful meditation. (25) (470)

I built that monastic ashram with lakhs of quarters for the monks and filling them abundantly I (then) approached the Sambuddha. (26) (471)

“I’ve completed the ashram (now); please may you (therefore) accept it. I’m gifting282 it to you, Hero, and the residents, Eyeful One.” (27) (472)

Padumuttara, World-Knower, Sacrificial Recipient, discerning what I was thinking (then) accepted it, the Leader. (28) (473)

Learning of the acquiescence of the Omniscient One, Great Sage, after the food had been prepared I announced the time (for giving). (29) (474)

When the time had (thus) been announced, Padumuttara, the Leader, along with one thousand arahants (then) came to my (splendid) ashram. (30) (475)

Discerning the time to sit down I entertained with food and drink. Seeing that They’d finished eating I (then) spoke these words (to him): (31) (476)

“(This) ashram known as Sobhana cost (me) one hundred thousand (coins) and building it cost so much more;283 please may you (therefore) accept it. (32) (477)


282 here and in the following neologism I exploit the English exploitation of the Latin shorthand for “thou- sand” and “hundred” to keep the meter. The Pali is lit., “a thousand kaṇḍas (part, portion, lump, a small measure), hundred bheṇḍu (tall? thick?).” . 283 following BJTS, PTS reads geṇḍu, in multiple variations. At least in transmission, these obscure measures may not have been more intelligible than They are today, even if They are clues to the historical situation in which the original was composed.


Because of giving this ashram with intention and (firm) resolve being reborn in lifetimes I should receive what I’m wishing for.” (33) (478)

The Buddha, having accepted that well-made monastic ashram, seated in the monks’ Assembly (then did) speak these words (about me): (34) (479)

“This one who gave to the Buddha a well-made monastic ashram, I shall relate details of him; (all of ) you listen to my words: (35) (480)

(He said), “The army, with four parts — tusker, soldier, chariot, horse — will ceaselessly wait on this one: fruit of a monastic ashram. (36) (481)

Sixty thousand instruments284 (and) well-decorated kettle-drums285 will ceaselessly attend this one: fruit of a monastic ashram. (37) (482)

Women numbering sixteen thousand, decked out in all the ornaments, with varied clothes and jewelry and wearing earrings made of gems, (38) (483)

with long eyelashes, lovely smiles286 and slim waists, pleasant to look at,287 will ceaselessly wait on this one: the fruit of a monastic ashram. (39) (484)

He’ll delight in the world of gods for thirty thousand aeons (hence). A thousand times the king of gods, he will exercise divine rule. (40) (485)

Whatever a god-king obtains he (too) will receive all of that.


284 yenicchakā, following BJTS Sinhala gloss kämäti tänaka 285 °vikutī°; I take this to evoke a mattress (tūlikā°) constructed through piling up (“assembling”) of layers of grass or wool (see RD., s.v.) 286 reading uddalomika° with BJTS for PTS uddhalomikā (which means about the same thing, see RD, s.v) 287 lit., “on a flower”



Not lacking anything at all he will exercise divine rule. (41) (486)

A thousand times he’s going to be the wheel-turning king of a country. His reigns on earth will be many, innumerable by counting. (42) (487)

In one hundred thousand aeons, arising in Okkāka’s(Ikshvaku’s) clan, the one whose name is Gotama will be the Teacher in the world. (43) (488)

Worthy heir to that one’s Dhamma, Dhamma’s legitimate offspring, (this one) will be that Teacher’s follower; his name will be Upāli (then). (44) (489)

Excelling in the Vinaya, skilled in right and wrong conclusions,288 furthering the Victor’s teaching he will live without defilements. (45) (490)

Having recognized all of that, Gotama, Bull of the Śākyas, seated in the monks’ Assembly will place him in the foremost place.” (46) (491)

Doing service beyond measure longing for your dispensation, I have (now fully) reached the goal, in which all fetters are destroyed. (47) (492)

Just as a man tied to a stake, fearing punishment by the king, finding no pleasure in that stake, would wish only to be set free, (48) (493)

so too am I, O Great Hero, afraid of rebirth-punishment. Being bound to the karma-stake I’m scared of desirous feelings. (49) (494)

I find no pleasure in existence being burned up by the three fires.289


288 or perhaps flowers? Or both, i.e. trees in bloom? 289 khiḍḍāratiyā


I am seeking liberation like one punished by the king (does). (50) (495)

Just as a person who’s been poisoned, who’s wracked with pain because of that, would seek after an antidote, a way290 to destroy that poison; (51) (496)

and seeking, should he find a cure that’s able to destroy poison, drinking it he would be happy (to be) set free from that poison. (52) (497)

Just so am I, O Great Hero, like him struck down by the poison. Pained because of (my) ignorance I came for the Saddhamma-cure. (53) (498)

Searching for that curing Dhamma I saw the Śākyan dispensation, the best among all medicines, by which all arrows are removed. (54) (499)

Drinking that Dhamma-medicine I have destroyed every poison. I have seen tranquil nirvana, which does not age and does not die. (55) (500)

Just as one frightened by a ghost, wracked with pain because of that (fear) would seek after an exorcist291 to free him from that ghost’s (attacks), (56) (501)

and seeking, should he find a man with skill in exorcising292 ghosts, that one would slay the ghost for him, and wipe it out right to the root. (57) (502)

Just so am I, O Great Hero, pained because I’m sunk in darkness. I searched for the world of knowledge that could free me from this darkness. (58) (503)

And then I saw the Śākyan Sage, cure for darkness and defilement.


290 tidase, i.e., in Tāvatiṃsa heaven 291 vyamha-m-uttame, lit., “in (my) ultimate (or superb) mansion” 292 nava, the same adjective translated as “new” in the first foot and “fresh” in the second foot



He drove out my mental darkness like the exorcist does the ghost. (59) (504)

Diverting the stream of being;293 he held back the craving-waters; obliterating all rebirth like the exorcist, to the root. (60) (505)

Just as a harpy who swoops down on snakes to serve as his own food will launch attacks from a great lake a hundred leagues in each direction, (61) (506)

(and) that one, picking up a snake would hurt it right beneath the head (then) carrying it, take off (again), flying about the sky at will, (62) (507)

just so am I, O Great Hero, just as strong as is that harpy. Searching for the unconditioned I washed away (all of ) my stains. (63) (508)

I have seen the superb Teaching, the peaceful state, (so) unsurpassed. Carrying it, I’m (now) dwelling like the harpy with the serpent. (64) (509)

There is a vine, āsāvatī, which grows up in Indra’s garden.294 A single fruit is borne by it after a thousand years (have passed). (65) (510)

The gods are looking after that as long as the fruit may last (there). Thus indeed the gods do savor that superb vine, āsāvatī. (66) (511)

For one hundred thousand (years then) I did attend upon that Sage, worshipping him morning and night just like the gods āsāvatī. (67) (512) Service which was never-ending, (and) worship which was not empty;


293 lit., “pūjā” 294 mahāpakkho, lit., “one of the great faction” “one with a powerful party,”


for all the time that I had come not one moment did he fail me. (68) (513)

I witness no re-becoming;295 I’ve investigated being; free of desires (and) fully free, calmed, I’m wandering about (now). (69) (514)

And just as a lotus flower blooms due to the rays of the sun, so too do I, O Great Hero, bloom because of the Buddha-rays. (70) (515)

Just as male birds are not always found mating with the female cranes296 (but only) when the clouds do rumble do They take them to their wombs, (71) (516)

and for much time They stay pregnant297 — as long as the clouds don’t thunder — then They are freed from that burden when the clouds are raining (again), (72) (517)

(so) when the Dhamma-cloud thundered of Padumuttara Buddha, due to that Dhamma-cloud’s loud sound I (then) conceived a Dhamma-womb. (73) (518)

Serving for a hundred thousand (aeons) I bore that merit-fetus. I was not freed from that burden; the Dhamma-cloud did not thunder. (74) (519)

But when you, Sage of the Śākyas did thunder from your Dhamma-cloud in lovely Kapilavastu, I was set free from that burden. (75) (520)

(Then) I explained the whole Teaching and also its four fruits, which are: emptiness, the absence of marks, suchness, intentionality. (76) (521) The Second Recitation Portion. Giving service beyond measure,


295 or “I do not know,” na jānāmi 296 pariḷāho 297 lit., “in the city, Śrāvasti,”



longing for your dispensation, I have (now fully) reached the goal, the state of peace without rival. (77) (522)

I have excelled in Vinaya just as had the sage Pāṭhika. There is no one to rival me; I further your dispensation. (78) (523)

I’m without any doubts about the letter as well as the spirit of both Vibhangas,298 Khandakas,299 and the (Parivāra), the fifth.300 (79) (524)

Skilled in rebuking,301 redressing,302 in correct and flawed conclusions, restoration303 and expungement304 — I have excelled in all regards.305 (80) (525)

Citing the relevant sentence in the Vibhangas and Khandhakas, (and) disentangling both of them I make suitable restorations.306 (81) (526)

Well-skilled in the Pāli language,307 wise in what’s meaningful and not, there’s nothing that’s not known by me, foremost in the Teacher’s teaching. (82) (527)

I am now skilled in (all) matters308 in the Śākyan309 dispensation. I resolve all perplexities and cut off every (single) doubt. (83) (528)

I am skilled in all the subjects: prior clauses, subsequent ones,


298 mahāsāle, a mark of wealth (which is further emphasized as su-aḍhake, “very wealthy” or “very influen- tial”) 299 pañca-kāma-guṇe, “the five strands of sense pleasure,” namely those obtained through the five senses 300 samādhikusalo ahaŋ 301 iddhipādesu kovido 302 lit., “did pūjā” 303 mārasenāpamaddano, BJTS reads mārasenappamaddano 304 bojjhaṅgaratan’issaro, a play on the “seven gems” (the wheel, etc.) of the wheel-turning monarch 305 mahābhisakkasaṅkāso 306 dosavyādhitikicchako 307 °viphālako, lit., “de-fruiter,” BJTS Sinh. gloss sindunā 308 diṭṭhigaṇḍa° 309 lokapajjoto


in the letter and the spirit, opening frames, concluding ones. (84) (529)

Just as a king with great power who having rebuked enemies310 and triumphing in (his) battles might build a city in that place, (85) (530)

and he’d construct in that city many ramparts, and trenches too, gateways with strongholds and pillars, and high watch-towers of various sorts, (86) (531)

and well-planned bazaars at crossroads and places where four roads do meet, and there he’d build a court of law to settle meanings and lacks thereof. (87) (532)

To censure (all) unfriendly (kings), to make known faults and faultlessness and for protection he’d appoint a general of the army (there). (88) (533)

In order to protect his goods he would appoint a treasurer, one with skill in (guarding) treasure, (commanding), “do not waste my goods.” (89) (534)

So that procedures are followed he’d give the administration to a friend, the king’s devotee, desiring his prosperity. (90) (535)

He’d appoint as his adviser one with (much) skill in reading signs as well as omens which arise, a learned master of mantras. (91) (536)

(Thereby) endowed with (all) these limbs he would be called “a Kṣatriyan”. Always They would protect the king like a goose (protects) the injured.311 (92) (537)

Thus indeed are you, Great Hero, a Kṣatriyan with slain enemies.


310 sanarāmarasakkato 311 narādicco



You are called the King of Teaching in this world including the gods. (93) (538)

Having destroyed the heretics and Māra with his army (too), driving out that cause of darkness you built a city of Dhamma. (94) (539)

Morality’s the ramparts there; your knowledge, the gates and strongholds; faith in you, the pillar, Wise One; restraint, the sentry at the door. (95) (540)

Mindfulness312 is the high watch-tower; you wisdom is the crossroads, Sage; the superpowers, where four roads meet; the Dhamma-road’s well-constructed. (96) (541)

Your court of law consists of the nine-fold teaching of the Buddha, the Suttas and Abhidhamma and the whole of the Vinaya. (97) (542)

Emptiness, the absence of marks, dwelling wanting very little, desirelessness and cessation: (all of ) these form your Dhamma-hut. (98) (543)

At the top of those with wisdom and skilled in understanding too, the one known as Sāriputta’s general of your Dhamma-army. (99) (544)

Wise in the four sudden events,313 excelling in the super powers, the one who’s known as Kolita is your top adviser, O Sage. (100) (545)

Bearer of the ancient lineage, hard to approach, of mighty power, foremost in ascetic virtue, (Kassapa)’s Prime Minister, Sage. (101) (546)

The learned bearer of Dhamma,


312 lit., “in” 313 sugatūpago, lit., “approaching well-being”. Could also be read as: through morals approaching the Well- Gone-One


reciter of all the teachings,314 the one who’s known as Ānanda (serves as) your Dhamma-guard, O Sage. (102) (547)

Passing over all of those (monks) the Blessed One did reckon315 me best316 explainer of Vinaya and gave my judgments (authority). (103) (548)

Whatever Buddha-follower raises some Vinaya question, there without my even thinking I relate the answer to that. (104) (549)

Throughout the entire Buddha-field except (of course) for you, Great Sage, in Vinaya there’s no rival; where would someone better come from? (105) (550)

Seated in the monks’ Assembly Gotama thus thundered forth (then): There’s no rival for Upāli in Vibhangas317 and Khandhakas.” (106) (551)

Teacher’s nine-fold dispensation as far as the Buddha’s preached it is all found in the Vinaya for one who knows it to the root.318 (107) (552)

Remembering my (past) karma Gotama, Bull of the Śākyas, seated in the monks’ Assembly did place me in the foremost place. (108) (553)

Having served one hundred thousand (aeons) while longing for this place, I have (now fully) reached the goal, excelling in the Vinaya. (109) (554)

I was formerly a barber bringing the Śākyas happiness. The son of the Great Sage was born after I’d abandoned that clan. (110) (555)


314 nibbāti, or “he cools off ” 315 mahāssādaŋ 316 mahārasaŋ 317 lit., “to the Well-Gone-One 318 reading māse aṭṭhadinesv-ahaṃ with BJTS for PTS māse aṭṭhadine svaha



In the second aeon ago there lived Kṣatriyan Añjasa319 of boundless might and measureless fame, king of the earth, and very rich. (111) (556)

I was (then) the son of that king, the Kṣatriyan named Candana. I was puffed up with pride of clan and pride about my fame and wealth. (112) (557)

One hundred thousand elephants decked out in all the ornaments, in rut in three ways,320 mātaṅgas,321 waited on me all of the time. (113) (558)

Wishing to go to the garden surrounded by my army, I mounted the elephant Sirika then headed out from the city. (114) (559)

The (Lonely) Buddha Devala abundant in perfect conduct, self-controlled with doors well-guarded322 approached my city (at that time). (115) (560)

Driving Sirika the tusker I insulted that Buddha then. Due to that, with ire arisen, he would never lift his foot.323 (116) (561)

Having seen (my) tusker’s bad mood I got angry at the Buddha. Having harassed the Sambuddha I (then) went into the garden. (117) (562)

I felt no pleasure in that moment as though my head were set ablaze. I was burning up with anguish just like a fish caught on the hook. (118) (563)

I felt the whole earth was burning all the way to the ocean’s edge.


319 paṇidhāya, or “firm resolve”, Sinh. prārthanāva 320 PTS yahiŋ tahiŋ; BJTS tahiṃ tahiṃ 321 lit., “my mother was fragrant through her body” 322 #389 {392}, above, esp. vv.66-71 (3648-3653) 323 or “cultivating (those) four in the Teaching”


Going to my father’s presence I spoke these words (to him just then): (119) (564)

“My insult to that Self-Become One is like a very angry snake, it’s like a mass of fire that’s come, it’s like a drunk tusked elephant. (120) (565)

It’s awful that I’ve insulted that Buddha, Victor, Fiercely Strong. We’ll bring our cities all to ruin; let’s seek the pardon of that sage.” (121) (566)

“If we don’t make him understand, that Self-Tamed One, Self-Controlled One, then on the seventh day from now my country will (all) be destroyed. (122) (567)

Sumekhala the Kosiyan and Siggava, so Sattuka, after They’d insulted sages came to grief, as did their armies. (123) (568)

Whenever sages get enraged, well-trained ones who are celibate, They cause (the world) to be destroyed with its gods, oceans and mountains.” (124) (569)

I assembled (all) the people throughout three hundred thousand leagues. In order to discuss that crime, I approached the Self-Become One. (125) (570)

Wearing wet clothes, bearing wet heads, everyone pressed hands together. Falling down at the Buddha’s feet I spoke these words (to him just then): (126) (571)

“Please show forgiveness, Great Hero; the populace is begging you. Please extinguish this awful fire; and don’t destroy the (whole) country. (127) (572)

All the gods and also the men and titans324 and spirits325 as well,


324 lit., “destruction of the outflows” 325 or “one who had gone forth”: pabbajito



would constantly break my head open with a hammer made of iron.” (128) (573)

“Fire does not survive in water (and) seeds don’t germinate in rock; worms don’t survive in medicine; there’s no anger in a Buddha. (129) (574)

Like the earth, which is unshaken and the ocean, beyond measure, and the sky, which has no limit, so the Buddha can’t be perturbed. (130) (575)

Great Heroes who are ascetics326 are patient and forgiving (folks). Such patient, forgiving people do not consider your (wrong) course.” (131) (576)

The Sambuddha, having said this, (then) extinguished that awful fire. Then in front of everyone (there) he flew right up into the sky. (132) (577)

Wise One, due to that (bad) action I attained inferior birth;327 (now) passing beyond that station, I’ve come to the fearless city. (133) (578)

Then, Great Hero, (having seen) me, well-settled (but) being burnt up, that Self-Become (Lonely Buddha) drove off the fire (and) forgave (me).328 (134) (579)

Even so today, Great Hero, you have extinguished the three fires,329 relieving me who was being burnt up by those (self-same) three fires.330 (135) (580)

Let those of you with ears to hear, (all of ) you, listen to my words: I’m declaring the facts for you of how I came to see this state. (136) (581)


326 this verse is in a more complex meter, with twelve-syllable feet. 327 lit., “here” 328 BJTS omits these two concluding lines, because the BJTS recension of the apadāna does not end here, even though BJTS includes these chapter summary verses for an incomplete hundred (sātakaṃ). 329 BJTS places this statement above the summary, rather than after it 330 dhāretha, lit., “carry” “recall” “remember” “regard”


Sneering at the Self-Become One, peaceful-hearted (and) attentive, today, due to that (bad) karma, I am born in this low-caste womb. (137) (582)

Don’t transgress even one moment; you will grieve for the moment missed. The moment is prepared for you: endeavor (now) for your own good. (138) (583)

The poison (called) haḷāhaḷa in some (is cured) by vomiting. For some (the antidote) is purging, for others medicinal herbs. (139) (584)

With reference to merit-field-seekers, for those on the path (the cure) is vomit;331 for those after path-fruits it’s a purge;332 for the fruit-attainers, medicinal herbs.333 (140) (585)

Those who would oppose the teaching are poisoned as with haḷāhaḷa:334 a snake’s venom, poison eaten, surely is going to harm335 that man. (141) (586)

Only once does haḷāhaḷa bring about the end of (one’s) life. After opposing the teaching he burns for ten million aeons. (142) (587)

Patiently and non-violently, with loving-kindness in his heart, (Buddha) helps336 (this world) with its gods. Therefore you shouldn’t oppose337 him. (143) (588)

Unattached to getting or not, whether honored or insulted, Buddhas are (steady) like the earth; therefore They shouldn’t be opposed.338 (144) (589)


331 sampahaŋsitā 332 bhottā, BJTS reads bhettā (“the Breaker”) 333 chettā 334 sotā 335 pasaŋsitā 336 akhilo 337 visālo. BJTS reads visallo (“Free of Pain”) 338 anīgho



The Sage is just the same toward all, Devadatta the murderer, the thief Angulimālaka, Dhanapāla and Rāhula.339 (145) (590)

They don’t experience anger; passion is never found in them. The Buddha’s just the same toward all, a murderer (or) his own son. (146) (591)

Seeing a robe atop a tree340 — discarded, smeared with excrement — one should press the hands, head bowed; that sages’ flag should be worshipped. (147) (592)

(All of ) the Buddhas of the past and the present and future (too,) purify themselves with that flag; therefore They ought to be worshipped. (148) (593)

With my heart I bear Vinaya, almost the same as341 the Teacher. I will always live my life (by) paying homage to Vinaya. (149) (594)

Vinaya’s my inclination; it’s342 my walking meditation. I make my home in Vinaya; the Vinaya is my pasture. (150) (595)

I have excelled in Vinaya, skilled in mental tranquility. Great Hero, Teacher, Upāli is now venerating your feet. (151) (596)

I’ll wander village to village and (also) city to city paying homage to Sambuddha and to the practice of Dhamma. (152) (597)

My defilements are (now) burnt up; all (new) existence is destroyed. Like elephants with broken chains, I am living without constraint. (153) (598)


339 akathaṅkathī, ilt.“not saying, ‘why’?” 340 anejo 341 virajo 342 khattā. BJTS reads khantā (“Meek” “Docile”)


Being in Best Buddha’s presence was a very good thing for me. The three knowledges are attained; (I have) done what the Buddha taught! (154) (599)

The four analytical modes, and these eight deliverances, six special knowledges mastered, (I have) done what the Buddha taught! (155) (600)

Thus indeed Venerable Upāli Thera spoke these verses. The legend of Upāli Thera is finished.



Commentary Translation : U Lu Pe Win[]

3-6. Commentary on the Biography of the Thera Upāli

3-6.1. The stanzas starting with Nagare Haŋsavatiyā constitute the biography of the thera Upāli. This one also, who had done devoted service towards previous Buddhas, having accumulated meritorious deeds conducive towards escape from rounds of repeated rebirths (vaţţa) in this and that existence, was reborn in a brahmin family endowed with prosperous wealth in the city of Haŋsavatī at the time of the Glorious One Padumuttara. Listening to the preaching of dhamma, one day, he saw the master placing a bhikkhu in the topmost position among the bearers of discipline (vinayadhāra), performed himself acts of service and wished for that rank.

3-6.2. He did good deeds as long as he lived, and going through his rounds of rebirths among divine and human-beings, was reborn in the house of a barber, at the time of the appearance of this Buddha. They gave him the name as Upāli. On coming of age, he became a dear associate of six warrior princes (khattiya), Anuruddha and so on, renounced the world together with the six warrior-princes (khattiya) who were then renouncing the world to become monks, when the Tathāgata was residing at the Anupiya grove. The process of his becoming monk has but come in the text of the Piţaka. He renounced, got the upasampadā ordination, took lessons for his mental exercise from the presence of the Master and said thus:- "Venerable Sir! Please allow me to reside in a forest". Buddha replied: "O bhikkhu! To one who lives in a forest, only a single devotional duty will increase; to you living in my presence, however, there will be all-round fulfilment of both the devotional duties of clear insight (vipassanā) and learning of texts (ganthadhyra). He properly accepted with agreement the words of the Master, doing deeds of clear-insight (vipassanā), and attained arahantship within not long a period. The Master also, personally taught him the entire book of discipline (vinaya piţaka). subsequently, he made these three judicious decisions, namely: the story (or site) of Bharukaceha, the straight story (or the site) of Ajjuka, and the story of Kumārakassapa. The master congratulated him on each and every decision of his, made a narrative account concerning the three decisions and placed the thera at the topmost position of bearers of (or experts in) Vinaya discipline.

441. Having attained the position of chief (etadagga), in this way, he remembered his own previous deeds, became delighted and uttered this stanza, starting with Nagare Haŋsavatiyā, in order to make clear the deeds done by him previously. There, Haŋsavatiyā, in Haŋsavatī, it is vatī, circumscribed, with the characteristic of turning (or whirling) round by brahmini ducks, geese, or swans (haŋsa) in a town in which is all round thrown-about by a wall; that city is Haŋsavatī. In other words, many a number of swans, dwelling in one-side-dammed lake, lotus pond, large lade marshy land and so on, live running about from here and there, thither and thither, there, thus Haŋsavatī, inside that city of Haŋsavatī. Sujāto nīma brāhmaņo (the brahmin named Sujāta) born properly well; thus Sujāta (well-born) he was born, having been uncondemned from such a statement as: " not thrown out, uncensored"; thus, is the meaning. Asītikoţinicayo (accumulated treasure of eighty crores) he who had heaps of wealth to the extent of eighty crores; pahūtadhanadhaññāva (possessed of abundant treasure and wealth of paddy-grains) there was a brahmin, Sujāta, by name, who possessed incalculable treasure of wealth and paddy grains; thus, is the connection.

442. Again also, in order to show his self-same greatness, he uttered a stanza, starting with Ajjhāyako. There, ajjhāyako (a scholar who recites rightly) a teacher to others in such learning as the three vedas and so on; mantadharo (the bearer of charms) the word manta is said to be knowledge (paññā); possessor of knowledge of understanding such texts as Athabbana veda, philological explanations and so on; thus, is the meaning. Tiņņam vedāna pāragū (gone to the other shore of the three vedas) had reached the all round end of the three vedas, reckoned as: Iruveda, yajuveda and sāma veda; thus, is the meaning; lakkhaņe (in sign) in the treatise of sings and characteristics; also the treatises which made clear the sings seen on palms and soles of Buddhas, silent buddhas, world-kings, men and women; thus, is the meaning; itihāse (in the traditional lore), in the treatise which clearly explains the ancient speeches namely thus: "Thus, it has been; thus, it has been". Sadhamme (in one's own dhamma) in one's own brahmin lore; pāramim gato (gone to perfection) gone and attained the all-round extreme end; thus, is the meaning.

443. Paribbaja (wandering ascetics) whoever were the disciples of Nigaņţha (the jain) all of them were holders of all kinds of heretical views; mahiyā (on the earth) at that time wandered about on the earth-surface; thus, is the connection.

445. As long as to whatever extent of time the Conqueror did not arise (or appear), so long, to that extent of time, there could be no such statement as Buddha; thus, is the meaning.

446. Accayena ahorattam (with the lapse of day and night is ahorattam) with the passing beyond of many years thus, is the meaning. The rest is but easy of comprehension.

454. Mantāņī putto (son of Mantāņī) the son of a barber's daughter named Mantāņī; because of fullness of month and fullness of day, Puņņo, thus, the gainer of name; thus, is the meaning; the disciple of that Master; hessati (will be) would become; thus, is the connection.

455. Evam kittayi so Buddho, that Buddha announced (or proclaimed) thus, so (he) the Glorious One Padumuttara, evam (thus) with this kind (or sort); Sunandam (good joy) giver of delight in good manner; Kittayi (proclaimed) gave His prophesy; thus, is the meaning. Sabbam janam (all people) the entire crowd of men properly; hāsayanto (making them laugh) making them delighted; sakam balam (own strength) his own vigour; dassayanto (showing) making manifest; thus; is the connection.

456. thereafter, without interval, in order to show his own power (or influence), as a result of his higher knowledge, uttered this stanza, starting with katañjalī. At that time, before the advent of the appearance of that buddha, all the people adored the ascetic Sunanda having made a container with their clasped hands; thus, is the connection. Buddhe karam karitvāna (having performed what is to be done to Buddhe) thus, although honoured by all people, he did not get proud saying: "I am honoured with offerings", and having performed what ought to be done mainly in the dispensation of Buddha; gatim (going) his own birth, sodheti (cleans) made all-round pure and clean; thus, is the meaning.

457. Sutvāna munino vacam (having heard the word of the Sage) the words of that Omniscient Buddha; for ease in composing the stanza the long vowel ā is shortened and has been stated as: "Vacam". Having heard the words of this Sage thus:- "In the time yet to come, the Master, known by the name of Gotama will come to be in the world"; yathā (whereas) in whatever manner I see the Glorious One Gotama, likewise in that manner, karam (act) main work to be done, accumulation of meritorious deeds; kassāmi (I shall do) I shall perform: me (my) sańkappo (intention) volition, wisely minding; ahu (was) became; thus, is the connection.

458. Evaham cintayitvāna (having thus thought) having considered in this way namely: "I shall do what is to be done". Kiriyam cintayim mama, I thought of what I should do; thus, is the meaning. Kyāham kammam ācarāmi (what work do I practise?) What sort of meritorious deed have I practised, have I fulfilled, indeed? Thus, is the meaning. Puññakkhette anuttare (in the peerless field of merit) in the three gems, which has become the vessel of entire merit which is devoid of any superior; thus, is the meaning.

459. Ayañ ca pāţhiko bhikkhu (this monk Pāţhika) this bhikkhu gained the name "Pāţhika, Reciter", from the fact that he was a reciter, and peruser of treatise, reader in the manner of sarabhañña (intoner, the monk) inside (or among) reciters of readers; of all perusers in the Buddha's dispensation, as well as in the vinaya; agganikkhitto (chief repository) placed as chief, that place, the rank (or position) attained by that bhikkhu; patthaye (I aspire) I desired (or wished for); thus, is the meaning.

460. Thereafter, further on, in order to show his own means of making merit, he uttered a stanza, starting with idam me amitam bhogam: me e(my) mine; amitam (incomparable or immeasurable) the heap of wealth devoid of measurement; akkhobham (undisturbed) unable to disturb; sāgarūpamam (resembling ocean) like unto an ocean; tena bhogena (with that wealth) had Buddha's ashram (ārāma) created (or built) with wealth like that; thus, is the connection.

474. Seated at the congregation of bhikkhus, the Omniscient Buddha accepted the monastery for monks, creatively well-built by him and abravi (spoke) preached these words pointing out the benefit of that ashram (ārāma); thus, is the connection.

475. How? Yo so (whosoever be) he who is the ascetic, donor of the monastery for monks; sumāpitam (well-created) monastery for monks of Buddha prepared so properly that it comprises, chamber, cave, pandal, palace, porch, wall and so on; pādāsi (offered, or gave) offered in such a manner as with the mind associated with a pleasant or happy heart; tamaham kittayissāmi (I shall proclaim it) I shall make manifest, I shall render obvious, that hermit; thus, is the meaning. Suņātha mama bhāsato (you all listen to what I say) please hear my words when I speak to you; fixing your ears, without mental confusion, bear them in your mind; thus, is the meaning.

476. Therefore, in order to show the result (or fruition) of the ashram (ārāma) given as charity, he uttered a stanza, starting with Hatthi assa rathā patti. That is but easily comprehensible.

477. Samghārāmassidamphalam (This is the result (or fruition) of monastery for monks) this is the resulting fruition of the charitable gift of monk's monastery Sańgharāma, the desirable fruit reckoned as the prosperity or glory which ought to be enjoyed in future; thus, is the meaning.

478. Chaļāsītisahassāni (eighty-six thousand) six thousand and eighty thousand; samalańkatā (well adorned) properly decorated and prepared; nārīyo (women) ladies: vicittavatthā bharaņā (variegated garments and ornaments) endowed with variegated clothing and trinkets of many a shape; āmuttamaņikuņ̄dalā (pearl earrings) hanging earrings studded with pearls and gems; thus, is the meaning.

479. Describing the surpassing graceful beauty of those ladies, he uttered this stanza, starting with āļārapamhā. There the eyes of whichever ladies are big and dense, resembling gem-balls, they are with thick eyelashes similar to those of bees and with lovely eyes; thus, is the meaning. Hasulā (smiling) natural laugh, gracefully beautiful; thus, is the meaning. Susaññā (good perception) details of well impressive body; tanumajjhimā (slim middle) small stomach-section; the rest is but easy.

484. Tassa dhammesu dāyādo (the inheritor (or heir) of His dhamma) the heir, recipient of spiritual share in the dhamma of the Glorious One, gotama; braso (the bosom son) born in breast, because of the fact that he had become established in arahantship, having thrown away all kinds of depravity by means of such a series of the great noble path as the first stage of such a series of the right noble path as the first stage of sanctification (sotāpatti) and so on, having heard the preaching of dhamma, after knocking against such five places of voice as throat, palate, lips and so on; endowed with such ten kinds of cleverness in consonants as soft, hard, and so on; thus, is the meaning. dhammanimmito (created by dhamma) he will become well-known, fashioned by righteousness (or justice) and equity (or equality), without a weapon and a knife; thus, is the meaning. Upāli nāma nāmena (known by the name of Upāli) in spite of his being known as Mantāņīputta, by the name of the mother, because, however, of the fact that he went together with Anuruddha and so on and became a monk, he got yoked and adhered to the vicinity of princely warriors and endowed with the adhered body and mind; thus, the disciple of the Master, known as Upāli; hessati s(will be), will become; thus, is the meaning.

485. Vinaye pāramim patvā (having attained perfection in the Vinaya) having attained and reached all-round and extreme limit in the vinaya piţaka, ţhānāţhāne ca kovido (expert in proper place or not) clever and wise in circumstance or not; thus, is the meaning. Jinasāsanam dhārento (upholding the instruction of the Conqueror) committing into memory and bearing in mind the three piţakas of the Conqueror, the admonition given by the conqueror, by way of doing such deeds as leaning, listening, thinking, committing into memory and so on; thus, is the meaning. Viharissati'nāsavo (the cankerless arahant will live) the arahant devoid of depravity, will cause to turn and bear his own body without falling down from the four postures (iriyāpatha) thus, is the meaning.

487. Aparimeyyupādāya (due to being immeasurable) having made many a hundred thousand, the beginning; patthemi tava sāsanam (I wish for your instruction) I desired and wished for your dispensation saying: "May I become chief among those who bear in their mind the rules of discipline (vinayadhara) in the dispensation of the Glorious One, Gotama; thus, is the meaning. So me attho (I am in need of that) that benefit reckoned as the topmost rank had been attained accordingly by me; thus, is the meaning. Sabbasamyojanakkhayo (the exhaustion of all worldly fetters) I had accordingly attained the extinction of all the worldly fetters (saŋyojana) thus, is the connection; Nibbāna has been achieved (or reached); thus, is the meaning.

488. Tajjito (threatened) oppressed by royal punishment; sūlāvuto (impaled) fixed (or impaled) on the pale; poso (man) the person on the pale; sātam (pleasure) sweet happiness; avindanto (not getting) not experiencing; parimuttim va (the entire release) just as he desires but all-round release; thus, is the connection.

489-90. Mahāvīra (O Great Hero!) O the most Excellent among the brave heroes! bhavadaņ̄dena tajjito (threatened by the weapon of existence) I, being harassed by the punishment of birth; kammasūlāvuto (fixed on the pale of action) being impaled on the pale of good and bad deeds; santo (being) existing; pipāsāvedanāya (with pain of thirst) by becoming afflicted with thirst; aţţito (oppressed) overwhelmed and made miserable; bhave sātam (pleasure in existence) sweet happiness in the rounds of rebirths (saŋsāra) na vindāmi (I do not get) I do not obtain. Parimuttim (all-round escape) being burnt by three flames of fire, reckoned either as: fire of lust, fire of anger and fire of delusion, or as: the fire of purgatory, fire of springing up world (kappuţţhāna) and fire of misery (dukkha) the appropriate means of all-round escape (or freedom); gavesāmi (I seek) likewise even I made my quest; thus, is the connection. Just as one who has gone and arrived at punishment by the king's order from here, seeks all-round release, in that way, I, having arrived at the punishment of existence, seek my entire release; thus, is the connection.

491.2. Again, in order to show by way of example and illustration, his escape from the rounds of rebirths (saŋsāra) he uttered stanzas beginning with Yathāvisādo. There Visāda (depression or dejection) bitten and being bitten from and on all sides by poisonous (venomous) snakes; bitten by serpents; thus, is the meaning. A man who is dejected, all-round oppressed by that and that-like poison; having become the means and approach towards total destruction and elimination of that poison, agadam (remedy) medicine; gaveseyya (seek) should make his quest; going in search of it; visaghātakam (killer of poison), the destroyer of poison; agadam (remedy) medicine; passeyya (should see) should find. Visamhā (from poison) having drunk the medicine found out by himself in making his quest, parimuttiyā assa (would become all-round released) just as he would become happy on account of his all-round escape from venom; thus, is the connection.

493. Tath'eva'ham (I likewise even) just as, in which manner, that man, struck with poison, being bitten by a venomous serpent would become happy after having drunk the medicine, the eater (or eraser) of poison, likewise even, in that manner, I, sam (well) properly; having been properly harassed with ignorance and delusion; saddhammāgadamesa'ham (I seek the medicine of good dhamma), I kept seeking, (or making my quest for), the medicine reckoned as the good dhamma; thus, is the meaning.

494-5. Dhammāgadam gavesanto (seeking the medicine of dhamma), making my quest for the medicine of dhamma for the destruction of the poison of rounds-of-rebirth misery (samsāradukkha); addakkhim sakyasāsanam (I saw the dispensation of the Sakiyan), I discovered the dispensation (sāsaba), of Gotama, who originated from the lineage of the Sakyans; thus, is the meaning. Aggam sabbosadhānam tam (it is topmost of all kinds of medicine), that medicine of dhamma, reckoned as the dispensation (sāsana), of the Sakyan, is topmost and most excellent amidst all kinds of medicine; thus, is the meaning. Sabbasalla vinodanam (the extractor of all kinds of thorns); the uprooter and tranquilliser of all such thorns as lust-thorn and so on; dhammosadham (spiritual remedy) having drunk medicine known as dhamma; sabbham visam (all venom), the entire misery-poison of rounds of repeated rebirths (samsāradukkha); samuhanim, I have properly uprooted, I have caused (or made) the destruction; thus, is the connection. Ajarāmaram (no old age), and no death, having properly extricated the poison of misery, un-aged, old-age forsaken, death-less, death-forsaken; sītibhāvam, (condition of coolness) Nibbāna, which is the state of coolness, because of having forsaken such heat as the burning of lust and so on; phassayim (I touched) I made myself see; thus, is the connection.

496. Again, in order to show the illustration of the cessation of depravity, he uttered a stanza, starting with Yathā bhūtaţţito. There, yathā (just as) in whichever manner; bhūtaţţito (harassed by bhūta) harassed and oppressed by a powerful ogre; poso (man) a person; bhūtaggahena (by being seized by bhūta) captured by an ogre; piļito (oppressed) distressed; bhūtasmā (from bhūta) from the capture of an ogre; parimuttiyā (for an all-round release) he would seek a witch-doctor (or sorcerer) for his release.

497. Kovidam (expert) in seeking that specialist in witchery science, properly, were to find a clever doctor of sorcery; so, he, the doctor of witchery, tassa (his) the condition of living in the inside of that man, seized by an ogre; vihane (should kill) should destroy; samūlañca (with root as well) along with root, having made so that in future the ogre cannot do any mischief (anasevaka) vināsaye (should destroy) should crush (or obliterate); thus, is the connection.

498. Mahāvīra (Great Hero!) The Most Excellent Hero! tamaggahena (seized by darkness) oppressed by being captured by the darkness of depravity, tath'eva (likewise even) in that manner even; tamato (from darkness) from the darkness of depravity; parimuttiyāds(for all-round release) for purpose of escape, ñāņālokam (the light of intelligence, or wisdom) I shall seek the light of knowledge; thus, is the connection.

499. Kilesatamasodhanam (the dispeller of darkness of depravity) then in that incessant time, I saw Sakyamuni, the destroyer of the darkness of depravity; thus, is the meaning; so (he) Sakyamuni, me (my) mine; tamam (darkness) dusk, the darkness of depravity, like unto the doctor of witchery, bhūtakam (possessed), similar to having been captured by an ogre; vinodesi (removed) made to be far away; thus, is the connection.

500. Samsārasotam (the stream of samsara) that I, having thus escaped the river of repeated rebirths, sam (properly) well; chindim (I cut) I caused to cut; taņhāsotam (the stream of craving) the great flood of craving desire; nivārayim (I prevented) I made elimination, and non-recurrence; thus, is the meaning. bhavam ugghātayim sabbam (I destroyed all becoming) I killed up and clearly destroyed all such new existences as existences of sensual pleasures and so on; thus, is the meaning; clearly destroying from the root, I killed it up from its root like unto the doctor of sorcery.

501. thereafter, in order to point out (or make an illustration of the all-round end of) nibbāna, he uttered this stanza starting with yathā. There, the bird which eats (or swallows) a heavy loathsome dragon, thus, it is garuļa (big heavy bird) the bird which takes either heavy one (or dragon); thus, it is garuļa (bird); the garūda-king; one's own food, one's own pasture, going lying-wise, it does not go to the hand of others in any manner, thus, it is pannago (serpent) goer lying wise; to capture the dragon which thus got its name; opatati (falls down) drops itself down; samantā (around) from all sides; yojanasatam (a hundred yojanas) the size of a hundred yojanas; mahāsaram (great lake) the large ocean, vikkhobheti (makes an upheaval) just as it jumbles up the mighty ocean by means of the breeze of its own wings; thus, is the connection.

502. So, he, the sky-going garūda bird, who is in the habit of going about in the sky; pannagam (goer lying-wise) the dragon, seized the dragon, made it hanging head-downwards; viheţhayam (harassing) here and there harassing with different kinds of harassments; ādāya (taking) having seized firmly; yena kāmam (wherever it desires) pakkamati (departs) goes away there, wherever it likes to go.

503. Venerable Sir! O Great Hero! Just as the Garūda bird seized balī (strong) the dragon which possessed strength and made its departure, likewise even, I, asańkhatam (the uncreated) nibbāna, not made up of causes, gavesanto (seeking) making a quest by way (or in the form) of fulfilling proper practice, dose (faults) the entire thousand five hundred kinds of depravity; vikkhālayim (I washed off) I purified by means of abandonment, by self cutting off distinctively; thus, is the connection.

504. Just as the Garūda bird lives eating after seizing serpents, so also I, dhammavaram (excellent dhamma) the most excellent truth, diţţho (having seen) seeing clearly, santipadam (tranquil path) this path of nibbāna; anuttaram, (unsurpassed) by means of right noble-paths and their fruitions which are devoid of superiors, ādāya (taking) having seized I live having taken and using it (or resorting to it); thus, is the connection.

505. Now, in order to show the difficulty of gaining nibbāna, he uttered a stanza, starting with Āsāvatī nāma latā. There, the desire and inclination of all divinities for this creeper exists, thus, the creeper known by the name of āsāvatī (possessing desire) cittalatā vane (in the Cittalatā grove) in the forest garden which has become bushes or jungles with many a variety of creepers (or climbers); jāto (born) have sprung up; thus, is the meaning. Tassa (its) of that creeper vassa sahassena (with a thousand years) with the lapse of a thousand rains (or years); ekam phalam nibbattate (gives birth to a fruit) takes a fruit (or bears a fruit).

506. Tamdevā (the divine beings it) that Āsāvatī creeper; tāva dūraphalam (so long far-off fruit) taking and bearing fruit after having so long a time passed by; deva (divine-beings) the divinities of Tāvatiŋsa; payirupāsanti (all round approach) attend to; latuttama (the most excellent creeper) that most excellent creeper amidst creepers, known by the name of Āsāvatī; thus, it was dear to the devas; thus, is the connection.

507. Satasahassupādāya (closely taking a hundred thousand) having made the hundred thousand years, the beginning; tāham paricare muni (I all-round serve that sage) mona is said to be wisdom (or knowledge); Venerable Sage, possessor of knowledge, the Omniscient! I all-round approach and serve that Glorious One; sayam pātam namassāmi (morning and evening I worship) I bow and make my adoration twice, every day, morning as well as evening; yathā devā (just as the divinities), just as the divine beings of Tāvatiŋsa all-round approach and attend to the Āsāvatī creeper day and night; thus, is the connection.

508. Avañjhā paricariyā (all-round practices are not barren) since there was the attainment of nibbāna because of seeing Buddha, therefore, walking round (or attending upon) Buddha, and doing proper practice of duties do not become barren, do not get empty (or vain), namassañā (bowing down) making adoration also, amogho (is not in vain) does not become useless. Likewise, indeed, dūragatam (come afar) having come from a far period of a journey of rounds of rebirths; santam (being) existing; khaņoyam (this moment) this moment of appearance of Buddha; na virodhayi (did not cease) did not pass beyond; did not go passing beyond me; thus, is the meaning.

509. Vicinanito (selecting) scrutinising, I who had attained nibbāna, because of my having seen Buddha, scrutinising and closely checking my conception in the closely causing existence in future, I do not see; thus, is the connection. Nirupadhi (no upadhi or substratum of existence), devoid of such substrata of existence as aggregates (khandha) and depravity (kilesa) vippamutto (clearly released) become without all kinds of depravity; upasanto (tranquil) I wander about with tranquil mind because of the absence of burning heat of depravity (kilesa); thus, is the connection.

510. Again, pointing out an illustration of his own seeing Buddha, he uttered a stanza starting with Yathā pi padumam nāma. Sūriyaramsena (with sun's rays) just as the lotus, namely, also, due to permeation of sun's rays, pupphati (blooms) blossoms into flower; Mahāvīra (O Great Hero!) The Most Excellent Hero! Exactly in the same way even, I have blossomed into flower Buddharamsena (by means of Buddha's rays) due to the power of the rays of truth (dhamma) preached by Buddha, the Glorious One; thus, is the meaning.

511-12. Again, bringing into light the visualisation of nibbāna by having seen Buddha, he uttered a stanza beginning with yathā balākā. Thee balākayonimbi (in the womb of a crane) in the nativity of a crane; sadā (always) at all times; pumā (a man) there does not exist such a male; when a male does not exist how is the getting of pregnancy of the cranes, if so? gajjamānesu (in thunderings) when the rain clouds make sound, hearing the thundering rain cloud; tā (they) the female cranes, sadā (always) at all times; gabbham gaņhanti (get pregnancy) bear eggs; thus, is the meaning. Yāva (as long as) for whatever time; meghonagajjati (rain cloud does not thunder) rain-cloud does not make sound; so long, for that length of time, ciram (long) for a long time; gabbham (womb) bear egg. Yadā (when) in whatever time; pavasati (it rains) the rain-cloud showers down rain after thundering in a manner and rain-bearing showers flow (or shower down); then, at that time, bhārato (from the burdensome load) from the bearing of womb; parimuceanti (escape all round) let the egg fall out; thus, is the meaning.

513. thereafter, further on, pointing out the success (or blessing) of illustrative example, he uttered a stanza starting with Padumuttara Buddhassa Dhammameghena (with the rain-cloud of Dhamma) by means of the rain-cloud, reckoned as the teaching vocabulary with absolute meaning of Buddha Padumuttara; gajjato (of thundering) while making peals of thunder, preaching; dhammameghassa saddena (with the sound of the rain-cloud of dhamma) with the course of the sound, dhammagabbham (pregnancy of truth) I, at that time, the pregnant womb of accumulation of such meritorious deeds as charitable offering, moral precepts and so on, conducive towards escape from rounds (or cycles) of rebirths; agaņhim (I took) likewise; thus, is the connection.

514. Satasahassupādāta (having closely taken a hundred thousand) having made a hundred thousand aeons, the beginning; puññagabbam (the womb of merit) the accumulation of such good deeds as offering charity, moral precepts and so on; dhāremi (I bear) I fulfil. As long as dhamma megho (spiritual rain-cloud) the preaching of dhamma; na gajjati (does not thunder) is not preached by Buddha; so long, I, bhārato (from the burden) from the burdensome womb-load of round of repeated rebirths (saŋsāra) na pamucoāmi (I am not released) I do not set myself free, I do not become separate; thus, is the connection.

515. Sakyamuni (O Sakyan Sage) Venerable Sir! O origin of Sakya lineage! Yadā (when) at which time, of the great king Suddhodana, your father, ramme (in the pleasant) in the delightful; Kapilavatthave (at Kapilavatthu) in the city named Kapilavatthu, gajjati (thunders) you proclaim the rain-cloud of dhamma; then at that time, I, bhārato (from burden) from the womb-load of rounds of rebirths (saŋsāra); parimuccim (I was released all round), I became freed; thus, is the connection.

516. Thereafter, further on, in showing the noble path and fruition (maggaphala), effectively arrived at by himself, uttered a stanza, starting with suññatam. There, due to the absence of self and pertaining to self, etc., Suññatam (emptiness) clear escape; due to the absence of self-resolution of lust, apaņihitam (undirected) clear escape also; I had effectively reached and developed; thus, is the connection. Caturo ca phale sabbe (all the four fruits also) I visualised all the four fruits of monkhood; thus, is the meaning. Dhammevam vijaţayam aham (I disentangled thus the tangles of dhamma) thus, I disentangled and clearly crushed the jungle of tangles in the entire dhamma; thus, is the meaning.

The commentary on the second section of recitation has ended.

517. Thereafter, further on, in showing the distinction gained by himself even, he uttered a stanza starting with apraimeyyupādāya. There, aparimeyyo (immeasurable) that which could not be measured (or compared); it is impossible to measure and calculate in the form of number of years; thus, is the meaning. Upādāya (according to or with reference to) having made the beginning, with reference (or according) to that immeasurable aeon (kappa) tava sāsanam (your dispensation) I prayed for thus: "In time not yet come, during the dispensation of the Glorious One, Gotama, may I become chief among the bearers of disciplinary rules (Vinayadhara). Patthemi is present-tense word in the sense of the past patthesim (I prayed for) thus, is the meaning. So me attho (That was my desire) that desire reckoned as aspiration (or prayer); me (my) by me; anuppatto (attained accordingly) accomplished by me; thus, is the meaning. Santipadam (peaceful path) nibbāna has been accordingly attained and achieved; thus, is the connection.

518. Vinaye, in the Vinaya, pāramim patto (attained perfection) that I, because of my achievement, attained the extreme end in the Vinaya piţaka; Yathā pi Pāţhiko isi (just as the hermit became famous) just as in the dispensation of the Glorious One Padumuttara the ascetic bhikkhu, topmost among the bearers of disciplinary rules (vinayadhara) became popular and well-known, I was likewise even; thus, is the meaning. Na me samasamo atthi (there is no equal to me) there does not exist anyone who is equal to and identical with me in the committing into memory of the vinaya; thus, is the meaning; Sāsanam (dispensation) the dispensation (sāsana) reckoned as advice and admonition; dhāremi (I bear) I fulfil; thus, is the meaning.

519. Again also, showing his own distinction, he uttered a stanza starting with Vinaye Khandhake ca pi. There, Vinaye (in the Vinaye) in both the Vibhańgas, analyses (or divisions) khandhake (in the khandakas) bodies, in the Mahāvagga (major group) and in the Cūļavagga (minor group) tikacchede ca (in the three-folds also) in the triads of Sańghādisesa offences and triads of Pācittiya offences and so on; pañcame (in the fifth) in the fifth book of the Vinaya, known as Parivāra pāţha; ettha) here) in this entire vinaya piţaka; vimati (doubt) my dubiousness; natthi (there is none) does not exist. Akkharehi (with alphabets) the alphabets beginning with the vowel a included in the vinaya piţaka; byañjane (consonants)) or in the consonants, beginning with the consonant ka, vimati (doubt) there is no dubiousness in me; thus, is the connection.

520. Niggahe paţikamme ca (in rebuking or blaming as well as doing in return) blaming or controlling bad bhikkhus and such redress or atonement as offering of staying period, under probation and so on to bhikkhus who had committed sins; thānāţhāneca (in proper and improper place) in good stance; kovido (expert), clever; thus, is the meaning. osārane (re-instatement) by way of proper calmness or suitable repose, of such acts as censure and so on, when re-instating and allowing to enter; vuţţhāpane (in causing to rise up) clever in causing to rise up from sin and in making sinless; thus, is the connection. Sabbattha pāramim gato (gone to perfection everywhere) having attained the entire end in all the procedure regarding Vinaya, dexterous and clever; thus, is the meaning.

521. Vinaya khandhake cā pi (in the vinaya and khandhaka also) in the manner aforesaid in the vinaya as well as in the khandhaka; padam (word) the sutta word; nikkhipitvā (having thrown down) having placed or deposited; ubhato vinivethetvā (having unwrapped from both) from the point of view of vinaya as well as from view point of khandhaka, having made to arise and disentangled and brought the method; rasato (from essence) from what should be done; osareyyam (would go down) I make the reinstatement.

522. niruttiyā ca kusalo (clever in etymology) I am clever in such vocabulary as "tree, cloth, pot, garland, mind" and so on. Atthānatthe ca kovido (clever in advantage and disadvantage) clever and dexterous about increase in advantage, diminution in disadvantage; anaññātam mayā natthi (there is nothing unknown by me) there does not exist anything which is not known, comprehended, clearly seen by me; thus, is the meaning. Ekagga satthu sāsane (one single chief in the dispensation of the Master) I alone even am topmost, best and most excellent of those who specialised in the disciplinary rules (vinayadharā) thus, is the meaning.

523. Rūpadakkhe aham ajja (now at present I am in the seeing of form) now at the present time, Sakyaputtassa sāsane (in the dispensation of Sakyan son) in the dispensation, preaching of the Glorious One, I am in seeing of form, in the sight of form, in seeing to decisions regarding discipline (vinaya); sabbam kańkham (all doubts) entire dubiousness; vinodemi (I dispel) I cause the destruction; thus, is the connection. Chindāmi sabbsamsayam (I cut all doubts) I cut, bring to cessation and entirely eliminate all the sixteen varieties of doubt which have arisen in connection with such three periods of time thus: "Was I, indeed, in time past?" and so on; thus, is the meaning.

524. Padam anupadañcāpi (the word and following word) the word such as the word going before, the word following behind and other word also; akkharam (alphabet) one alphabet after another. Byañjanam (consonant), such ten kinds of consonants as soft, hard, and so on; nidāne (in the preface) in such a preface as begin with: at that time, and so on; pariyosāne (at the end) in the colophon; sabbattha kovido (expert everywhere) clever in all the six places; thus, is the meaning.

525. Thereafter, further on, in order to make manifest the qualities of the Glorious One even, he uttered this stanza, starting with Rājā balavā. There balavā (possessor of strength) just as a king who is endowed with either physical strength or army; param (other) the army of other enemy-kings or rival kinds; niggaņhitvā (having seized down) having captured without remainder, or having made them flee; tape (would heat) would burn, would cause them heated, would make them miserable; vijinitvāna sańgāmam (having conquered the battle) having conquered the fighting battle, in the battle-field where there was the coming together of the others; army, having distinctively conquered, having attained victory; nagaram tattha māpaye (he would create a city there) he would create, make them build my residential place, adorned with such features as palace, porch and so on, in the newly-built city at the site of victory; thus, is the meaning.

526. Pākāram parikhañcāpi (the wall and moat also) there at the created city, he would have a wall made, a wall, made of bricks and dazzling white lime-mortar; thus, is the connection. Parikhañcāpi (and moat also) he would make also mud moat, water moat, and dry moat; esikam dvārakoţţhakam (pillar or post and gate-way) he would cause to make such gate-ways as of four storeys and so on, large strong-hold over gateways, hoisted or erected posts and pillars for the purpose of making the city graceful. Attāhake ca vividhe (all varieties of exceedingly high watch-towers) of such classification as four storeyed ones and so on; kāraye (he would cause to make) he would have them built; thus, is the connection.

527. Sińghātakam caccatañca (cross-roads and inner lanes) he would have not only such features as city-wall and so on built up, but also would have cross-roads which would have four main roads joining each other and smaller roads and lanes within, thus, is the connection. Suvibhattantarāpanam (well apportioned house-shops or markets) he would cause to make many a thousand markets well-apportioned possessing share out of different portions; thus is the meaning. Kārayeyya sabham tattha, (there he would have a hall built), in that built-up city, an assembly hall, a hall for legal disputes; atthanattha vinicchayam (the decision as to advantage or disadvantage) he would have a decision-hall for the purpose of making decisions over prosperity and adversity; thus, is the connection.

528. Nigghatattham aimttānam (for killing down of enemies) for the purpose of properly driving out hostile monarch; chiddachiddañca jānitum (to know the leak or opening and otherwise) in order to get intelligence of defects or otherwise, balakāyassa rakkhāya (to protect the body of strength) in order to look after the collection of army, the body of armed strength, reckoned as elephants, horses, chariots and foot-soldiers; so (he) the king, lord of the city, senāpaccam (son of army) the chief minister, leader of the army, lord of the army; ţhapeti (place) establish inside the rank or position; thus, is the meaning.

529. Ārakkhatthāya bhaņ̄dassa (to protect the treasure) for the protection of such royal treasure as gold, silver, pearls, gems, and so on, for the purpose of guarding form all sides; me (my) mine; bhaņ̄dam mā vinassi (let not the treasure be destroyed) nidhānakusalam (clever in burying treasure) clever and expert in looking after; naram (man) person; bhaņ̄darakkham (protection of treasure) that king placed the protector of treasure at the treasure-house; thus, is the connection.

530. Mamatto hoti yo rañño (who becomes self-love of the king) the wise man who becomes self-love, making one's own, fallen to one side; vuddhim yassa ca icchati (he desires whose development) who wishes and desires his king's increasing prosperity; tassa (his) the king of the wise man who has become agreeable; adhikaraņam (dispute) gave the position or rank of chief lord to make decisions; mittassa (of friend) to properly proceed towards friendship; thus, is the connection.

531. Uppātesu (in the omens) in such omens as falling stars, burning of fire in directions, and so on; nimittesu (in signs) in such signs as being bitten and cut off by rats, in treatises which let the reader know in this way: "This sign is pleasant, this sign is unpleasant"; lakkhaņesu ca (in palmistry also) in treatises which let the learner know the lines and other signs on palms and soles of men and women; kovidam (expert) clever; Ajjhāyakam (a scholar of the brahmanic texts) the teacher of grammatical explanation to many a pupil; mantadharam (bearer of mantras or charms) that king porohitta (in the post or rank of private chaplain) place the wise man, who holds in his memory the mantras reckoned as the three vedas, in the high-ranking position of his private chaplain.

532. Etehaņgehi sampanno (endowed with these characteristics) that king who is endowed with, became embodied with these aforesaid sorts of characteristics in detail; pavuccati (is called), is said to be (or spoken of) as: khattiya, princely warrior"; thus, is the connection. Sadā rakkhanti rājānam (they protect the king always) these commander-in-chief of the army and so on, and ministers, constantly at all times, protect and look after (or keep guard over) that king. How even? cakkavāko va dukkhitam (like ruddy goose protecting the distressed), resembling the bird ruddy goose looking after its own relative in distress; thus, is the meaning.

533. Tath'eva tvam mahāvīra (likewise even) you, O Great Hero! O most Excellent Hero! Just as that king properly lives having closed up the city-gate, endowed with such characteristics as commander-in chief and so on, likewise even, you hatāmitto (with enemies killed) like the princely warrior whose enemy had been beaten down; sadvakassa lokassa (of the world together with the divine world) of the world which turns out to be together with celestial beings; dhammarāyā (the king of truth) the sovereign with righteousness and equality, because of having become king due to all-round fulfilment of dhamma, comprising ten perfections, he is thus "Dhammarājā, righteous king"; pavuccati (said to be) thus spoken of; thus, is the connection.

534. Titthiye niharitvāna (having pulled out heretics) by being king of truth (dhamma) having pulled out the entire host of heretics, having carried away without remainder, made them become devoid of followers; sasenakam mārañcāpi (Māra also with his army) having pulled out even Māra of the divine world of vasavatti, together with his army; tamandhakāram, blinding darkness, vidhamitvā (having dispelled) having dispelled and crushed the darkness of delusion reckoned as darkness; dhammanagaram (the spiritual city) the city, reckoned as either the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya dhamma, or such dhamma as khandha, āyatana, dhātu, paţicca samuppāda, bala, bojjhańga,profound method (gambhīranaya) and all-round fashioned and made establish; thus, is the meaning.

535. Sīlampākārakam tattha (there the wall of moral precepts) in that established spiritual city, the wall of four all-round pure moral precepts, ñāņam te dvārakoţţhakam (your knowledge is the gate-way) your omniscient knowledge, your knowledge of desires and inclinations (āsayānusaya) your knowledge of the future, your knowledge of the past, etc., serially even, knowledge being the city gate-way; thus, is the meaning. Saddhā te esikā vīra (O Great Hero, your faith (saddhā) is the pillar) Venerable Sir! O firm Exertion! Your believing faith, made of Omniscient knowledge, starting from the base of Buddha Dīpańkara's feet is the pillar adorned with decorations and erected; thus, is the meaning. Dvārapālo ca Saŋvaro (and the gate-keeper is your self-control) your self-control of the six doors of senses is the guard of protection and prevention, the gate-keeper, the guardian of the gate; thus, is the meaning.

536. Satipaţţhānamaaţţāla (mental awareness being watch-tower) your four kinds of mental awareness (satipaţţhāna) is watch-tower, bare or covered with roof; paññā te caccaram mune (O Sage! Your knowledge (or wisdom) is the meeting of roads) Venerable Sage, Possessor of knowledge! Your knowledge of many such varieties as miracles and do on are city roads, streets and cross-roads where many roads meet; thus, is the meaning. iddhipādañ ca sińghātam (foundation of magical power the four cross-roads) your four bases of magical powers, reckoned as: desire, exertion, mind and examination (vimaŋsa) are the four roads-junction; dhamma-vīthi-sumāpitam (the spiritual street well created) that spiritual city is made ready, well created with streets reckoned as thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya dhamma; thus, is the meaning.

537. Suttantam abhidhammañ ca, the Sutta and abhidhamma, here in your spiritual city are Sutta, Abhidhamma and vinaya; kevalam (wholly) the entire such nine limbs of *****(p.533) Buddhas preaching as Sutta, geyya and so on; dhammasabbhā (the ceremonial hall of law) the hall of legal disputes; thus, is the meaning.

538. Suññatam animittañ ca (void and signless) living in void properly gained by way of appropriate clear insight of non-self, and living in signlessness properly gained by ;way of appropriate clear insight of impermanence. Vihārañcappaņihitam (living undespatched) having properly gained by way of appropriate clear insight of misery (dukkha) āneñjañca (steadfastness) living in steadfastness reckoned as fruitions of monkhood, unshaken and untroubled; nirodho ca (cessation also) nibbāna), the cessation of all misery (dukkha). Esa dhammakuţi tava (this your chamber of dhamma) this is your residential dwelling, your dhamma-chamber; thus, is the meaning.

539. Paññāya aggo nikkhitto (thrown down as topmost in knowledge) chief among possessors of knowledge by way of wisdom; thus, the thera placed and put down by the Glorious One; paņibhāņe ca (in ready reply) in affairs that ought to be done by knowledge, or in suitable and released ready reply; kovido (expert) adept; nāmena sāriputto (Sāriputta, by name) well-known; tava (your) your commander-in-chief of dhamma, because he held in his memory, the three piţaka collection of dhamma, preached by you, having become main lord, does his duty of the army; thus, is the meaning.

540. Cutupapātakusalo (clever in death and birth) Venerable Sage! Cutupapāte (in passing away and springing up) kusalo (clever) expert; iddhiyā pāramim gato (gone to perfection in magical power) having gone and arrived at the all-round end of perfection, in such kinds of magical power ;as stated in the beginning thus: "Having been one single, many-fold becomes, having been many-fold, one single becomes" and so on, the thera moggallāna, known by the name of Kolita; thus, is the connection.

541. Porāņaka vamsadharo (the bearer of ancient lineage) Venerable Sage! Possessor of knowledge! the bearer of ancient lineage, producer, of tradition (paramapara) Uggatejo (mighty power) obvious power; durāsado (difficult to assault) would not be possible and miserable to assault, and to knock against; thus, is the meaning. Dhutavādiguņenaggo (topmost due to quality of austerity devotion) the thera Mahā-kassapa, the best and chief with the austerity practices, quality of being devoted to austerity devotion) the thera mahākassapa, the best and chief with the austerity practices, quality of thirteen austere practises beginning with being restricted to wearing a set of three robes only and so on; tava (thy) your; akkhadasso, the main individual in making vocabulary; thus, is the meaning.

542. Bahussuto dhammadharo (much learned the bearer in memory of dhamma) Venerable Sage! Because of having heard abundant eighty four thousand aggregation of dhamma, and because he had learnt from the Glorious One and the clergy of bhikkhus, the much learned, because of bearing into memory the absolutely significant dhamma, many an enumeration of six hundred thousand memorised dhamma as well as the mental awareness (satipaţţhāna) and so on, the bearer of dhamma Ānanda; Sabbapāţhī ca Sāsane (all read also in the dispensation) the thera Ānanda, by name, in the dispensation of Buddha, best and chief among bhikkhus, who read and repeat all the preaching to be perused; thus, he is known as Sabhapāţhī, the peruser of all, dhammarakkho tava (your guardian of dhamma; the protector) watcher and protector of your treasure of dhamma known as the dhamma of the three piţakas, the trustee of the treasure of dhamma; thus, is the meaning.

543. Ete sabbeatikkamma, having gone beyond all these, is Bhagavā (possessor of glory) the Omniscient Buddha, having gone beyond and let off such theras of great power, as these Sāriputta and so on; pamesi (measured) made measurement of me alone even, paid mental attention; thus, is the meaning. Vinicchayam me pādāsi (gave me decision) the Glorious One pādāsi (gave me the decision in the Vinaya) pointed out or preached and made manifest by wise monks, who knew the Vinaya, for investigation of faults, gave in a way, gave the responsibility to me alone even.

544. Yo koci vinaye pañham (whosoever asks questions in the Vinaya) whichever bhikkhu, the disciple of Buddha, asks me any question dependent upon Vinaya; tattha (there) in the question asked by him; me (my) to me; cintana) thinking) there is no doubt nor dubiousness; I preach the beneficial matter asked, to him even; thus, is the connection.

545. Yāvatā Buddhakhettamhi (as far as the field of Buddha) as far in extent of place as the field of Buddha's command, leaving aside the Great Sage, Omniscient Buddha, Vinaye (in vinaya) either in the Vinaya piţaka or in making disciplinary decision; mādiso (like me) there is none similar to me; I alone was the chief; bhiyyo (more) where will be my superior; thus, is the connection.

546. Bhikkhusamghe nisīditvā (seated in; the clergy of bhikkhus) the Glorious One Gotama, seated in the midst of the congregation of bhikkhus; evam gajjati (thundered thus) made the roar of lion; How? Vinaye (in Vinaya) in both the Vibhańga, divisions; Khandhakesu (in the Khandhakas) in Mahāvagga and cūļavagga, the major and minor groups; with the word-ca-in surrounding retinue; Upālissa (of upāli), with Upāli, samo (equal) there does not exist likeness or similarity; thus, in this way He thundered.

547. Yāvatā (as long as) to whatever extent; Buddha Bhaņitam (spoken by Buddha) preached by Buddha; navańgam (nine-fold) everything made manifest by the Master, such instruction of the Master as Sutta, Geyya and so on; Vinayogadham (diving into Vinaya) thus, in this manner, him whose root is Vinaya, who had entered the inside of Vinaya; passino (to one who sees) seeing.

548. mama kammam saritvāna, having remembered my deeds, sakyapuńgavo, Gotama, the main personage of Sakyan lineage; mama kammam (my deed) my previous deed of aspiration saritvāna (having remembered) having known presently by means of His knowledge of the past, went to the midst of the concourse of bhikkhus and placed me in such a topmost place as: "O Monks! This one is the chief among my disciple bhikkhus, the bearers in memory of Vinaya, this namely: Upāli; thus, is the connection.

549. Satasahassupādāva (closely taking or regarding a hundred thousand) having made the beginning in a hundred thousand aeons (kappa), apatthayim (I wished for) I did aspire; me (my) that wish of mine; anupatto (has been attained accordingly) achieved, properly gained by me; pāramim gato (gone to perfection) attained the extreme limit in Vinaya; thus is the meaning.

550. Sakyānam (of the Sakyans) of kings belonging to the Sakyan lineage; pure, formerly, āsim (I was) formerly, I was a barber, a maker of delight; tamjātim (that birth) that family, that womb; vijahitvā (having forsaken) distinctively discarding and chucking; Mahesino (of the Great Sage) of the Omniscient; putto jāto (son born), the upholder of dispensation (sāsana), the son of the Sakyan, thus, has gone the calculation; thus, is the meaning.

551. Thereafter, further on, in order to show his biographical episode of his own having been reborn in a slave family, he uttered a stanza, starting with ito dutiyake kappe. There, ito (from here) under the Bhadda kappa (good world) in the second kappa (world) a king of the princely warrior social grade, known by the name of Añjasa: ananta-tejo (endless power), the power which goes beyond calculation, amitayaso (incomparable reputation) having retinue which surpassed comparison or measurement; mahaddhano (of great wealth) possessor of many a thousand crores of money; bhūmipālo (protector of earth), he was guardian and protector of earth; thus, is the connection.

552. Tassa rañño (of that king) to that king of that type, I was the son, known by the name of Candana. Khattivo (princely warrior) I was a young warrior prince; thus, is the connection. Upatthaddho (held up) that I was pillared and propped up with the conceit of birth, madness of reputation, drunkenness of wealth; thus, is the meaning.

553. Nāgasatasabassāni, a hundred thousand elephants, mātańga, born in the family of mātańga; tidhā pabhinnā (thrice burst open) flowing with juice, madly furious, from three places reckoned as eyes, ears and sexual organ (or preputium) (kosa), sabbalańkāra bhūsitā (adorned with all ornaments) decorated with all elephant decorations; sadā (always) at all times, they surround me; Thus, is the connection.

554. Sabalehi paretoham (I was surrounded with my own army) then, at that time, pareto (surrounded) I was all round accompanied by my own strong army; gantukāmo (desirous of going) wishing to go to the garden; nāgam, elephant, āruyha (having mounted) I rode on the elephant named Sirika and went out of the city; thus, is the connection.

555. Caraņena ca sampanno (endowed with conduct also) replete with such fifteen righteous conduct as restraint by practising precepts and so on; suggadvāro (guarded door) closed are such six doors as eyes and so on; susamvuto (well restrained) body and mind guarded properly; sambuddho (self-enlightened) the silent buddha, named Devala; mama, my; purato (from front) in my presence or facing me; āgacchi (came) arrived thus, is the meaning.

556. Pesetvā Sirikam nāgam (having sent the elephant Sirika) having seen that silent buddha who had come, I sent the elephant named Sirika facing the silent buddha; asadayim (I assaulted) I knocked against and offended the silent buddha; thus, is the meaning. Tato sañjātakopo so (from that, anger-arisen he) therefore, because of having been oppressed and despatched by me exceedingly even, that elephant got angry with me; padam (foot) its own feet; nuddharate (did not raise) did not bear up, was but motionless; thus, is the meaning.

557. Nāgam duţţhamanam disvā (seeing the elephant in angry mood) having seen the elephant offended in mind and angered mood; buddhe, in the silent buddha, kopam akāsim (I was angry) I caused anger to arise; thus, is the meaning. Vihesayitvā sambuddham (having harassed the self-enlightened One) I went to the garden after harassing and oppressing the silent buddha, Devala; thus, is the connection.

558. Sātamtattha na vindāmi (I do not get happiness there) in that attack I do not obtain happiness, I do not gain the sweet happiness symbolising the offending; thus, is the meaning. Siro pajjalito yathā (as if the head is aflame) my head was blazing as if it is aflame; thus, is the meaning. Pariņāhena ̄dayhāmi (I burn with flames all round) I become hot-minded and I get burning with the flames of subsequent remorse because of having anger in the silent of subsequent remorse because of having anger in the silent buddha; thus, is the meaning.

559. Sasāgarantā (together with ocean-end) on account of the strength of that self-same evil deed, the whole mighty earth having its all round boundary limit in the oceans, together with the border oceans; me (my) to me ādittāviya (similar to being burnt) appeared to be as if being burnt; thus, is the meaning. Pitu santikupāgamma (having approached the presence of my father) when danger arose in that manner, upāgamma (having approached) I went to the presence of the king, my own father; abrayim (I spoke) I said to him this word; thus, is the meaning.

560 Āsīvisamva kupitam (angry like a venomous snake) similar to all angry venomous snake, resembling the burning mass of fire; mattam (mad) bursting out thrice; dantim (toothy) possessor of tusks, Kuñjaram (elephant) most excellent elephant; sayambhum, self-become, āsādayim (I assaulted) I knocked against the silent buddha who was coming towards me like unto the most excellent elephant ; thus, is the connection.

561. Āsādito mayā buddho (the silent buddha assaulted by me) that silent buddha, being assaulted and knocked against by me; ghoro (awful) frightful, because of the fact that he could not be knocked against by others; uggatapo (highly austere) manifestly moral; jino (conqueror) who had conquered the five Māras; the silent buddha, who is endowed with accomplishments in this manner, had been attached by me; thus, is the meaning, Purā sabbe vinassāma (before hand all of us will get ruined) because I had done disrespect to that silent buddha, we all will be ruined, we shall get destroyed in different ways; we shall become like ash; thus, is the meaning. Khamāpessāma tam munim (we shall apologise that Sage) so that we shall not perish, to that extent we shall beg the pardon of that sage; the silent buddha; thus, is the connection.

562. No ce tam nijjhāpessāma, if we could not win his favour, attadantam (subjugation of self) tamed heart; samāhitam (concentration) one-pointed mind; if we were not to win the favour of and get the forgiveness from the silent buddha; orena sattadivasā (hither side of seven days) on this hither portion of the seven ;days, without the seven days having passed beyond, vidhamissati (will get crushed) the whole prosperous kingdom of mine will get destroyed.

563. Sumekhalo kosiyo ca (Sumekhala and kosiya) these four reigning kings, namely Sumekhala and so on, āsādayitvā (having assaulted) knocked against, made disrespect, saraţţhakā (together with their kingdoms) reached destruction, became miserable together with residents of their kingdoms and districts; thus, is the meaning.

564. Yadā kuppanti isayo (when ascetics get angry) when, at whatever time, saññatā (well controlled) calmed and self-controlled with the control of body and so on; brahmacārine (the chaste ones) the hermits who practise the most excellent practice and best practice; kuppanti (get angry) became unpleasant-minded; then, the world together with divine world, together with the mountains and oceans are brought to destruction; thus, is the connection.

565. Tiyojanasahassamhi (in the three thousand yojanas) having come to know the power of those hermits, in order to apologise them, accayam (offence), fault; desanatthāya (in order to point out) to make manifest; had people assembled at a place three thousand yojanas in extent; thus, is the connection. Sayambhum upasańkamim (approached the self-become) I approached, went near the self-made silent buddha; thus, is the meaning.

566. Allavattha (moist garment) all the people who have become a heap together with me, moistly clothed, with clothes and upper garments wet with water; allasirā (moist head) being wet-haired, pañjalīkatā (hands clasped) a container of clasped fingers made on head; buddhassa, to silent buddha; pāde (at the foot) near his feet; nipativā (having fallen down) having laid down; idamvacanama-bravum (spoke this word) spoke and said such words as "O Great Hero! You please condone us" and so on; thus, is the meaning.

567. Mahāvīra (Great hero!) "Venerable Most Excellent silent buddha! Please condone the offence done in ignorance to you by us; you please eradicate our fault; please do not bear our offence in your memory;" thus, is the meaning. Jano (men) the collection of people; tam (him) that glorious one; abhi (specially) requests distinctively; pariļāham (burning) our mental pain of burning made by anger and delusion, vinodehi (please remove) please make it small; no (our) raţţham (kingdom) residents of entire kingdom and district; mā vināsaya (please do not destroy) please do not make it ruined; thus, is the meaning.

568. Sadevamanusā sabbe (all, along with divine and human-beings) sadānavā (together with titans) together with the titans (asura) with their giving of striking or attacking and so on; sarakkhasā ayomayena kuţena (together with ogres along with their harness made of iron) with big clubs; sadā (always) at all times, mesiram (my head) bhindeyyum (they would break) would crush.

569. Thereafter, further on, in order to make manifest the condonation as well as absence of anger, he uttered a stanza, starting with Dake aggi na Saņţhāti. There, na saņţhāti (does not stand well) just as in water fire does not stand properly; sele (on stone) just as the seed does not sprout and grow on a hill consisting of stones; agade (in medicine) kimi (insect) just as in medicine insects do not stand well; kopo (anger) buddhe (in silent buddha) na jāyati (is not produced) likewise mental anger, evil-mindedness does not occur in the silent buddha, who has penetrated the truth properly.

570. Again also, in order to make manifest the power of Buddhas, he uttered a stanza, starting with yathā ca bhūmi. There, bhūmi earth; acalā (unshakeable) without shaking; just as also the earth is unshaked, so also Buddha is unshakable; thus, is the meaning. Sāgara (ocean) appameyyo (immeasurable) just as the great ocean is impossible to measure or to get its size, so also Buddha is immeasurable; thus, is the meaning. Just as Ākaso (the heavenly sky) the untouched sky is anantako (endless), devoid of all-round end, even (thus) likewise Buddha is akkhobhiyo (imperturbable), not possible to disturb or shake; thus, is the meaning.

571. Thereafter, further on, in order to show the condoning words of the silent buddha, he uttered a stanza, starting with sadā khantā mahavīrā. There mahāvīrā (great heroes) Buddhas who possess most excellent exertion, tapassino (ascetic), endowed with exertion, with the name gained as "tapo, austerity", from the burning away of evil acts; khantā (patient) endowed with patience also; khamitā (condoners) those who are with benefit and who condone the offence or fault of others; sadā (always) become at all times; thus, is the connection. Khantānam khamitānañca (of the patient (and) condoners as well) of those Buddhas, who are patient, yoked with patience, who are condoners, who condone the faults of others, who are with benefit; gamanam (going) there does not exist the going to such evil course as desire and so on; thus, is the meaning.

572. Sambuddho (self-enlightened one) the silent buddha, having spoken this word thus; pariļāham (burning) the five that had arisen to living creatures; vinodayam (extricating) removing; mahājanassa purato (in front of the big body of men) in the presence of the big body of people along with their king, who had assembled together, tadā (then) at that time; nabham, sky, abbhuggami (went up) soared up; thus, is the meaning.

573. Tena kammenaham dhīra (O wise-man!) I, by that act, o Firmly Wise! O you, endowed with firmness, I, tena kammena (on account of that act) due to the act of disrespect done to the silent buddha, hīnattam, the state of inferiority, ajjhupagato (had specially come near), in my last or final existence, reached or begot the birth of doing inferior barber's work to kings; samatikkamma tamjātim, having properly gone past that birth, sam (properly) having properly gone beyond that my own existence for others; pāvisim abhayam puram (I entered the city of freedom from danger) I entered, I became having entered the great city of nibbāna, the immortal city, which is devoid of danger, thus, is the meaning.

574. Tadāpimam mahāvīra (O Great Hero!) Then also me, O Most excellent! Tadāpi (then also) at the time of assaulting that silent buddha also, pariļāham (burning) the self-made silent buddha extricated and made far off the arisen physical and mental distress caused by my assaulting him; dayhamānam, burning, susaņţhitam (well established), thereafter even, the silent buddha tolerated that offence or fault, and condoned it having seen me properly placed in my seeing the fault as fault and having seen me burning and scorching with consequential remorse and repentance; thus, is the connection.

575. Ajjapimam mahāvīra (O Great Hero! now also me) O Most Excellent Hero! Now, also at the time of your coming together also, tiyaggībhi, with three kinds of fire, dayhamānam (being burnt) being burnt by three kinds of fire reckoned as fire of lust, fire of anger, fire of delusion, or reckoned as hell-fire, peta fire and fire of rounds of rebirths; sītibhāvam, the condition of coolness, apāpayi (caused to reach) the Glorious One properly made me, who was suffering from pain, attain the cool condition of nibbāna even, reckoned as tranquillised body and mind, by the destruction of unpleasant mind or mental distress; tayo aggi, three fire as stated were made so as to come to a stop and die out; thus, is the connection.

576. Thus, having shown to the Glorious One his own inferior deeds, now, in order to admonish after having urged his other listeners also, he uttered a stanza, starting with "Yesam sotāvadhāna' atthi. There, yesam (to whomever) to you; sotāvadhānam (to the listeners) placing holding down of ear, atthi (is) exists; bhāsato, speaking, suņātha (listen) you all listen to and bear in mind my words when I am speaking to you; Attham tumham pavakkhāmi, I relate the matter to you, yathā (whereas) in whatever manner, mama (my) seen by me; padam (path) nibbāna; likewise in that manner, I shall speak to you the absolute matter or benefit reckoned as nibbāna; thus, is the connection.

577. In order to show it, he uttered the stanza starting with Sayambhumtam vimānetvā. There, Sayambhum, self-made, vimānetvā (minimised) having made disrespect to the silent buddha, who was self-made, who had become one of holy noble origin, who was of tranquil mind, well concentrated; tena kammena (by that act) due to demerit done, ajja, now, nīcayoniyam, in low womb, jāto, born, amhi (I am; at this present time) I became born in the birth of a barber, to be of benefit to others.

578. Mā vo khaņam virādhetha (do not miss any moment) you all do not miss the moment of Buddha's appearance, do not make it flow away; hi (indeed) truly; khaņātītā, those who pass away moments, socare (weep) the living creatures who went over, let pass the moment of Buddha's appearance grieve; they become anxious thus:- "We become ill-fated and unwise;" thus, is the meaning. Sadatthe, in one's own welfare, vāyameyyātha (should exert) you make exertion for increase of your own welfare or benefit; Vo, by you, khaņo moment, paţipādito (properly arrived at) the time of moment of Buddha's appearance is accomplished and attained; thus, is the meaning.

579. Thereafter, further on, in order to show the disadvantage of those who go (to rounds of rebirths by way of illustration and example, he uttered a stanza starting with ekaccānañca vamanam. Ekaccānam (to some) to whichever individuals; vamanam (vomiting) flowing upward; virecanam (purging) flowing downwards of some people, eke (some) of some; visam (poison) virulent venom in making release; osadham (medicine) consequent means of protection of some people; the Glorious One preached thus in serial succession; thus, is the connection.

580. Vamanam paţipannānam (to those who properly practise vomiting) the Glorious One preached vomiting, discarding of rounds of repeated rebirths (saŋsāra), escape from saŋsāra, to those who properly practise and who have the qualification for self-attainment (to the right noble path); thus, is the connection. Phalaţţhānam (to those established in fruition), Buddha preached the medicine of nibbāna to those who stood after having gained noble fruition; gavesīnam (to seekers) Buddha preached about the clergy who had become the field of merit to those who seek and make all-round search of the prosperous bliss of human and divine-beings as well as nibbāna; thus, is the connection.

581. Sāsanena viruddhanam (to opposers of the dispensation) Buddha preached excitingly venomous evil deed of demerit to those who are opposed to His dispensation; thus, is the connection. Yathā āsīviso (like a venomous snake) just as a poisonous serpent, resembling virulent venom, from the point of view of bringing misery (dukkha) in the round of rebirths (saŋsāra) to unbelieving (or impious) people who had done evil deeds; (diţţhaviso) seen venom, from the point of view of rendering into ash by simple sight; jhāpeti (burns) the snake by its own tusk-like teeth burns the man and make him miserable or suffer distress (dukkha); tam naram (that man) Buddha made dry up and burnt in the four forms of purgatory, in the same way as the virulent venom causes to burn the unbelieving impious man who had done evil deed; thus, is the connection.

582. Sakim pitam halāhalam, the virulent venom once drunk, uparundhati (destroys) the drunk violent poison destroys life once and for only one time; sāsanena (with the dispensation) in the dispensation; virajjhitvā, having committed offence, kappakoţimhi (in crores of kappa) also in the worlds calculated by crores; ̄dayhati (in burnt) the individual gets burnt for crores of kappa; thus, is the meaning.

503. Having thus shown the evil consequences of unbelieving impious people, now, in order to show the power of Buddhas, he uttered a stanza, starting with khantiyā. There so, he, that Buddha who preached vomiting and so on; khantiyā (with patience) with forbearance also; avihimsāya (by not harassing) without any harassment to living beings; mettacittavatāya (because of possessing loving kindness) because of being a possessor of loving mind also; sadevakam (together with world of divinities) the world which turns out to be together with celestial beings; tāresi (let cross) does cause to go beyond, make to attain nibbāna; tasmā (therefore) under this circumstance, avirādhiya (unopposable) it is impossible that Buddhas could be opposed by you all; you should properly enter upon the dispensation of Buddha; thus, is the meaning.

584. Na sajjanti (not attached) both in gain and in loss they do not follow, they do not hang on to; sammānane (in measuring well) in making respect; vimānane (in not measuring) in making disrespect, Buddhas are unmoved, like unto earth they are not shakeable; tasmā (therefore) under the circumstance, te (they) Buddhas, na virodhiya (not opposable), Buddhas ought not to be opposed by you all; you would not be able to oppose Buddhas thus, is the meaning.

585. In order to show the equanimity of Buddhas, he uttered a stanza starting with Devadatte. There, Samako (equal) equally minded towards all living beings, killers or non-killers; muni (sage) Buddha Sage; thus, is the meaning.

586. Etesam patigho natthi (there is no malice to these) there does not at all exist any malice, cruel desire and angry mindedness to these Buddhas. Rāgo mesam na vijjati (there does not exist lust to these) does not exist there is not obtainable lust also, stain and attachment of these Buddhas; samako (equal) therefore, under the circumstance, Buddha is of equal mind to all, his assassin and his own son; thus, is the connection.

587. Again also, in order to show the power of Buddhas even, he uttered a stanza, starting with Panthe disvāna kāsāvam. There, mīļhamakkhitam (smeared with excrement) mixed with excrement; kāsāvam (yellow robe) dyed-with yellow-dye; isiddhajam (ascetic's banner), the requisite, the flag of the noble monks; panthe (on the road) discarded on the road; disvāna, having seen, añjalim katvā (made clasped hands) having made a container by bringing together the ten-fingers clasped and placed on head; sirasā, with head, vanditabbam isidhajam (the flag of ascetic which should be adored) the banner or emblem, which brings Buddha, silent buddha and disciples to light, monk's robes should be saluted, well regarded and honoured; thus, is the meaning.

588. Abbhātītā (specially gone past) especially gone set, thoroughly extinguished. Ye ca Buddhā vattamānā (whichever Buddhas turn out to be) such Buddhas as are born now; anāgatā (not yet come) or future buddhas who are not born, not become, not sprung up, not made manifest. Dhajenanena sujjhanti (these Buddhas cleansed themselves) became pure and graceful by this yellow robe, by this flag (or emblem) of ascetic; tasmā (therefore) by that circumstance; etc (these) Buddhas; namassiyā namassitabbā (should be saluted) should be paid homage to; thus, is the meaning. The reading is etam namassiyam (this should be saluted) this flag or emblem of ascetic of His should be saluted (or worshipped); thus, is the meaning.

589. thereafter further on, in order to show his own quality, he uttered a stanza, starting with sathukapam. There, satthukappam (resembling the Master), likes unto buddha; suvinayam (well-disciplined) proper discipline, subduing or taming the three doors in proper manner; badayena (with heart) by means of mind; dhāremi (I bear) I reflect by means of hearing, committing into memory and so on; thus, is the meaning. Vinayam (discipline) the vinaya piţaka, namasamāno (saluting) paying homage, paying respect to vinaya; viharissāmi sabbadā (I shall live always) I make my residence at all times; thus, is the meaning.

590. Vinayo āsayo mayham (Discipline is my desire) the vinaya piţaka is my opportune condition, it has become my home, become my place, by way of listening to, committing into memory, bearing in mind, uplift, all-round question, and turning or preaching; thus, is the meaning. Vinayo ţhānacańkamam (discipline of standing and promenading) by my doing such duties as hearing and so on, vinaya is my standing place and cloister place; kappemi vinaye vāsam (I make my residence in vinaya or discipline) I make my sleeping bed and take up my residence in the vineya piţaka by way of hearing, bearing in memory, and preaching the text of Vinaya; Vinayo mama gocaro (Discipline is my posture) the vinaya piţaka is my pasture, nourishment, and my meal, by way of constant committing into memory and bearing in mind; thus, is the meaning.

591. Vinaye pāramippatto (attained perfection in Vinaya) having reached all-round end and perfection in the Vinaya Piţaka; Samathe cāpi kovido (expert in the cessation also) clever and adept in cessation, tranquillising and rousing up of the mass of such seven sorts of disciplinary offences as pārājika, total loss and so on or in bringing about settlement of disputes -

            “          Dispute, censure, likewise the dispute over offence, as well as the dispute over what ought to be done, are known as four kinds of dispute.”

in the aforesaid disputes also.

            “          Discipline of mindfulness in the presence, making promise undeluded, generally worse than that, likewise covering the dispute over as if with grass.”

Extremely clever and efficient in the seven kinds of settlement of disputes stated also in this way; thus, is the meaning. Upāli tam Mahāvīra, O great hero! Upāli (adores) you, Venerable O Great hero! O Possessor of Exertion for achievement of Omniscient knowledge in the hundred thousand aeons over and above four innumerable aeons (or kappas) Satthuno (of the master) to the adviser of divine and human beings; tam (you) your, pāde (feet) pair of feet, vandati (adores) the bhikkhu Upāli pays homage, makes his respects; thus, is the meaning.

592. Namassamāno (saluting) that I, having renounced the world and become monk, making obeisance to the Self-enlightened Buddha; dhammassa ca (to the spiritual truth also) to the nine transcendental dhamma preached by that Glorious One; sudhammatam (the state of being good doctrine) having come to know the fact of being good dhamma, adoring the dhamma also, purato puram (from city to city) I would wander about from village to village and from town to town; thus, is the connection.

593. Kilesā jhāpitā mayham (my depravity of all kinds had been burnt) by means of the knowledge of proper penetration of the noble path of arahantship by me, all the depravity calculated as one thousand five hundred had been burnt, dried up thoroughly, evaporated and completely crushed; bhavā sabbe samūhatā (all existences had been properly uprooted) all nine kinds of such existences as sensual world and so on, had been removed properly; sam (properly) ūhatā (uprooted) thrown away, smashed to pieces; sabbāsava parikknīņā (the entire cankers had been all-round exhausted or destroyed) all such four cankers as sensual canker, canker of existence, canker of heresy, canker of ignorance had been all-round destroyed, had been caused to reach elimination all round; idāni (now) at this time of attainment of arahantship, punabbhavo (next existence) there does not exist birth, becoming, existence reckoned as springing up again; thus, is the meaning.

594. Making a solemn utterance, by way of further mental delight, he uttered a stanza, starting with svāgatam. There, Buddhaseţţhassa (of the best Buddha) of the most excellent Buddha, santike (near) or in a town; svāgatam (good coming) my coming, proper coming, good coming; vata (indeed) with certainty, āsi, was; thus, is the connection. Tisso vijjā, three kinds of supreme knowledge, namely! the supreme knowledge of former abodes, divine eye and exhaustion of cankers; anupattā (accordingly attained) well arrived at; made visible personally; thus, is the meaning. katam Buddhassa sāsamam (done the instruction of Buddha) the advice to be followed and the dispensation (sāsana) preached by Buddha, the Glorious One, has been done, accomplished, after fulfilling the proper performance of duty, bearing in mind the mental exercise (kammaţţhāna) and made perfect with the achievement of the knowledge of the noble path of arahantship; thus, is the meaning.

595. Paţisambhidā catasso (four kinds of analytical knowledge) such four sorts of knowledge as the analytical knowledge of meaning and so on had been visualised, made self-seen; vimokkhā pi ca aţţhime (knowledge of the four noble fruitions) thus, these eight emancipations from rounds of repeated rebirths (saŋsāra) which lead to escape, had been visualised; thus, is the connection. Chaļabhiññā sacchikatā, six kinds of higher knowledge had been visualised,

            “          Varieties of magical power, divine ear, knowledge of others' thoughts, knowledge of former abodes, divine eye and extinction of cankers.”

These six kinds of higher knowledge had been visualised and made self-seen. With the visualising of these six sorts of super knowledge, Buddha's instruction had been carried out; thus, is the meaning.

Ittham (in this way) by this manner as said before sudam is an indeclinable particle to the extent of filling a word; thero, the elder monk, abhāsittha (spoke) the venerable Upāli, the disciple replete with such qualities as firm moral precepts and so on, uttered these stanzas which bring to light his deeds of former conduct; thus, is the meaning.

The commentary on the biography of the thera Upāli has ended.

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