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Tipitaka >> Sutta Pitaka >> Anguttara Nikaya >> 9.Book of Nines


Pali Versions : Pali-English and Pali-Devanagri Versions are embedded in the texts.


This is Book Nine of Anguttara Nikaya. This is modified version of Bhikkhu Bodhi.


Numerical Discourses (Anguttara Nikaya)

(Counting on Fingers section)

Note : 'c' of Pali word is pronounced as 'ch' as in 'China'


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The Book of the Nines (Navakanipata)[]

Namo Tassya Bhagavato, Arahato, Samma-Sam-Buddhassya

Homage to that Bhagavato(Lord) , Enemy Vanquisher , the Rightly and Perfectly Enlightened(Awakened) One



The First Fifty[]

I. Enlightenment Section (Sambodhivagga sans. Sambodhi-varga)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


1 Enlightenment [1821] (Sambodhi)[]

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There the Lord(Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus: "Bhikkhus!"

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), ascetics of other sects may ask you: 'What, friends, is the proximate cause for the development of the aids to enlightenment?' If you are asked thus, how would you answer them?"

"Bhante, our teachings are rooted in the Lord(Buddha), guided by the Lord(Buddha), take recourse in the Lord(Buddha). It would be good if the Lord(Buddha) would clear up the meaning of this statement. Having heard it from him, the bhikkhus will retain it in mind."

"Then listen, bhikkhus, and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, Bhante," those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), if ascetics of other sects should ask you: 'What, friends, is the proximate cause for the development of the aids to enlightenment?' you should answer them as follows:

(1) "Here, friends, a bhikkhu has good friends, good companions, [352] good comrades. This is the first proximate cause for the development of the aids to enlightenment.

(2) "Again, friends, a bhikkhu is virtuous; he dwells restrained by the Patimokkha, possessed of good conduct and resort, seeing danger in minute faults. Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them. This is the second proximate cause.

(3) "Again, friends, a bhikkhu gets to hear at will, without trouble or difficulty, talk concerned with the austere life that is conducive to opening up the heart, that is, talk on fewness of desires, on contentment, on solitude, on not getting bound up [with others], on arousing energy(exertion/viriya), on virtuous behavior, on samadhi(self absorption/trance), on panna(divine knowledge), on liberation, on the knowledge and vision of liberation. This is the third proximate cause. . . .

(4) "Again, friends, a bhikkhu has aroused energy(exertion/viriya) for abandoning harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) and acquiring beneficial(kusala) qual ities; he is strong, firm in exertion, not casting off the duty of cultivating beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma). This is the fourth proximate cause

(5) "Again, friends, a bhikkhu is wise; he possesses the wisdom that discerns arising and passing away, which is noble and penetrative and leads to the complete destruction of suffering. This is the fifth proximate cause for the development of the aids to enlightenment

"When, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu has good friends, good companions, good comrades, it can be expected of him that he will be virtuous, one who dwells restrained by the Patimokkha . . . will train in them.

"When a bhikkhu has good friends, good companions, good comrades, it can be expected of him that he will get to hear at will, without trouble or difficulty, talk concerned with the austere life that is conducive to opening up the heart, that is, talk on fewness of desires . . . on the knowledge and vision of liberation.

"When a bhikkhu has good friends, good companions, good comrades, it can be expected of him that he will arouse energy(exertion/viriya) [353] for abandoning harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) . . . not casting off the duty of cultivating beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma).

"When a bhikkhu has good friends, good companions, good comrades, it can be expected of him that he will be wise, possess ing the panna(divine knowledge) that discerns arising and passing away, which is noble and penetrative and leads to the complete destruction of suffering.

"Having based himself on these five things, the bhikkhu should develop further [another] four things. (6) [The perception(sanna/sangya) of] unattractiveness should be developed to abandon lust(raag). (7) Loving-kindness should be developed to abandon ill will. (8) mindfulness(meditation/sati) of breathing(anapana) should be developed to cut off thoughts, (9). The perception(sanna/sangya), of impermanence(aniccha/anitya) should be developed to eradicate the conceit 'I am' 1822 When one perceives impermanence(aniccha/anitya), the perception(sanna/sangya) of non-self is stabilized. 1823 One who perceives non-self eradicates the conceit 'I am' [which is] nibbana in this very life."


2 Support [1824] (Nissaya sans. Nissarana)[]

Then a certain bhikkhu approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him: "It is said, Bhante: 'Equipped with supports, equipped with supports' In what way is a bhikkhu equipped with supports?" 1825

(1) "If, bhikkhu, supported by faith, a bhikkhu abandons the harmful(akusala) and develops the beneficial(kusala), the harmful(akusala) is indeed abandoned by him. (2) If, supported by a sense of moral shame . . . (3) . , . supported by moral dread . . . (4) . . . supported by energy(exertion/viriya) . . . (5) . . . supported by panna(divine knowledge), a bhikkhu. abandons the harmful(akusala) and develops the beneficial(kusala) that harmful(akusala) is indeed abandoned by him. 1826 [354] A bhikkhu has abandoned and well abandoned the harmful(akusala) when he has abandoned it by seeing it with noble panna(divine knowledge). 1822

"Basing himself on these five things, that bhikkhu should rely on four things. 1828 What four? Here, (6) having reflected, a bhikkhu uses some things; (7) having reflected, he patiently endures some things; (8) having reflected, he avoids some things; and (9) having reflected, he dispels some things.

"It is in this way, bhikkhu, that a bhikkhu is equipped with supports."


3 Meghiya [1829][]

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Calika on Mount Calika. 1830 Now on that occasion the Venerable Meghiya was the Lord(Buddha)'s attendant. Then the Venerable Meghiya approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, stood to one side, and said to him: "Bhante, I would like to enter Jantugama for alms."

"You may do so, Meghiya, at your own convenience."

Then, in the morning, the Venerable Meghiya dressed, took his bowl and robe, and entered Jantugama for alms. When he had walked for alms in Jantugama, after his meal, on returning from his alms round, he went to the bank of the Kimikala River. As he was walking and wandering around for exercise along the bank of the Kimikala River, the Venerable Meghiya saw [355] a lovely and delightful mango grove. It occurred to him: "This mango grove is truly lovely and delightful, suitable for the striving of a clansman intent on striving. If the Lord(Buddha) permits me, I will come back to this mango grove to strive."

Then the Venerable Meghiya approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said: "This morning, Bhante, I dressed, took my bowl and robe, and entered Jantugama for alms. . . . [All as above, but in the first person.] . . . I thought: 'This mango grove is truly lovely and delightful, suitable for the striving of a clansman intent on striving. If the Lord(Buddha) permits me, I will go back to that mango grove to strive.' So if the Lord(Buddha) would permit me, I will go back to that mango grove to strive."

"As we are alone, Meghiya, wait until another bhikkhu comes along." 1831

A second time the Venerable Meghiya said to the Lord(Buddha): "Bhante, for the Lord(Buddha) there is nothing further to be done and no [need to] increase what has been done. 1832 But, Bhante, I have something further to be done and [need to] increase what has been done. If the Lord(Buddha) would permit me, I will go back to that mango grove to strive."

"As we are alone, Meghiya, wait until another bhikkhu comes along." [356 J

A third time the Venerable Meghiya said to the Lord(Buddha): "Bhante, for the Lord(Buddha) there is nothing further to be done and no [need to] increase what has been done. But, Bhante, I have something further to be done and [need to] increase what has been done. If the Lord(Buddha) would permit me, I will go back to that mango grove to strive."

"Since you speak of striving, Meghiya, what can I say to you? You may go at your own convenience."

Then the Venerable Meghiya rose from his seat, paid homage to the Lord(Buddha), circumambulated him keeping the right side toward him, and went to the mango grove. He entered and sat down at the foot of a tree to pass the day. Then, while the Venerable Meghiya was dwelling in that mango grove, three kinds of bad harmful(akusala) thoughts frequently occurred to him: sensual thoughts, thoughts of ill will, and thoughts of harming. It then occurred to him: "This is truly astounding and amazing! I have gone forth out of faith from the household life into hermit life, yet I am still stalked by these three kinds of bad harmful(akusala) thoughts: sensual thoughts, thoughts of ill will, and thoughts of harming." 1833

Then the Venerable Meghiya approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said: "Here, Bhante, while I was dwelling in that mango grove, three kinds of bad harmful(akusala) thoughts frequently occurred to me: sensual thoughts, thoughts of ill will, and thoughts of harming. It then occurred to me: 'This is truly astounding and amazing! I have gone forth out of faith from the household life into home lessness, yet [357] I am still stalked by these three kinds of bad harmful(akusala) thoughts: sensual thoughts, thoughts of ill will, and thoughts of harming" ;

"Meghiya, when liberation of mind has not matured, five things lead to its maturation. 1834 What five?

(1) "Here, Meghiya, a bhikkhu(monk) has good friends, good companions, good comrades. When liberation of mind has not matured, this is the first thing that leads to its maturation.

(2) "Again, a bhikkhu is virtuous; he dwells restrained by the Patimokkha, possessed of good conduct and resort, seeing danger in minute faults. Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them. When liberation of mind has not matured, this is the second thing that leads to its maturation.

(3) "Again, a bhikkhu gets to hear at will, without trouble or difficulty, talk concerned with the austere life that is conducive to opening up the heart, that is, talk on fewness of desires, on contentment, on solitude, on not getting bound up [with others], on arousing energy(exertion/viriya), on virtuous behavior, on samadhi(self absorption/trance), on panna(divine knowledge), on liberation, on the knowledge and vision of liberation. When liberation of mind has not matured, this is the third thing that Leads to its maturation.

(4) "Again, a bhikkhu has aroused energy(exertion/viriya) for abandoning harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) and acquiring beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma); he is strong, firm in exertion, not casting off the duty of cultivating beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma). When liberation of mind has not matured, this is the fourth thing that leads to its maturation.

(5) "Again, a bhikkhu is wise; he possesses the panna(divine knowledge) that discerns arising and passing away, which is noble and penetrative and leads to the complete destruction of suffering. When liberation of mind has not matured, this is the fifth thing that leads to its maturation.

"When, Meghiya, a bhikkhu has good friends, good companions, good comrades, it can be expected of him that he will be virtuous, one who dwells restrained by the Patimokkha . . . [358] will train in them.

"When a bhikkhu has good friends, good companions, good comrades, it can be expected of him that he will get to hear at will, without trouble or difficulty, talk concerned with the austere life that is conducive to opening up the heart, that is, talk on fewness of desires . . . on the knowledge and vision of liberation.

"When a bhikkhu has good friends, good companions, good comrades, it can be expected of him that he will arouse energy(exertion/viriya) for abandoning harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) . . .not casting off the duty of cultivating beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma).

"When a bhikkhu has good friends, good companions, good comrades, it can be expected of him that he will be wise, possessing the panna(divine knowledge) that discerns arising and passing away, which is noble and penetrative and leads to the complete destruction of suffering.

"Having based himself on these five things, the bhikkhu should develop further [another] four things. (6) [The perception(sanna/sangya) of] unattractiveness should be developed to abandon lust(raag). (7) Loving-kindness should be developed to abandon ill will. (8) mindfulness(meditation/sati) of breathing(anapana) should be developed to cut off thoughts. (9) The perception(sanna/sangya) of impermanence(aniccha/anitya) should be developed to eradicate the conceit 'I am'. When one perceives impermanence(aniccha/anitya), the perception(sanna/sangya) of non-self is stabilized. One who perceives non-self eradicates the conceit 'I am' [which is] nibbana in this very life."


4 Nandaka [1833][]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Now on that occasion the Venerable Nandaka was instructing, encouraging, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus in the assembly hall with a Dhamma talk. Then, in the evening, the Lord(Buddha) emerged from seclusion and went to the assembly hall. He stood outside the door waiting for the talk to end. When he knew that the talk was finished, he cleared his throat [359] and tapped on the bolt. The bhikkhus opened the door for him. The Lord(Buddha) then entered the assembly hall, sat down on the seat that was prepared for him, and said to the Venerable Nandaka: "You gave the bhikkhus a long exposition of the Dhamma. My back was aching while I stood outside the door waiting for the talk to end."

When this was said, the Venerable Nandaka, sensation(vedana) embarrassed, said to the Lord(Buddha): "Bhante, I did not know that the Lord(Buddha) was standing outside the door. If I had known, I wouldn't have spoken so long."

Then the Lord(Buddha), having understood the Venerable Nandaka's embarrassment, said to him: "Good, good, Nandaka! It is proper for clansmen like you who have, gone forth[into hermit life] out of faith from the household life into hermit life to sit together for the sake of a Dhamma(path) talk. When you assemble, Nandaka, you should do one of two things: either talk on the Dhamma or maintain noble silence.

( 1 ) "Nandaka, a bhikkhu maybe endowed with faith but he is not virtuous; thus he is incomplete with respect to that factor. 1836 He should fulfill that factor, [thinking]: 'How can I be endowed with faith [360] and also be virtuous?' But when a bhikkhu is endowed with faith and is also virtuous, then he is complete with respect to that factor.

(2) "A bhikkhu maybe endowed with faith and virtuous but he does not gain internal equanimity(samatha) of mind; 1837 thus he is incomplete with respect to that factor. He should fulfill that factor, [think ing]: 'How can I be endowed with faith and virtuous, and also gain internal equanimity(samatha) of mind?' But when a bhikkhu is endowed with faith and is virtuous, and also gains internal equanimity(samatha) of mind, then he is complete with respect to that factor .

(3) "A bhikkhu may be endowed with faith and virtuous, and he may gain internal equanimity(samatha) of mind, but he does not gain the higher panna(divine knowledge) of insight(vipassana) into phenomena; 1838 thus he is incomplete with respect to that factor. Just as a four-legged animal with one lame or defective leg would be incomplete with respect to that limb; so too, when a bhikkhu is endowed with faith and is virtuous, and gains internal equanimity(samatha) of mind, but he does not gain the higher panna(divine knowledge) of insight(vipassana) into phenomena, then he is incomplete with respect to that factor. He should fulfill that factor, [thinking]: 'How can I be endowed with faith and virtuous, gain internal equanimity(samatha) of mind, and also gain the higher panna(divine knowledge) of insight(vipassana) into phenomena?'

(4) But when a bhikkhu(monk) is (i) endowed with faith and (ii) is virtuous, (iii) and he gains internal equanimity(samatha) of mind and (iv) also gains the higher panna(divine knowledge) of insight(vipassana) into phenomena, then he is complete with respect to that factor."

This is what the Lord(Buddha) said. Having said this, the Sugata(Lord Buddha) rose from his seat and entered his dwelling. Then not long after the Lord(Buddha) had left, the Venerable Nandaka addressed the bhikkhus: "Just now, friends, before he rose from his seat and entered his dwelling, the Lord(Buddha) revealed the perfectly complete and pure brahmacariya(celibate holy life) in four terms: [361 'Nandaka, a bhikkhu may be endowed with faith but not virtuous. . . . [Nandaka here repeats the Buddha's discourse down to:] . . . But when a bhikkhu is endowed with faith and is virtu ous, and he gains internal equanimity(samatha) of mind and also gains the higher panna(divine knowledge) of insight(vipassana) into phenomena, then he is complete with respect to that factor.'

"There are, friends, these five benefits in timely listening to the Dhamma, in timely discussion on the Dhamma. What five?

(5) "Here, friends, a bhikkhu teaches the bhikkhus the Dhamma that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing; he reveals the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) that is perfectly complete and pure. In whatever way the bhikkhu teaches the bhikkhus the Dhamma that is good in the beginning . . . [and] reveals the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) that is perfectly complete and pure, in just that way the Teacher becomes pleasing and agreeable to him, respected and esteemed by him. 1839 This is the first benefit in timely listening to the Dhamma, in timely discussion on the Dhamma.

(6) "Again, a bhikkhu teaches the bhikkhus the Dhamma that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing; he reveals the spiritual life that is perfectly complete and pure. In whatever way the bhikkhu teaches the bhikkhus the Dhamma that is good in the beginning . . . [and] reveals the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) that is perfectly complete and pure, in just that way, in relation to that Dhamma, he experiences inspiration in the meaning and inspiration in the Dhamma. 1840 This is the second benefit in timely listening to the Dhamma, in timely discussion on the Dhamma.

(7) "Again, a bhikkhu teaches the bhikkhus the Dhamma(path) that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing; he reveals the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) that is perfectly complete and pure. In what ever way the bhikkhu teaches the bhikkhus the Dhamma that is good in the beginning . . . [and] reveals the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) that is perfectly complete and [362] pure, in just that way he sees in that Dhamma a deep and pithy matter after piercing it through with panna(divine knowledge). 1841 This is the third benefit in timely. listening to the Dhamma, in timely discussion on the Dhamma.

(8) "Again, a bhikkhu teaches the bhikkhus the Dhamma that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing; he reveals the spiritual life that is perfectly complete and pure. In whatever way the bhikkhu teaches the bhikkhus the Dhamma that is good in the beginning . . . [and] reveals the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) that is perfectly complete and pure, in just that way his fellow monks esteem him more highly, [thinking]: 'Surely, this venerable has attained or will attain.' This is the fourth benefit in timely listening to the Dhamma,. in timely discussion on the Dhamma.

(9) "Again, a bhikkhu teaches the bhikkhus the Dhamma that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing; he reveals the spiritual life that is perfectly complete and pure. In whatever way the bhikkhu teaches the bhikkhus the Dhamma that is good in the beginning . . . [and] reveals the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) that is perfectly complete and pure, on hearing that Dhamma those bhikkhus there who are trainees, who have not attained their heart's ideal, who dwell aspiring for the unsurpassed security from bondage, arouse energy(exertion/viriya) for the attainment of the as-yet-unattained, for the achievement of the as-yet-unachieved, for the realization of the as-yet-unrealized But having heard that Dhamma, those bhikkhus who are arahants whose taints are destroyed, who have lived the brahmacariya(celibate holy life), done what had to be done, laid down the burden, reached their own goal, utterly destroyed the fetters of existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth), and are completely liberated through final knowledge, [363] are devoted simply to a pleasant dwelling in this very life. This is the fifth benefit in timely listening to the Dhamma, in timely discussion on the Dhamma'

These are the five benefits in timely listening to the Dhamma, in timely discussion on the Dhamma


5 Powers [1842] (Bala)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these four powers. What four? The power of panna(divine knowledge), the power of energy(exertion/viriya), the power of blamelessness, and the power of sustaining a favorable relationship.

(1) And what, bhikkhus, is the power of panna(divine knowledge)? One has clearly seen and explored with panna(divine knowledge) those qualities that are harmful(akusala) and reckoned as harmful(akusala); those that are beneficial(kusala) and reckoned as beneficial(kusala); those that are blamable and reckoned as blamable; those that are blameless and reckoned as blameless; those that are dark and reckoned as dark; those that are bright and reckoned as bright; those that should not be cultivated and are reckoned as not to be cultivated; those that should be cultivated and are reckoned as to be cultivated; those that are unworthy of the noble ones and reckoned as unworthy of the noble ones; those that are worthy of the noble ones and reckoned as worthy qf the noble ones. This is called the power of panna(divine knowledge).

(2) "And what is the power of energy(exertion/viriya)? One generates desire to abandon those qualities that are harmful(akusala) and reckoned as harmful(akusala); those that are blamable and reckoned as blamable; those that are dark and reckoned as dark; those that should not be cultivated and are reckoned as not to be cultivated; those that are unworthy of the noble ones and reckoned as unworthy of the noble ones. One makes an effort, arouses energy(exertion/viriya), applies one's mind, and strives for this. One generates desire to obtain all those qualities that are beneficial(kusala) and reckoned as beneficial(kusala) some; those that are blameless and reckoned as blameless; those that are bright and reckoned as bright; those that should be cultivated and are reckoned as to be cultivated; [364] those that are worthy of the noble ones and reckoned as worthy of the noble ones. One makes an effort, arouses energy(exertion/viriya), applies one's mind, and strives for this. This is called the power of energy(exertion/viriya).

(3) "And what is the power of blamelessness? Here, a noble disciple engages in blameless bodily, verbal, and mental action. This is called the power of blamelessness.

(4) "And what is the power of sustaining a favorable relationship? There are these four means of sustaining a favorable relationship: giving(donation), endearing speech, beneficent conduct, and impartiality. Among gifts, the best is the gift of the Dhamma. Among types of endearing speech, the best is repeatedly teaching the Dhamma to one who is interested in it and listens with eager ears. Among types of beneficent conduct, the best is when one encourages, settles, and establishes a person with out faith in the accomplishment(sampada) of faith, an immoral person in the accomplishment(sampada) of virtuous behavior, a miserly person in the accomplishment(sampada) of generosity, and an unwise person in the accomplishment(sampada) of panna(divine knowledge). Among types of impartiality, the best is that a stream-enterer(7 rebirths,sotapatti) is equal to a stream-enterer(7 rebirths,sotapatti), a once returner(1 rebirth,sakdagami) is equal to a once-returner(1 rebirth,sakdagami), a non-returner(no earthly rebirth,anagami) is equal to a non-returner(no earthly rebirth,anagami), and an arahant is equal to an arahant. 1843 This is called the power of sustaining a favorable relationship.

"These, bhikkhus, are the four powers. When a noble disciple possesses these four powers, he has transcended five fears. What five? (5) Fear of [loss of] livelihood, (6) fear of disrepute, (7) fear of timidity in assemblies, [365] (8) fear of death, and (9) fear of a bad destination. The noble disciple reflects thus: I am not afraid on account of my livelihood. Why should I be afraid on account of my livelihood? I have the four powers: the power of panna(divine knowledge), the power of energy(exertion/viriya), the power of blameless ness, and the power of sustaining a favorable relationship. An unwise person might be afraid on account of his livelihood; a lazy person might be afraid on account of his livelihood; a person who engages in blamable bodily, verbal, and mental action might be afraid on account of his livelihood; a person who does not sustain favorable relationships might be afraid on account of his livelihood.

"I am not afraid of disrepute.. . . I am not afraid of timidity in assemblies, ... 1 am not afraid of death 1 am not afraid of a bad destination. Why should I be afraid of a bad destination? I have the four powers: the power of panna(divine knowledge), the power of energy(exertion/viriya), the power of blamelessness, and the power of sustaining a favorable relationship. An unwise person might be afraid of a bad destination; a lazy person might be afraid of a bad destination; a person who engages in blamable bodily, verbal, and mental action might be afraid of a bad destination; a person who does not sustain favorable relationships might be afraid of a bad destination'

"When a noble disciple possesses these four powers, he has transcended these five fears."


6 Association (Sevana)[]

There the Venerable Sariputta addressed the bhikkhus: "Friends, bhikkhus!"

"Friend!" those bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Sariputta said this:

"Friends/persons should be understood to be twofold: those to be associated with and those not to be associated with 844 Robes, too, should be understood to be twofold: those to be used and those not to be used. Almsfood . . . Lodgings, too, should be understood to be twofold: those to be used and those not to be used. Villages or towns should be understood to be twofold: those to be resorted to and [366] those not to be resorted to. Countries or regions should be understood to be twofold: those to be resorted to and those not to be resorted to.

(1) "When it was said: 'Persons, friends, should be understood to be twofold: those to be associated with and those not to be associated with, for what reason was this said? If one knows of a person: 'When I associate with this person, harmful(akusala) qualities increase in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline; and the requisites of life that should be obtained by one gone forth[into hermit life] — robes, almsfood, lodging, and medicines and provisions for the sick — are obtained with difficulty; and the goal of the ascetic life for the sake of which I have gone forth from the household life into hermit life does not reach fulfillment by develop ment for me' in that case one should depart from that person any time night or day 845 even without taking leave of him. One should not continue to follow him. 846

(2) "If one knows of a person: 'When I associate with this person, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities decline; but the requisites of life that should be obtained by one gone forth[into hermit life] — robes, almsfood, lodging, and medicines and provisions for the sick — are obtained without difficulty; but still, the goal of the ascetic life, for the sake of which I have gone forth from the household life into hermit life, does not reach fulfillment by development for me' in that case, having reflected, one should depart from that person after taking leave of him. 1847 One should not continue to follow him.

(3) "If one knows of a person: 'When I associate with this person, harmful(akusala) [367] qualities decline in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities increase; but the requisites of life that should be obtained by one gone forth[into hermit life], robes, almsfood, lodging, and medicines and provisions for the sick — are obtained with difficulty; still, the goal of the ascetic life, for the sake of which I have gone forth from the household life into hermit life, reaches fulfillment by development for me'. in that case, having reflected, one should continue to follow that person, One should not depart from him.

(4) "If one knows of a person: 'When I associate with this person, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline in me and beneficial(kusala) qual ities increase; and the requisites of life that should be obtained by one gone forth[into hermit life] — robes, almsfood, lodging, and medicines and provisions for the sick— are obtained without difficulty; and the goal of the ascetic life, for the sake of which I have gone forth from the household life into hermit life, reaches fulfill ment by development for me,' in that case one should continue to follow that person as long as one lives. One should not depart from him even if one is dismissed.

"When it was said: 'Persons, friends, should be understood to be twofold: those to be associated with and those not to be associated with' it is because of this that this was said.

(5) "When it was said: 'Robes, friends, should be understood to be twofold: those to be used and those not to be used' for what reason was this said? If one knows of a robe: 'When I use this robe, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities decline' one should not use such a robe. But if one knows of a robe: 'When I use this robe, harmful(akusala) qualities decline in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase,' one should use such a robe. [368] When it was said: 'Robes, friends, should be understood to be twofold: those to be used and those not to be used' it is because of this that this was said.

(6) "When it was said: 'Almsfood, friends, should be understood to be twofold: that to be used and that not to be used' for what reason was this said? If one knows of some almsfood: 'When I use this almsfood, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline,' one should not use such almsfood. But if one knows of some almsfood: 'When I use this almsfood, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities increase' one should use such almsfood. When it was said: 'Almsfood, friends, should be understood to be twofold: that to be used and that not to be used' it is because of this that this was said.

(7) "When it was said: 'Lodgings, friends, should be understood to be twofold: those to be used and those not to be used for what reason was this said? If one knows of a lodging: 'When I use this lodging, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline,' one should not use such a lodging. But if one knows of a lodging: 'When I use this lodging, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase' one should use such a lodging. When it was said: 'Lodgings, friends, should be understood to be twofold: those to be used and those not to be used' it is because of this that this was said.

(8) "When it was said: 'Villages or towns, friends, should be understood to be twofold: those to be resorted to and those not to be resorted to,' for what reason was this said? If one knows of a village or town: 'When I resort to this village or town, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline,' one should not resort to such a village or town. But if one knows of a village or town: 'When I resort to this village [369] or town, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities increase' one should resort to such a village or town. When it was said: 'Villages or towns, friends, should be understood to be twofold: those to be resorted to and those not to be resorted to' it is because of this that this was said.

(9) "When it was said: 'Countries or regions, friends, should be understood to be twofold: those to be resorted to and those mpt to be resorted to,' for what reason was this said? If one knows of a country or region: 'When I resort to this country or region, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities decline,' one should not resort to such a country or region. But if one knows of a country or region: 'When I resort to this country or region, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase' one should resort to such a country or region. When it was said: 'Countries or regions, friends, should be understood to be twofold: those to be resorted to and those not to be resorted to' it is because of this that this was said."


7 Sutava[]

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha on Mount Vulture Peak. Then the ascetic Sutava approached the Lord(Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to the Lord(Buddha):

"Bhante, on one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling right here in Rajagaha, the Mountain Fort. 1848 At that time, in the presence of the Lord(Buddha), I heard and learned this: 'Sutava, a bhikkhu who is an arahant — one whose taints are destroyed, who has lived the brahmacariya(celibate holy life), done what had to be done, laid down [370] the burden, reached his own goal, utterly destroyed the fetters of existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth), one completely liberated through final knowledge — is incapable of transgression in five cases. He is incapable of intentionally depriving a living being of life; he is incapable of taking by way of theft what is not given; he is incapable of engaging in sexual intercourse; he is incapable of deliberately speaking falsehood; he is incapable of storing things up in order to enjoy sensual pleasures as he did in the past when a layman'. Bhante, did I hear that correctly from the Lord(Buddha), grasp it correctly, attend to it correctly, remember it correctly?"

"Yes, Sutava, you heard that correctly, grasped it correctly, attended to it correctly, remembered it correctly. In the past, Sutava, and also now I say thus: 'A bhikkhu who is an arahant — one whose taints are destroyed . . . one completely liberated through final knowledge — is incapable of transgression in nine cases. (1) He is incapable of intentionally depriving a living being of life; (2) he is incapable of taking by way of theft what is not given; (3) he is incapable of engaging in sexual inter course; (4) he is incapable of deliberately speaking falsehood; (5) he is incapable of storing things up in order to enjoy sensual pleasures as he did in the past when a layman; (6) he is incapable of rejecting the Buddha; (7) he is incapable of rejecting the Dhamma; (8) he is incapable of rejecting the Sangha; (9) he is incapable of rejecting the training 1849 [371] In the past, Sutava, and also now I say thus: 'A bhikkhu who is an arahant ? one whose taints are destroyed . . . one completely liberated through final knowledge — is incapable of transgression in these nine cases"


8 Sajjha[]

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwell ing at Rajagaha on Mount Vulture Peak. Then the ascetic Sajjha approached the Lord(Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to the Lord(Buddha): "Bhante, on one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling right here in Rajagaha. . . . [as in 9:7] . . . Bhante, did I hear that correctly from the Lord(Buddha), grasp it correctly, attend to it correctly, remember it correctly?" [372]

"Yes, Sajjha, you heard that correctly, grasped it correctly, attended to it correctly, remembered it correctly. In the past, Sajjha, and also now I say thus: 'A bhikkhu who is an arahant — one whose taints are destroyed ... one completely liberated through final knowledge— is incapable of transgression in nine cases. (1) He is incapable of intentionally depriving a living being of life; (2) he is incapable of faking by way of theft what is not given; (3) he is incapable of engaging in sexual intercourse; (4) he is incapable of deliberately speaking falsehood; (5) he is incapable of storing things up in order to enjoy sensual pleasures as he did in the past when a layman; (6) he is incapable of entering upon a wrong course on account of desire; (7) he is incapable of entering upon a wrong course on account of hatred; (8) he is incapable of entering upon a wrong course on account of delusion(moha); (9) he is incapable of entering upon a wrong course on account of fear' In the past, Sajjha, and also now I say thus: 'A bhikkhu who is an arahant — one whose taints are destroyed . . . one completely liberated through final knowledge — is incapable of transgression in these nine cases"


9 Persons (Puggala sans. Purush-yugal)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these nine kinds of persons found existing in the world. What nine? The arahant, the one practicing for arahantship; the non-returner(no earthly rebirth,anagami), the one practicing for realization of the fruit of non-returning(no earthly rebirth,anagami); the once-returner(1 rebirth,sakdagami), the one practicing for realization of the fruit of once-returning(1 rebirth,sakdagami); the stream-enterer(7 rebirths,sotapatti), the one practicing for realization of the fruit of stream-entry(7 rebirths,sotapatti); the worldling. These are the nine kinds of persons found existing in the world." [373]


10 Worthy of Gifts (Ahuneyya)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), these nine persons are worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of reverential salutation, an unsurpassed field of merit for the world . What nine? The arahant, the one practicing for arahantship; the non-returner(no earthly rebirth,anagami), the one practicing for realization of the fruit of nonreturning; the once-returner(1 rebirth,sakdagami), the one practicing for realization of the fruit of once-returning(1 rebirth,sakdagami); the stream-enterer(7 rebirths,sotapatti), the one practicing for realization of the fruit of stream-entry(7 rebirths,sotapatti); the clan member. 1850 These nine persons are worthy of gifts . . . an unsurpassed field of merit for the world."



II. The Lion's Roar (Sihanada vaggo Sans. Singha-nada)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


11 Lion's Roar (Sihanada Sans. Singha-nada)[]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Then the Venerable Sariputta approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

"Bhante, I have completed the rains residence at Savatthi. I want to depart on a tour of the countryside."

"You may go, Sariputta, at your own convenience."

Then the Venerable Sariputta rose from his seat, paid homage to the Lord(Buddha), circumambulated him keeping the right side toward him, and departed. [374] Then, not long after the Venerable Sariputta had left, a certain bhikkhu said to the Lord(Buddha)

"Bhante, the Venerable Sariputta struck me and then set

out on tour without apologizing." 1851

Then the Lord(Buddha) addressed a certain bhikkhu: "Go, bhikkhu, in my name call Sariputta, [telling him]: 'The Teacher is calling you, friend Sariputta." 1882

"Yes, Bhante," that bhikkhu replied. Then he approached the Venerable Sariputta and said: "The Teacher is calling you, friend Sariputta."

"Yes, friend," the Venerable Sariputta replied.

Now on that occasion the Venerable Mahamoggallana and the Venerable Ananda took a key and wandered from dwelling to dwelling, [calling out]: "Come forth, venerables! Gome forth, venerables! Now the Venerable Sariputta will roar his lion's roar in the presence of the Lord(Buddha)!"

Then the Venerable Sariputta approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord(Buddha) said to him: "Sariputta, one of your fellow monks has made a complaint about you, [saying]: 'Bhante, the Venerable Sariputta struck me and then set out on tour without apologizing.'"

(1) "Bhante, one who has not established mindfulness(meditation/sati) directed to the body in regard to his own body might strike a fellow monk and then set out on tour without apologizing. Just as they throw pure and impure things on the earth feces, urine, spittle, pus, and blood — yet the earth is not repelled, humiliated, or disgusted because of this; so [375] too, Bhante, I dwell with a mind like the earth, vast, exalted, and measureless, without enmity and ill will.

(2) "Bhante, one who has not established mindfulness(meditation/sati) directed to the body in regard to his own body might strike a fellow monk and then set out on tour without apologizing. Just as they wash pure and impure things in water — feces, urine, spittle, pus, and blood — yet the water is not repelled, humiliated, or disgusted because of this; so too, Bhante, I dwell with a mind like water, vast, exalted, and measureless, without enmity and ill will.

(3) "Bhante, one who has not established mindfulness(meditation/sati) directed to the body in regard to his own body might strike a fellow monk and then set out on tour without apologizing. Just as fire burns pure and impure things — feces, urine, spittle, pus, and blood — yet the fire is not repelled, humiliated, or disgusted because of this; so too, Bhante, I dwell with a mind like fire, vast, exalted, and measureless, without enmity and ill will.

(4) "Bhante, one who has not established mindfulness(meditation/sati) directed to the body in regard to his own body might strike a fellow monk and then set out on tour without apologizing. Just as air blows upon pure and impure things— feces, urine, spittle, pus, and blood — yet the air is not repelled, humiliated, or disgusted because of this; so too, Bhante, I dwell with a mind like air, vast, exalted, and measureless, without enmity and ill will.

(5) "Bhante, one who has not established mindfulness(meditation/sati) directed to the body in regard to his own body might strike a fellow monk and then set out on tour without apologizing. [376] Just as a duster wipes off pure and impure things— feces, urine, spittle, pus, and blood— yet the duster is not repelled, humiliated, or disgusted because of this; so too, Bhante, I dwell with a mind like a duster, vast, exalted, and measureless, without enmity and ill will.

(6) "Bhante, one who has not established mindfulness(meditation/sati) directed to the body in regard to his own body might strike a fellow monk and then set out on tour without apologizing! Just as an outcast boy or girl, clad in rags and holding a vessel, enters a village or town with a humble mind; so too, Bhante, I dwell with a mind like an outcast boy, vast, exalted, and measureless, without enmity and ill will.

(7) "Bhante, one who has not established mindfulness(meditation/sati) directed to the body in regard to his own body might strike a fellow, monk and then set out on tour without apologizing. Just as a bull with his horns cut, mild, well tamed and well trained, wanders from street to street and from square to square without hurting anyone with its feet or horns; so too, Bhante, I dwell with a mind like that of a bull with horns cut, vast, exalted, and measureless, without enmity and ill will.

(8) "Bhante, one who has not established mindfulness(meditation/sati) directed to the body in regard to his own body might strike a fellow monk and then set out on tour without apologizing. Just as a woman or a man — young, youthful, and fond of ornaments, with head bathed — would be [377] repelled, humiliated, and disgusted if the carcass of a snake, a dog, or a human being were slung around her or his neck; so too, Bhante, I am repelled, humiliated, and disgusted by this foul body.

(9) "Bhante, one who has not established mindfulness(meditation/sati) directed to the body in regard to his own body might strike a fellow monk and then set out on tour without apologizing. Just as a person might carry around a cracked and perforated bowl of liquid fat that oozes and drips; so too, Bhante, I carry around this cracked and perforated body that oozes and drips.

"Bhante, one who has not established mindfulness(meditation/sati) directed to the body in regard to his own body might strike a fellow monk here and then set out on tour without apologizing."

Then that [accusing] bhikkhu rose from his seat, arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, prostrated himself with his head at the Lord(Buddha)'s feet, and said to the Lord(Buddha): "Bhante, I have committed a transgression in that I so unwisely, stupidly, and unskillfully slandered the Venerable Sariputta on grounds that are untrue, baseless, and false. Bhante, may the Lord(Buddha) accept my transgression seen as a transgression for the sake of future restraint."

"Surely, bhikkhu, you have committed a transgression in that you so unwisely, stupidly, and unskillfully slandered the venerable Sariputta on grounds that are untrue, baseless, and false. But since you see your transgression as a transgression and make amends for it in accordance with the Dhamma, we accept it. For it is growth in the Noble One's discipline that one sees one's transgression as a transgression, makes amends for it in accordance with the Dhamma, and undertakes future restraint." [378]

The Lord(Buddha) then addressed the Venerable Sariputta: "Sariputta, pardon this hollow man before his head splits into seven pieces right there. "

"I will pardon this venerable one, Bhante, if this venerable one says to me: 'And let the venerable one pardon me" 1853


12 With Residue Remaining (Saupadisesa)[]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi at Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Then, in the morning, the Venerable Sariputta dressed, took his bowl and robe, and entered Savatthi for alms. It then occurred to him: "It is still too early to walk for alms in Savatthi. Let me go to the park of the ascetics of other sects." 1854

Then the Venerable Sariputta went to the park of the wander ers of other sects. He exchanged greetings with those ascetics and, when they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, sat down to one side. Now on that occasion those ascetics had assembled and were sitting together when this conversation arose among them: "Friends, anyone who passes away with a residue remaining is not freed from hell, the animal realm, or the sphere of afflicted spirits; he is not freed from the plane of misery, the bad destination, the lower world."

Then the Venerable Sariputta neither delighted in nor rejected the statement of those ascetics, but rose from his seat and left, [thinking]: "I shall find out what the Lord(Buddha) has to say about this statement."

Then, when. the Venerable Sariputta had walked for alms in Savatthi, [379] after his meal, on returning from his alms round, he approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. [He here reports verbatim the entire course of events and ends:] "I rose from my seat and left, [thinking]: I shall, find out what the Lord(Buddha) has to say about this statement"

"Who, 1855 Sariputta, are those unwise and incompetent wanderers of other sects and who are those that know one with a residue remaining as 'one with a residue remaining' and one without residue remaining as 'one without residue remaining'? 1856

"These nine persons, Sariputta, passing away with a residue remaining, are freed from hell, the animal realm, and the sphere of afflicted spirits; freed from the plane of misery, the bad destination, the lower world. What nine? [380]

(1) "Here, Sariputta, some person fulfills virtuous behavior and samadhi(self absorption/trance) but cultivates panna(divine knowledge) only to a moderate extent. 1857 With the utter destruction of the five lower fetters, this person is an attainer of nibbana(nirvana) in the interval. This is the first person, passing away with a residue remaining, who is freed from hell, the animal realm, and the sphere of afflicted spirits; freed from the plane of misery, the bad destination, the lower world.

(2) — (5) "Again, some person fulfills virtuous behavior and samadhi(self absorption/trance) but cultivates panna(divine knowledge) only to a moderate extent. With the utter destruction of the five lower fetters, this person is an attainer of nibbana(nirvana) upon landing . . . an attainer of nibbana without exertion . . . an attainer of nibbana(nirvana) through exertion : . . one bound upstream, heading toward the Akanittha realm. This is the fifth person, passing away with a residue remaining, who is freed from hell . . . the lower world.

(6) "Again, some person fulfills virtuous behavior but cultivates samadhi(self absorption/trance) and panna(divine knowledge) only to a moderate extent. With the utter destruction of three fetters and with the diminishing of greed, hatred, and delusion(moha), this person is a once returner(1 rebirth,sakdagami) who, after coming back to this world only one more time, makes an end of suffering. This is the sixth person, passing away with a residue remaining, who is freed from hell . . . the lower world.

(7) "Again, some person fulfills virtuous behavior but cultivates samadhi(self absorption/trance) and panna(divine knowledge) only to a moderate extent. With the utter destruction of three fetters, this person Is a one seed attainer who, after being reborn once more as a human being, [381] makes an end of suffering. This is the seventh person, passing away with a residue remaining, who is freed from hell ... the lower world:

(8) "Again, some person fulfills virtuous behavior but cultivates samadhi(self absorption/trance) and panna(divine knowledge) only to a moderate extent. With the utter destruction of three fetters, this person is a family-to-family attainer who, after roaming and wandering on among good families two or three times, makes an end of suffering. This is the eighth person, passing away with a residue remaining, who is freed from hell . . . the lower world.

(9) "Again, some person fulfills virtuous behavior but cultivates samadhi(self absorption/trance) and panna(divine knowledge) only to a moderate extent. With the utter destruction of three fetters, this person is a seven times-at-most attainer who, after roaming and wandering on among devas(angels/gods) and humans seven times at most, makes an end of suffering. This is the ninth person, passing away with a residue remaining; who is freed from hell, the animal realm, and the sphere of afflicted spirits; freed from the plane of misery, the bad destination, the lower world.

"Who, Sariputta, are those unwise and incompetent wanderers of other sects, and who are those that know one with a residue remaining as 'one with a residue remaining' and one without residue remaining as 'one without residue remaining'?

"These nine persons, passing away with a residue remaining, are freed from hell, the animal realm, and the sphere of afflicted spirits; freed from the plane of misery, the bad destination, the lower world. Sariputta, I had not been disposed ,to give this Dhamma exposition to the bhikkhus, Bhikkhunis(Nuns), male lay followers, and female lay followers. For what reason? I was concerned that on hearing this Dhamma exposition, they might take to the ways of slothfulness. [382] However, I have spoken this Dhamma exposition for the purpose of answering your question." 1858


13 Kotthita[]

Then the Venerable Mahakotthita approached the Venerable Sariputta and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to the Venerable Sariputta:

"Now, friend Sariputta, is the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) lived under the Lord(Buddha) for this purpose: 'Let kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] is to be experienced in this life become kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] I am to experience in a future life'?" 1859

"Certainly not, friend."

"Then is the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) lived under the Lord(Buddha) for this purpose: 'Let kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] is to be experienced in a future life become kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] I am to experience in this life'?".

"Certainly not, friend."

"Now, friend Sariputta, is the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) lived under the Lord(Buddha) for this purpose: 'Let kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] is to be experienced as pleasant become kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] I am to experience as painful? " 1860

"Certainly not, friend."

"Then is the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) lived under the Lord(Buddha) for this purpose: 'Let kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] is to be experienced as painful become kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] I am to experience as pleasant'?"

"Certainly not, friend."

"Now, friend Sariputta, is the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) lived under the Lord(Buddha) for this purpose: 'Let my kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] is to be experienced when it has matured become kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] I am to experience while it has not matured'?" 1861

"Certainly not, friend."

"Then is the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) lived under the Lord(Buddha) for this purpose: 'Let kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] is to be experienced while it has not matured become kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] I am to experience when it has matured'?"

"Certainly not, friend."

"Now, friead Sariputta, is the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) lived under the Lord(Buddha) for this purpose: 'Let kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] is to be experienced copiously become kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] I am to experience just slightly'?"

"Certainly not, friend."

"Then [383] is the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) lived under the Lord(Buddha) for this purpose: 'Let kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] is to be experienced just slightly become kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] I am to experience copiously'?"

"Certainly not, friend."

"Now, friend Sariputta, is the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) lived under the Lord(Buddha) for this purpose: 'Let kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] is to be experienced become kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] I am not to experience'?" 1862

"Certainly not, friend:"

"Then is the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) lived under the Lord(Buddha) for this, purpose: 'Let kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] is not to be experienced become kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] I am to experience'?"

"Certainly not, friend." 1868

"Friend Sariputta, when you are asked: 'Now, friend Sariputta, is the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) lived under the Lord(Buddha) for this purpose: "Let kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] is to be experienced in this life become kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] I am to experience in a future life"?' you say: 'Certainly not, friend.' And when you are asked: 'Then is the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) lived under the Lord(Buddha) for this purpose: "Let kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] is to be experienced in a future life become kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] I am to experience in this life"?' you say: 'Certainly not, friend.' . . . [384] . . . When you are asked: 'Now, friend Sariputta, is the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) lived under the Lord(Buddha) for this purpose: "Let kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] is to be experienced become kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] I am not to experience"?' you say: 'Certainly not, friend.' And when you are asked: 'Then is the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) lived under the Lord(Buddha) for this purpose: "Let kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] is not to be experienced become kamma(karma/deeds) [whose result] I am to experience"?' you say: 'Certainly not, friend.' Then for what purpose does one live the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) under the Lord(Buddha)?"

"One lives the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) under the Lord(Buddha), friend, for the purpose of knowing, seeing, attaining, realizing, and penetrating what one has not known, seen, attained, realized, and penetrated."

"But, friend, what is it that one has not known, seen, attained, realized, and penetrated?"

"'This is suffering/ friend, is what one has not known, seen, attained, realized, and penetrated, and it is for the purpose of knowing, seeing, attaining, realizing, and penetrating this that one lives the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) under the Lord(Buddha). [385] 'This is the origin of suffering' . . . 'This is the cessation of suffering' . . . 'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering' is what one has not known, seen, attained, realized, and penetrated, and it is for the purpose of knowing, seeing, attaining, realizing, and penetrating this that one lives the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) under the Lord(Buddha). This, friend, is what one has not known, seen, attained, realized, and penetrated, and it is for the purpose of knowing, seeing, attaining, realizing, and penetrating this that one lives the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) under the Lord(Buddha)."


14 Samiddhi[]

Then the Venerable Samiddhi approached the Venerable Sariputta, paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Venerable Sariputta then said to him: 1864

(1) "On what basis, Samiddhi, do intentions and thoughts 1865 arise in a person?"

"On the basis of mind(naam)-and-form(body), Bhante." 1SSS

(2) "Where do they become diversified?"

"In relation to the elements."

(3) "From what do they originate?"

"They originate from contact."

(4) "Upon what do they converge?"

"They converge upon sensation(vedana)." 1367

(5) "By what are they headed?"

"They are headed by samadhi(self absorption/trance)."

(6) "What exercises authority over them?"

"mindfulness(meditation/sati) exercises authority over them."

(7) "What is their supervisor?"

"panna(divine knowledge) is their supervisor."

(8) "What is their core?"

"Liberation is their core." 1868

(9) "In what do they culminate?"

"They culminate in the deathless(amata/amrit)." 1869

"When you were asked: 'On what basis, Samiddhi, do intentions and thoughts arise in a person?' you said: 'On the basis

of mind(naam)-and-form(body), Bhante . . : [386] . . . When you were asked: 'In what do they culminate?' you said: 'They culminate in the deathless(amata/amrit)' Good, good, Samiddhi! When you were asked such questions, you answered well, but don't become conceited because of that."


15 Boil (Ganda)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), suppose there was a boil many years old. It would have nine wound orifices, nine natural orifices.' 870 Whatever would flow out from them would be impure, foul-smelling and disgusting. Whatever would ooze out from them would be impure, foul-smelling, and disgusting.

'"A boil,' bhikkhus, is a designation for this body consist ing of the four great elements, originating from mother and father, built up out of rice and gruel, subject to impermanence(aniccha/anitya), to kneading and abrasion, to breaking apart and dispersal. It has nine wound orifices, nine natural orifices. Whatever flows out from them is impure, foul-smelling, and disgusting. [387] Whatever oozes out from them is impure, foul-smelling, and disgusting. Therefore, bhikkhus, become disenchanted with this body."


16 Cognitions/Perceptions (Sanna sans. Sangya)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), these nine cognitions/understanding/perceptions(sanna/sangya), when developed and cultivated, are of great fruit and benefit, culminating in the death less, having the deathless(amata/amrit) as their goal.' 871 What nine? The perception(sanna/sangya) of unattractiveness, the perception(sanna/sangya) of death, the perception(sanna/sangya) of the repulsiveness of food, the perception(sanna/sangya) of non delight in the entire world, the perception(sanna/sangya) of impermanence(aniccha/anitya), the perception(sanna/sangya) of suffering in the impermanent, the perception(sanna/sangya) of non-self in what is suffering, the perception(sanna/sangya) of abandon ing, and the perception(sanna/sangya) of dispassion. These nine perceptions(sanna/sangya), when developed and cultivated, are of great fruit and benefit, culminating in the deathless(amata/amrit), having the deathless(amata/amrit) as their goal."


17 Families/Clans (Kula)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing nine factors, a family that has not yet been approached is not worth approaching, or one that has been approached is not worth sitting with.' 872 What nine? (1)

They do not rise up in an agreeable way. 1873 (2) They do not pay homage in an agreeable way. 1874 (3) They do not offer a seat in an agreeable way. (4) They hide what they have from one. (5) Even when they have much, they give little. (6) Even when they have excellent things, they give coarse things. (7) They give without respect, not respectfully. (8) They do not sit close by to listen to the Dhamma. (9) They do not savor the flavor of one's words. Possessing these nine factors, a family that has not yet been approached is not worth approaching, and one that has been approached is not worth sitting with.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing nine factors, a family that has not yet been approached is worth approaching or one that has been approached is worth sitting with. What nine? (1) They rise up in an agreeable way. (2) They pay homage in an agreeable way. (3) They offer a seat in an agreeable way. (4) They do not hide what they have from one. (5) When they have much, [388] they give much. (6) When they have excellent things, they give excellent things. (7) They give respectfully, not without respect. (8) They sit close by to listen to the Dhamma. (9) They savor the flavor of one's words. Possessing these nine factors, a family that has not yet been approached is worth approaching, and one that has been approached is worth sitting with."


18 Fasting with Nine Factors (Navang-Uposatha)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), when it is observed complete in nine factors, the uposatha is of great fruit and benefit; very brilliant and pervasive. 1875 And how is the uposatha observed complete in nine factors, so that it is of great fruit and benefit, extraordinarily brilliant and pervasive?

(1) "Here, bhikkhus, a noble disciple reflects thus: 'As long as they live the arahants abandon and abstain from the destruction of life; with the rod(violence) and weapon laid aside, conscientious and kindly, they dwell compassionate toward all living beings. Today, for this night and day, I too shall abandon and abstain from the destruction of life; with the rod(violence) and weapon laid aside, conscientious and kindly, I too shall dwell compassion ate toward all living beings. I shall imitate the arahants in this respect and the uposatha will be observed by me.' This is the first factor it possesses.

(2) "As long as they live the arahants abandon and abstain from taking what is not given; they take only what is given, expect only what is given, and dwell honestly without thoughts of theft. Today, for this night and day, I too shall abandon and abstain from taking what is not given; I shall accept only what is given, expect only what is given, and dwell honestly without thoughts of theft, I shall imitate the arahants in this respect and the uposatha will be observed by me.' This is the second factor it possesses. [389] .

(3) "As long as they live the arahants abandon sexual activity and observe celibacy, living apart, abstaining from sexual intercourse, the common person's practice. Today, for this night and day, I too. shall abandon sexual activity and observe celibacy, living apart, abstaining from sexual intercourse, the common person's practice. I shall imitate the arahants in this respect and the uposatha will be observed by me.' This is the third factor it possesses.

(4) "As long as they live the arahants abandon and abstain from false speech; they speak truth, adhere to truth; they are trustworthy and reliable, no deceivers of the world. Today, for this night and day, I too shall abandon and abstain from false speech; I shall be a speaker of truth, an adherent of truth, trust worthy and reliable, no deceiver of the world. I shall imitate the arahants in this respect and the uposatha will be observed by me.' This is the fourth factor it possesses.

(5) "As long as they live the arahants abandon and abstain from liquor, wine, and intoxicants, the basis for slothfulness. Today, for this night and day, I too shall abandon and abstain from liquor, wine, and intoxicants, the basis for slothfulness. I shall imitate the arahants in this respect and the uposatha will be observed by me.' This is the fifth factor it possesses.

(6) "As long as they live the arahants eat once a day, abstain ing from eating at night and from food outside the proper time. Today, for this night and day, I too shall eat once a day, abstain ing from eating at night and from food outside the proper time. I shall imitate the arahants in this respect and the uposatha will be observed by me.' This is the sixth factor it possesses.

(7) "As long as they live the arahants abstain from dancing, singing, instrumental music, and unsuitable shows, and from adorning and beautifying themselves by wearing garlands and applying scents and unguents. Today, for this night and day. I too shall abstain from dancing, singing, instrumental music, and unsuitable shows, and from adorning and beautifying myself by wearing garlands and applying scents and unguents. I shall imitate the arahants in this respect and the uposatha will be observed by me.' This is the seventh factor it possesses.

(8) "As long as they live the arahants abandon and abstain from the use of high and luxurious beds; they lie down on a low resting place, [390] either a small bed or a straw mat. Today, for this night and day, I too shall abandon and abstain from the use of high and luxurious beds; I shall lie down on a low resting place, either a small bed or a straw mat. I shall imitate the arahants in this respect and the uposatha will be observed by me.' This is the eighth factor it possesses:

(9.) "Here, a noble disciple dwells pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with loving-kindness(metta), likewise the second quarter, the third quarter, and the fourth quarter. Thus above, below, across, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he dwells pervading the entire world with a mind imbued with loving-kindness(metta), vast, exalted, measureless, without enmity, without ill will. This is the ninth factor it possesses.

"It is in this way, bhikkhus, that the uposatha is observed complete in nine factors, so that it is of great fruit and benefit, extraordinarily brilliant and pervasive."


19 Devtas (Angels)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), last night, when the night had advanced, a number of devtas(angels) of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's Grove, approached me, paid homage to me, and stood to one side.

(1) "Those devtas(angels) then said: 'In the past, Bhante, when we were human beings, monks approached our homes. We rose up for them but did not pay homage to them. Not having fulfilled our duty, full of regret and remorse, we were reborn in an inferior class [of devtas(angels)].' [391]

(2) "Some other devtas(angels) approached me and said: 'In the past, Bhante, when we were human beings, monks approached our homes. We rose up for them and paid homage to them, but we did not offer them seats. Not having fulfilled our duty, full of regret and remorse, we were reborn in an inferior class [of devtas(angels)]'

(3) "Some other devtas(angels) approached me and said: 'In the past, Bhante, when we were human beings, monks approached our homes. We rose up for them, paid homage to them, and offered them seats, but we did not share things with them to the best of our ability and capacity . . . (4) . . . we shared things with them to the best of our ability and capacity, but we did not sit close by to listen to the Dhamma(path) . . . (5) . ..we sat close by to listen to the Dhamma, but we did not listen to it with eager ears . . . (6) . . . we listened to it with eager ears, but having heard it, we did not retain the Dhamma in mind . . . (7) . . . having heard it, we retained the Dhamma in mind but we did not examine the meaning of the teachings that had been retained in mind . . : (8) . . . we examined the meaning of the teachings that had been retained in mind but we did not understand the meaning and the Dhamma and then practice in accordance with the Dhamma. Not having fulfilled our duty, full of regret and remorse, we were reborn in an inferior class [of devtas(angels)].'

(9) "Some other devtas(angels) approached me and said: 'In the past, Bhante, when we were human beings, monks approached our homes, (i) We rose up for them, (ii) paid homage to them, (iii) offered them seats, and [392] (iv) shared things with them to the best of our ability and capacity, (v) We sat close by to listen to the Dhamma and (vi) listened to it with eager ears; (vii) having heard it, we retained the Dhamma in mind; (viii) we examined the meaning of the teachings that had been retained in mind; and (ix) we understood the meaning and the Dhamma and then practiced in accordance with the Dhamma. Having fulfilled our duty, free of regret and remorse, we were reborn in a superior class [of devtas(angels)]'

"These are the feet of trees, bhikkhus, these are empty huts. Meditate, bhikkhus, do not be slothful. Do not have cause to regret it later, like those prior devtas(angels)."


20 Velama[]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Then the householder Anathapindika approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord(Buddha) asked him:

"Are alms given in your family, householder?"

"Alms are given in my family, Bhante, but they consist of broken rice accompanied by rice gruel." 1876

"If, householder, one gives alms, coarse or excellent, and one gives disrespectfully, gives inconsiderately, does not give with one's own hand, gives what would be discarded, gives without a view of future consequences, 1877 then wherever the result of that gift is produced for one, one's mind does not incline toward the enjoyment of superb food, nor toward the enjoyment of superb clothing, nor toward the enjoyment of superb vehicles, nor toward the enjoyment of whatever is superb among the five objects of sensual pleasure. Also, one's [393] children and wives, and one's slaves, servants, and workers, do not want to listen to one, do not lend an ear, and do not apply their minds to understand. For what reason? Just this is the result of actions that are done disrespectfully.

"If, householder, one gives alms, whether coarse or excellent, and one gives respectfully, gives considerately, gives with one's own hand, gives what would not be discarded, gives with a view of future consequences, then wherever the result of that gift is produced for one, one's mind inclines toward the enjoy ment of. superb food, toward the enjoyment of superb clothing, toward the enjoyment of superb vehicles, toward the enjoyment of whatever is superb among the five objects of sensual pleasure. Also, one's children and wives, and one's slaves, servants, and workers, want to listen to one, lend an ear, and apply their minds to understand. For what reason? Just this is the result of actions that are done respectfully.

"In the past, householder, there was a brahmin named Velama. He gave such a great alms offering as this: 1878 (1) eighty four thousand golden bowls filled with silver; (2) eighty-four thousand silver bowls filled with gold; (3) eighty-four thou sand bronze bowls filled with bullion; (4) eighty-four thousand elephants with golden ornaments, golden banners, covered with nets of gold thread; (5) eighty-four thousand chariots with upholstery of lion skins, tiger skins, leopard skins, and saffron-dyed blankets, with golden ornaments, golden banners, covered with nets of gold thread; (6) eightyfour thousand milk cows with jute tethers 1879 and bronze palls; 1880 (7) eighty-four thousand maidens adorned with jeweled earrings; (8) eighty four thousand couches [394] spread with rugs, blankets, and covers, with excellent coverings of antelope hide, with canopies and red bolsters at both ends; (9) eighty-four thousand kotis 1881 of cloths made of fine linen, fine silk, fine Wool, and fine cotton.

How much more of food and drink, snacks, meals, refreshments, and beverages? 1882 It seemed to be flowing like rivers.

"You might think, householder: 'He was someone else, the brahmin Velama who on that occasion gave that great alms offering.' But you should not look at it in such a way. I myself was the brahmin Velama who on that occasion gave that great alms offering. '

"Now, householder, at that alms offering there was no one worthy of offerings, no one who purified the offering. Even more fruitful than the great alms offering that the brahmin Velama gave would it be to feedone person accomplished in view. Even more fruitful than the great alms offering that the brahmin Velama gave, and feeding a hundred persons accomplished in view, would it be to feed one once-returner(1 rebirth,sakdagami). Even more fruitful than the great alms. offering that the brahmin Velama gave, and feeding a hundred once-returners(1 rebirth,sakdagami), would it be to feed one non-returner(no earthly rebirth,anagami). Even more fruitful than . . . feed ing a hundred non-returners(no earthly rebirth,anagami), would it be to feed one arahant. Even more fruitful than . . . feeding a hundred arahants, would it be to feed one paccekabuddha. [395] Even more fruit ful than . . . feeding a hundred paccekabuddhas, would it be to feed the Tathagata(Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One . . . would it be to feed the Sangha of bhikkhus headed by the Buddha . would it be to build a dwelling dedicated to the Sangha of the four quarters . . . would it be for one with a mind of confidence to go for refuge to the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha . . . would it be for one with a mind of confidence to undertake the five training rules: to abstain from the destruction of life, to abstain from taking what is not given, to abstain from sexual misconduct, to abstain from false speech, to abstain from liquor, wine, and intoxicants, the basis for slothfulness. Even more fruitful . . . would it be to develop a mind of loving-kindness(metta) even for the time it takes to pull a cow's udder.

"Even more fruitful, householder, than the great alms offer ing that the brahmin Velama gave, and feeding one person accomplished in view, and feeding a hundred persons accomplished in view; and feeding one once-returner(1 rebirth,sakdagami), and feeding a hundred once-returners(1 rebirth,sakdagami); and feeding one non-returner(no earthly rebirth,anagami), and feeding a hundred ndn-returners; and feeding one arahant, and feeding a hundred arahants; and feeding one paccekabuddha, and feeding a hundred paccekabuddhas; and feeding the Tathagata(Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One; and feeding the Sangha of bhikkhus headed by the Buddha; and building a dwelling dedicated to the Sangha of the four quarters; and for one with a mind of confidence to go for refuge to the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha; and for one with a mind of confidence to undertake the five training rules: to abstain from the destruction of life. . . to abstain from liquor, wine, and intoxicants, the basis for slothfulness; and for one to develop a mind of loving-kindness(metta) even for the time it takes to pull a cow's udder, [3961 would it be to develop the perception(sanna/sangya) of impermanence(aniccha/anitya) just for the time of a finger snap." 1883



III. Abodes of Pure Beings (Sattavasa vaggo )[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


21 Respects (Tithana)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), in three respects the people of Uttarakuru surpass the Tavatimsa devas and the people of Jambudipa(India). What three? (1) They are without selfishness and possessiveness; (2) their life span is fixed; and (3) their living conditions are exceptional. 1885 In these three respects the people of Uttarakuru surpass the Tavatimsa devas(angels/gods) and the people of Jambudipa.

"In three respects the Tavatimsa devas(angels/gods) surpass the people of Uttarakuru and the people of Jambudipa. What three? (4) In celestial life span, (5) in celestial beauty, and (5) in celestial happiness. In these three respects the Tavatimsa devas(angels/gods) surpass the people of Uttarakuru and the people of Jambudipa.

"In three respects the people of Jambudipa surpass the people of Uttarakuru and the Tavatimsa devas(angels/gods). What three? (7) They are heroes; (8) they are mindful(meditating/sati); and (9) there is the living of the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) here. In these three respects the people of Jambudipa(India) surpass the people of Uttarakuru and the Tavatimsa devas(angels/gods)." [397]


22 Wild Colts[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), I will teach you the three kinds of wild colts and the three kinds of persons who are like wild colts; the three kinds of good horses and the three kinds of persons who are like good horses; the three kinds of excellent thoroughbred horses and the three kinds of excellent thoroughbred persons. 1886 Listen and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, Bhante." those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"And what, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of wild colts? (1) Here, one kind of wild colt possesses speed but not beauty or the right proportions. (2) Another kind of wild colt possesses speed and beauty but not the right proportions. (3) And still another kind of wild colt possesses speed, beauty, and the right proportions. These are the three kinds of wild colts.

"And what, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of persons who are like wild colts? (1) Here, one kind of person who is like a wild colt possesses speed but not beauty or the right proportions. (2) Another kind of person who is like a wild colt possesses speed and beauty but not the right proportions. (3) And still another kind of person who is like a wild colt possesses speed, beauty, and the right proportions.

(1) "And how, bhikkhus, does a person who is like a wild colt possess speed but not beauty or the right proportions? Here, a bhikkhu understands as it really is: 'This is suffering' and 'This is the origin of suffering' and 'This is the cessation of suffering' and 'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering/ [398] This, I say, is his speed. But when asked a question pertaining to the Dhamma or the discipline, he falters and does not answer. This, I say, is his lack of beauty. And he does not gain robes, almsfood, lodgings, and medicines and provisions for the sick. This, I say, is his lack of the right proportions. In this way a person who is like a wild colt possesses speed but not beauty or the right proportions.

(2) "And how does a person who is like a wild colt possess speed and beauty but not the right proportions? Here, a bhikkhu understands as it really is:'This is suffering' . . . 'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering' This, I say, is his speed. And when asked a question pertaining to the Dhamma or the discipline, he answers and does not falter. This, I say, is his beauty. But he does not gain robes . . . and provisions for the sick. This, I say, is his lack of the right proportions. In this way a person who is like a wild colt possesses speed and beauty but hot the right proportions.

(3) "And how does a person who is like a wild colt possess speed, beauty, and the right proportions? Here, a bhikkhu understands as it really is: 'This is suffering' . . . 'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.' This, I say, is his speed. And when asked a question pertaining to the Dhamma or the discipline, he answers and does not falter. This, I say, is his beauty. [399] And he gains robes . . . and provisions for the sick. This, I say, is his right proportions. In this way a person who is like a wild colt possesses speed, beauty, and the right proportions. These are the three kinds of persons who are like wild colts.

"And what, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of good horses? (4)-(6) Here, one kind of good horse . „ . [as above for the wild colts] . . . possesses speed, beauty, and the right proportions. These are the three kinds of good horses. 1887

"And what, bhikkhus, are. the three kinds, of persons who are like, good horses? (4)— (6) Here, one person who is like a good horse . . [as above for the persons who are like wild colts] . . . possesses speed,, beauty, and the right proportions.

(4)— (6) "And how, bhikkhus, does a person who is like a good horse . ... possess speed, beauty, and the right proportions? Here, with the utter destruction Of the five lower fetters, a bhikkhu is one of spontaneous rebirth, due to attain final nibbana(nirvana) there without ever returning from that world. This, I say, is his speed. And when asked a question pertaining to the Dhamma and the discipline, he answers and does not falter. This, I say, is his beauty. And he gains robes . . . and provisions for the sick. This, I say, is his right proportions. In this way a person who is like a good horse possesses speed, beauty, and the right proportions. These are the three kinds of persons that are like good horses.

"And what, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of excellent thoroughbred horses? (7)— (9) Here, one kind of excellent thoroughbred horse . . . [as above for the wild colts] . . . possesses speed, beauty, and the right proportions. [400] These are the three kinds of excellent thoroughbred horses.

"And what, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of excellent thoroughbred persons? (7)— (9) Here, one kind of excellent thoroughbred person. . . [as above for the persons who are like wild colts] . . . possesses speed, beauty, and the right proportions.

(7)— (9) "And how, bhikkhus, does an excellent thoroughbred person . . .possess speed, beauty, and the right proportions? Here, with the destruction of the taints, a bhikkhu has realized for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, he dwells in it. This, I say, is his speed. And when asked a question pertaining to the Dhamma and the discipline, he answers and does not falter. This, I say, is his beauty. And he gains robes, almsfood, lodgings, and medicines and provisions for the sick. This, I say, is his right proportions. In this. way an excellent thoroughbred person possesses speed, beauty, and the right proportions. These, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of excellent thoroughbred persons."


23 Craving (Tanha sans. Trishna)[]

"I will teach you, bhikkhus, nine things rooted in craving(tanha/trishna). 1888 Listen and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, Bhante," those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"And what are the nine things rooted in craving(tanha/trishna)? (1) In dependence on craving(tanha/trishna) there is seeking. (2) In dependence on seeking there is gain. (3) In dependence on gain there is judgment. (4) In dependence on judgment there is desire and lust(raag). (5) In dependence on desire and lust(raag) there is attachment. (6) In dependence on attachment there is possessiveness. (7) Independence on possessiveness there is miserliness. (8) In dependence on miserliness there is safeguarding. (9) With safeguarding as the foundation originate the taking up of rods [401] and weapons, quarrels, contentions, and disputes, accusations, divisive speech, and false speech, and many [other] bad harmful(akusala) things. These are the nine things rooted in craving(tanha/trishna)." 1889


24 Abodes of Beings (Sattavasa)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these nine abodes of beings. What nine? 1890

(1) "There are, bhikkhus, beings that are different in body and different in perception(sanna/sangya), such as humans, some devas(angels/gods), and some in the lower world. This is the first abode of beings.

(2) "There are beings that are different in body but identical in perception(sanna/sangya), such as the devas(angels/gods) of Brahma's company that are reborn through the first [jhana]. This is the second abode of beings.

(3) "There are beings that are identical in body but different in perception(sanna/sangya), such as the devas(angels/gods) of streaming radiance(Abhassara sans Abhaswara). This is the third abode of beings.

(4) "There are beings that are identical in body and identical in perception(sanna/sangya), such as the devas(angels/gods) of refulgent glory(Subhakinha sans. Subh-Kirana). This is the fourth abode of beings.

(5) "There are beings that are non-perceptive, without experience, such as the devas(angels/gods) that are non-perceptive. This is the fifth abode of beings.

(6) "There are beings that, with the complete surmounting of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of forms, with the passing away of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of sensory impingement, with non-attention to perceptions(sanna/sangya) of diversity, [perceiving] 'space is infinite' belong to the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space. This is the sixth abode of beings.

(7) "There are beings that, by completely surmounting the base of the infinity of space, [perceiving] 'consciousness is infinite,' belong to the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness. This is the seventh abode of beings.

(8) "There are beings that, by completely surmounting the base of the infinity of consciousness, [perceiving] 'there is nothing' belong to the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness. This is the eighth abode of beings.

(9) "There are beings that, by completely surmounting the base of nothingness, belong to the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya) nor-non-perception. This is the ninth abode of beings.

"These are the nine abodes of beings." [402]


25 Panna(Divine Knowledge)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), when the mind of a bhikkhu is well consolidated by panna(divine knowledge), he is able to assert: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming back to any state of being.'

"And how is the mind of a bhikkhu well consolidated by panna(divine knowledge)? (1) His mind is well consolidated by panna(divine knowledge) [when he knows]: 'My mind is without lust(raag)' (2) His mind is well consolidated by panna(divine knowledge) [when he knows]: 'My mind is without hatred.' (3) His mind is well consolidated by panna(divine knowledge) [when he knows]: 'My mind is without delusion(moha).' (4) His mind is well consolidated by panna(divine knowledge) [when he knows]: 'My mind is not subject to infatuation.' (5) His mind is well consolidated by panna(divine knowledge) [when he knows]: 'My mind is not subject to animosity' (6) His mind is well consolidated by panna(divine knowledge) [when he knows]: 'My mind is not subject to confusion. ' (7) His mind is well consolidated by panna(divine knowledge) [when he knows]: 'My mind is not subject to return to sense-sphere existence' (8) His mind is well consolidated by panna(divine knowledge) [when he knows]: 'My mind is not subject to return to form-sphere existence' (9) His mind is well consolidated by panna(divine knowledge) [when he knows]: 'My mind is not subject to return to formless-sphere existence'.

"When, bhikkhus, the mind of a bhikkhu is well consolidated by panna(divine knowledge), he is able to assert: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming back to any state of being"


26 (6) The Stone Pillar (Silayupa)[]

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Venerable Sariputta and the Venerable Candikaputta were dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the squirrel sanctuary. There the Venerable Candikaputta addressed the bhikkhus: "Friends, bhikkhus!"

"Friend!" those bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Candika putta said this: "Friends, Devadatta teaches the Dhamma to the bhikkhus thus: 'When, friends, a bhikkhu's mind is consolidated by mind, 1891 it is fitting for him to declare: [403] "I understand: Destroyed is rebirth, the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming back to any state of being."

Then the Venerable Sariputta said to the Venerable Candikaputta: "Friend Candikaputta, it is not in such a way that Devadatta teaches the Dhamma to the bhikkhus. Rather, Devadatta teaches the Dhamma to the bhikkhus thus: 'When, friends, a bhikkhu's mind is well consolidated by mind, 1892 it is fitting for him. to declare: "I understand: Destroyed is rebirth, the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming back to any state of being"

A second time...A third time the Venerable Candikaputta addressed the bhikkhus: "Friends, Devadatta teaches the Dhamma to the bhikkhus thus: 'When, friends, a bhikkhu's mind is consolidated by mind, it is fitting for him to declare: "I understand: Destroyed is rebirth, the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming back to any state of being."

A third time the Venerable Sariputta said to the Venerable Candikaputta: "Friend Candikaputta, it is not in such a way that Devadatta teaches the Dhamma(path) to the bhikkhus. Rather, Devadatta teaches the Dhamma to the bhikkhus thus: 'When, friends, a bhikkhu's mind is well consolidated by mind, it is fitting for him to declare: "I understand: Destroyed is rebirth, the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming back to any state of being"

"And how, friend, is the mind of a bhikkhu well consoli dated by mind? [404] (1) His mind is well consolidated by mind [when he knows]: 'My mind is without lust(raag)' (2) His mind is well consolidated by mind [when he knows]: 'My mind is without hatred. (3) His mind is well consolidated by mind [when he. knows]: 'My mind is without delusion(moha)' (4) His mind is well consolidated by mind [when he knows]: 'My mind is not subject to lust(raag)' (5) His mind is well consolidated by mind [when he knows]: 'My mind is not subject to hatred' (6) His mind is well consolidated by mind [when he knows]: 'My mind is not subject to delusion(moha)' (7) His mind is well consolidated by mind [when he knows]: 'My mind is not subject to return to sense-sphere existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth)' (8) His mind is well consolidated by mind [when he knows]: 'My mind is not subject to return to form-sphere existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth)' (9) His mind is well consolidated by mind [when he knows]: 'My mind is not subject to return to formless-sphere existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth). 1893

"When, friend, a bhikkhu is thus perfectly liberated in mind, even if powerful forms cognizable by the eye come into range of the eye, they do not obsess his mind; his mind is not at all affected. 1894 It remains steady, attained to imperturbability, and he observes its vanishing. Even if powerful sounds cognizable by the ear come into range of the ear . . . Even if powerful odors cognizable by the nose come into range of the nose . . . Even if powerful tastes cognizable by the tongue come into range of the tongue . . . Even if powerful tactile objects cognizable by the body come into range of the body . . . Even if powerful phenomena cognizable by the mind come into range of the mind, they do not obsess his mind; his mind is not at all affected. It remains steady, attained to imperturbability, and he observes its vanishing.

"Suppose, friend, there was a stone pillar eight meters long. 1893 Four meters would be below ground and four meters above ground. If a violent rainstorm should then arrive from the east, it would not shake it or make it quake, wobble, and tremble; 1596 if a violent rainstorm should then arrive from the west . . . from the north ... from the south, it would not shake it or make it quake, wobble, and tremble. For what reason? Because the stone pillar is deep in the ground and is securely planted. So too, friend, when a bhikkhu is thus perfectly liberated in mind, even if powerful forms cognizable by the eye come into range of the eye . . . Even if powerful phenomena(dhamma)cognizable by the mind come into range of the mind, they do not obsess his mind; his mind is not at all affected. It remains steady, attained to imperturbability, and he observes its vanishing."


27 Enmity (1) (Vera1)[]

Then the householder Anathapindika approached the Lord(Buddha) , paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord(Buddha) then said to him:

"Householder, when a noble disciple has eliminated five perils and enmities and possesses the four factors of stream entry(7 rebirths,sotapatti), he might, if he so wished, declare of himself: 'I am one finished with hell, the animal realm, and the sphere of afflicted spirits; finished with the plane of misery, the bad destination, the lower world; I am a stream-enterer(7 rebirths,sotapatti), no longer subject to [rebirth in] the lower world, fixed in destiny, heading for enlightenment.' 1897 [4063

"What are the five perils and enmities that have been eliminated? (1) Householder, one who destroys life, with the destruction of life as condition, creates peril and enmity pertaining to the present life and peril and enmity pertaining to future lives 1698 and he also experiences mental pain and dejection. One who abstains from the destruction of life does not create such peril and enmity pertaining to the present life or such peril and enmity pertaining to future lives nor does he experience mental pain and dejection For one who abstains from the destruction of life, that peril and enmity has thus been eliminated.

(2) "One who takes what is not given . . . (3) who engages in sexual misconduct ... (4) who speaks falsely ... (5) who indulges in liquor, wine, and intoxicants, the basis for slothfulness, with indulgence in liquor, wine, and intoxicants as condition, creates peril and enmity pertaining to the present life and peril and enmity pertaining to future lives and he also experiences mental pain and dejection. One who abstains from liquor, wine, and intoxicants, the basis for slothfulness, does not create such peril and enmity pertaining to the present life or such peril and enmity pertaining to future lives nor does he experience mental pain and dejection. For one who abstains from liquor, wine, and intoxicants, the basis for slothfulness, that peril and enmity has thus been eliminated.

"These are the five perils and enmities that have been eliminated.

"And what are the four factors of stream-entry(7 rebirths,sotapatti) that he possesses? (6) Here, householder, a noble disciple possesses unwavering confidence in the Buddha thus: 'The Lord(Buddha) is an arahant, perfectly enlightened, accomplished in true knowledge and conduct, fortunate, knower of the world, unsurpassed trainer of persons to be tamed, teacher of devas(angels/gods) and humans, the Enlightened One, the Lord(Buddha)/ (7) He possesses unwavering confidence in the Dhamma thus: 'The Dhamma is well expounded by the Lord(Buddha), directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise.' (8) He possesses unwavering confidence in the Sangha thus: 'The Sangha of the Lord(Buddha)'s disciples is practicing the good way, practicing the straight way, [407] practicing the true way, practicing the proper way; that is, the four pairs of persons, the eight types of individuals — this Sangha of the Lord(Buddha)'s disciples is worthy of gifts, worthy of hos pitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of reverential salutation, the unsurpassed field of merit for the world.' (9) He possesses the virtuous behavior loved by the noble ones, unbroken, flaw less, unblemished, unblotched, freeing, praised by the wise, ungrasped, leading to samadhi(self absorption/trance). These are the four factors of stream-entry(7 rebirths,sotapatti) that he possesses.

"Householder, when a noble disciple has eliminated these five perils and enmities and possesses these four factors of streamentry, he might, if he so wished, declare of himself: 'I am one finished with hell, the animal realm, and the sphere of afflicted spirits; finished with the plane of misery, the bad destination, the lower world; I am a stream-enterer, no longer subject to [rebirth in] the lower world, fixed in destiny, heading for enlightenment"


28 Enmity (2) (Vera2)[]

[Identical with 9:27, but addressed by the Buddha to the bhikkhus. 1]


29 Resentment Explanation (1) (Aghatavatthu1)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), there are these nine grounds for resentment. What nine? (1) [Thinking:] 'He acted for my harm' one harbors resentment. (2) [Thinking:] 'He is acting for my harm' one harbors resentment. (3) [Thinking:] 'He will act for my harm' One harbors resentment. (4) [Thinking:] 'He acted for the harm of one pleasing and agreeable to me' one harbors resentment. (5) [Thinking:] 'He is acting for the harm of one pleasing and agree able to me' one harbors resentment. (6) [Thinking:] 'He will act for the harm of one pleasing and agreeable to me' one harbors resentment. (7) [Thinking:] 'He acted for the benefit of one displeasing and disagreeable to me' one harbors resentment; (8) [Thinking:] 'He is acting for the benefit of one displeasing and disagreeable to me' one harbors resentment. (9) [Thinking:] 'He will act for the benefit of one displeasing and disagreeable to me' one harbors resentment. These, bhikkhus, are the nine grounds for resentment."


30 Resentment Removal (2) (Aghatavatthu2)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these nine ways of removing resentment. What nine? (1) [Thinking:] 'He acted for my harm, but what can be done about it?' 1899 one removes resentment. (2) [Thinking:] 'He is acting for my harm, but what can be done about it?' one removes resentment. (3) [Thinking:] 'He will act for my harm, but what can be done about it?' one removes resentment (4) [Thinking:] 'He acted for the harm of one who is pleasing and agreeable to me, but what can be done about it?' one removes resentment. (5) [Thinking:] 'He is acting for the harm of one who is pleasing and agreeable to me, but what can be done about it?' one removes resentment. [409] (6) [Thinking:] 'He will act for the harm of one who is pleasing and agreeable to me, but what can be done about it?' one removes resentment (7) [Thinking:] 'He acted for the benefit of one who is displeasing and disagreeable to me, but what can be done about it?' one removes resentment. (8) [Thinking:] 'He is acting for the benefit of one who is displeasing and disagreeable to me, but what can be done about it?' one removes resentment. (9) [Thinking:] 'He will act for the benefit of one who is displeasing and disagreeable to me, but what can be done about it?' one removes resentment. These, bhikkhus, are the nine ways of removing resentment. "


31 Progressive Cessation (Anupubbanirodha)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these nine progressive cessations, 1900 What nine? (1) For one who has attained the first jhana(trance state), sensual perception has ceased. (2) For one who has attained the second jhana, thought and examination have ceased . (3) For one who has attained the third jhana(trance state), bliss(piti) has ceased. (4) For one who has attained the fourth jhana(trance state), in-breathing and out-breathing have ceased. (5) For one who has attained the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space, the perception(sanna/sangya) of form has ceased. 1901 (6) For one who has attained the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness, the perception(sanna/sangya) pertaining to the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space has ceased. (7) For one who has attained the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness, the perception(sanna/sangya) pertaining to the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness has ceased. (8) For one who has attained the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, the perception(sanna/sangya) pertaining to the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness has ceased. (9) For one who has attained the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana), perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana) have ceased. These, bhikkhus, are the nine progressive cessations." [410]



IV. The Great Chapter (Mahavaggo sans. Maha-varga)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


32 Nine Trance(Samadhi) States (in Short) (1) (Anupubbavihara1 sans. Anu-purva-vihara)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these nine progressive dwellings. 1902 What nine? (1) Here, secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from harmful(akusala) states, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhana, which consists of bliss(piti) and happiness(sukha) born of seclusion, accompanied by thought and examination. (2) With the subsiding of thought and examination, he enters and dwells in the second jhana(trance state), which has internal placidity and unification of mind and consists of bliss(piti) and happiness(sukha) born of samadhi(self absorption/trance), without thought and examination. (3) With the fading away as well of bliss(piti), he dwells equanimous and, mindful(meditating/sati) and completely comprehending, he experiences happiness(sukha) with the body; he enters and dwells in the third jhana(trance state) of which the noble ones declare: 'He is equanimous, mindful(meditating/sati), one who dwells happily (4) With the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous passing away of joy and dejection, he enters and dwells in the fourth jhana(trance state), neither painful nor pleasant, which has purification of mindfulness(meditation/sati) by indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha).

(5) "With the complete surmounting of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of forms, with the passing away of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of sensory impingement, with non-attention to perceptions(sanna/sangya) of diversity, [perceiving] 'space is infinite,' a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space. (6) By completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space, [perceiving] 'consciousness is infinite,' he enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of Consciousness. (7) By completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness, [perceiving] 'there is nothing,' he enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness. (8) By completely surmounting the base of nothingness, he enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of neither perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception. (9) By completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, he enters and dwells in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana). These, bhikkhus, are the nine progressive dwellings."


33 Nine Trance(Samadhi) States in Detail (Anupubbaviharasamapatti2 sans. Anu-purva-vihara...)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), I will teach the attainment of these nine progressive dwellings' 903 Listen. . . . And what, bhikkhus, is the attainment of the nine progressive dwellings?

(1) "I say of [that state] where sensual pleasures cease and of those who dwell having thoroughly ended sensual pleasures: 'Surely, those venerable ones are hungerless and quenched; [411] they have crossed over 1904 and gone beyond in that particular respect.' 1905 If anyone should say: 'Where do sensual pleasures cease? And who are those that dwell having thor oughly ended sensual pleasures? I do not know this, I do not see this' he should be told: 'Here, friend, secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from harmful(akusala) states, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state). . . . That is where sensual pleasures cease, and those are the ones who dwell having thoroughly ended sensual pleasures' Surely, bhikkhus, one who is not crafty or hypocritical should delight and rejoice in this state ment, saying: 'Good!' Having done so, bowing in reverential salutation, he should attend upon them.

(2) "I say of [that state] where thought and examination cease and of those who dwell having thoroughly ended thought and examination: Purely, those venerable ones are hungerless and quenched, have crossed over and gone beyond in that particular respect' If anyone should say: 'Where do thought and examination cease? And who are those that dwell having thoroughly ended thought and examination? I do not know this, I do not see this' he should be told: 'Here, friend, with the subsiding of thought and examination, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the second jhana(trance state). . . . That is where thought and examination cease, and those are the ones who dwell having thoroughly ended thought and examination' Surely, bhikkhus, one who is not crafty or hypocritical should delight and rejoice in this state ment, saying: 'Good!' Having done so, bowing in reverential salutation, he should attend upon them.

(3) "I say of [that state] where bliss(piti) ceases and of those who dwell having thoroughly ended bliss(piti): 'Surely, those venerable ones are hungerless and quenched, have crossed over and gone beyond in that particular respect' If anyone should say: 'Where does bliss(piti) cease? And who are those that dwell having thoroughly ended bliss(piti)? I do not know this, I do not see this,' he should be told: 'Here, friend, with the fading away as well of bliss(piti) ... he enters and dwells in the third jhana(trance state). . . . That is where bliss(piti) ceases and those are the ones [412] who dwell having thoroughly ended bliss(piti)' Surely, bhikkhus, one who is not crafty or hypocritical should delight and rejoice in this statement, saying: 'Good!' Having done so, bowing in reverential salutation, he should attend upon them.

(4) "I say of [that state] where the bliss [connected with] indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha) ceases and of those who dwell having thoroughly ended the bliss [connected with] indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha)' 906 'Surely, those, venerable ones are hungerless and quenched, have crossed over and gone beyond in that particular respect. If anyone should say: 'Where does the bliss [connected with] indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha) cease? And who are those that dwell having thoroughly ended the bliss [connected with] indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha)? I do not know this, I do not see this' he should be told: 'Here, friend, with the abandoning of bliss and pain ... a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the fourth jhana(trance state). . . . That is where the bliss [connected with] indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha) ceases and those are the ones who dwell having thoroughly ended the bliss [connected with] indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha)'. Surely, bhikkhus, one who is not crafty or hypocritical should delight and rejoice in this statement, saying: 'Good!' Having done so, bowing in reverential salutation, he should attend upon them.

(5) "I say of [that state] where perceptions(sanna/sangya) of [attraction to] forms cease and of those who dwell having thoroughly ended perceptions(sanna/sangya) of forms: 1907 'Surely, those venerable ones are hungerless and quenched, have crossed over and gone beyond in that particular respect' If anyone shouid say: 'Where do perceptions(sanna/sangya) of forms cease? And who. are those that dwell having thoroughly ended perceptions(sanna/sangya) of forms? I do not know this, I do not see this' he should be told:. 'Here, friend, with the complete surmounting of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of forms, with the passing away of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of sensory impingement, with non-attention to perceptions(sanna/sangya) of diversity, [perceiving] "space is infinite." a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space. That is where perceptions(sanna/sangya) of forms cease and those are the ones who dwell having thoroughly ended perceptions(sanna/sangya) of forms'. Surely, bhikkhus, one who is not crafty or hypocritical should delight and rejoice in this statement, saying: 'Good!.' Having done so, bowing in reverential salutation, he should attend upon them. [413]

(6) "I say of [that state] where the perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space ceases and of those who dwell having thoroughly ended the perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space: 'Surely, those venerable ones are hungerless and quenched, have crossed over and gone beyond in that particular respect If anyone should say: 'Where does the perception(sanna/sangya) of the base of the infinity of space cease? And who are those that dwell having thoroughly ended the perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space? I do not know this, I do not see this,' he should be told: 'Here, friend, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space, [perceiving] "consciousness is infinite," a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness. That is where the perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space ceases and those are the ones who dwell having thoroughly ended the perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space.' Surely, bhikkhus, one who is not crafty or hypocritical should delight and rejoice in this statement, saying: 'Good!' Having done so, bowing in reverential salutation, he should attend upon them.

(7) "I say of [that state] where the perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness ceases and of those who dwell having thoroughly ended the perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness: 'Surely, those venerable ones are hungerless and quenched, have crossed over and gone beyond in that particular respect.' If anyone should say: 'Where does the perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness cease? And who are those that dwell having thoroughly ended the perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness? I do not know this, I do not see this' he should be told: 'Here, friend, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness, [perceiving] "there is nothing," a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the base of nothingness. That is where the perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness ceases and those are the ones who dwell having thoroughly ended the perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness.' Surely, bhikkhus, one who is not crafty or hypocritical should delight and rejoice in this state ment, saying: 'Good!' Having done so, bowing in reverential salutation, he should attend upon them.

(8) "I say of [that state] where the perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness ceases and of those who dwell having thoroughly ended the perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness: 'Surely, those venerable ones are hungerless and quenched, have crossed over and gone beyond in that particular respect.' If anyone should say: 'Where does the perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness cease? And who are those that dwell having thoroughly ended the perception of the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness? [414] 'I do not know this, I do not see this' he should be told: 'Here, friend, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception. That is where the perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness ceases and those are the ones who dwell having thoroughly ended the perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness'. Surely, bhikkhus, one who is not crafty or hypocritical should delight and rejoice in this statement, saying: 'Good!' Having done so, bowing in reverential salutation, he should attend upon them.

(9) "I say of [that state] where the perception(sanna/sangya) of the base of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception ceases and of those who dwell having thoroughly ended the perception(sanna/sangya) of the base of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception: 'Surely, those venerable ones are hungerless and quenched, have crossed over and gone beyond in that particular respect'. If anyone should say: 'Where does the perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of neither perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception cease? And who are those that dwell having thoroughly ended the perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception? I do not know this, I do not see this,' he should be told: 'Here, friend, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana). That is where the perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of neither perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception ceases and those are the ones who dwell having thoroughly ended the perception(sanna/sangya) of the base of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception.' Surely, bhikkhus, one who is not crafty or hypocritical should delight and rejoice in this statement, saying: 'Good!' Having done so, bowing in reverential salutation, he should attend upon them.

"This, bhikkhus, is the attainment of the nine progressive dwellings (samadhi/trance states). "


34 Nibbana is Bliss (Nibbanasukha sans. Nirvana-sukha)[]

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Venerable Sariputta was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the squirrel sanctuary. There the Venerable Sariputta addressed the bhikkhus: "Friends, bhikkhus!"

"Friend!" those bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Sariputta said this:

"Happiness, friends, is this nibbana(nirvana). Happiness, friends, is this nibbana(nirvana)."

When this was said, the Venerable Udayi 1908 said to the Venerable Sariputta: [415] "But, friend Sariputta, what happiness could there be here when nothing is felt here?"

"Just this, friend, is the happiness here, that nothing is felt here.

"There are, friends, these five objects of sensual pleasure. What five? Forms cognizable by the eye that are wished for, desired, agreeable, pleasing, connected with sensual pleasure, tantalizing; sounds cognizable by the ear . . . odors cognizable by the nose . . . tastes cognizable by the tongue . . . tactile objects cognizable by the body that are wished for, desired, agreeable, pleasing, connected with sensual pleasure, tantalizing. These are the five objects of sensual pleasure. Any pleasure or joy that arises in dependence on these five objects of sensual pleasure is called sensual pleasure.

(1) "Here, friends, secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from harmful(akusala) states, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state), which consists of bliss(piti) and happiness(sukha) born of seclusion, accompanied by thought and examination. If, while that bhikkhu is dwelling in this way, perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by sensuality occur in him, he feels it as an affliction. Just as pain might arise for one in happiness only to afflict him, so too if that perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by sensuality occur in him, he feels it as an affliction. But the Lord(Buddha) has called affliction suffering. In this way it can be understood how nibbana(nirvana) is happiness. 1909

(2) "Again, with the subsiding of thought and examination, a bhikkhu(monk) enters and dwells in the second jhana(trance state) If, while that bhikkhu is dwelling in this way, perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by thought [416] occur in him, he feels it as an affliction. Just as pain might arise for one in happiness only to afflict him, so too if that perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by thought occur in him, he feels it as an affliction. But the Lord(Buddha) has called affliction suffering. In this way, too, it can be understood how nibbana(nirvana) is happiness.

(3) "Again, with the fading away as well of bliss(piti) he enters and dwells in the third jhana(trance state). ... If, while that bhikkhu is dwelling in this way, perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by bliss(piti) occur in him, he feels it as an affliction.... In this way, too, it can be understood how nibbana(nirvana) is happiness.

(4) "Again, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the fourth jhana(trance state). ... If, while that bhikkhu is dwelling in this way, perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by the pleasure [connected with] indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha) 1910 occur in him, he feels it as an affliction In this way, too, it can be understood how nibbana(nirvana) is happiness.

(5) "Again, with the complete surmounting of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of forms, with the passing away of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of sensory impingement, with non-attention to perceptions(sanna/sangya) of diversity, [perceiving] 'space is infinite' a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space. If, while that bhikkhu is dwell ing in this way, perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by forms occur in him, he feels it as an affliction. . . . [417] ... In this way, too, it can be understood how nibbana(nirvana) is happiness.

(6) "Again, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space, [perceiving] 'consciousness is infinite' a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness. If, while that bhikkhu is dwelling in this way, perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space occur in him, he feels it as ah affliction. ... In this way, too, it can be understood how nibbana(nirvana) is happiness..

(7) "Again, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness, [perceiving] 'there is nothing' a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness. If, while that bhikkhu is dwelling in this way, perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness occur in him, he feels it as an affliction. ... In this way, too, it can be understood how nibbana(nirvana) is happiness.

(8) "Again, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of neither perception(sanna/sangya)-normon-perception(sanna/sangya). If, while that bhikkhu is dwelling in this way, perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness occur in him, he feels it as ah affliction. Just as pain might arise for one in happiness only to afflict him, so too if that perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by the base of nothingness occur in him, he feels it as an affliction. But the Lord(Buddha) has called affliction suffering. In this way, too, it can be understood how nibbana(nirvana) is happiness. [418]

(9) "Again, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of neither perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana), and having seen with panna(divine knowledge), his taints are utterly destroyed. In this way, too, it canbe understood how nibbana(nirvana) is happiness."


35 Cow Simile (Gaviupama sans. Gau-upama)[]

"Suppose, bhikkhus, there were a mountain-dwelling cow that was unwise, incompetent, inexperienced, and unskilled in walk ing on rough mountains. 1911 It might occur to her: 'I should go to a region where I have never gone before, eat grass that I have never eaten before, drink water that I have never drunk before'. She would set down a front foot, and while it is not yet firmly planted, lift up a hind foot. She would not go to a region where she had never gone before, eat grass that she had never eaten before, drink water that she had never drunk before; and she would not return safely to the region where she was staying when it occurred to her: 'I should go to a region where I have never gone before, eat grass that I have never eaten before, drink water that I have never drunk before'. For what reason? Because that mountain-dwelling cow was unwise, incompetent, inexperienced, and unskilled in walking on rough mountains.

"So too, some bhikkhu here is unwise, incompetent, inexperienced, and unskilled, when, secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from harmful(akusala) states, he enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state), which consists of bliss(piti) and happiness(sukha) born of seclusion, accompanied by thought and examination. He does not pursue that object, 1912 does not develop and cultivate it, does not focus on it well. '

"It occurs to him: 'With the subsiding of thought and examination, I should enter and dwell in the second jhana(trance state) [419], . . But he cannot enter and dwell in the second jhana(trance state). . . . Then it occurs to him: 'Secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from harmful(akusala) states, I should enter and dwell in the first jhana. . . ' But he cannot enter and dwell in the first jhana(trance state). . . . This is called a bhikkhu who has dropped away from both, 1913 fallen away from both. He is just like that mountain-dwelling cow that was unwise, incompetent, inexperienced, and unskilled in walking on rough mountains.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, there were a mountain-dwelling cow that was wise, competent, experienced, and skilled in walking on rough mountains. It might occur to her: 'I should go to a region where I have never gone before, eat grass that I have never eaten before, drink water that I have never drunk before, When setting down a front foot, she would firmly plant it, and only then lift up a hind foot. She would go to a region where she had never gone before, eat grass that she had never eaten before, drink water that she had never drunk before; and she would return safely to the region where she was staying when it occurred to her: 'I should go to a region where I have never gone before, eat grass that I have never eaten before, drink water that I have never drunk before.' For what reason? Because that mountain dwelling cow was wise, competent, experienced, and skilled in walking on rough mountains.

(1) “So too, some bhikkhu here is wise, competent, experienced, and skilled when, secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from harmful(akusala) states, he enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state) He pursues that object, develops and cultivates it, and focuses on it well.

(2) “It occurs to him: 'With the subsiding of thought and examination, I should enter and dwell in the second jhana(trance state). . . ' Not injuring 1914 the second jhana(trance state), with the subsiding of thought and examination he enters and dwells in the second jhana(trance state) . He pursues that object, develops and cultivates it, and focuses on it well.

(3) “Then it occurs to him: 'With the fading away as well of bliss(piti) [420] ... I should enter and dwell in the third jhana(trance state), . .' Not injuring the third jhana(trance state), with the fading away as well of bliss(piti) he enters and dwells in the third jhana(trance state). . . . He pursues that object, develops and cultivates it, and focuses on it well..

(4) “Then it occurs to him: 'With the abandoning of pleasure and pain ... I should enter and dwell in the fourth jhana(trance state). . .' Not injuring the fourth jhana(trance state), with the abandoning of pleasure and pain . ... he enters and dwells in the fourth jhana(trance state). . . . He pursues that object, develops and cultivates it, and focuses on it well.

(5) “Then it occurs to him: 'With the complete surmounting of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of forms, with the passing away of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of sensory impingement, with non-attention to perceptions(sanna/sangya) of diversity, [perceiving] “space is infinite," I should enter and dwell in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space' Not injuring the base of the infinity of space, with the complete surmounting of perceptions of forms ... he enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space. He pursues that object, develops and cultivates it, and focuses on it well.

(6) "Then it occurs to him: 'With the complete surmounting of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space, [perceiving] “consciousness is infinite," I should enter and dwell in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness'. Not injuring the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness, with the complete surmounting of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space ... he enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness. He pursues that object, develops and cultivates it, and focuses on it well.

(7) "Then it occurs to him: 'With the complete surmounting of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness, [perceiving] " there is nothing," I should enter and dwell in the sphere(ayatana) of nothing ness'. Not injuring the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness, with the complete surmounting of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness ... he enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness. He pursues that object, develops and cultivates it, and focuses on it well.

(8) "Then it occurs to him: 'With the complete surmounting of the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness, I should enter and dwell in the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception'. Not injuring the base of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, with the complete surmounting of the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness, he enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-nonperception(sanna/sangya). He pursues that object, develops and cultivates it, [421] and focuses on it well.

(9) "Then it occurs to him: 'With the complete surmounting of the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, I should enter and dwell in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana).' Not injuring the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana), with the complete surmounting of the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non perception(sanna/sangya), he enters and dwells in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana).

"When, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu(monk) enters and emerges from each of these meditative attainments, his mind becomes malleable and wieldy. With the mind malleable and wieldy, his samadhi(self absorption/trance) becomes measureless and well developed. With measure less, welldeveloped samadhi(self absorption/trance), whatever state realizable by direct knowledge(abhinna) he inclines his mind toward to realize by direct knowledge(abhinna), he is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.

"If he wishes: 'May I wield the various kinds of psychic potency: having been one, may I become many . . . [here and below in full as at 6:2] . . .may I exercise mastery with the body as far as the brahma world,' he is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.

"If he wishes: 'May I, with the divine ear element, which is purified and surpasses the human, hear both kinds of sounds, the divine and human, those that are far as well as near' he is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.

"If he wishes: 'May I understand the minds of other beings and persons, having encompassed them with my own mind. May I understand ... an unliberated mind as unliberated' he is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.

"If he wishes: "May I recollect my manifold past abodes(of past rebirths) . . . with their aspects and details' he is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis. [422]

"If he wishes: ; May I, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, see beings passing away and being reborn . . . and understand how beings fare in accordance with their kamma(karma/deeds)' he is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.

"If he wishes: 'May I, with the destruction of the taints, in this very life enter and dwell in the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), having realized it for myself with direct knowledge' he is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis."


36 Nine Jhana(Trance state) (sans. Dhyana)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I say that the destruction of the taints occurs in dependence on the first jhana(trance state). (2) I say that the destruction of the taints also occurs in dependence on the second jhana(trance state). (3) I say that the destruction of the taints also occurs in dependence on the third jhana(trance state). (4) I say that the destruction of the taints also occurs in dependence on the fourth jhana(trance state). (5) I say that the destruction of the taints also occurs in dependence on the base of the infinity of space. (6) I say that the destruction of the taints also occurs in dependence oh the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness. (7) I say that the destruction of the taints also occurs in dependence on the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness. (8) I say that the destruction of the taints also occurs in dependence on the base of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception. (9) I say that the destruction of the taints also occurs in dependence on the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana).

(1) "When it was said: 'Bhikkhus, I say that the destruction of the taints occurs in dependence on the first jhana(trance state)' for what rea son was this said? Here, secluded from sensual pleasures ... a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state). . . ; He considers whatever phenomena(dhamma)exist there pertaining to form, sensation(vedana), perception(sanna/sangya), one's character/behavior(sankhara/sanskar), and consciousness as impermanent, suffering, an illness, a boil, a dart, misery, affliction, alien, disintegrating, [423] empty, and non-self. 1915 He turns his mind away from those phenomena(dhamma)and directs it to the death less element thus: "This is peaceful, this is sublime, that is, the stilling of all activities, the relinquishing of all acquisitions, the destruction of craving(tanha/trishna), dispassion(viraga), cessation, nibbana(nirvana).' 1916 If he is firm in this, he attains the destruction of the taints. But if he does not attain the destruction of the taints because of that lust(raag) for the Dhamma, because of that delight in the Dhamma' 917 then with the utter destruction of the five lower fetters, he becomes one of spontaneous rebirth, due to attain final nibbana(nirvana) there without ever returning from that world.

"Just as an archer or an archer's apprentice undergoes training on a straw man or a heap of clay, and then at a later time becomes a long-distance shooter, a sharp-shooter, one who splits a great body, 1918 so too, secluded from sensual pleasures . . a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state): He considers whatever phenomena(dhamma)exist there pertaining to form, sensation(vedana), perception(sanna/sangya), one's characteristics/behavior(sankhara/sanskar), and consciousness as impermanent ... he becomes one of spontaneous rebirth, due to attain final nibbana(nirvana) there without ever returning from that world. [424]

"When it was said: 'Bhikkhus, I say that the destruction of the taints also occurs in dependence on the first jhana(trance state),' it is because of this that this was said.

(2)— (4) "When it was said: 'Bhikkhus, I say that the destruction of the taints also occurs in dependence on the second jhana . . . the third jhana(trance state) . . . the fourth jhana(trance state) ...

[425] "When it was said: 'Bhikkhus, I say that the destruction of the taints also occurs in dependence on the fourth jhana(trance state),' it is because of this that this was said.

(5) "When it was said: 'Bhikkhus, I say that the destruction of the taints also occurs in dependence on the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space,' for what reason was this said? Here, with the complete surmounting of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of forms, with the passing away of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of sensory impingement, with non-attention to perceptions(sanna/sangya) of diversity, [perceiving] 'space is infinite' a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space. He considers whatever phenomena(dhamma)exist there pertaining to sensation(vedana), perception(sanna/sangya), one's character/behavior(sankhara/sanskar) and consciousness 1919 as impermanent, suffering, an illness, a boil, a dart, misery, affliction, alien, disintegrating, empty, and non-self. He turns his mind away from those phenomena(dhamma)and directs it to the [eternal divine] deathless(amata/amrit) element thus: "This is peaceful, this is sublime, that is, the stilling of all activities, the relinquishing of all acquisitions, the destruction of craving(tanha/trishna), dispassion(viraga), cessation, nibbana(nirvana).'If he is firm in this, he attains the destruction of the taints. But if he does not attain the destruction of the taints because of that lust(raag) for the Dhamma, because of that delight in the Dhamma, then, with the utter destruction of the five lower fetters, he becomes one of spontaneous rebirth, due to attain final nibbana(nirvana) there with out ever returning from that world.

"Just as an archer or an archer's apprentice undergoes train ing on a straw man or a heap of clay, and then at a later time becomes a long-distance shooter, a sharp-shooter, one who splits a great body, so too, with the complete surmounting of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of forms ... a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the base of the infinity of space. He considers whatever phenomena(dhamma)exist there pertaining to sensation(vedana), perception(sanna/sangya), one's character/behavior(sankhara/sanskar), and consciousness as impermanent. But if he does not attain the destruction of the taints . . . he becomes one of spontaneous rebirth, due to attain final nibbana(nirvana) there without ever returning from that world.

"When it was said: 'Bhikkhus, I say that the destruction of the taints also occurs in dependence on the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space,' it is because of this that this was said.

(6)— (7) "When it was said: 'Bhikkhus, I say that the destruction of the taints also occurs in dependence on the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness . . . the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness' for what reason was this said? [426] Here, with the complete surmounting of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness, [perceiving] 'there is nothing,' a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of nothing ness. He considers whatever phenomena(dhamma)exist there pertaining to sensation(vedana), perception(sanna/sangya), one's character/behavior(sankhara/sanskar), and consciousness as impermanent But if he does not attain the destruction of the taints . . he becomes one of spontaneous rebirth, due to attain final nibbana(nirvana) there without ever returning from that world.

"Just as an archer or an archer's apprentice undergoes train ing on a straw man or a heap of clay, and then at a later time becomes a long-distance shooter, a sharp-shooter, one who splits a great body, so too, with the complete surmounting of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness ... a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness. He considers whatever phenomena(dhamma)exist there pertaining to sensation(vedana), perception(sanna/sangya), conscious activities, and consciousness as impermanent. . . . But if he does not attain the destruction of the taints . . . he becomes one of spontaneous rebirth, due to attain final nibbana(nirvana) there without ever returning from that world.

"When it was said: 'Bhikkhus, I say that the destruction of the taints also occurs in dependence on the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness' it is because of this that this was said. 1920

(8)— (9) "Thus, bhikkhus, there is penetration to final knowledge as far as meditative attainments accompanied by perception(sanna/sangya) reach. But these two bases — the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor non-perception and the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana) I say are to be described by meditative bhikkhus skilled in attain ments and skilled in emerging from attainments after they have attained them and emerged from them." 1921


37 Ananda[]

On one occasion the Venerable Ananda was dwelling at Kosambi in Ghosita's Park. There the Venerable Ananda addressed the bhikkhus: "Friends, bhikkhus!"

"Friend!" those bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Ananda said this:

"It's astounding and amazing, friends, that the Lord(Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, who knows and sees, has discovered the achievement of an opening in the midst of confinement: 1922 for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the passing away of pain and dejection, for the achievement of the method, for the realization of nibbana(nirvana). 1923 (1) The eye itself as well as those forms will actually be present, [427] and yet one will not experience that base. 1924 (2) The ear itself as well as those sounds will actually be present, and yet one will not experience that base. (3) The nose itself as well as those odors will actually be present, and yet one will not experience that base. (4) The tongue itself as well as those tastes will actually be present, and yet one will not experience that base. (5) The body itself as well as those tactile objects will actually be present, and yet one will not experience that base."

When this was said, the Venerable Udayi said this to the Venerable Ananda: "Is it, friend Ananda, while one is actually perceptive or while one is non-perceptive that one does not experience that base?"

"It is, friend, while one is actually perceptive that one does not experience that base, not while one is non-perceptive."

"But, friend, of what is one perceptive when one does not experience that base?"

(6) "Here, friend, with the complete surmounting of perception(sanna/sangya) tions of forms, with the passing away of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of sensory impingement, with non-attention to perceptions(sanna/sangya) of diversity, [perceiving] 'space is infinite' a bhikkhu enters. and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space. When one is thus perceptive one does not experience that base.

(7) "Again, friend, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space' [perceiving] 'consciousness is infinite' a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness. When one is thus perceptive one does not experience that base.

(8) "Again, friend, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness, [perceiving] 'there is nothing' a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness. When one is thus perceptive one does not experience that base. 1925

"Once, friend, I was dwelling at Saketa in the deer park at Anjana Grove, Then the Bhikkhuni(nun)Jatilagahiya 1926 [428] approached me, paid homage to me, stood to one side, and said: 'Bhante Ananda, the samadhi(self absorption/trance) that does not lean forward and does not bend back, 1927 and that is not reined in and checked by forcefully suppressing [the defilements] 1928 — by being liberated, it is steady; by being steady, it is content; by being content, one is not agitated. 1929 Bhante Ananda, what did the Lord(Buddha) say this samadhi(self absorption/trance) has as its fruit?' 1930

(9) "When she asked me this, I replied: 'Sister, the samadhi(self absorption/trance) that does not lean forward and does not bend back, and that is not reined in and checked by forcefully suppressing [the defilements] — by being liberated, it is steady; by being steady, it is content; by being content, one is not agitated. The Lord(Buddha) said this samadhi(self absorption/trance) has final knowledge as its fruit.' 1931 When one is thus perceptive too, friend, one does not experience that base."


38 Lokayatika[]

Then two brahmin cosmologists 1932 approached the Lord(Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, they sat down to one side and said to him:

"Master Gotama, Purana Kassapa claims to be all-knowing and all-seeing and to have all-embracing knowledge and vision: 'Whether I am walking, standing, sleeping, or awake, knowledge and vision are constantly and continuously present to me' He says thus: 'With infinite knowledge, I dwell know ing and seeing the world to be infinite' [429] But Nigantha Nataputta also claims to be all-knowing and all-seeing and to have all-embracing knowledge and vision: 'Whether I am walk ing, standing, sleeping, and awake, knowledge and vision are constantly and continuously present to me'. He says thus: 'With infinite knowledge, I dwell knowing and seeing the world to be finite..' 1933 When these two claimants to knowledge make claims that are mutually contradictory, who speaks truthfully and who falsely?"

"Enough, brahmins, let this be: 'When these two claimants to knowledge make claims that are mutually contradictory, who speaks truthfully and who falsely?' I will teach you the Dhamma. Listen and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, sir," those brahmins replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"Suppose, brahmins, there were four men standing in the four quarters possessing supreme movement 1934 and speed and a supreme stride. Their speed was like that of a light arrow easily shot by a firm-bowed archer — one trained, skillful, and experienced 1935 — across the shadow of a palmyra tree. Their stride was such that it could reach from the eastern ocean to the western ocean. Then the person standing in the eastern quarter would say thus: 'I will reach the end of the world by traveling' Having a life span of a hundred years, living for a hundred years, he might travel for a hundred years without pausing except to eat, drink, chew, and taste, to defecate and urinate, and to dispel fatigue with sleep; yet he would die along the way without having reached the end of the world. 1936 [430] Then the person standing in the western quarter would say thus . . . the person standing in the northern quarter would say thus . . . the person standing in the southern quarter would say thus: 'I will reach the end of the world by traveling.' Having a life span of a hundred years, living for a hundred years, he might travel for a hundred years without pausing except to eat, drink, chew, and taste, to defecate and urinate, and to dispel fatigue with sleep; yet he would die along the way without having reached the end of the world. For what reason? I say, brahmins, that by this kind of running 1937 one cannot know, see, or reach the end of the world. And yet I say that without having reached the end of the world there is no making an end of suffering.

"These five objects of sensual pleasure, brahmins, are called 'The world' in the Noble One's discipline. What five? Forms cognizable by the eye that are wished for, desired, agreeable, pleasing, connected with sensual pleasure, tantalizing; sounds cognizable by the ear . . . odors cognizable by the nose . . . tastes cognizable by the tongue . . . tactile objects cognizable by the body that are wished for, desired, agreeable, pleasing, connected with sensual pleasure, tantalizing. These five objects of sensual pleasure are called 'the world' in the Noble One's discipline.

(1) "Here, brahmins, secluded from sensual pleasures ... a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state). . . . This is called a bhikkhu who, having come to the end of the world, dwells at the end of the world. Others say thus of him: 'He, too, is included in the world; he, too, is not yet released from the world.' I also say thus: 'He, too, is included in the world; he, too, is not yet released from the world' [431]

(2) -(4) "Again, with the subsiding of thought and examination, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the second jhana(trance state) . . . the third jhana(trance state) . . . the fourth jhana(trance state). . . . This is called a bhikkhu who, having come to the end of the world, dwells at the end of the world. Others say thus of him: 'He, too, is included in the world; he, too, is not yet released from the world' I also say thus: 'He, too, is included in the world; he, too, is not yet released from the world.'

(5) "Again, with the complete surmounting of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of forms, with the passing away of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of sensory impingement, with non-attention to perceptions(sanna/sangya) of diversity, [perceiving] 'space is infinite,' a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space. This is called a bhikkhu who, having come to the end of the world, dwells at the end of the world. Others say thus of him: 'He, too, is included in the world; he, too, is not yet released from the world.' I also say thus: 'He, too, is included in the world; he, too, is not yet released from the world.

(6)— (8) " Again, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space, [perceiving] Consciousness is infinite, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of conscious ness By completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness, [perceiving] 'there is nothing,' a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness. . . By completely sur mounting the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nof-non-perception. This is called a bhikkhu who, having come to the end of the world, dwells at the end of the world. Others say thus of him: 'He, too, is included in the world; he, too, is not yet released from the world.' I also say thus: 'He, too, is included in the world; he, too, is not yet released from the world.

(9) "Again, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of neither perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana), and having seen with panna(divine knowledge), his taints are utterly destroyed. This is called a bhikku who, having come to the end of the world, dwells at the end of the world, one who has crossed over attachment to the world."


39 Deva(Angel/god) Asura Battle (DevaAsurasangama sans. Deva-asura-sangram)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), in the past a battle was fought between the devas(angels/gods) and the asuras: In that battle, the asuras were victorious and the devas(angels/gods) were defeated. Defeated, the devas(angels/gods) fled north, pursued by the asuras. Then it occurred to the devas(angels/gods): 'The asuras are still pursuing us. Let's engage them in battle a second time.' A second time the devas(angels/gods) fought a battle with the asuras, and a second time the asuras were victorious and the devas(angels/gods) were defeated. Defeated, the devas(angels/gods) 1938 fled north, pursued by the asuras. Then it occurred to the devas(angels/gods): 'The asuras are still pur suing us. Let's engage them in battle a third time' A third time the devas(angels/gods) fought a battle with the asuras, and a third time the asuras were victorious and the devas(angels/gods) were defeated. Defeated and frightened, the devas(angels/gods) entered their city.

"After the devas(angels/gods) had entered their city, it occurred to them: 'Now we're [433] secure from danger and the asuras cannot do anything to us.' It also occurred to the asuras: 'Now the devas(angels/gods) are secure from danger and we cannot do anything to them.'

"In the past, bhikkhus, a battle was fought between the devas(angels/gods) and the asuras In that battle, the devas(angels/gods) were victorious and the asuras were defeated. Defeated, the asuras fled south, pursued by the devas(angels/gods). Then it occurred to the asuras: 'The devas(angels/gods) are still pursuing us. Let's engage them in battle a second time. A second time the asuras fought a battle with the devas(angels/gods), and a second time the devas(angels/gods) were victorious and the asuras were defeated. Defeated, the asuras fled south, pursued by the devas(angels/gods). Then it occurred to the asuras: 'The devas(angels/gods) are still pursuing us. Let's engage them in battle a third time.' A third time the asuras fought a battle with the devas(angels/gods), and a third time the devas(angels/gods) were victorious and the asuras were defeated: Defeated and frightened, the asuras entered their city.

"After the asuras had entered their city, it occurred to them: 'Now we're secure from danger and the devas(angels/gods) cannot do anything to us.' It also occurred to the devas(angels/gods): 'Now the asuras are secure from danger and we cannot do anything to them.'

(1) "So too, bhikkhus, when, secluded from sensual pleasures ... a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state) . . . on that occasion it occurs to the bhikkhu: 'Now I am secure from danger [434J and Mara cannot do anything to me.' It also occurs to Mara the Evil One: 'Now the bhikkhu is secure against danger and I cannot do anything to him.'

(2) — (4) "When, with the subsiding of thought and examination, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the second jhana(trance state) . . . the third jhana(trance state) . . . the fourth jhana(trance state) . . . on that occasion it occurs to the bhikkhu: 'Now I am secure from danger and Mara cannot do anything to me.' It also occurs to Mara the Evil One: 'Now the bhikkhu is secure from danger and I cannot do anything to him.' 1

(5) "When, with the complete surmounting of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of forms, with the passing away of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of sensory impingement, with non-attention to perceptions(sanna/sangya) of diversity, [perceiving] 'space is infinite,' a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space, on that occasion he is called a bhikkhu who has blinded Mara, 1939 put out Mara's eyes without a trace, 1940 and gone beyond sight of the Evil One.

(6) — (9) "When, bhikkhus, by completely surmounting the base of the infinity of space, [perceiving] Consciousness is infinite, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness. . . . When, by completely surmounting the base of the infinity of consciousness, [perceiving] 'there is nothing' a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness. . . . When, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non perception(sanna/sangya). . . . When, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana), and haying seen with panna(divine knowledge), his taints are utterly destroyed, on that occasion he is called a bhikkhu who has blinded Mara, put out Mara's eyes, gone beyond sight of the Evil One, and crossed over attachment to the world." [435]


40 A Bull Elephant[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), when a forest-dwelling bull elephant is heading for its feeding ground, and other elephants — males, females, young ones, 1941 and babies— precede him and break the tops of the grass, the bull elephant is repelled, humiliated, and disgusted with this. When a forest-dwelling bull elephant is heading for its feeding ground, and other elephants — males, females, young ones, and babies — eat the bent and twisted bundle of branches, the bull elephant is repelled, humiliated, and disgusted with this. When a forest-dwelling bull elephant has entered the pool and other elephants — males, females, young ones, and babies— precede him and stir up the water with their trunks, the bull elephant is repelled, humiliated, and disgusted with this. When a forest dwelling bull elephant has emerged from the pool and female elephants go by brushing against his body, the forest-dwelling bull elephant is repelled, humiliated, and disgusted with this.

"On that occasion it occurs to the forest-dwelling bull elephant: 'I am presently dwelling hemmed in by other elephants: males, females, young ones, and babies. I eat grass with the tops broken off, and they eat my bent and twisted bundle of branches. I drink muddy water, and when I have come out from the pool, the female elephants go by brushing against my body. Let me dwell alone, withdrawn from the herd.

"Some time later he dwells alone, withdrawn from the herd. He then eats grass without the tops broken off; they do not eat his bent and twisted [436] bundle of branches; he drinks clear water; and when he has come out from the pool, the female elephants do not go by brushing against his body. On that occasion it occurs to the forest-dwelling bull elephant: 'In the past I dwelled hemmed in by other elephants . . . and when I came out from the pool, the female elephants went by brushing against my body. But now I dwell alone, withdrawn from the herd. I eat grass without the tops broken off; they do not eat my bent and twisted bundle of branches; I drink clear water; and when I have come out from the pool, the female elephants do not go by brushing against my body. Having broken off a bundle of branches with his trunk, having rubbed his body with it, he happily relieves his itches.

"So too, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu dwells hemmed in by bhikkhus, Bhikkhunis(Nuns), male and female lay followers, kings and royal ministers, sectarian teachers and the disciples of sectarian teachers, on that occasion it occurs to him: 'I am presently dwelling hemmed in by bhikkhus, Bhikkhunis(Nuns), male and female lay followers, kings and royal ministers, sectarian teachers and the disciples of sectarian teachers. Let me dwell alone, with drawn from company'

"He resorts to a secluded lodging: the forest, [437] the foot of a tree, a mountain, a ravine, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a jungle thicket, an open space, a heap of straw. Gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, he sits down, folding his legs crosswise, straightening his body, and establishing mindfulness(meditation/sati) before him. Having abandoned longing for the world, he dwells with a mind free from longing; he purifies his mind from longing. Having abandoned ill will and hatred, he dwells with a mind free from ill will, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings; he purifies his mind from ill will and hatred. Having abandoned dullness and drowsiness, he dwells free from dullness and drowsiness, perceptive of light, mindful(meditating/sati) and completely comprehending; he purifies his mind from dullness and drowsiness. Having abandoned restlessness and remorse, he dwells without agitation, with a mind inwardly peaceful; he purifies his mind from restlessness and remorse. Having abandoned doubt, he dwells having gone beyond doubt, unperplexed about beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma); he purifies his mind from doubt.

(1) "Having thus abandoned these five hindrances, defile ments of the mind, things that weaken panna(divine knowledge), secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from harmful(akusala) states, he enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state). . . . Elated, he relieves his itches.

(2) — (4) "With the subsiding of thought and examination, he

enters and dwells in the second jhana(trance state) . . . the third jhana(trance state) . . . the fourth jhana(trance state) Elated, he relieves his itches.

(5) "With the complete surmounting of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of forms, with the passing away of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of sensory impingement, with non-attention to perceptions(sanna/sangya) of diversity, [perceiving] 'space is infinite' a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space. Elated, he relieves his itches.

(6) — (9) "By completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space, [perceiving] 'consciousness is infinite' a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness. . . . By completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of conscious ness, [perceiving] 'there is nothing,' a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness. . . . By completely surmounting the base of nothingness, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception By completely sur mounting the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, [438] a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana), and having seen with panna(divine knowledge), his taints are utterly destroyed. Elated, he relieves his itches."


41 Tapussa[]

Thus have. I heard. On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling among the Mallas near the Mallan town named Uruvelakappa. 1942 Then, in the morning, the Lord(Buddha) dressed, took his bowl and robe, and entered Uruvelakappa for alms. When he had walked for alms in Uruvelakappa, after his meal, on returning from his alms round, he addressed the Venerable Ananda: "You stay right here, Ananda, while I enter the Great Wood to pass the day."

"Yes, Bhante," the Venerable Ananda replied. Then the Lord(Buddha) entered the Great Wood and sat down to pass the day at the foot of a tree.

Then the householder Tapussa approached the Venerable Ananda, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

“Bhante Ananda, we laymen enjoy sensual pleasures, delight in sensual pleasures, take delight in sensual pleasures, and rejoice in sensual pleasures. Renunciation seems like a precipice to us. I have heard that in this Dhamma and discipline there are very young bhikkhus, whose minds launch out upon renunciation and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, 1943 seeing 1944 it as peaceful. Renunciation, Bhante, is the dividing line between the multitude and the bhikkhus in this Dhamma and discipline." 1945 [439]

“This, householder, is a subject that we should see the Lord(Buddha) about. Come, let's go to the Lord(Buddha) and report this matter to him. We should retain the Lord(Buddha)'s explanation in mind." .

“Yes, Bhante," the householder Tapussa replied.

Then the Venerable Ananda, together with the householder Tapussa, went to the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said: "Bhante, this householder Tapussa says: 'Bhante Ananda, we laymen enjoy sensual pleasures . . . [and] renunciation seems like a precipice to us. . . . [But] there are very young bhikkhus whose minds . . . [are] liberated in it, seeing it as peaceful. Renunciation, Bhante, is the dividing line between the multitude and the bhikkhus in this Dhamma and discipline."

“So it is, Ananda! So it is, Ananda ! 1946

(1) “Before my enlightenment, while I was just a bodhisatta, not yet fully enlightened, it occurred to me too: 'Good is renunciation, good is solitude.' Yet my mind did not launch out upon renunciation and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I saw it as peaceful. It occurred to me: 'Why is it that my mind does not launch out upon renunciation and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful?' Then it occurred to me: 'I have not seen the danger in sensual pleasures and have not cultivated that [insight(vipassana)]; I have not achieved the benefit in renunciation and have not [440] pursued it. Therefore my mind does not launch out upon renunciation and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful.'

"Then, Ananda, it occurred to me: 'If, having seen the danger in sensual pleasures, I would cultivate that [insight(vipassana)], and if, having achieved the benefit in renunciation, I would pursue it, it is then possible that my mind would launch out upon renunciation and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I see it as peaceful.' Sometime later, having seen the danger in sensual pleasures, I cultivated that [insight(vipassana)], and having achieved the benefit in renunciation, I pursued it. My mind then launched out upon renunciation and became placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I saw it as peaceful:

"Sometime later, Ananda, secluded from sensual pleasures. . . I entered and dwelled in the first jhana(trance state). While I was dwelling in this state, perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by sensuality occurred in me and I felt it as an affliction. Just as pain might arise for one in happiness only to afflict him, so too, when perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by sensuality, occurred in me, I felt it as an affliction.

(2) "Then, Ananda, it occurred to me: 'With the subsiding of thought and examination, let me enter and dwell in the second jhana'. . . Yet my mind did not launch out upon the absence of thought and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I saw it as peaceful. It occurred to me: 'Why is it that my mind does not launch out upon the absence of thought and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful?' Then it occurred to me: 'I have not seen the danger in thoughts and have not cultivated that [insight(vipassana)]; I have not achieved the benefit in the absence of thought [441] and have not pursued it. Therefore my mind does not launch out upon the absence of thought and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful.

"Then, Ananda, it occurred to me: 'If, having seen the danger in thoughts, I would cultivate that [insight(vipassana)], and if, having achieved the benefit in the absence of thought, I Would pursue it, it is then possible that my mind would launch out upon the absence of thought and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I see it as peaceful.' Then, sometime later, having seen the danger in thoughts, I cultivated that [insight(vipassana)], and having achieved the benefit in the absence of thought, I pursued it. My mind then launched out upon the absence of thought and became placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I saw it as peaceful.

"Sometime later, 1947 Ananda, with the subsiding of thought and examination ... I entered and dwelled in the second jhana(trance state). . . . While I was dwelling in this state, perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by thought occurred in me and I felt it as an affliction. just as pain might arise for one in happiness only to afflict him, so too when that perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by thought occurred in me, I felt it as an affliction. (3) "Then, Ananda, it occurred to me: 'With the fading away as well of bliss(piti) . . . let me enter and dwell in the third jhana(trance state). . . Yet my mind did not launch out upon the absence of bliss(piti) and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I saw it as peaceful. It occurred to me: 'Why is it that my mind does not launch out upon the absence of bliss(piti) and become placid, settled, [442] and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful?' Then it occurred to me: 'I have not seen the danger in bliss(piti) and have not cultivated that [insight(vipassana)]; I have not achieved the benefit in the absence of bliss(piti) and have not pursued it. There fore my mind does not launch out upon the absence of bliss(piti) and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful.'

"Then, Ananda, it occurred to me: 'If, having seen the danger in bliss(piti), I would cultivate that [insight(vipassana)], and if, having achieved the benefit in the absence of bliss(piti), I would pursue it, it is then possible that my mind would launch out upon the absence of bliss(piti) and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I see it as peaceful.' Then, sometime later, having seen the danger in bliss(piti), I cultivated that [insight(vipassana)], and having achieved the benefit in the absence of bliss(piti),. I pursued it. My mind then launched out upon the absence of bliss(piti) and became placid, settled and liberated in it, since I saw it as peaceful.

"Sometime later, Ananda, with the fading away as well of bliss(piti) ... I entered and dwelled in the third jhana(trance state). . . . While I was dwelling in this state, perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by bliss(piti) occurred fn me and I felt it as an affliction. Just as pain might arise for one in happiness only to afflict him, so too, when that perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by bliss(piti) occurred in me, I felt it as an affliction.

(4) "Then, Ananda, it occurred to me: 'With the abandoning of pleasure and pain . . . let me enter and dwell in the fourth jhana. . . ' Yet my mind did not launch out upon the absence of pleasure and pain and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I saw it as peaceful. It occurred to me: 'Why is it that my mind does not launch out upon the absence of pleasure and pain and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful?' Then it occurred to me: 'I have not seen the danger in the pleasure [connected with] indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha) and have not cultivated that [insight(vipassana)]; I have not achieved the benefit in the absence of pleasure and pain and have not pursued it. Therefore my mind does not launch out upon the absence of pleasure and pain and become placid, settled, and liberated in it though I see it as peaceful.'

"Then, Ananda, it occurred to me: 'If, having seen the danger in the bliss [connected with] indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha), [443] I would cultivate that [insight(vipassana)], and if, having achieved the benefit in the absence of pleasure and pain, I would pursue it, it is then possible that my mind would launch out upon the absence of pleasure and pain and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I see it as peaceful. Then, sometime later, having seen the danger in the bliss [connected with] indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha), I cultivated that [insight(vipassana)], and having achieved the benefit in the absence of pleasure and pain, I pursued it. My mind then launched out upon the absence of pleasure and pain and became placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I saw it as peaceful.

"Sometime later, Ananda, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain ... I entered and dwelled in the fourth jhana(trance state). . . . While I was dwelling in this state, perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by bliss [connected with] indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha) occurred in me 1948 and I felt it as an affliction. Just as pain might arise for one in happiness only to afflict him, so too, when that perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by bliss [connected with] indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha) occurred in me, I felt it as an affliction.

(5) "Then, Ananda, it occurred to me: 'With the complete surmounting of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of forms, with the passing away of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of sensory impingement, with non-attention to perceptions(sanna/sangya) of diversity, [perceiving] "space is infinite," let me enter and dwell in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space.' Yet my mind did not launch out upon the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I saw it as peaceful. It occurred to me: 'Why is it that my mind does not launch out upon the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful?' Then it occurred to me: 'I have not seen the danger in forms and have not cultivated that [insight(vipassana)]; I have not achieved the benefit in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space and have not pursued it. Therefore my mind does not launch out upon the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, [444] though I see it as peaceful.'

"Then, Ananda, it occurred to me: 'If, having seen the danger in forms, I would cultivate that [insight(vipassana)], and if, having achieved the benefit in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space, I would pursue it, it is then possible that my mind would launch out upon the base of the infinity of space and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I see it as peaceful.' Then, sometime later, having seen the danger in forms, I cultivated that [insight(vipassana)], and having achieved the benefit in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space, I pursued it. My mind then launched out upon the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space and became placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I saw it as peaceful. '

"Sometime later, Ananda, with the complete surmounting of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of forms, with the passing away of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of sensory impingement, with non-attention to perceptions(sanna/sangya) of diversity, [perceiving] 'space is infinite,' I entered and dwelled in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space. While I was dwelling in this state, perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by forms occurred in me and I felt it as an affliction. Just as pain might arise for one in happiness only to afflict him, so too, when that perception and attention accompanied by forms occurred in me, I felt it as an affliction.

(6) "Then, Ananda, it occurred to me: 'By completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space, [perceiving] "consciousness is infinite," let me enter and dwell in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness.' Yet my mind did not launch out upon the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness and become placid, set tled, and liberated in it, though I saw it as peaceful. It occurred to me: 'Why is it that my mind does not launch out upon the base of the infinity of consciousness and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful?' Then it occurred to me: 'I have not seen the danger in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space and have not cultivated that [insight(vipassana)]; I have not achieved the, benefit in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness and have not pursued it. Therefore my mind does not launch out upon the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful.'

"Then, Ananda, it occurred to me: 'If, having seen the danger in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space, [445] I would cultivate that [insight(vipassana)], and if, having achieved the benefit in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness, I would pursue it, it is then possible that my mind would launch out upon the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I see it as peaceful.' Then, sometime later, having seen the danger in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space, I cultivated that [insight(vipassana)], and having achieved the benefit in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness, I pursued it. My mind then launched out. upon the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness and became placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I saw it as peaceful.

"Sometime later, Ananda, by completely surmounting the base of the infinity of space, [perceiving] consciousness is infinite, I entered and dwelled in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness. While I was dwelling in this state, perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space occurred in me and I felt it as an affliction. Just as pain might arise for one in happiness only to afflict him, so too, when that perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space occurred in me, I felt it as an affliction.

(7) "Then, Ananda, it occurred to me: 'By completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness, [perceiving] "there is nothing," let me enter and dwell in the sphere(ayatana) of nothing ness.' Yet my mind aid not launch out upon the sphere(ayatana) of nothing ness and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I saw it as peaceful. It occurred to me: 'Why is it that my mind does not launch out upon the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful?' Then it occurred to me: 'I have not seen the danger in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness and have not cultivated that [insight(vipassana)]; I have not achieved the benefit in the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness and have not pursued it. Therefore my mind does not launch out upon the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful.'

"Then, Ananda, it occurred to me: 'If, having seen the danger in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness, I would cultivate that [insight(vipassana)], and if, having achieved the benefit in the base of nothingness, I would pursue it, it is then possible that my [446] mind would launch out upon the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness and become placid , settled, and liberated in it, since I see it as peaceful.' Then, sometime later, having seen the danger in the base of the infinity of consciousness, I cultivated that [insight(vipassana)], and having achieved the benefit in the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness, I pursued it. My mind then launched out upon the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness and became placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I saw it as peaceful.

"Sometime later, Ananda, by completely surmounting the base of the infinity of consciousness, [perceiving] 'there is nothing,' I entered and dwelled in the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness. While I was dwelling in this state, perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness occurred in me and I. felt it as an affliction. Just as pain might arise for one in happiness only to afflict him, so too, when that perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness occurred in me, I felt it as an affliction. .

(8) "Then, Ananda, it occurred to me: 'By completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness, let me enter and dwell in the base of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception.' Yet my mind did not launch out upon the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor non-perception and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I saw it as peaceful. It occurred to me: 'Why is it that my mind does not launch out upon the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya) nor-non-perception and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful?' Then it occurred to me: 'I have not seen the danger in the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness and have not cultivated that [insight(vipassana)]; I have not achieved the benefit in the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception and have not pursued it. Therefore my mind does not launch out upon the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful.'

"Then, Ananda, it occurred to me: 'If, having seen the danger in the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness, I would cultivate that [insight(vipassana)], and if, having achieved the benefit in the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya) nor-non-perception, I would pursue it, it is then possible that my mind would launch out upon the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya) nor-non-perception and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I see it as peaceful.' [447] Then, sometime later, having seen the danger in the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness, I cultivated that [insight(vipassana)], and having achieved the benefit in the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, I pursued it. My mind then launched out upon the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor non-perception and became placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I saw it as peaceful.

"Sometime later, Ananda, by completely surmounting the base of nothingness, I entered and dwelled in the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception. While I was dwelling in this state, perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by the base of nothingness occurred in me and I felt it as an affliction. Just as pain might arise for one in happiness only to afflict him, so too, when that perception(sanna/sangya) and attention accompanied by the base of nothingness occurred in me, I felt it as an affliction.

(9) "Then, Ananda, it occurred to me: 'By completely sur mounting the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, let me enter and dwell in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and feel ing.' Yet my mind did not launch out upon the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana) and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I saw it as peaceful. It occurred to me: 'Why is it that my mind does not launch out upon the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana) and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful?' Then it occurred to me: 'I have not seen the danger in the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non perception(sanna/sangya) and have not cultivated that [insight(vipassana)]; I have not achieved the benefit in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana) and have not pursued it. Therefore my mind does not launch out upon the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana) and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful.'

"Then, Ananda, it occurred to me: 'If, having seen the danger in the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, I would cultivate that [insight(vipassana)], and if, having achieved the benefit in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana), I would pursue it, it is then possible that my mind would launch out upon the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana) and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I see it as peaceful.' Then, sometime later, having seen the danger in the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya) nor-non-perception, I cultivated that [insight(vipassana)]; [448] and having achieved the benefit in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana), I pursued it. My mind then launched out upon the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana) and became placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I saw it as peaceful.

"Sometime later, Ananda, by completely surmounting the base of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, I entered and dwelled in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana), and having seen with panna(divine knowledge), my taints were utterly destroyed.

"So long, Ananda, as I did not attain and emerge from these nine attainments of progressive dwellings in direct order and reverse order, I did not claim to have awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment in this world with its devas(angels/gods), Mara, and Brahma, in this population with its ascetics and brah mins, its devas(angels/gods) and humans. But when I attained and emerged from these nine attainments of progressive dwellings in direct order and reverse order, then I claimed to have awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment in this world with ... its devas(angels/gods) and humans. The knowledge and vision arose in me: "Unshakable is my liberation of mind; this is my last rebirth; now there is no more renewed existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth)" [449]



V. Similarity 1949 (Samannavaggo)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


42 Confinement (Sambadha)[]

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Venerable Ananda was dwelling at Kosambi in Ghosita's Park. Then the Venerable Udayi approached the Venerable Ananda and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to the Venerable Ananda:

"This was said, friend, by the young deva(angel/god) Pancalacanda:

"The sage, the withdrawn chief bull, the Buddha who awakened to jhana(trance state), the One of Broad panna(divine knowledge) has found the opening amid confinement' 1950

"What, friend, has the Lord(Buddha) spoken of as confinement and what as the achievement of an opening in the midst of confinement?" 1951

"The Lord(Buddha), friend, has spoken of these five objects of sensual pleasure as confinement. What five? Forms cognizable by the eye that are wished for, desired, agreeable, pleasing, connected with sensual pleasure, tantalizing; sounds cognizable by the ear . . . odors cognizable by the nose . . . tastes cognizable by the tongue . . . tactile objects cognizable by the body that are wished for, desired, agreeable, pleasing, connected with sensual pleasure, tantalizing. The Lord(Buddha) has spoken of these five objects of sensual pleasure as confinement.

(1) "Here, friend, secluded from sensual pleasures ... a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state). . . . To this extent the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of the achievement of an opening amid confinement in a provisional sense. 1952 There, too, there is confinement. And what is the confinement there? [450] Whatever thought and examination have not ceased there is the confinement in this case.

(2) "Again, friend, with the subsiding of thought and examination, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the second jhana(trance state). —To this extent, too, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of the achievement of an opening amid confinement in a provisional sense. There, too, there is confinement. And what is the confinement there? Whatever bliss(piti) has not ceased there is the confinement in this case.

(3) "Again, friend, with the fading away of bliss(piti), a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the third jhana(trance state). . . . To this extent, too, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of the achievement of an opening amid confinement in a provisional sense. There, too, there is confinement. And what is the confinement there? Whatever bliss [connected with] indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha) has not ceased there is the confinement in this case .

(4) "Again, friend, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain ... a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the fourth jhana(trance state). . . . To this extent, too, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of the achieve ment of an opening amid confinement in a provisional sense. There, too, there is confinement. And what is the confinement there? Whatever perception(sanna/sangya) of form 1953 has not ceased there is the confinement in this case,

(5) "Again, friend, with the complete surmounting of perception(sanna/sangya) of forms, with the passing away of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of sensory impingement, with 'non-attention to perceptions(sanna/sangya) of diversity, [perceiving] 'space is infinite' a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space. To this extent, too, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of the achievement of an opening amid confinement in a provisional sense. There, too, there is confinement. And what is the confinement there? Whatever perception(sanna/sangya). of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space has not ceased there is the confinement in this case.

(6) " Again, friend, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space, [perceiving] 'consciousness is infinite,' a bhikkhu [451] enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness. To this extent, too, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of the achievement of an opening amid confinement in a pro visional sense. There, too, there is confinement. And what is the confinement there? Whatever perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness has not ceased there is the confinement in this case. . .

(7) "Again, friend,. by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness, [perceiving] 'there is nothing,' a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness. To this extent, too, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of the achievement of an opening amid confinement in a provisional sense. There, too, there is confinement. And what is the confinement there? Whatever perception(sanna/sangya) of the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness has not ceased there is the confinement in this case.

(8) "Again, friend, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of neither perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception. To this extent, too, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of the achievement of an opening amid confine ment in a provisional sense. There, too, there is confinement. And what is the confinement there? Whatever perception(sanna/sangya) of the base of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception has not ceased there is the confinement in this case.

(9) "Again, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of neither perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana), and having seen with panna(divine knowledge), his taints are utterly destroyed. To this extent, friend, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of the achievement of an opening amid confinement in a non-provisional sense." 1954


43 Body Witness (Kaya-sakkhi sans. Kaya-sakshi)[]

"It is said, friend, 'a body witness, a body witness.' 3955 In what way has the Lord(Buddha) spoken of a body witness?"

(1) "Here, friend, secluded from sensual pleasures ... a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state). . . . He dwells having contacted that base with the body in whatever way [it is attained]. 1956 To this extent the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of a body witness in a provisional sense. [452]

(2)— (4) "Again, friend, with the subsiding of thought and examination, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the second jhana . . . the third jhana(trance state) . . . the fourth jhana(trance state). . . He dwells having contacted that base with the body in whatever way [it is attained]. To this extent, too, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of a body witness in a provisional sense.

(5)“(8) "Again, friend, with the complete surmounting of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of forms, with the passing away of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of sensory impingement, with non-attention to perceptions(sanna/sangya) of diversity, aware that 'space is infinite,' a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space . ... the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness . . . the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness . ... the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception. He dwells having contacted that base with the body in whatever way [it is attained]. To this extent, too, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of a body witness in a provisional sense.

(9) "Again, friend, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, he enters and dwells in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana), and having seen with panna(divine knowledge), his taints are utterly destroyed. He dwells having contacted that base with the body in whatever way [it is attained]. To this extent, friend, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of a body witness in a non-provisional sense." 1957


44 Liberation by Divine Knowledge (Pannavimutta sans. Pragya-vimukta)[]

"It is said, friend, 'liberated by panna(divine knowledge), liberated by panna(divine knowledge).' In what way has the Lord(Buddha) spoken of one liberated by panna(divine knowledge)?" 1958

(1) "Here, friend, secluded from sensual pleasures ... a bhik khu enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state) . . . and he understands it with panna(divine knowledge). To this extent the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of one liberated by panna(divine knowledge) in a provisional sense.

(2) — (4) "Again, friend, with the subsiding of thought and examination, a bhikkhu(monk) enters and dwells in the second jhana . . . the third jhana(trance state) . . . the fourth jhana(trance state) . . . and he under stands it with panna(divine knowledge). To this extent, too, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of one liberated by panna(divine knowledge) in a provisional sense.

(5)— (8) "Again, friend, with the complete surmounting of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of forms, with the passing away of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of sensory impingement, with non-attention to perceptions(sanna/sangya) of diversity, [perceiving] 'space is infinite,' a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space . . . the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness . . . the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness . . . the base of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception; and he understands it with panna(divine knowledge). To this extent, too, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of one liberated by panna(divine knowledge) in a provisional sense. [453]

(9) "Again, friend, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana), and having seen with panna(divine knowledge), his taints are utterly destroyed; and he understands it with panna(divine knowledge). To this extent, friend, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of one liberated by panna(divine knowledge) in a non-provisional sense."


45 Liberated in Both Respects (Ubhatobhagavimutta)[]

"It is said, friend, 'liberated in both respects, liberated in both respects.' In what way has the Lord(Buddha) spoken of one liberated in both respects?"

(1) "Here, friend, secluded from sensual pleasures ... a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state). . . . He dwells having contacted that base with the body in whatever way [it is attained], and he understands it with panna(divine knowledge). To this extent the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of one liberated in both respects in a provisional sense.

(2) — (4) "Again, friend, with the subsiding of thought and examination, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the second jhana . . . the third jhana(trance state) . . ; the fourth jhana(trance state). . . . He dwells having contacted that base with the body in whatever way [it is attained], and he understands it with panna(divine knowledge). To this extent, too, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken 6f one liberated in both respects in a provisional sense.

(5)— (8) "Again, friend, with the complete surmounting of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of forms, with the passing away of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of sensory impingement, with non-attention to perceptions(sanna/sangya) of diversity, [perceiving] 'space is infinite,' a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space . . . the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness . . . the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness . . . the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception. He dwells having contacted that base with the body in whatever way [it is attained]. and he understands it with panna(divine knowledge). To this extent, too, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken ot one liberated in both respects in a provisional sense.

(9) "Again, friend, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana), and having seen with panna(divine knowledge), his taints are utterly destroyed. He dwells having contacted that base with the body in whatever way [it is attained], and he understands it with panna(divine knowledge). To this extent, friend, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of one liberated in both respects in a non-provisional sense."


46 Directly Visible Dhamma(1) (Sanditthikadhamma)[]

"It is said, friend. The directly visible Dhamma, the directly visible Dhamma.' In what way has the Lord(Buddha) spoken of the directly visible Dhamma?".

(1)— (8) 7 Here, friend, secluded from sensual pleasures . . .a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state). . . . To this extent, too, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of the directly visible Dhamma in a provisional sense. ...

(9) "Again, friend, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana), and having seen with panna(divine knowledge), his taints are utterly destroyed. To this extent, friend, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of the directly visible Dhamma in a non-provisional sense."


47 Directly Visible Liberation (2) (Sanditthikanibbana )[]

"It is said, friend, 'directly visible nibbana(nirvana), directly visible nibbana.' In what way has the Lord(Buddha) spoken of directly visible nibbana(nirvana)?"

(1)— (8) "Here, friend, secluded from sensual pleasures ... a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state) to this extent, too, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of directly visible nibbana(nirvana) in a provisional sense. . . .

(9) "Again, friend, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana), and having seen with panna(divine knowledge), his taints are utterly destroyed. To this extent, friend, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of directly visible nibbana in a non-provisional sense." [454]


48 Nibbana (sans. Nirvana)[]

"It is said, friend, 'nibbana, nibbana(nirvana)'. .

[Elaborated as in 9:47]


49 Final Nibbana[]

"It is said, friend, 'final nibbana(nirvana), final nibbana(nirvana). . '

[Elaborated as in 9:47]


50 Nibbana in That Particular Respect (Tadanganibbana)[]

"It is said, friend, 'nibbana in a particular respect, nibbana(nirvana) in a particular respect'.

[Elaborated as in 9:47]


51 In This Very Life[]

"It is said, friend, 'nibbana in this very life, nibbana(nirvana) in this very life'. In what, way, friend, has the Lord(Buddha) spoken of nibbana in this very life?"

(1)— (8) "Here, friend, secluded from sensual pleasures ... a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state). . .'To this extent, too, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of nibbana(nirvana) in this very life in a provisional sense. ... '

(9) "Again, friend, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, a bhikkhu enters and dwells In the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana), and having seen with panna(divine knowledge), his taints are utterly destroyed. To this extent, friend, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of nibbana(nirvana) in this very life in a non-provisional sense." [455]



The Second Fifty[]

I. SECURITY SECTION (Khemavaggo sans. Kshema-varga)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


52 Security (1) (Khema sans. Kshema)[]

"It is said, friend, 'security, security'. In what way, friend, has the Lord(Buddha) spoken of security?"

(1)— (8) "Here, friend, secluded from sensual pleasures ... a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state). . . . To this extent, too, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of security in a provisional sense

(9) "Again, friend, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana), and having seen with panna(divine knowledge), his taints are utterly destroyed. To this extent, friend, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of security in a non provisional sense."


53 Security Attainer (2) (Khemappatta sans. Kshema..)[]

"It is said, friend, 'one who has attained security, one who has attained security.'. . ." •

[To be elaborated as in 9:52]


54 The Deathless (1) (Amata sans. Amrita)[]

"It is said, friend, 'the deathless(amata/amrit), the deathless(amata/amrit). .

[To be elaborated as in 9:52]


55 The Deathless State Attainer (2) (Amatappatta sans. Amrita..)[]

"It is said, friend, one who has attained the deathless(amata/amrit), one who has attained the deathless(amata/amrit) . .

[To be elaborated as in 9:52.]


56 The Fearless (1) (Abhaya)[]

"It is said, friend, 'the fearless, the fearless. . ."

[To be elaborated as in 9:52.]


57 The Fearless State Attainer (2) (Abhayappatta)[]

"It is said, friend, 'one who has attained the fearless, one who has attained the fearless. . ."

[To be elaborated as in 9:52.]


58 Tranquility (1) (Passaddhi)[]

"It is said, friend, 'tranquility(passaddhi), tranquility. . ."

[To be elaborated as in 9:52.] [456]


59 Progressive Tranquility (2) (Anupubbapassaddhi sans. Anupurva..)[]

"It is said, friend, 'progressive tranquility, progressive tranquility.'

[ elaborated as in 9:52.]


60 Cessation (Nirodha)[]

"It is said., friend, Cessation, cessation. . ."

[To be elaborated as in 9:52.]


61 Progressive Cessation (Anupubbanirodha)[]

" It is said, friend, 'progressive cessation, progressive cessation In what way, friend, has the Lord(Buddha) spoken of progressive cessation?"

(1)— (8) "Here, friend, secluded from sensual pleasures ... a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state). . . . To this extent, too, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of progressive cessation in a provisional sense. .. .

(9) "Again, friend, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana), and having seen with panna(divine knowledge), his taints are utterly destroyed. To this

extent, friend, the Lord(Buddha) has spoken of progressive cessation in a non-provisional sense."

62 Possible and Impossible (Abhabba)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), without having abandoned nine things, one is incapable of realizing arahantship. What nine? lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), delusion(moha), anger, hostility, denigration, insolence, envy, and miserliness. Without having abandoned these nine things, one is incapable of realizing arahantship.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), having abandoned nine things, one is capable of realizing arahantship. What nine? lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), delusion(moha), anger, hostility, denigration, insolence, envy, and miserliness. Having abandoned these nine things, one is capable of realizing arahantship." [457]



II. Establishments of Meditation Section (Satipatthanavaggo sans. Smriti-prasthan-varga)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


63 Weakness in Training (Sikkhadubbalya sans. Saikshya-daurbalya)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these five setbacks in the training. 1959 What five? (1) The destruction of life, (2) taking what is not given, (3) sexual misconduct, (4) false speech, and (5) [indulging in] liquor, wine, and intoxicants, the basis for slothfulness. These are the five setbacks in the training. The four establishments of mindfulness(meditation/sati) are to be developed for abandoning these five setbacks in the training. What four? Here, (6) a bhikkhu dwells watching(in meditation/anupassi) the body in the body, ardent, complete comprehending, mindful(meditating/sati), having removed longing and dejection in regard to the world. (7) He dwells watching(in meditation/anupassi) sensations(vedana) in sensations(vedana) . . . (8) . . . mind in mind . . . (9) . . . phenomena(dhamma)in phenomena, ardent, completely comprehending, mindful(meditating/sati), having removed longing and dejection in regard to the world. These four establishments of mindfulness(meditation/sati) are to be developed for abandoning these five setbacks in the training."


64 Hindrances (Nivarana)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these five hindrances. What five? The hin drance of sensual(sexual) desire, the hindrance of ill will, the hindrance of dullness [458] and drowsiness, the hindrance of restlessness and remorse, and the hindrance of doubt. These are the five hindrances: . . These four establishments of mindfulness(meditation/sati) are to be developed for abandoning these five hindrances."


65 Sensual Pleasure (Kamaguna)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these five objects of sensual pleasure. What five? Forms cognizable by the eye that are wished for, desired, agreeable, pleasing, connected with sensual pleasure, tantalizing; sounds cognizable by the ear , . . odors cognizable by the nose . . . tastes cognizable by the tongue . . . tactile objects cognizable by the body that are wished for, desired, agreeable, pleasing, connected with sensual pleasure, tantalizing. These are the five objects of sensual pleasure. . . . These four establish ments of mindfulness(meditation/sati) are to be developed for abandoning these five objects of sensual pleasure."


66 Clinging Aggregates (Upadanakkhandha)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these five aggregates subject to clinging. What five? The form aggregate subject to clinging, the sensation(vedana) aggregate subject to clinging, the perception(sanna/sangya) aggregate subject to clinging, one's characteristics(sankhara/sanskar) aggregate subject to clinging, and the consciousness aggregate subject to clinging. [459] These are the five aggregates subject to clinging. . . . These four establishments of mindfulness(meditation/sati) are to be developed for abandoning these five aggregates subject to clinging."


67 Lower Fetters (Orambhagiya)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these five lower fetters. What five? Personal-existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) view, doubt, wrong grasp of behavior and observances, sensual(sexual) desire, and ill will. These are the five lower fetters. . . . These four establishments of mindfulness(meditation/sati) are to be developed for abandoning these five lower fetters."


68 Destinations (Gati)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these five destinations. What five? Hell, the animal realm, the sphere of afflicted spirits, human beings, and devas(angels/gods). These are the five destinations. . . . These four establishments of mindfulness(meditation/sati) are to be developed for abandoning these five destinations ."


69 Miserliness (Macchariya)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these five kinds of miserliness. What five? Miserliness with regard to dwellings, miserliness with regard to families, miserliness with regard to gains, miserliness with regard to praise, and miserliness with regard to the Dhamma. These are the five kinds of miserliness. . . . These four establish ments of mindfulness(meditation/sati) are to be developed for abandoning these five kinds of miserliness." [460]


70 Higher Fetters (Uddhambhagiya)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these five higher fetters. What five? lust(raag) for form, lust(raag) for the formless, conceit, restlessness, and ignorance. These are the five higher fetters: . . . These four establish ments of mindfulness(meditation/sati) are to be developed for abandoning these five higher fetters."


71 Mental Barrenness (Cetokhila)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these five kinds of mental barrenness. What five?

(1) "Here, a bhikkhu is perplexed about the Teacher, doubts him, is not convinced about him and does not place confidence in him. When a bhikkhu is perplexed about the Teacher, doubts him, is not convinced about him and does not place confidence in him, his mind does not incline to ardor, effort, perseverance, and striving. Since his mind does not incline to ardor . . . and striving, this is the first kind of mental barrenness.

(2)— (5) " Again, a bhikkhu is perplexed about the Dhamma(path) . . . perplexed about the Sangha . . . perplexed about the train ing ...is irritated by his fellow monks, displeased with them, aggressive toward them, ill disposed toward them. When a bhikkhu is irritated by his fellow monks, displeased with them, aggressive toward them, ill disposed toward them, his mind does not incline to ardor, effort, perseverance, and striving. Since his mind does not incline to ardor . . . and striving, this is the fifth kind of mental barrenness.

"These are the five kinds of mental barrenness. . . . These four establishments of mindfulness(meditation/sati) are to be developed for abandoning these five kinds of mental barrenness." [461]


72 Bondage (Cetovinibandha)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these five bondages of the mind. What five?

(1) "Here, a bhikkhu is not devoid of lust(raag) for sensual plea sures, not devoid of desire, affection, thirst, passion, and craving(tanha/trishna) for them. When a bhikkhu is not devoid of lust(raag) for sensual pleasures, not devoid of desire, affection, thirst, passion, and craving(tanha/trishna) for them, his mind does not incline to ardor, effort, perseverance, and striving. Since his mind does not incline to ardor . . . and striving, this is the first bondage of the mind.

(2) — (5) "Again, a bhikkhu(monk) is not devoid of lust(raag) for the body, not devoid of desire, affection, thirst, passion, and craving(tanha/trishna) for it. . . . He is not devoid of lust(raag) for form, not devoid of desire, affection, thirst, passion, and craving(tanha/trishna) for it. . . . Having eaten as much as he wants until his belly is full, he is intent upon the pleasure of rest, the pleasure of sloth, the pleasure of sleep He lives the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) aspiring for [rebirth in] a certain order of devas(angels/gods), [thinking]: 'By this virtuous behavior, observance, austerity, or brahmacariya(celibate holy life) I will be a deva(angel/god) or one [in the retinue] of the devas(angels/gods).' When he lives the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) aspiring for [rebirth in] a certain order of devas(angels/gods) . . .his mind does not incline to ardor, effort, perseverance, and striving. Since his mind does not incline to ardor . . . and striving, this is the fifth bondage of the mind.

"These, bhikkhus, are the five bondages of the mind. . . . These four establishments of mindfulness(meditation/sati) are to be developed for abandoning these five bondages of the mind." [462]



(III) Right Strivings (Sammappadhanavaggo)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


73 The Training (Sikkha sans. Shishya)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these five setbacks in the training. What five? (1) The destruction of life, (2) taking what is not given, (3) sexual misconduct, (4) false speech, and (5) [indulging in] liquor, wine, and intoxicants, the basis for slothfulness. These are the five setbacks in the training. The four right strivings are to be developed for abandoning these five setbacks in the training. What four? Here, (6) a bhikkhu generates desire for the non-arising of unarisen bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma); he makes an effort, arouses energy(exertion/viriya), applies his mind, and strives. (7) He generates desire for the abandoning of arisen badharmful(akusala) qualities; he makes an effort, arouses energy(exertion/viriya), applies his mind, and strives. (8) He generates desire for the arising of unarisen beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma); he makes an effort, arouses energy(exertion/viriya), applies his mind, and strives. (9) He generates desire for the maintenance of arisen beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma), for their non-decline, increase, expansion, and fulfillment by develop ment; he makes an effort, arouses energy(exertion/viriya), applies his mind, and strives. These four right strivings are to be developed for abandoning these five setbacks in the training."


74 82 Hindrances, Etc.[]

[Parallel to 9:64— 9:72, but formulated by way of the four right strivings.] [463]



IV. Bases for Psychic Potency(Magic) (Iddhipadavaggo sans. Riddhi-pada-varga)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


83 The Training (Sikkha sans. Shishya)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), there are these five setbacks in the training. What five? (1) The destruction of life, (2) taking what is not given, (3) sexual misconduct, (4) false speech, and (5) [indulging in] liquor, wine, and intoxicants, the basis for slothfulness. These are the five setbacks in the training. The four bases for psychic potency are to be developed for abandoning these five setbacks in the training. What four? [464] (6) Here, a bhikkhu develops the basis for psychic potency(magic/iddhi) that possesses samadhi(self absorption/trance) due to desire and activities of striving. (7) He develops the basis for psychic potency(magic/iddhi) that possesses samadhi(self absorption/trance) due to energy(exertion/viriya) and activities of striving. (8) He develops the basis for psychic potency that possesses samadhi(self absorption/trance) due to mind and activities of striving. (9) He develops the basis for psychic potency(magic/iddhi) that possesses samadhi(self absorption/trance) due to investigation and activities of striving. These four bases for psychic potency(magic/iddhi) are to be developed for abandoning these five setbacks in the training."


84 — 92 Hindrances , Etc.[]

[Parallel to 9:64-9:72 but formulated by way of the four bases for psychic potency(magic/iddhi),] [465]



V. Lust(Raag) and So Forth Repetition Series [1960][]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


93 [1961][]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), for direct knowledge(abhinna) of lust(raag), nine things are to be developed. What nine? The perception(sanna/sangya) of unattracfiveness, the perception(sanna/sangya) of death, the perception(sanna/sangya) of the repulsiveness of food, the perception(sanna/sangya) of non-delight in the entire world, the perception(sanna/sangya) of impermanence(aniccha/anitya), the perception(sanna/sangya) of suffering in the impermanent, the perception(sanna/sangya) of non-self in what is suffering, the perception(sanna/sangya) of abandoning, and the perception(sanna/sangya) of dispassion For direct knowledge of lust(raag), these nine things are to be developed."


94[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), for direct knowledge(abhinna) of lust(raag), nine things are to be developed. What nine? The first jhana(trance state), the second jhana(trance state), the third jhana(trance state), the fourth jhana(trance state), the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space, the base of the infinity of consciousness, the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness, the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, and the cesation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana). For direct knowledge(abhinna) of lust(raag), these nine things are to be developed."


95— 112 [1962][]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), for full understanding of lust(raag)... for the utter destruction . . . for the abandoning . . . for the destruction . . . for the vanishing . . . for the fading away . . . for the cessation . . . for the giving up . . . for the relinquishment of lust(raag) . . . these nine things are to be developed."


113-432[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), for direct knowledge(abhinna) . . . for full understanding . . . for the utter destruction . . for the abandoning . . . for the destruction . . . for the vanishing . . . for the fading away . . . [466] for the cessation . . . for the giving up . . . for the relinquishment of hatred ... of delusion(moha) ... of anger ... of hostility ... of denigra tion ... of insolence ... of envy ... of miserliness ... of deceitful ness ... of craftiness . . . of obstinacy ... of vehemence ... of conceit ... of arrogance . . . of intoxication ... of slothfulness . . . these nine things are to be developed." 1963

This is what the Lord(Buddha) said. Elated, those bhikkhus delighted in the Lord(Buddha)'s statement.

The Book of the Nines is finished.


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