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Tipitaka >> Sutta Pitaka >> Anguttara Nikaya >> 3.Book of Threes


Pali Versions : Pali-English and Pali-Devanagri Versions are embedded in the texts.



This is Book Three of Anguttara Nikaya. This is modified version of Bhikkhu Bodhi.


Numerical Discourses (Anguttara Nikaya)

(Counting on Fingers section)

Note : 'c' of Pali word is pronounced as 'ch' as in 'China'


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Contents

The Book of the Threes (Tikanipata)[]

Namo Tassya Bhagavato, Arahato, Samma-Sam-Buddhassya

Homage to that Bhagavato(Lord) , Enemy Vanquisher , the Rightly and Perfectly Enlightened(Awakened) One



The First Fifty[]

I. The Unwise (Bala)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


1 Peril (Bhaya)[]

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There the Lord(Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus: "Bhikkhus!"

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), whatever perils arise all arise on account of the unwise, not on account of the wise person. Whatever calamities arise ail arise on account of the unwise, not on account of the wise person. Whatever misfortunes arise all arise on account of the unwise, not on account of the wise person. Just as a fire that starts in a house made of reeds or grass burns down even a house with a peaked roof, plastered inside and out, draft-free, with bolts fastened and shutters closed; so too, whatever perils arise . . . all arise on account of the unwise, not on account of the wise person. (1) Thus, bhikkhus, the unwise brings peril, the wise person brings no peril; (2) the unwise brings calamity, the wise person brings no calamity; (3) the unwise brings misfortune, the wise person brings no misfortune. There is no peril from the wise person; there is no calamity from the wise person; there is no misfortune from the wise person.

"Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves thus: 'We will avoid the three qualities possessing which one is known as a unwise, and we will undertake and practice the three qualities possessing which one is known as a wise person. It is in this Way that you should train yourselves." [102]


2 Characteristics (Lakkhana)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), the unwise is characterized by his actions; the wise person is characterized by his actions. panna(divine knowledge) shines in its manifestation. 339

"Bhikkhus(Monks), one who possesses three qualities should be known as a unwise. What three? Bodily-misconduct, verbal misconduct, and mental misconduct. One who possesses these three qualities should be known as a unwise. One who possesses three qualities should be known as a wise person. What three? Bodily good conduct, verbal good conduct, and mental good conduct. One who possesses these three: qualities should be known as a wise person.

"Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves. thus: 'We will avoid the three qualities possessing which one is known as a unwise, and we will undertake and observe the three qualities possessing which one is known as a wise person. It is in this way that you should train yourselves."


3 Thinking (Cinti)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), the unwise has these three characteristics of a unwise, marks of a unwise, manifestations of a unwise. 340 What three? Here, a unwise thinks badly, speaks badly, and acts badly. If the unwise did not think badly, speak badly, and act badly, how would wise people know of him: 'This fellow is a unwise, a bad person'? But because the unwise thinks badly, speaks badly, and acts badly, wise people know of him: 'This fellow is a unwise, a bad person.' These are the unwise's three characteristics of a unwise, marks of a unwise, manifestations of a unwise.

"The wise person has these three characteristics of a wise person, marks of a wise person, manifestations of a wise person. What three? Here, a wise person thinks well, speaks well, and acts well. If the wise person did not think well, speak well, and act well, how would wise people know of him: 'This fellow is wise, a good person'? [103] But because the wise person thinks well speaks well, and acts well, wise people know of him: 'This Tellow is wise, a good person.' These are the wise person's three characteristics of a wise person, marks of a wise person, manifestations of a wise person."

"Therefore . . . [as in 3:2] ... It is in this way that you should train yourselves." 341


4 Transgression (Accaya)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), one who possesses three qualities should be known as a unwise. What three? (1) He does not see his transgression as a transgression. (2) When he sees his transgression as a transgression, he does not make amends for it in accordance with the Dhamma. (3) When another person confesses a transgression to him, he does not accept it in accordance with the Dhamma. One who possesses these three qualities should be known as a unwise.

"One who possesses three qualities should be known as a wise person. What three? (1) He sees a transgression as a transgression. (2) When he sees a transgression as a transgression, he makes amends for it in accordance with the Dhamma. (3) When another person confesses a transgression to him, he accepts it in accordance with the Dhamma. One who possesses these three qualities should be known as a wise person.

"Therefore ... It is in this way that you should train your selves."


5 Carelessly (Ayoniso)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), one who possesses three qualities should be known as a unwise. What three? (1) He formulates a question carelessly; (2) he replies to a question carelessly; (3) when another person replies to a question carefully, with well-rounded and coherent words and phrases, he does not approve of it. One who possesses these three qualities should be known as a unwise.

"One who possesses three qualities should be known as a wise person. What three? (1) He formulates a question carefully; (2) he replies to a question carefully; (3) when another person replies to a question carefully, with well-rounded and coherent words and phrases, he approves of it. One who possesses these three qualities should be known as a wise person.

"Therefore ... It is in this way that you should train your selves."


6 Harmful (Akusala sans. Akushal )[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), one who possesses three qualities;should be known as a unwise. What three? [104] harmful(akusala) bodily action. harmful(akusala) verbal action, and harmful(akusala) mental action. One who possesses these three qualities should be known as a unwise.

"One who possesses three qualities should be known as a wise person. What three? beneficial(kusala) bodily action, beneficial(kusala) verbal action, and beneficial(kusala) mental action. One who possesses these three qualities should be known as a wise person.

"Therefore ... It is in this way that you should train your selves."


7 Blameworthy (Savajja)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), one who possesses three qualities should be known as a unwise. What three? Blameworthy bodily action, blameworthy verbal action, and blameworthy mental action. One who possesses these three qualities should be known as a unwise.

"One who possesses three qualities should be known as a wise person. What three? Blameless bodily action, blameless verbal action, and blameless mental action. One who possesses these three qualities should be known as a wise person.

"Therefore ... It is in this way that you should train yourselves."


8 Afflictive (Sabayabajjha)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), one who possesses three qualities should be known as a unwise. What three? Afflictive bodily action, afflictive verbal action, and afflictive mental action. One who possesses these three qualities should be known as a unwise.

"One who possesses three qualities should be known as a wise person. What three? Unafflictive bodily action, unafflictive verbal action, and unafflictive mental action. One who possesses these three qualities should be known as a wise person.

"Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves thus: 'We will avoid the three qualities possessing which one is known as a unwise, and we will undertake and observe the three qualities possessing which one is known as a wise person? It is in this way that you should train yourselves?' [105]


9 Maimed (Khata sans. Kshat)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), possessing three qualities, the unwise, incompetent, bad person maintain himself in a maimed and injured condition; he is blameworthy and subject to reproach by the wise; and he generates, much demerit. What three? Bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, and mental misconduct. Possessing these three qualities, the unwise, incompetent, bad person maintains himself in a maimed and injured condition; he is blameworthy and subject to reproach by the wise; and he generates much demerit.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three qualities, the wise, competent, good person preserves himself unmanned and uninjured; he is blameless and beyond reproach by the wise; and he generates much merit. What three? Bodily good conduct, verbal good conduct, and mental good conduct. Possessing these three qualities, the wise, competent, good person preserves himself unmaimed and uninjured; he is blameless and beyond reproach by the wise; and he generates much merit."


10 Stains (Mala)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three qualities and without having abandoned three stains, one is deposited in hell as if brought there. What three? (1) One is immoral and has not abandoned the stain of immorality. (2) One is envious and has not abandoned the stain of envy. (3) One is miserly and has not abandoned the stain of miserliness. Possessing these three qualities and without having abandoned these three stains, one is deposited in hell as if brought there.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three qualities and having abandoned three stains, one is deposited in heaven as if brought there. What three? (1) One is virtuous and has abandoned the stain of immorality. (2) One is not envious and has abandoned the stain of envy. (3) One is not miserly and has abandoned the stain of miserliness. Possessing these three qualities and having abandoned these three stains, one is deposited in heaven as if brought there." [106]



II. The Cart Maker (Rathakara)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


11 Well Known (Nata)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three qualities, a well-known bhikkhu is acting for the harm of many people, for the unhappiness of many people, for the ruin, harm, and suffering of many people. of devas(angels/gods) and human beings. What three? He encourages them in discordant bodily action, discordant verbal action, and discordant [mental] qualities. 342 Possessing these three qualities, a well-known bhikkhu is acting for the harm of many people, for the unhappiness of many people, for the ruin, harm, and suffering of many people, of devas(angels/gods) and human beings.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three qualities, a well-known bhikkhu is acting for the welfare of many people, for the happiness of many people, for the good, welfare, and happiness of many people, of devas(angels/gods) and human beings. What three? He encourages them in concordant bodily action, concordant verbal action, and concordant [mental] qualities. Possessing these three qualities, a well-known bhikkhu is acting for the welfare of many people, for the happiness of many people, for the good, welfare, and happiness of many people, of devas(angels/gods) and human beings."


12 To Be Remembered (Saraniya Sans. Smaraniya)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three [places] that a head-anointed khattiya(Sans. Kshatriya) king should remember all his life. What three? (1) The first is the place where he was born. (2) The second is the place where he was head-anointed a khattiya king. (3) And the third is the place where, having triumphed in battle, he emerged victorious and settled at the head of the battlefield. These are the three [places] that a head-anointed khattiya king should remember all his life. [107]

"So too, bhikkhus(monks), there are these three [places] that a bhikkhu should remember all his life. What three? (1) The first is the place where he shaved off his hair and beard, put on ochre robes, and went forth from the household life into hermit life. (2) The second is the place where he understood as it really is: 'This is suffering', and 'This is the origin of suffering'. and 'This is the cessation of suffering', and 'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering', (3) And the third is the place where, with the destruction of the taints, he realized for himself with direct knowledge, in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, dwelled in it. 343 These are the three [places] that a bhikkhu should remember all his life."


13 Expectation (Asamsa Sans. Akanksha)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three kinds of persons found existing in the world. What three? The one without expectation, the one full, of expectation, and the one who has overcome expectation.

(1) "And what, bhikkhus, is the person without expectation? Here, a person has been reborn in a low family — a family of candalas, bamboo workers, hunters, cart makers, or flower scavengers 344 — one that is poor, with little food and drink, that subsists with difficulty, where food and clothing are obtained with difficulty;, and he is ugly, unsightly, dwarfish, with much illness: blind, crippled, lame, or paralyzed. He does not obtain food, drink, clothing, and vehicles; garlands, scents, and unguents; bedding, housing, and lighting. He hears: 'The khattiyas have anointed such and such a khattiya. It does not occur to him: 'When will the khattiyas anoint me too?' This is called the person without expectation."

(2) "And what is the person full of expectation? [108] Here, the eldest son of a head-anointed khattiya king, one due to be anointed but not yet anointed, has attained the unshaken. 345 He hears: The khattiyas have anointed such and such a khattiya, It occurs to him: 'When will the khattiyas anoint me too?' This is called the person full of expectation. "

(3) "And what is the person who has overcome expectation? Here, a head-anointed khattiya king hears: 'Such and such a khattiya has been anointed by the khattiyas.' It does not occur to him: 'When will the khattiyas anoint me too?' For what reason? Because his past expectation of anointment subsided when he was anointed. This is called the person who has overcome expectation. "

"These are the three kinds of persons found existing in the world. "

"So too, bhikkhus, there are three kinds of persons found existing among the bhikkhus. What three? The one without expectation, the one full of expectation, and the one who has overcome expectation. "

(1) "And what, bhikkhus, is the person without expectation? Here, some person is immoral, of bad character, of impure and suspect behavior, secretive in his actions, not an ascetic though claiming to be one, not a celibate though claiming to be one, inwardly rotten, corrupt, depraved. He hears: 'Such and such a bhikkhu, with the destruction of the taints, has realized for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, he dwells in it. It does not occur to him: 'When will I, too, with the destruction of the taints, realize for myself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, dwell in it?' This is called the person without expectation."

(2) "And what is the person full of expectation? Here, a bhikkhu is virtuous, of good character. He [109] hears: 'Such and such a bhikkhu, with the destruction of the taints, has real ized for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, he dwells in it.' It occurs to him: 'When will I, too, with the destruction of the taints, realize for myself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, dwell in it?' This is called the person full of expectation.

(3) "And what is the person who has overcome expectation? Here, a bhikkhu is an arahant, one whose taints are destroyed. He hears: 'Such and such a bhikkhu, with the destruction of the taints, has realized for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, he dwells in it.' It does not occur to him: 'When will I, too, with the destruction of the taints, realize for myself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, dwell in it?' For what reason? Because his past expectation of liberation subsided when he was liberated. This is called the person who has overcome expectation.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of persons found existing among the bhikkhus."


14 Wheel-Turning (Cakkavatti Sans. Chakravarti )[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), even a wheel-turning monarch, a righteous king who rules by the Dhamma, does not turn the wheel without a king above him."

When this was said, a certain bhikkhu said to the Lord(Buddha): "But, Bhante, who is the king above a wheel-turning monarch, a righteous king who rules by the Dhamma?"

"It is the Dhamma, bhikkhu," the Lord(Buddha) said. 346 "Here, bhikkhu, a wheel-turning monarch, a righteous king who rules by the Dhamma, relying just on the Dhamma, honoring, respecting, and venerating the Dhamma, taking the Dhamma as his standard, banner, and authority, provides righteous protection, shelter, and guard for the people in his court. Again, a wheel-turning monarch, a righteous king who rules by the Dhamma, relying just on the Dhamma, honoring, respecting, and venerating the Dhamma, taking the Dhamma as his standard, banner, and authority, provides righteous protection, shelter, and guard for his khattiya vassals, his army, [110] brahmins and householders, the people of town and country side, ascetics and brahmins, and the animals and birds. Having provided such righteous protection, shelter, and guard for all these beings, that wheel-turning monarch, a righteous king who rules by the Dhamma, turns the wheel solely through the Dhamma, 347 a wheel that cannot be turned back by any hostile human being. 348

(1) "So too, bhikkhu, the Tathagata(Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, the righteous king of the Dhamma, relying just on the Dhamma, honoring, respecting, and venerating the Dhamma, taking the Dhamma as his standard, banner, and authority, provides righteous protection, shelter, and guard in regard to bodily action, saying: 'Such bodily action should be cultivated; such bodily action should not be cultivated.'

(2) "Again, the Tathagata(Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, the righteous king of the Dhamma, relying just on the Dhamma, honoring, respecting, and venerating the Dhamma, taking the Dhamma as his standard, banner, and authority, provides righteous protection, shelter, and guard in regard to verbal action, saying: 'Such verbal action should be cultivated; such verbal action should not be cultivated.'

(3) "Again, the Tathagata(Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, the righteous king of the Dhamma, relying just on the Dhamma, honoring; respecting, and venerating the Dhamma, taking the Dhamma as his standard, banner, and authority. provides righteous protection, shelter, and guard in regard to mental action, saying: "Such mental action should be cultivated; such mental action should not be cultivated.'

"Having provided such righteous protection, shelter, and guard in regard to bodily action, verbal action, and mental action, the Tathagata(Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, the righteous king of the Dhamma, sets in motion the unsurpassed wheel of the Dhamma solely through the Dhamma, a wheel that cannot be turned back by any ascetic, brahmin, deva(angel/god), Mara, or Brahma, or by anyone in the world."


15 King Sacetana 349[]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Baranasi in the deer park at Isipatana. There the Lord(Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus: "Bhikkhus!" [Ill]

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), in the past there was a king named Sacetana. Then King Sacetana addressed a chariotmaker: 'Friend chariotmaker, six months from now there will be a battle. Can you make me a new pair of wheels?' 'I can, lord,' the chariotmaker replied. After six months less six days the chariotmaker had finished one wheel. King Sacetana then addressed the chariotmaker: 'Six days from now there will be a battle. Is the new pair of wheels finished?' [The chariotmaker replied:] 'In the past six months less six days, lord, I have finished one wheel.' — 'But, friend chariotmaker, can you finish a second wheel for me in the next six days?' — 'I can, lord.' the chariotmaker replied. Then, over the next six days, the chariotmaker finished the second wheel. He brought the new pair of wheels to King Sacetana and said: 'This is the new pair of wheels that X have made for you, lord.' — 'What is the difference, friend chariotmaker, between the wheel that took six months less six days to complete and the one that took six days to complete? I do not see any difference between them.' — There is a difference, lord. Observe the difference.'

"Then the chariotmaker rolled the wheel that took six days to finish. It rolled as far as the impetus carried it, 350 and then it wobbled and fell to the grotmd. But the wheel that took six months [112] Less six days to finish rolled as far as the impetus carried it and then stood still as if fixed on an axle. 351

"[The king asked:] 'Why is it, friend chariotmaker, that the wheel that took six days to finish rolled as far as the impetus carried it, and then wobbled and fell to the ground, while the wheel that took six months less six days to finish rolled as far as the impetus carried it and then stood still as if fixed on an axle?'

"[The chariotmaker replied:] 'The wheel that took six days to finish, lord, has a rim that is crooked, faulty, and defective; spokes that are crooked, faulty, and defective; and a nave that is crooked, faulty, and defective. For this reason, it rolled as far as the impetus carried it and then it wobbled and fell to the ground. But the wheel that took six months less six days to finish has a rim without crookedness, faults, and defects; it has spokes without crookedness, faults, and defects; and it has a nave that is without crookedness, faults, and defects. For this reason, it roiled as far as the impetus carried it and then stood still as if fixed on an axle."

"It may be, bhikkhus, that you think: 'On that occasion the chariotmaker was someone else, But you should not think in such a way. On that occasion, I myself was the chariotmaker. Then I was skilled in crookedness, faults, and defects in wood. But now I am the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, (1) skilled in crookedness, faults, and defects of the body; (2) skilled in crookedness, faults, and defects of speech; and (3) skilled in crookedness, faults, and defects of mind.

"Any bhikkhu or Bhikkhuni(nun)who has not abandoned crookedness, faults, and defects of the body, speech, and mind [113] has fallen down from this Dhamma and discipline, just as the wheel that was finished in six days [fell to the ground].

"Any bhikkhu or Bhikkhuni(nun)who has abandoned crookedness, faults, and defects of the body, speech, and mind is established in this Dhamma and discipline, just as the wheel that was finished in six months less six days [remained standing].

"Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves thus: 'We will abandon crookedness, faults, and defects of the body; we will abandon crookedness, faults, and defects of speech; we will abandon crookedness, faults, and defects of the mind.' It is in this way that you should train yourselves."


16 The Unmistaken (Apannaka)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three qualities, a bhikkhu is practicing the unmistaken way and has laid the groundwork for the destruction of the taints. 352 What three? Here, a bhikkhu guards the doors of the sense faculties, observes moderation in eating, and is intent on wakefulness. 353

(1) "And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu guard the doors of the sense faculties? Here, having seen a form(rupa) with the eye, a bhikkhu(monk) does not grasp its marks and features. Since, if he left the eye faculty unrestrained, bad harmful(akusala) states of longing and dejection might invade him, he practices restraint over it; he guards the eye faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the eye faculty. Having heard a sound with the ear. . .Having smelled an odor with the nose . . . Having tasted, a taste with the tongue . . . Having felt a tactile object with the body . . .Having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, a bhikkhu does not grasp its marks and features. Since, if he left the mind faculty unrestrained, bad harmful(akusala) states of longing and dejection might invade him, he practices restraint over it; he guards the mind faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the mind faculty. It is in this way that a bhikkhu guards the doors of the sense faculties. [114]

(2) "And how does a bhikkhu observe moderation in eating? Here, reflecting carefully, a bhikkhu consumes food neither for amusement nor for intoxication nor for the sake of physical beauty and attractiveness, but only for the support and maintenance of this body, for avoiding harm, and for assisting the brahmacariya(celibate holy life), considering: 'Thus I shall terminate the old sensation(vedana) and not arouse a new sensation(vedana), and I shall be healthy and blame less and dwell at ease' It is in this way that a bhikkhu observes moderation in eating.

(3) "And how is a bhikkhu intent on wakefulness? Here, during the day, while walking back and forth and sitting, a bhikkhu purifies his mind of obstructive qualities. In the first watch of the night, while walking back and forth and sitting, he purifies his mind of obstructive qualities. In the middle watch of the night he lies down on the right side in the lion's posture, with one foot overlapping the other, mindful(meditating/sati) and completely comprehending, after noting in his mind the idea of rising. After rising, in the last watch of the night, while walking back and forth and sitting, he purifies his mind of obstructive qualities. It is in this way that a bhikkhu is intent on wakefulness.

"A bhikkhu who possesses these three qualities is practicing the unmistaken way and has laid the groundwork for the destruction of the taints."


17 Oneself (Atta-byabadha)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), these three qualities lead to one's own affliction, the affliction of others, and the affliction of both. What three? Bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, and mental misconduct. These three qualities lead to one's own affliction, the affliction of others, and the affliction of both.

"These three [other] qualities do not lead to one's own affliction, the affliction of others, and the affliction of both. What three? Bodily good conduct/verbal good conduct, and mental good conduct. These three qualities do not lead to one's own affliction, the affliction of others, and the affliction of both." [ 115 ]


18 Deva(angel/god) (Devaloka)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), if ascetics of other sects were to ask you thus: 'Friends, do you lead the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) under the ascetic Gotama for the sake of rebirth in the deva(angel/god) world?' wouldn't you be repelled, humiliated, and disgusted?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"Thus, bhikkhus, since you are repelled, humiliated, and disgusted with a celestial life span, celestial beauty, celestial happiness, celestial glory, and celestial authority, so much more then should you be repelled, humiliated, and disgusted with bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, and mental misconduct."


19 Shopkeeper (1) (Papanika1)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three factors, a shopkeeper is incapable of acquiring wealth not yet acquired or of increasing wealth already acquired. What three? Here, a shopkeeper does not diligently apply himself to his work in the morning, in the middle of the day, or in the evening. Possessing these three factors, a shopkeeper is incapable of acquiring wealth not yet acquired or of increasing wealth already acquired."

"So too, possessing three factors, a bhikkhu is incapable of achieving a beneficial(kusala) state not yet attained or of increasing a beneficial(kusala) state already attained. What three? Here, a bhikkhu does not diligently apply himself to an object of samadhi(self absorption/trance) in the morning, in the middle of the day, or in the evening. Possessing these three factors, a bhikkhu is incapable of achieving a beneficial(kusala) state not yet attained or of increasing a beneficial(kusala) state already attained. [116]"

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three factors, a shopkeeper is capable of acquiring wealth not yet acquired and of increasing wealth already acquired. What three? Here, a shopkeeper diligently applies himself to his work in the morning, in the middle of the day, and in the evening. Possessing these three factors, a shopkeeper is capable of acquiring wealth not yet acquired and of increasing wealth already acquired. "

"So too, possessing three factors, a bhikkhu is capable of achieving a beneficial(kusala) state not yet attained and of increasing a beneficial(kusala) state already attained. What three? Here, a bhikkhu diligently applies himself to an object of samadhi(self absorption/trance) in the morning, in the middle of the day, and in the evening. Possessing these three factors, a bhikkhu is capable of achieving a beneficial(kusala) state not yet attained and of increasing a beneficial(kusala) state already attained."


20 Shopkeeper (2) (Papanika2)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three factors, a shopkeeper soon attains vast and abundant wealth. What three? Here, a shopkeeper has keen eyes, is responsible, and has benefactors.

(1) "And how, bhikkhus, does a shopkeeper have keen eyes? Here, a shopkeeper knows of an item: 'If this item is bought at such a price and sold at such a price, it will require this much capital and bring this much profit.' It is in this way that a shop keeper has keen eyes. "

(2) "And how is a shopkeeper responsible? Here, a shop keeper is skilled in buying and selling goods. It is in this way that a shopkeeper is responsible. "

(3) "And how does a shopkeeper have benefactors? Here, rich, wealthy, affluent householders and householders' sons know him thus: 'This good shopkeeper has keen eyes and is responsible; he is able to support his wife and children and pay us back from time to time.' So they deposit wealth with him, saying: 'Having earned wealth with this, friend shopkeeper, support your wife and children and pay us back from time to time.' It is in this way that a shopkeeper has benefactors."

"Possessing these three factors, a shopkeeper soon attains vast and abundant wealth."

"So too, bhikkhus, possessing three qualities, a bhikkhu soon attains vast and abundant beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma). What three? Here, a bhikkhu has keen eyes, is responsible, and has benefactors."

(1) "And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu have keen eyes? Here, a bhikkhu(monk) understands as it really is: 'This is suffer ing' . . . 'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.' It is in this way that a bhikkhu has keen eyes.

(2) "And how is a bhikkhu responsible? Here, a bhikkhu has aroused energy(exertion/viriya) for abandoning harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) and acquiring beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma); he is strong, firm in exertion, not casting off the duty of cultivating beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma). It is in this way that a bhikkhu is responsible."

(3) "And how does a bhikkhu have benefactors? Here, from time to time a bhikkhu approaches those bhikkhus who are learned, heirs to the heritage, experts on the Dhamma, experts on the discipline, experts on the outlines, 354 and inquires: 'How is this, Bhante? What is the meaning of this?' Those venerable ones then disclose to him what has not been disclosed, clear up what is obscure, and dispel his perplexity about numerous per plexing points. It is in this way that a bhikkhu(monk) has benefactors. " [118]

"Possessing these three qualities, a bhikkhu soon attains vast and abundant beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma)."



III. Persons (Puggala)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


21 Samiddha[]

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Then the Venerable Savittha and the Venerable Mahakotthita approached the Venerable Sariputta and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, they sat down to one side. The Venerable Sariputta then said to the Venerable Savittha:

"Friend Savittha, there are these three kinds of persons found existing in the world. What three? The body witness, the one attained to view, and the one liberated by faith. 355 These are the three kinds of persons found existing in the world. Which of these three kinds of persons do you consider the most excellent and sublime?"

"Friend Sariputta, of those three kinds of persons, I consider the one liberated by faith to be the most excellent and sublime. 356 For what reason? Because this person's faculty of faith is predominant."

Then the Venerable Sariputta said to the Venerable Mahakotthita: "Friend Kotthita, there are these three kinds of persons found existing in the world. . , . [119] Which of these three kinds of persons do you consider the most excellent and sublime?" ...

"Friend Sariputta, of those three kinds of persons, I consider the body witness to be the most excellent and sublime. For What reason? Because this person's faculty of samadhi(self absorption/trance) is predominant."

Then the Venerable Mahakotthita said to the Venerable Sariputta: "Friend Sariputta, there are these three kinds of persons found existing in the world. . . . Which of these three kinds of persons do you consider the most excellent and sublime?"

"Friend Kotthita, of those three kinds of persons, I consider the one attained to view to be the most excellent and sublime. For what reason? Because this person's faculty of panna(divine knowledge) is predominant."

Then the Venerable Sariputta said to the Venerable Savittha and the Venerable Mahakotthita: "Friends, we have each explained according to our own ideal. Come, let's approach the Lord(Buddha) and report this matter to him. We will retain it in mind as he explains it to us."

"Yes, friend," the Venerable Savittha and the Venerable Mahakotthita replied. Then the Venerable Sariputta, the Venerable Savittha, and the Venerable Mahakotthita approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. [120] The Venerable Sariputta then reported to him the entire conversation that had taken place.

[The Lord(Buddha) said:] "It isn't easy, Sariputta, to make a definitive declaration about this matter and say: 'Of these three kinds of persons, this one is the most excellent and sublime.'

(1) "For it is possible that a person liberated by faith is practicing for arahatship, while a body witness and one attained to view are once-returners(1 rebirth,sakdagami) or non-returners(no earthly rebirth,anagami). It isn't easy, Sariputta, to make a definitive declaration about this matter and say: 'Of these three kinds of persons, this one is the most excellent and sublime.'

(2) "It is possible that a person who is a body witness is practicing for arahantship, while one liberated by faith and one attained to view are once-returners(1 rebirth,sakdagami) or non-returners(no earthly rebirth,anagami). It isn't easy, Sariputta, to make a definitive declaration about this matter and say: 'Of these three kinds of persons, this one is the most excellent and sublime.'

(3) "It is possible that a person attained to view is practicing for arahantship, 357 while one liberated by faith and a body witness are once-returners(1 rebirth,sakdagami) or non-returners(no earthly rebirth,anagami). It isnd easy, Sariputta, to make a definitive declaration about this matter and say: 'Of these three kinds of persons, this one is the most excellent and sublime."


22 Patients (Gilana)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three kinds of patients found existing in the world. What three? (1) Here, one patient will not recover from his illness whether or not he gets suitable food, suitable medicine, [121] and a competent attendant. (2) Another patient will recover from his illness whether or not he gets suitable food, suitable medicine, and a competent attendant. (3) Still another patient will recover from his illness only if he gets suitable food, not if he fails to get it; only if he gets suitable medicine, not if he fails to get it; and only if he gets a competent attendant, not if he fails to get one.

"Food and medicine and a competent attendant are prescribed particularly for the sake of the patient who will recover from his illness only if he gets suitable food, not if he fails to get it; only if he gets suitable medicine, not if he fails to get it; and only if he gets a competent attendant, not if he fails to get one. But because of this patient, the other patients should also be served. These are the three kinds of patients found existing in the world.

"So too, bhikkhus, there are these three kinds of persons similar to patients found existing in the world. What three? (1) Here, some person will not enter upon the fixed course [consisting in] rightness in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) whether or not he gets to see the Tathagata(Buddha) and whether or not he gets to hear the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha). 358 (2) Then another person will enter upon the fixed course [consist ing in] rightness in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) whether or not he gets to see the Tathagata(Buddha) and whether or not he gets to hear the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha). (3) And still another person will enter upon the fixed course [consisting in] rightness in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) only if he gets to see the Tathagata(Buddha), not if he fails to see him; only if he gets to hear the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), not if he fails to hear it. [122]

"The teaching of the Dhamma is prescribed particularly for the sake of the person who will enter upon the fixed course [consisting in] rightness in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) only if he gets to see the Tathagata(Buddha), not if he fails to see him; only if he gets to hear the Dhamma(path) and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), not if he fails to hear it. But because of this person, the Dhamma should also be taught to the others. These are the three kinds of persons similar to patients found existing in the world."


23 Character/Behavior (Sankhara sans. Sanskar)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are three kinds of persons found existing in the world. What three?

(1) "Here, bhikkhus, some person generates afflictive bodily character/behavior(Sankhara/Sanskar), afflictive verbal character/behavior(Sankhara/Sanskar), and afflictive mental character/behavior(Sankhara/Sanskar). 389 In consequence, he is reborn in an afflictive world. When he is reborn in an afflictive world, afflictive contacts touch him. Being touched by afflictive contacts, he feels afflictive sensations(vedana), exclusively painful, as in the case of hell-beings.

(2) "Someone else generates unafflictive bodily character/behavior(Sankhara/Sanskar), unafflictive verbal character/behavior(Sankhara/Sanskar), and unafflictive mental character/behavior(Sankhara/Sanskar). In consequence, he is reborn in an unafflictive world. When he is reborn in an unafflictive world, unafflictive contacts touch him. Being touched by unafflictive contacts, he feels unafflictive sensations(vedana), exclusively pleasant, as in the case of the devas(angels/gods) of refulgent glory. 360

(3) "Still another generates bodily character/behavior(Sankhara/Sanskar) that are both afflictive and unafflictive, verbal character/behavior(Sankhara/Sanskar) that are both afflictive and unafflictive, and mental character/behavior(Sankhara/Sanskar) that are both afflictive and unafflictive. In consequence, [123] he is reborn in a world that is both afflictive and unafflictive. When he is reborn in a world that is both afflictive and unafflictive, both afflictive and unafflictive contacts touch him. Being touched by both afflictive and unafflictive contacts, he feels both afflictive and unafflictive sensations(vedana), mingled pleasure and pain, as in the case of human beings, some devas(angels/gods), and some beings in the lower worlds. 361

"These, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of persons found existing in the world. "


24 Helpful (Bahukara)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), these three persons are helpful to another person. What three?

(1) "The person through whom another has gone for refuge to the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha. This person is helpful to the other person.

(2) "Again, the person through whom another comes to understand as.it really is; 'This is suffering,' and 'This is the origin of suffering,' and 'This is the cessation of suffering' and 'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.' This person is helpful to the other person." 362

(3) "Again, the person through whom, with the destruction of the taints, another realizes for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, dwells in it. This person is helpful to the other person."

"These three persons are helpful to another person."

"I say, bhikkhus, that there is no one more helpful to another person than these three persons. I say, too, that it is not easy to repay these three persons by paying homage to them, by rising up for them, by reverential salutation, by proper conduct, and by presenting them with robes, almsfood, lodging, and medicines and provisions for the sick."


25 Diamond (Vajirupama)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), there are these three kinds of persons found exist ing in the world. [124] What three? One whose mind is like an open sore, one whose mind is like lightning, and one whose mind is like a diamond.

(1) "And what, bhikkhus, is the person whose mind is like an open sore? Here, some person is prone to anger and easily exasperated. Even if he is criticized slightly he loses his temper and becomes irritated, hostile, and stubborn; he displays irritation, hatred, and bitterness. Just as a festering sore, if struck by a stick or a shard, will discharge even more matter, so too person here is prone to anger. . .and displays irritation, hatred, and bitterness. This person is said to have a mind like an open sore.

(2) "And what is the person whose mind is like lightning? Here, some person understands as it really is: 'This is suffering' and 'This is the origin of suffering,' and 'This is the cessation of suffering' and 'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering' Just as, in the dense darkness of night, a man with good sight can see forms by a flash of lightning, so too some person here understands as it really is: 'This is suffering' . . . 'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.' This person is said to have a mind like lightning."

(3) "And what is the person whose mind is like a diamond? Here, with the destruction of the taints, some person realizes for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, dwells in it. Just as there is nothing that a diamond cannot cut, whether gem or stone, so too, with the destruction of the taints, some person realizes for himself with direct knowledge . . . the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and. . .dwells in it. This person is said to have a mind like a diamond. "

"These, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of persons found existing in the world."


26 To Be Associated With (Sevitabba)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three kinds of persons found existing in the world. What three? (1) There is a person who is not to be associated with, followed, and served; (2) a person who is to be associated with, followed, and served; and (3) [125] a person who is to be associated with, followed, and served with honor and respect."

(1 ) "And what kind of person, bhikkhus(monks), is not to be associated with, followed, and served? Here, some person is inferior in virtuous behavior(Sila), meditative trance(Samadhi), and divine panna(divine knowledge). Such a person is not to be associated with, followed, and served except out of sympathy and compassion.

(2) "And what kind of person is to be associated with, followed, and served? Here, some person is similar in virtuous behavior(sila), meditative trance(Samadhi), and divine panna(divine knowledge). Such a person is to be associated with, followed, and served. For what reason? [Because one considers:] 'Since we are similar with regard to virtuous behavior(sila), we will have a discussion on virtuous behavior(sila), and it will flow on smoothly between us, and we will feel at ease. Since we are similar with regard to meditative trance(samadhi), we will have a discussion on meditative trance(samadhi), and it will flow on smoothly between us, and we will feel at ease. Since we are similar with regard to divine panna(divine knowledge), we . will have a discussion on divine panna(divine knowledge), and it will flow on smoothly between us, and we will feel at ease. Therefore such a person is to be associated with, followed, and served.

(3) "And what kind of person is to be associated with, followed, and served with honor and respect? Here, some person is superior [to oneself] in virtuous behavior(sila), meditative trance(samadhi), and divine panna(divine knowledge). Such a person is to be associated with, followed, and served with honor and respect. For what reason? [Because one considers:] 'In such a way I will fulfill the aggregate of virtuous behavior(sila) that I have not yet fulfilled or assist with divine panna(divine knowledge) in various respects the aggregate of virtuous behavior(sila) that I have fulfilled. I will fulfill the aggregate of meditative trance(samadhi) that I have not yet fulfilled or assist with divine panna(divine knowledge) in various respects the aggregate of meditative trance(samadhi) that I have fulfilled. I will fulfill the aggregate of divine panna(divine knowledge) that I have not yet fulfilled or assist with divine panna(divine knowledge) in various respects the aggregate of divine panna(divine knowledge) that I have fulfilled. 363 Therefore such a person is to be associated with, followed, and served with honor and respect.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of persons found existing in the world." [126]


One who associates with an inferior person declines;
one who associates with an equal does not decline;
attending on a superior person one develops quickly;
therefore you should follow one superior to yourself.


27 Disgust (Jigucchitabba)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), there are these three kinds of persons found existing in the world. What three 7 (1) There is a person who is to be looked upon with disgust, not to be associated with, followed, and served; (2) a person who is to be looked upon with indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha), not to be associated with, followed, and served; and (3) a person who is to be associated with, followed, and served."

(1) "And what kind of person, bhikkhus, is to be looked upon with disgust, not to be associated with, followed, and served? Here, some person is immoral, of bad character, impure, of suspect behavior, secretive in his actions, not an ascetic though claiming to be one, not a celibate though claiming to be one, inwardly rotten, corrupt, depraved. Such a person is to be looked upon with disgust, not to be associated with, followed, and served. For what reason? Even though one does not follow the example of such a person, a bad report still circulates about oneself: 'He has bad friends, bad companions, bad comrades' Just as a snake that has passed through feces, though it does not bite one, would smear one, so too, though one does not follow the example of such a person, a bad report still circulates about oneself: 'He has bad friends, bad companions, bad comrades.' Therefore such a person is to be looked upon with disgust, not to be associated with, followed, and served.

(2) "And what kind of person is to be looked upon with indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha), not to be associated with, followed, and served? Here, some person is prone to anger [127] and easily exasperated. Even if he is criticized slightly He loses his temper and becomes irritated, hostile, and stubborn; he displays irritation, hatred, and bitterness. Just as a festering sore, if struck by a stick or a shard, will discharge even more matter, so too . . .Just as a firebrand of the tinduka tree, if struck by a stick or shard, will sizzle and crackle even more, so too . . . Just as a pit of feces, if struck by a stick or a shard, becomes even more foul-smelling, so too some person here is prone to anger and . . . displays irritation, hatred, and bitterness. Such a person is to be looked upon with indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha), not to be associated with, followed, and served. For what reason? [With the thought:] 'He might insult me, revile me, and do me harm.' Therefore such a person is to be looked upon with indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha), not to be associated with, followed, and served.

(3) "And what kind of person is to be associated with, followed, and served? Here, some person is virtuous and of good character. Such person is to be associated with, followed, and served. For what reason? Even though one does not follow the example of such a person, a good report still circulates about oneself: 'He has good friends, good companions, good comrades' Therefore such a person is to be associated with, followed, and served.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of persons found existing in the world."

[A verse is attached identical with that in 3:26,]


28 Dung Like Speech (Gutha-bhani)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three kinds of persons found existing in the world. [128] What three? The one whose speech is like dung, the one whose speech is like flowers, and the one whose speech is like honey.

(1) "And what, bhikkhus, is the person whose speech is like dung? Here, if he is summoned to a council, to an assembly, to his relatives' presence, to his guild, or to the court, and questioned as a witness thus: 'So, good man, tell what you know, then, not knowing, this person says, 'I know,' or knowing, he says, 'I do not know'; not seeing, he says, 'I see, or seeing, he says, 'I do not see, Thus he consciously speaks falsehood for his own ends, or for another's ends, or for some trifling worldly end. 364 This is called the person whose speech is like dung,

(2) "And what is the person whose speech is like flowers? Here, if he is summoned to a council, to an assembly, to his relatives' presence, to his guild, or to the court, and questioned as a witness thus: 'So, good man, tell what you know,' then, not knowing, this person says, 'I do not know, or knowing, he says, 'I know'; not seeing, he says, 'I do not see,' or seeing, he says, 'I see'; he does not consciously speak falsehood for his own ends, or for another's ends, or for some trifling worldly end. This is called the person whose speech is like flowers.

(3) "And what is the person whose speech is like honey? Here, some person, having abandoned harsh speech, abstains from harsh speech. He speaks such words as are gentle, pleas ing to the ear, and lovable, as go to the heart, are courteous, desired by many, and agreeable to many. This is the person whose speech is like honey.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of persons found existing in the world."


29 Blind (Andha)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three kinds of persons found exist ing in the world. What three? The blind person, the one-eyed person, and the two-eyed person.

(1) "And what, bhikkhus, is the blind person? Here, some person lacks the kind of eye [129] with which one can acquire wealth not yet acquired and increase wealth already acquired, and he also lacks the kind of eye with which one can know beneficial(kusala) and harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma), blameworthy and blameless qualities, inferior and superior qualities, dark and bright qualities with their counterparts. This is called the blind person.

(2) "And what is the one-eyed person? Here, some person has the kind of eye with which one can acquire wealth not yet acquired and increase wealth already acquired, but he lacks the kind of eye with which one can know beneficial(kusala) and harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma), blameworthy and blameless qualities, inferior and superior qualities, dark and bright qualities with their counterparts. This is called the one-eyed person.

(3) "And what is the two-eyed person? Here, some person has the kind of eye with which one can acquire wealth not yet acquired and increase wealth already acquired, and he also has the kind of eye with which one can know beneficial(kusala) and harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma), blameworthy and blameless qualities, inferior and superior qualities, dark and bright qualities with their counterparts. This is called the two-eyed person.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of persons found existing in the world."


He does not possess such wealth,
nor does he do deeds of merit;
the blind man destitute of eyes
casts an unlucky throw in both respects.


The person described as one-eyed
is a hypocrite who seeks wealth,
(sometimes) righteously
(and sometimes) unrighteously.


Both by thievish cheatful acts
and by means of false speech
the man indulging in sensual pleasures
is skilled in amassing wealth.
Having gone from here to hell,
the one-eyed person is tormented.


One with two eyes is said to be
the best kind of person.
His wealth 365 is acquired by his own exertion,
with goods righteously gained.


With best intentions he then gives,
this person with an undivided mind.
He goes to [rebirth in] an excellent state
where, having gone, one does not sorrow.


One should avoid from afar
the blind one and the one-eyed person,
but should befriend the one with two eyes,
the best kind of person.


30 Inverted (Avakujja)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three kinds of persons found existing in the world. What three? The person with inverted panna(divine knowledge), the person with lap-like panna(divine knowledge), and the person with wide panna(divine knowledge).

(1 ) "And what, bhikkhus, is the person with inverted panna(divine knowledge)? Here, some person often goes to the monastery to listen to the Dhamma(path) from the bhikkhus. The bhikkhus teach him the Dhamma that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing; they reveal the perfectly complete and pure brahmacariya(celibate holy life). While he is sitting in his seat, he does not attend to that talk at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end. After he has risen from his seat, he still does not attend to that talk at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end. Just as, when a pot is turned upside down, the water that had been poured into it runs off and does not remain there, so too, some person often goes to the monastery to listen to the Dhamma from the bhikkhus. . . . After he has risen from his seat, he still does not attend to that talk at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end. This is called the person with inverted panna(divine knowledge).

(2) "And what is the person with lap-like panna(divine knowledge)? Here, some person often goes to the monastery to listen to the Dhamma from the bhikkhus(monks). The bhikkhus teach him the Dhamma that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing; they reveal the perfectly complete and pure brahmacariya(celibate holy life). While he is sitting in his seat, he attends to that talk at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end. But after he has risen from his seat, he does not attend to that talk at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end. just as, when a person has various food stuffs strewn over his lapsesamum seeds, rice grains, cakes, and jujubes — if he loses his mindfulness(meditation/sati) when rising from that seat, [131] he would scatter them all over, so too, some person often goes to the monastery to listen to the Dhamma from the bhikkhus But after he has risen from his seat, he does not attend to that talk at the beginning, in. the middle, or at the end. This is called the person with lap-like panna(divine knowledge).

(3) "And what is the person with wide panna(divine knowledge)? Here, some person often goes to the monastery to listen to the Dhamma from the bhikkhus. The bhikkhus teach him the Dhamma that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing; they reveal the perfectly complete and pure brahmacariya(celibate holy life). While he is sitting in his seat, he attends to that talk at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end. After he has risen from his seat, again he attends to that talk at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end. Just as, when a pot is kept upright, the water that had been poured into it stays there and does not run off, so too, some person often goes to the monastery to listen to the Dhamma from the bhikkhus. . . . After he has risen from his seat, again he attends to that talk at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end. This is called the person with wide panna(divine knowledge).

"These, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of persons found existing in the world."


The person with inverted panna(divine knowledge),
stupid and undiscerning,
often goes to visit bhikkhus
(to hear them teach the Dhamma).
Yet this person cannot grasp
anything from the talk,
at its beginning, middle, and end,
for he utterly lacks panna(divine knowledge).


The person with lap-like panna(divine knowledge)
is said to be better than the former.
He too often goes to visit bhikkhus
(to hear them teach the Dhamma),


While sitting in his seat,
he grasps the phrasing of the talk,
at its beginning, middle, and end.
But after rising, he no longer understands,
but forgets what he had learned.


The person with wide panna(divine knowledge)
is said to be the best of these.
He too often goes to visit bhikkhus
(to hear them teach the Dhamma).


While sitting in his seat,
he comprehends the phrasing,
at the beginning, middle, and end
of the talk [given by the bhikkhu].


This person of the best intentions,
his mind undivided, retains [what he hears].
Practicing in accordance with the Dhamma,
he can make an end of suffering.



IV. Divine Messengers (Devaduta)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


31 Brahma (Sabrahmaka)[]

(1) "Bhikkhus(Monks), those families dwell with Brahma where at home the mother and father are revered by their children. (2) Those families dwell with the first teachers where at home the mother and father are revered by their children. (3) Those families dwell with the gift-worthy where at home the mother and father are revered by their children.

"'Brahma, bhikkhus, is a designation for mother and father. 'First teachers' is a designation for mother and father. 'Gift worthy' is a designation for mother and father. For what reason? Mother and father are helpful to their children: they raise them, nurture them, and show them the world."


Mother and father are called "Brahma"
and also "first teachers."
They are worthy of gifts from their children,
for they have compassion for their offspring.


Therefore a wise person should revere them,
and show them due honor,
serve them with food and drink,
with clothes and bedding,
by massaging and bathing them,
and by washing their, feet.


Because of this service
to mother and father,
the wise praise one in this world
and after death one rejoices in heaven.


32 Ananda[]

Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

"Bhante, could a bhikkhu obtain such a state of samadhi(self absorption/trance) that (1) he would have no I-making, mine-making, and underlying tendency to conceit in regard to this conscious body; (2) he would have no I-making, mine-making, and underlying tendency to conceit in regard to all external objects; and (3) he would enter and dwell in that liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), through which there is no more I-making, mine making, and underlying tend ency to conceit for one who enters and dwells in it?" 366 "He could, Ananda." "But how, Bhante, could he obtain such a state of samadhi(self absorption/trance)?" [133] "Here, Ananda, a bhikkhu thinks thus: 'This is peaceful, this is sublime, that is, the stilling of all activities, the relinquishing of all acquisitions, the destruction of craving(tanha/trishna), dispassion(viraga), cessation, nibbana(nirvana), In this way, Ananda, a bhikkhu could obtain such a state of samadhi(self absorption/trance) that he would have no I-making, mine-making, and underlying tendency to conceit in regard to this conscious body; he would have no I-making, mine-making, and underlying tendency to conceit in regard to all external objects; and he would enter and dwell in that liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), through which there is no more I-making, mine-making, and underlying tendency to conceit for one who enters and dwells in it. And it was with reference to this that I said in the Parayana, in 'The Questions of Punnaka': 367

"Having comprehended the highs and lows in the world, he is not perturbed by anything in the world. Peaceful, fumeless, untroubled, wishless, he has, I say, crossed over rebirth and old age."


33 Sariputta 368[]

Then the Venerable Sariputta approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord(Buddha) then said to him:

"Sariputta, I can teach the Dhamma(path) briefly; I can teach the Dhamma in detail; I can teach the Dhamma both briefly and in detail. It is those who can understand that are rare."

"It is the time for this. Lord(Buddha). It is the time for this Sugata(Lord Buddha). The Lord(Buddha) should teach the Dhamma briefly; he should teach the Dhamma in detail; he should teach the Dhamma both briefly and in detail. There will be those who can understand the Dhamma."

"Therefore, Sariputta, you should train yourselves thus: (1) There will be no I-making, mine-making, and underlying tendency to conceit in regard to this conscious body; (2) there will be no I-making, mine-making, and underlying tendency to conceit in regard to all external objects; and (3) we will enter and dwell in that liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), through which there is no more I-making, mine-making, and underlying tendency to conceit for one who enters and dwells in it. It is in this way, Sariputta, that you should train yourselves.

"When, Sariputta, a bhikkhu [134] has no I-making, mine making, and underlying tendency to conceit in regard to this conscious body; when he has no I-making, mine-making, and underlying tendency to conceit in regard to all external objects; and when he enters and dwells in that liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), through which there is no more I-making, mine-making, and underlying tendency to conceit for one who enters and dwells in it, he is called a bhikkhu who has cut off craving(tanha/trishna), stripped off the fetter, and, by completely breaking through conceit, has made an end of suffering. And it was with reference to this that I said in the Parayana, in 'The Questions of Udaya' 360


"The abandoning of both
sensual perceptions(sanna/sangya) and dejection;
the dispelling of dullness,
the warding off of remorse; 370


"purified indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha) and mindfulness(meditation/sati)
preceded by reflection on the Dhamma:
this, I say, is emancipation by final knowledge,
the breaking up of ignorance." 371


34 Causes (Nidana)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three causes for the origination of kamma(sans karma). What three? Greed (lobho) is a cause for the origination of kamma; hatred (doso sans. dvesh) is a cause for the origination of kamma(karma/deeds); delusion(moha) is a cause for the origination of kamma(karma/deeds).

(1) "Any kamma(karma/deeds), bhikkhus, fashioned through greed (lobho), born of greed, caused by greed, originated by greed, ripens wherever the individual is reborn. Wherever that kamma(karma/deeds) ripens, it is there that one experiences its result, either in this very life, or in the [next] rebirth, or on some subsequent occasion. 372

(2) "Any kamma(karma/deeds) fashioned through hatred (doso) , born of hatred, caused by hatred, originated by hatred, ripens wherever the individual is reborn. Wherever that kamma(karma/deeds) ripens, it is there that one experiences its result, either in this very life, or in the [next] rebirth, or on some subsequent occasion.

(3) "Any kamma(karma/deeds) fashioned through delusion(moha), born of delusion(moha), caused by delusion(moha), originated by delusion(moha), ripens wherever the individual is reborn. Wherever that kamma(karma/deeds) ripens, [135] it is there that one experience sits result, either in this very life, or in the-[next rebirth], nor on some subsequent occasion.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, seeds that are intact, unspoiled, not damaged by wind and the sun's heat, fecund, well preserved, were deposited in well-prepared ground in a good field and receive proper rainfall: in this way, those seeds would grow, increase, and mature. So too, any kamma(karma/deeds) that is fashioned through greed . . . hatred . . . delusion(moha), born of delusion(moha), caused by delusion(moha), originated by delusion(moha), ripens wherever the individual is reborn. Wherever that kamma(karma/deeds) ripens, it is there that one experiences its result, either in this very life, or in the [next] rebirth, or on some subsequent occasion.

"These are the three causes for the origination of kamma(karma/deeds).

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three [other] causes for the origination of kamma(karma/deeds). What three? Non-greed (alobha) is a cause for the origination of kamma(karma/deeds); non-hatred (adosa) is a cause for the origination of kamma; non-delusion (amoha) is a cause for the origination of kamma(karma/deeds).

(1) "Any kamma(karma/deeds), bhikkhus, fashioned through non-greed, born of non-greed, caused by non-greed, originated by non greed, is abandoned when greed has vanished; it is cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so that it is no more subject to future arising? 373

(2) "Any kamma(karma/deeds) fashioned through non-hatred, born of non-hatred, caused by non-hatred, originated by non-hatred, is abandoned when hatred has vanished; it is cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so that it is no more subject to future arising.

(3) "Any kamma(karma/deeds) fashioned through non-delusion(moha), born of non-delusion(moha), caused by non-delusion(moha), originated by non- delusion(moha), is abandoned when delusion(moha) has vanished; it is cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so that it is no more subject to future arising.

"Suppose bhikkhus(monks), there are seeds that are intact, unspoiled, [136] not damaged by wind and the sun's heat, fecund, well preserved. Then a man would burn them in a fire, reduce them to ashes, and winnow the ashes in a strong wind or let them be carried away by the swift current of a river. In this way, those seeds would be cut off at the root, made like, a palm stump, obliterated so that they are no more subject to future arising. So too, any kamma(karma/deeds) that is fashioned through non-greed* . . non hatred . . . non-delusion(moha), born of non-delusion(moha), caused by non" delusion(moha), originated, by nondelusion(moha), is abandoned when delusion(moha) has vanished; it is cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so that it is no more subject to future arising."

"These, bhikkhus, are the three causes for the origination of kamma."


Whatever kamma(karma/deeds) an ignorant person [has done]
born of greed, hatred, and delusion(moha),
whether what was fashioned by him be little or much,
it is to be experienced right here:
there exists no other site [for it]. 374


Therefore a wise person should abandon
(any deed) born of greed, hatred, and delusion(moha).
A bhikkhu, giving rise to knowledge,
should abandon all bad destinations. 375


35 Hatthaka[]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Alavi on a heap of leaves spread out on a cow track in a simsapa grove. Then Hatthaka of Alavi, 376 while walking and wandering for exercise, saw the Lord(Buddha) sitting there. He then approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to the Lord(Buddha):

"Bhante, did the Lord(Buddha) sleep well?"

"Yes, prince, I slept well. I am one of those in the world who sleep well."

"But, Bhante, the winter nights are cold. It is the eight-day interval, the time when snow falls. 377 The ground trampled by the hooves of cattle is rough, the spread of leaves is thin, [137] the leaves on the tree are sparse, the ochre robes leave one cold, and the gale wind blows cold. Yet the Lord(Buddha) says thus: 'Yes, prince, I slept well. I am one of those in the world who sleep well."

"Well then, prince, I will question you about this matter. You should answer as you see fit. What do you think, prince? A householder or a householder's son might have a house with a peaked roof, plastered inside and out, draftfree, with bolts fastened and shutters closed. There he might have a couch spread with rugs, blankets, and covers, with an excellent covering of antelope hide, with a canopy above and red bolsters at both ends. An oil lamp would be burning and his four wives would serve him in extremely agreeable ways. What do you think, would he sleep well or not, or what do you think about this? 7 '

"He would sleep well, Bhante. He would be one of those in the world who sleep well."

(1) "What do you think, prince? Might there arise in that householder or householder's son bodily and mental fevers born of lust(raag), which would torment him so that he would sleep badly?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"There might arise in that householder or householder's son bodily and mental fevers born of lust(raag), which would torment him so that he would sleep badly; but the Tathagata(Buddha) has abandoned such lust(raag), cut it off at the root, made it like a palm stump, obliterated it so that it is no more subject to future arising. Therefore I have slept well.

(2) "What do you think, prince? Might there arise in that householder or householder's son bodily and mental fevers born of hatred . . . (3) . . .bodily and mental fevers born of delusion(moha), which would torment him so that he would sleep badly?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"There might arise in that householder or householder's son bodily and mental fevers born of delusion(moha), which would torment him so that he would sleep badly; but the Tathagata(Buddha) has abandoned such delusion(moha), cut it off at the root, made it like a palm stump, [138] obliterated it so that it is no more subject to future arising. Therefore I have slept well."


He always sleeps well,
the brahmin who has attained nibbana(nirvana),
pacified, Without acquisitions,
not tainted by sensual pleasures.


Having cut off all attachments,
having removed anguish in the heart,
the peaceful one sleeps well,
having attained peace of mind. 378


36 Messengers 379 (Devaduta)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three divine messengers. 380 What three?

"Here, bhikkhus, someone engages in misconduct by body. speech, and mind. In consequence, with the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell. There the wardens of hell grab him by both arms and show him to King Yama, 381 [saying]: 'This person, your majesty, did not behave properly toward his mother and father; he did not behave properly toward ascetics and brahmins; and he did not honor the elders of the family. May your majesty inflict due punishment on him!'

(1) "Then King Yama questions, interrogates, and cross examines him about the first divine messenger: 'Good man, didn't you see the first divine messenger that appeared among human beings?' And he replies: 'No, lord, I didn't see him.'

"Then King Yama says to him: 'But, good man, didn't you ever see among human beings a man or a woman, eighty, ninety or a hundred years of age, frail, bent like a roof bracket, crooked, wobbling as they go along leaning on a stick, ailing, youth gone, with broken teeth, with grey and scanty hair or bald, with wrinkled skin and blotched limbs?' And the man replies: 'Yes, lord, I have seen this.'

"Then King Yama says to him: 'Good man, didn't it occur to you, an intelligent and mature person: "I too am subject to old age, I am not exempt from old age. Let me now do good by body, speech, and mind"?' [139] — 'No, lord, I could not. I was slothful.'

"Then King Yama says: "Through slothfulness, good man, you failed to do good by body, speech, or mind. Surely, they will treat you in a way that fits your slothfulness. That bad kamma(karma/deeds) of yours was not done by your mother or father, nor by your brother or sister, nor by your friends and companions, nor by your relatives and family members, nor by the devtas(angels), nor by ascetics and brahmins. Rather, you were the one who did that bad kamma(karma/deeds), and you yourself will have to experience its result.'

(2) "When King Yama has questioned, interrogated, and cross-examined him about the first divine messenger, he again questions, interrogates, and cross-examines him about the second divine messenger: 'Good man, didn't you see the second divine messenger that appeared among human beings?' And he replies: 'No, lord, I didn't see him.'

"Then King Yama says to him: 'But, good man, didn't you ever see among human beings a man or a woman, sick, afflicted, gravely ill, lying in his own urine and excrement, having to be lifted up by some and put down by others? And he replies: 'Yes, lord, I have seen this.

"Then King Yama says to him: 'Good man, didn't it occur to you, an intelligent and mature person: "I too am subject to illness, I am not exempt from illness. Let me now do good by body, speech, and mind"?' — 'No, lord, I could not. I was slothful."

"Then King Yama says: [140] 'Through slothfulness, good man, you failed to do good by body, speech, or mind. Surely, they will treat you in a way that fits your slothfulness. That bad kamma(karma/deeds) of yours was not done by your mother or father, nor. by your brother or sister, nor by your friends and companions, nor by your relatives and family members, nor by the devtas(angels), nor by ascetics and brahmins. Rather, you were the one who did that bad kamma(karma/deeds), and you yourself will have to experience its result.' ...

(3) "When King Yama has questioned, interrogated, and cross-examined him about the second divine messenger, he again questions, interrogates, and cross-examines him about the third divine messenger: 'Good man, didn't you see the third divine messenger that appeared among human beings?' And he replies: 'No, lord, I didn't see him.'

"Then King Yama says to him: 'But, good man, didn't you ever see among human beings a man or a woman, one, two, or three days dead, the corpse bloated, livid, and festering?' And he replies: 'Yes, lord, I have seen this.'

"Then King Yama says to him: 'Good man, didn't it occur to you, an intelligent and mature person: "I too am subject to death, I am not exempt from death. Let me now do good by body, speech, and mind"? "No, lord, I could not. I was slothful."

"Then King Yama says: 'Through slothfulness, good man, you failed to do good by body, speech, or mind. Surely, they will treat you in a way that fits your slothfulness. That bad kamma(karma/deeds) of yours was not done by your mother or father, nor by your brother or sister, nor by your friends and companions, nor by your relatives and family members, nor by the devtas(angels), nor by ascetics and brahmins. Rather, you were the one who did that bad kamma(karma/deeds), and you yourself will have to experience its result."

"When, bhikkhus. King Yama has questioned, interrogated, and cross-examined him about the third divine messenger, he falls silent. [141] Then the wardens of hell torture him with the fivefold transfixing. They drive a red-hot iron stake through one hand and another red-hot iron stake through the other hand; they drive a red-hot iron stake through one foot and another red-hot iron stake through the other foot; they drive a red-hot iron stake through the middle of his chest. There he feels pain ful, racking, piercing sensations(vedana), 382 yet he does not die so long as that bad kamma(karma/deeds) is not exhausted."

"Next the wardens of hell throw him down and pare him with axes. There he feels painful, racking, piercing sensations(vedana), yet he does not die so long as that bad kamma(karma/deeds) is not exhausted. Next the wardens of hell turn him upside down and pare him with adzes.. Next the wardens Of hell, harness him to a chariot and drive him back and forth across ground that is burning, blazing, and glowing. . . .Next the wardens of hell make him climb up and down a great mound of coals that are burning, blazing, and glowing. . Next the wardens of hell turn him upside down and plunge him into a red-hot copper cauldron that is burning, blazing, and glowing. He is cooked there in a swirl of foam. And as he is being cooked there in a swirl of foam, he is swept now up, now down, and now across. There he feels painful, racking, piercing sensations(vedana), yet he does not die so long as that bad kamma(karma/deeds) is not exhausted."

"Next the wardens of hell throw him into the great hell. Now, bhikkhus, as to that great hell:


"It has four corners and four doors
and is divided into separate compartments;
it is surrounded by iron ramparts
and shut in with an iron roof.


"Its floor as well is made of iron
and heated till it glows with fire.
The range is a full hundred yojanas
which it ever covers pervasively.

"Once, bhikkhus, in the past King Yama thought: 'Those in the world who do evil deeds are punished with such diverse tortures. Oh, that I might attain the human state! That a Tathagata(Buddha), Arahant, Perfectly Enlightened One might arise in the world! That I might attend upon that Lord(Buddha)! That the Lord(Buddha) might teach me the Dhamma, and that I might come to understand his Dhamma!"

"Bhikkhus(monks), I am not repeating something that I heard from another ascetic or brahmin, but rather I am speaking about a matter that I have actually known, seen, and understood myself."


Though warned by the divine messengers,
those people who remain slothful
sorrow for a long time,
having fared on to a lower realm.


But those good people here who,
when warned by the divine messengers,
never become slothful
in regard to the noble Dhamma;
who, having seen the peril in clinging
as the origin of rebirth and death,
are liberated by non-clinging
in the extinction of rebirth and death:
those happy ones have attained security; 383
they have reached nibbana(nirvana) in this very life.
Having overcome all enmity and peril,
they have transcended all suffering.


37 (7) Kings (1) (Chatumaharaja)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), (1) on the eighth of the fortnight, the ministers and assembly members of the four great kings wander over this world, 384 [thinking] : 'We hope there are many people who behave properly toward their mother and father, behave properly toward ascetics and brahmins, honor the elders of the family, observe the uposatha, keep the extra observance days, and do meritorious deeds.' 385 (2) On the fourteenth of the fortnight, the sons of the four great kings wander over this world, [thinking]: 'We hope there are many people who behave properly toward their mother and father. . . [143] . . .and do meritorious deeds/ (3) On the fifteenth, the uposatha day, the four great kings themselves wander over this world, [thinking]: 'We hope there are many people who behave properly toward their mother and father . . . and do meritorious deeds.

"If, bhikkhus, there are few people who behave properly toward their mother and father . . . and do meritorious deeds, the four great kings report this to the Tavatimsa devas(angels/gods) when they meet and are sitting together in the Sudhamma council hall: 'Revered sirs, there are few people who behave properly toward their mother and father... and do meritorious deeds. Then, because of this, the Tavatimsa devas(angels/gods) become. displeased, [saying]: 'Alas, the celestial company will decline and the company of asuras will flourish!'

"But if there are many people who behave properly toward their mother and father . . . and do meritorious deeds, the four great kings report this to the Tavatimsa devas(angels/gods) when they meet and are sitting together in the Sudhamma council hall: 'Revered sirs, there are many people who behave properly toward their mother and father, behave properly toward ascetics and brahmins, honor the elders of the family, observe the uposatha, keep the extra observance days, and do meritorious deeds. Then, because of this, the Tavatimsa devas(angels/gods) become elated, [saying]: 'Indeed, the celestial company will flourish and the company of asuras will decline!'"

"Bhikkhus(Monks), once in the past, when Sakka(Indra), ruler of the devas(angels/gods), was guiding the Tavatimsa devas(angels/gods), he recited this verse: 386


"The person who would be like me
should observe the uposatha
complete in the eight factors,
on the fourteenth, fifteenth,
and eighth of the fortnight,
and during special fortnights." 387

"This verse, bhikkhus, was badly recited by Sakka(Indra), ruler of the devas(angels/gods), not well recited . It was badly stated, not well stated . For what reason? Because Sakka(Indra), ruler of the devas(angels/gods), is not devoid of lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha). But in the case of a bhikkhu who is an arahant — one whose taints are destroyed, who has lived the brahmacariya(celibate holy life), done what had to be done, laid down the burden, reached his own goal, utterly destroyed the fetters of existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth), one completely liberated through final knowledge — it is fitting for him to say:

"'The person who would be like me ... and during special fortnights.'

"For what reason? Because that bhikkhu is devoid of lust(raag), hatred, and delusion(moha)."


38 (8) Kings (2)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), once in the past, when Sakka(Indra), ruler of the devas(angels/gods), was guiding the Tavatimsa devas(angels/gods), on that occasion he recited this verse: 388

"'The person who would be like me .. . and during special fortnights.'

"This verse, bhikkhus, was badly recited by Sakka(Indra), ruler of the devas(angels/gods), not well recited. It was badly stated, not well stated. For what reason? Because Sakka(Indra), ruler of the devas(angels/gods), is not free from rebirth, old age and death, from sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish; he is not free from suffering, I say. But in the case of a bhikkhu who is an arahant— one whose taints are destroyed . . . One completely liberated through final knowledge — it is fitting for him to say:

"'The person who would be like me ... and during special fortnights.' [145]

"For what reason? Because that bhikkhu is free from rebirth, old age and death, from sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish; he is free from suffering, I say."


39 Delicate (Sukhumala)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), I was delicately nurtured, most delicately nurtured, extremely delicately nurtured at my father's residence lotus ponds were made just for my enjoyment: in one of them blue lotuses bloomed, in another red lotuses, and in a third white lotuses. 389 I used no sandalwood unless it came from Kasi and my headdress, jacket, lower garment, and upper garment were made of cloth from Kasi. 390 By day and by night a white canopy was held over me so that cold and heat, dust, grass, and dew would not settle on me."

"I had three mansions: one for the winter, one for the summer, and one for the rainy season. 393 I spent the four months of the rains in the rainy-season mansion, being entertained by musicians, none of whom were male, 392 and I did not leave the mansion. While in other people's homes slaves, workers, and servants are given broken rice together with sour gruel for their meals, in my father's residence they were given choice hill rice, meat, and boiled rice."

(1) "Amid such splendor and a delicate life, it occurred to me: 'An uninstructed worldling, though himself subject to old age, not exempt from old age, feels repelled, humiliated, and disgusted when he sees another who is old, overlooking his own situation. 393 Now I too am subject to old age and am not exempt from old age. Such being the case, if I were to feel repelled, humiliated, [146] and disgusted when seeing another who is old, that would not be proper for me.' When I reflected thus, my intoxication with youth was completely abandoned.

(2) "[Again, it occurred to me:] 'An uninstructed worldling, though himself subject to illness, not exempt from illness, feels repelled, humiliated, and disgusted when he sees another who is ill, overlooking his own situation. Now I too am subject to illness and am not exempt from illness. Such being the case, if I were to feel repelled, humiliated, and disgusted when seeing another who is ill, that would not be proper for me.' When I reflected thus, my intoxication with health was completely abandoned.

(3) "[Again, it occurred to me:] 'An uninstructed worldling, though himself subject to death, not exempt from death, feels repelled, humiliated, and disgusted when he sees another who has died, overlooking his own situation. Now I too am subject to death and am not exempt from death. Such being the case, if I were to feel repelled, humiliated, and disgusted when seeing another who has died, that would not be proper for me.' When I reflected thus, my intoxication with life was completely abandoned.

"There are, bhikkhus, these three kinds of intoxication. 394 What three? Intoxication with youth, intoxication with health, and intoxication with life. (1) An uninstructed worldling, intoxicated with youth, engages in misconduct by body, speech, and mind. With the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell. (2) An uninstructed worldling, intoxicated with health, engages in misconduct by body, speech, and mind. With the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell, (3) An uninstructed worldling, intoxicated with life, engages in misconduct by body, [147] speech, and mind. With the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell.

"Intoxicated with youth, a bhikkhu gives up the training and reverts to the lower life; or intoxicated with health, he gives up the training and reverts to the lower life; or intoxicated with life, he gives up tire training and reverts to the lower life.


"Worldlings subject to illness,
old age, and death, are disgusted
(by other people) who exist
in accordance with their nature. 395


"If I were to become disgusted
with beings who have such a nature,
that would not be proper for me
since I too have the same nature.


"While I was dwelling thus,
having known the state without acquisitions,
I overcame all intoxications —
intoxication with health,
with youth, and with life —
having seen security in renunciation. 396


"Zeal then arose in me
as I clearly saw nibbana(nirvana).
Now I am incapable
of indulging in sensual pleasures.
Relying on the brahmacariya(celibate holy life),
never will I turn back." 397


40 Authorities (Adhipateyya)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three authorities. What three? One self as one's authority, the world as one's authority, and the Dhamma as one's authority. 398

(1) "And what, bhikkhus, is oneself as one's authority? Here, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, a bhikkhu(monk) reflects thus: 'I did not go forth from the household life into hermit life for the sake of a robe, almsfood, or lodging, or for the sake of becoming this or that, 399 but rather [with the thought]: "I am immersed in rebirth, old age, and death; in sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish. I ain immersed in suffering, afflicted by suffering. Perhaps an ending of this entire mass of suffering can be discerned." [148] As one who has gone forth from the household life into hermit life, it would not be proper for me to seek out sensual pleasures similar to or worse than those that I have discarded.' He then reflects thus: 'Energy will be aroused in me without slackening; mindfulness(meditation/sati) will be established without confusion; my body will be tranquil without disturbance; my mind will be self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita) and one-pointed(ekagga sans. ekagra).' Having taken himself as his authority, he abandons the harmful(akusala) and develops the beneficial(kusala); he abandons what is blameworthy and develops what is blameless; he maintains himself in purity. This is called oneself as one's authority.

(2) "And what, bhikkhus, is the world as one's authority? Here, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, a bhikkhu Reflects thus; 'I did not go forth from the household life into hermit life for the sake of a robe... but rather [with the thought]: "I am immersed in rebirth, old age, and death . . . Perhaps an ending of this entire mass of suffering can be discerned." As one who has gone forth from the household life into hermit life, I might think sensual thoughts, thoughts of ill will, or thoughts of harming. But the abode of the world is vast. In the vast abode Of the world there are ascetics and brahmins with psychic-potency and the divine eye who know the minds of others. They see things from a distance but they are not themselves seen even when they're close; they know the minds [of others] with their own mind. They would know me thus: 'Look at this clansman: though he has gone forth from the household life into hermit life out of faith, he is tarnished by bad harmful(akusala) states." There are devtas(angels), too, with psychic potency and the divine eye who know the minds of others. They see even from a distance but are not seen themselves even when close; they too know the minds [of others] with their own mind. They too would know me thus: "Look at this clansman: though he has gone forth from the household life into hermit life out of faith, he is tarnished by bad harmful(akusala) states." He then reflects thus: 'Energy will be aroused in me [149] without slackening; mindfulness(meditation/sati) will be established without confusion; my body will be tranquil without disturbance; my mind will be self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita) and one-pointed(ekagga sans. ekagra).' Having taken the world as his authority, he abandons the harmful(akusala) and develops the beneficial(kusala); lie abandons what is blameworthy and develops what is blameless; he maintains himself in purity. This is called the world as one's authority.

(3) "And what, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma as one's authority? Here, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, a bhikkhu reflects thus: 'I did not go forth from the household life into hermit life for the sake of a robe. . .but rather [with the thought]: "l am immersed in rebirth, old age, and death. . .Perhaps an ending of this entire mass of suffer ing can be discerned." The Dhamma' is well expounded by the Lord(Buddha), directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise. There are fellow monks of mine who know and see. As one who has gone forth from the. household life into hermit life in this well-expounded Dhamma and discipline, it would be improper for me to be lazy and slothful.' He then reflects thus: 'Energy will be aroused in me without slackening; mindfulness(meditation/sati) will be established without confusion; my body will be tranquil without disturbance; my mind will be self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita) and one-pointed(ekagga sans. ekagra).' Having taken the Dhamma as his authority he abandons the harmful(akusala) and develops the beneficial(kusala); he abandons what is blameworthy and develops what is blameless; he maintains himself in purity. This is called the Dhamma as one's authority.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three authorities."


For one performing an evil deed
there is no place in the world called "hidden."
The self within you knows, O person,
whether it is true or false. 400


Indeed, sir, you the witness
despise your good self;
you conceal the evil self
existing within yourself. 401 [150]


The devas(angels/gods) and Tathagatas(Buddhas) see the unwise
acting unrighteously in the world.
Therefore one should fare mindfully,
taking oneself as authority;
alert and meditative, taking the world as authority;
and fare in accordance with the Dhamma(path),
taking the Dhamma as authority.
Truly exerting himself, a sage does not decline.


Having vanquished Mara
and overcome the end-maker,
the striver has finished with rebirth.
Such a sage, wise, a world-knower,
identifies with nothing at all. 402



V. The Minor Chapter (Culavaggo)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


41 Present (Sammukhibhava)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), when three things are present, a clansman endowed with faith generates much merit(punna sans. punya) . What three? (1) When faith is present, a clansman endowed with faith generates much merit. (2) When an object to be given is present, a clansman endowed with faith generates much merit. (3) When those worthy of offerings are present, a clansman endowed with faith generates much merit. When these three things are present, a clansman endowed with faith generates much merit."


42 Cases (Tithana)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), in three cases one may be understood to have faith and confidence. What three? When one desires to see those of virtuous behavior; when one desires to hear the good Dhamma; and when one dwells at home with a mind devoid of the stain of miserliness, freely generous, openhanded, delighting in relinquishment, devoted to charity, delighting in giving (donation) and sharing. In these three cases, one may be understood to have faith and confidence."


One who desires to see the virtuous ones,
who wishes to hear the good Dhamma,
who has removed the stain of miserliness,
is called a person endowed with faith. [151]


43 Advantages (Atthavasa)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), when one sees three advantages, it is enough to teach others the Dhamma(the path). What three? (1) The one who teaches the Dhamma experiences the meaning and the Dhamma. 403 (2) The one who hears the Dhamma experiences the meaning and the Dhamma. (3) Both the one who teaches the Dhamma and the one who hears the Dhamma experience the meaning and the Dhamma. Seeing these three advantages, it is enough to teach others the Dhamma."


44 Smooth Flow (Kathapavatti)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), in three cases talk flows smoothly. What three? (1) When the one who teaches the Dhamma experiences the mean ing and the Dhamma. (2) When the one who hears the Dhamma experiences the meaning and the Dhamma. (3) When both the one who teaches the Dhamma and the one who hears the Dhamma experience the meaning and the Dhamma. In these three cases talk flows smoothly."


45 The Wise (Pandita)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three things prescribed by the wise, prescribed by good people. What three? (1) Giving (donation) is prescribed by the wise, prescribed by good people. (2) The going forth[into monkhood] is prescribed by the wise, prescribed by good people. (3) Attend ing upon one's mother and father is prescribed by the wise. prescribed by good people. These three things are prescribed by the wise, prescribed by good people."


Good people prescribe giving(donation),
harmlessness, self-control, and self-taming,
service to one's mother and father
and to the peaceful followers of the brahmacariya(celibate holy life). 404


These are the deeds of the good
which the wise person should pursue.
The noble one possessed of vision
goes to an auspicious world.


46 Virtuous (Silavanta)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), when virtuous renunciants dwell in dependence on a village or a town, the people. there generate much merit in three ways. What three? [152] By body, speech, and mind. When virtuous renunciants dwell in dependence on a village or a town, the people there generate much merit in these three ways."


47 Sanskar(emotion) Signs (Sankhatalakkhana)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three characteristics that define the Sanskar(emotion/conditioned phenomenon i.e. sensual pleasure). 405 What three? An arising is seen, a vanishing is seen, and its alteration while it persists is seen. These are the three characteristics that define the Sanskar(emotion/conditioned phenomenon).


48 Non-Sanskar(non-emotion) Signs (Asankhatalakkhana)[]

Non-Sanskara(Non-emotion/non-conditioned/ever existing phenomenon) Signs (Asankhatalakkhana) "Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three characteristics that define the Non-Sanskara(Non-emotion/non-conditioned). 406 What three? No arising is seen, no vanishing is seen, and no alteration while it persists is seen. These are the three characteristics that define the Non-Sanskara(Non-emotion/non-conditioned)."

Note : Non-sanskara appears to be referred to the divine state of samadhi(self absorption/trance), i.e. superconsciousness which does not arise , rather it is always existing, it only requires to be discovered.


49 King of Mountains (Pabbata-Raja)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), based on the Himalayas, the king of mountains, great sal trees grow in three ways. What three? (1) They grow in branches, leaves, and foliage; (2) they grow in bark and shoots; and (3) they grow in softwood and heartwood. Based on the Himalayas, the king of mountains, great sal trees grow in these three ways.

"So too, when the head of a family is endowed with faith, the people in the family who depend on him grow in three ways. What three? (1) They grow in faith; (2) they grow in virtuous behavior; and (3) they grow in (divine)panna(divine knowledge). When the head of a family is endowed with faith, the people in the family who depend on him grow in these three ways."


Just as the trees that grow
in dependence on a rocky mountain
in a vast forest wilderness
might become great "woodland lords,”
so, when the head of a family here
possesses faith and virtue,
his wife, children and relatives
all grow in dependence upon him;
so too his friends, his family circle,
and those dependent on him. [153]


Those possessed of morality,
seeing that Virtuous man's good conduct,
his generosity and good deeds,
emulate his example.


Having lived here in accord with Dhamma,
the path leading to a good destination,
those who desire pleasures rejoice,
delighting in the deva(angel/god) world.


50 Practicing Ardor (Atappa-karaniya)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), in three cases ardor (Atappa sans. tapa) should be exercised. What three? (1) Ardor should be exercised for the non-arising of unarisen bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma). (2) Ardor should be exercised for the arising of unarisen beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma). (3) Ardor should be exercised for enduring arisen bodily sensations(vedana) that are painful, racking, sharp, piercing, harrowing, disagree able, sapping one's vitality. In these three cases ardor should be exercised.

"When a bhikkhu exercises ardor for the non-arising of un arisen bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma), for the arising of unarisen beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma), and for enduring arisen bodily sensations(vedana) that are painful, racking, sharp, piercing, harrowing, disagreeable, sapping one's vitality, he is called a bhikkhu who is ardent, alert, and mindful(meditating/sati) in order to make a complete end of suffering."


51 A Master Thief (Maha-Cora Sans. Chor)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three factors, a master thief breaks into houses, plunders wealth, commits banditry, and ambushes highways. What three? Here, a master thief depends on the uneven, on thickets, and on powerful people.

(1) "And how does a master thief depend on the uneven? Here, a master thief depends on rivers that are hard to cross and rugged mountains. It is in this way that a master thief depends on the uneven.

(2) "And how does a master thief depend on thickets? Here, a master thief depends on a thicket of cane, [154] a thicket of trees, a coppice, 407 or a large dense jungle. It is in this way that a master thief depends on thickets.

(3) "And how does a master thief depend on powerful people? Here, a master thief depends on kings or royal ministers. He thinks: "If anyone accuses me of any things these kings or royal ministers will dismiss the case. If anyone accuses him of anything, those kings or royal ministers dismiss the case. It is in this way that a master thief depends bn powerful people.

"It is by possessing these three factors that a master thief breaks into houses, plunders wealth, commits banditry, and ambushes highways.

"So too, bhikkhus, possessing three qualities, an evil bhikkhu maintains himself in a maimed and injured condition, is blameworthy and subject to reproach by the wise, and generates much demerit. What three? Here, an evil bhikkhu depends on the uneven, on thickets, and on powerful people.

(1) "And how does an evil bhikkhu depend on the uneven? Here, an evil bhikkhu engages in unrighteous bodily, verbal, and mental action. It is in this way that an evil bhikkhu depends on the uneven.

(2) "And how does an evil bhikkhu depend on thickets? Here, an evil bhikkhu holds wrong view, adopts an extremist view. It is in this way that an evil bhikkhu(monk) depends on thickets.

(3) "And how does an evil bhikkhu depend on powerful people? Here, an evil bhikkhu depends on kings or royal ministers. He thinks: 'If anyone accuses me of anything, these kings or royal ministers will dismiss the case. If anyone accuses him of anything, those kings or royal ministers dismiss the case. It is in this way that an evil bhikkhu depends on the powerful. [155]

"It is by possessing these three qualities that an evil bhikkhu maintains himself in a maimed and injured condition, is blameworthy and subject to reproach by the wise, and generates much demerit."



The Second Fifty[]

(6)I. Brahmins[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


52 Two Brahmins (1)[]

Then two brahmins who were old, aged, burdened with years, advanced in life, come to the last stage, a hundred and twenty years of age, approached the Lord(Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greet ings and cordial talk,, they sat down to one side and said to the Lord(Buddha):

"We are brahmins. Master Gotama, old, aged a hundred and twenty years of age. But we have not done anything good and beneficial(kusala), nor have we made a shelter for ourselves. Let Master Gotama exhort us and instruct us in a way that will lead to our welfare and happiness for a long time!"

"Truly, brahmins, you are old, aged, burdened with years, advanced in life, come to the last stage, a hundred and twenty years of age, but you have not done anything good and beneficial(kusala) some, nor have you made a shelter for yourselves. Indeed, this world is swept away by old age, illness, and death. But though the world is swept away by old age, illness, and death, when one has departed, bodily, verbal, and mental self-control will provide a shelter, a harbor, an island, a refuge, and a support."


Life is swept along, short is the life span,
no shelters exist for one who has grown old.
Seeing clearly this peril in death,
one should do deeds of merit that bring happiness. 408


When one departs [this life],
self-control over body, speech, and mind,
and the deeds of merit one did while living,
lead to one's happiness. [156]


53 Two Brahmins (2)[]

Then two brahmins who were old, aged, burdened with years, advanced in life, come to the last stage, a hundred and twenty years of age, approached the Lord(Buddha) . . . and said to him:

"We are brahmins. Master Gotama, old, aged ... a hundred and twenty years of age. But we have not done anything good and beneficial(kusala), nor have we made a shelter for ourselves. Let Master Gotama exhort us and instruct us in a way that will lead to our welfare and happiness for a long time!"

"Truly, brahmins, you are old, aged, burdened with years, advanced in life, come to the last stage, a hundred and twenty years of age, but you have not done anything good and beneficial(kusala) some, nor have you made a shelter for yourselves. Indeed, this world is burning with old age, illness, and death. But though the world is burning with old age, illness, and death, when one has departed, bodily, verbal, and mental self-control will provide a shelter, a harbor, an island, a refuge, and a support."


When one's house is ablaze
the vessel taken out
is the one that will be useful to you,
not the one that is burnt inside.


So since the world is ablaze
with old age and death,
one should take out by giving(donation):
what is given(donation) is well taken out . 409


When one departs [this life],
self-control over 'body, speech, and mind,
and the deeds of merit one did while alive,
lead to one's happiness.


54 A Certain Brahmin[]

Then a certain brahmin approached the Lord(Buddha) . . and said to him:

"Master Gotama, it is said: 'A directly visible Dhamma, a directly visible Dhamma .' 420 In what way is the Dhamma directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise?"

(1) "Brahmin, one excited by lust(raag), overcome by want, with mind obsessed by it, [157] intends for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, and for the affliction of both, and he experiences mental suffering and dejection. But when lust(raag) is abandoned, he does not intend for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both, and he does not experience mental suffering and dejection. It is in this way that the Dhamma is directly visible

(2) "One full of hate, overcome by hatred, with mind obsessed by it, intends for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, and for the affliction of both, and he experiences mental suffering and dejection. But when hatred is abandoned, he does not intend for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both, and he does not experience mental suffering and dejection. It is in this way, too, that the Dhamma is directly visible

(3) "One who is deluded, overcome by delusion(moha), with mind obsessed by it, intends for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, and for the affliction of both, and he experiences mental suffering and dejection. But when delusion(moha) is abandoned, he does not intend for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both, and he does not experience mental suffering and dejection. It is in this way, too, that the Dhamma is directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced By the wise."

"Excellent, Master Gotama! Excellent, Master Gotama ! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma(path) clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the darkness so those with good eyesight can see forms. I now go for refuge to Master Gotama, to the Dhamma, and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. Let Master Gotama consider me a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."


55 A Wandering Ascetic (Paribbajaka)[]

Then a certain brahmin ascetic approached the Lord(Buddha) ... and said to him:

"Master Gotama; it is said: 'A directly visible Dhamma, a directly visible Dhamma. In what way is the Dhamma directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise?"

(1) "Brahmin, one excited by lust(raag), overcome by want, with mind obsessed by it, intends for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both, and he experiences mental suffering and dejection. But when lust(raag) is abandoned, he does not intend for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both, and he does not experience mental suffering and dejection. [158] One excited by lust(raag), overcome by lust(raag), with mind obsessed by it, engages in misconduct by body, speech, and mind. But when lust(raag) is abandoned, he does not engage in misconduct by body, speech, and mind. One excited by lust(raag), overcome by lust(raag), with mind obsessed by it, does not understand as it really is his own good, the good of others, or the good of both. But when lust(raag) is abandoned, he understands as it really is his own good, the good of. others, and the good of both. It is in this Way, brahmin, that the Dhamma is directly visible . . . to be personally experienced by the wise.

(2) "One full of hate, overcome by hatred . . .

(3) "One who is deluded, overcome by delusion(moha), with mind obsessed by it, intends for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both, and he experiences mental suffering and dejection. But when delusion(moha) is abandoned, he does not intend for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both, and he does not experience mental suffering and dejection. One who is deluded, overcome by delusion(moha), with mind obsessed by it, engages in misconduct by body, speech, and mind. But when delusion(moha) is abandoned, he does hot engage in misconduct by body, speech, and mind. One who is deluded, overcome by delusion(moha), with mind obsessed by it, does not understand as it really is his own good, the good of others, or the good of both. But when delusion(moha) is abandoned, he understands as it really is his own good, the good of others, and the good of both. It is in this way, too, that the Dhamma is directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise."

"Excellent, Master Gotama! . . . Let Master Gotama consider me a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."


56 Nibbana (Nibbuta)[]

Then the brahmin Janussoni approached the Lord(Buddha) . . . and said to him:

"Master Gotama, it is said: 'Directly visible nibbana(nirvana), directly visible nibbana(nirvana). In what way is nibbana(nirvana) directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise?" [159]

(1) "Brahmin, one excited by lust(raag), overcome by lust(raag), with mind obsessed by it, intends for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both, and he experiences mental suffering and dejection. But when lust(raag) is abandoned, he does not intend for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both, and he does not experience mental suffering and dejection. It is in this way that nibbana(nirvana) is directly visible.

(2) "One full of hate, overcome by hatred ...

(3) "One who is deluded, overcome by delusion(moha), with mind obsessed by it, intends for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both, and he experiences mental suffering and dejection. But when delusion(moha) is abandoned, he does not intend for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both, and he does not experience mental suffering and dejection. It is in this way, too, that nibbana(nirvana) is directly visible.

"When, brahmin, one experiences the remainderless destruction of lust(raag), the remainderless destruction of hatred, and the remainderless destruction of delusion(moha), it is in this way, too, that nibbana(nirvana) is directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise."

"Excellent, Master Gotama! . . . Let Master Gotama consider me a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life." . .


57 Depopulation (Paloka)[]

Then a certain affluent brahmin approached the Lord(Buddha) . . . and said to him:

"Master Gotama, I have heard older brahmins who are aged, burdened with years, teachers of teachers, saying: 'In the past this world was so thickly populated one would think there was no space between people. The villages, towns, and capital cities were so close that cocks could fly between them.' 411 Why is it. Master Gotama, that at present the number of people has declined, depopulation is seen, 412 and villages, [160] towns, cities, and districts have vanished?" 413

(1) "At present, brahmin, people are gone into adharma(sin), overcome by unrighteous greed, afflicted by wrong Dhamma. 414 As a result, they take up weapons and slay one another. Hence many people die. This is a reason why at present the number of people has declined, depopulation is seen, and villages, towns, cities, and districts have vanished:

(2) "Again, at present people are gone into adharma(sin), overcome by unrighteous greed, afflicted by wrong Dhamma. When this happens, sufficient rain does not fall. As a result, there is a famine, a scarcity of grain; the crops become blighted and turn to straw. Hence many people die. This is another reason why at present the number of people has declined, depopulation is seen, and villages, towns, cities, and districts have vanished.

(3) "Again, at present people are gone into adharma(sin), overcome by unrighteous greed, afflicted by wrong Dhamma. When this happens, the yakkhas release wild nonhuman spirits(amanusse). 415 Hence many people die. This is yet another reason why at present the number of people has declined, depopulation is seen, and villages, towns, cities, and districts have vanished."

"Excellent, Master Gotama! . . . Let Master Gotama consider me a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."


58 Vacchagotta[]

Then the ascetic Vacchagotta approached the Lord(Buddha) . . . and said to him:

"Master Gotama, I have heard: 'The ascetic Gotama says: "Alms should be given only to me, [161] not to others; alms should be given only to my disciples, not to the disciples of others. Only what is given to me is very fruitful, not what is given to others; only what is given to my disciples is very fruit ful, not what is given to the disciples of others."' Do those who speak thus state what has been said by Master Gotama and not misrepresent him with what is contrary to fact? Do they explain in accordance with the Dhamma(path) so that they would not incur any reasonable criticism or ground for censure? 416 For we do not want to misrepresent Master Gotama."

"Those, Vaccha, who say: The ascetic Gotama says: "Alms should be given only to me . . . only what is given to my disciples is very fruitful, not what is given to the disciples of others" do not state what has been said by me but misrepresent me with what is untrue and contrary to fact. One who prevents another from giving alms creates an obstruction and stumbling block for three people. What three? He creates an obstruction to the donor's acquiring merit, to the recipients' gaining a gift, and already he has maimed and injured himself. One who prevents another from giving alms creates an obstruction and stumbling block for these three people.

"But, Vaccha, I say that one acquires merit even if one throws away dishwashing water in a refuse dump or cesspit with the thought: 'May the living beings here sustain themselves with this! How much more, then, [does one acquire merit] when one gives to human beings! However, I say that what is given to one of virtuous behavior is more fruitful than [what is given] to an immoral person. And [the most worthy recipient] is one who has abandoned five factors and possesses five factors.

"What five factors has he abandoned? Sensual(sexual) desire, ill will, dullness [162] and drowsiness, restlessness and remorse, and doubt. These are the five factors that he has abandoned.

"And what five factors does he possess? The virtuous behavior, samadhi(self absorption/trance), panna(divine knowledge), liberation, and knowledge and vision of liberation of one beyond training. These are the five factors that he possesses.

"It is in Such a way, I say, that what is given to one who has abandoned five factors and possesses five factors is very fruitful."


Among cattle of any sort,
whether black, white, red, or golden,
mottled, uniform, or pigeon-colored,
the tamed bull is born,
the one that can bear the load,
possessing strength, advancing with good speed.
They yoke the burden just to him;
they are not concerned about his color.


So too, among human beings
it is In any kind of rebirth —
among khattiyas, brahmins, vessas,
sudd as, candalas, or scavengers —
among people of any sort
that the tamed person of good manners is born:
one firm in Dhamma, virtuous in conduct,
truthful in speech, endowed with moral shame;
one who has abandoned rebirth and death,
consummate in the brahmacariya(celibate holy life),
with the burden dropped, detached, .
who has done his task, free of taints;
who has gone beyond all things [of the world]
and by non-clinging has reached nibbana(nirvana):
an offering is truly vast
when planted in that spotless field.


unwise people devoid of understanding,
dull-witted, unlearned,
do not attend on the holy ones 417
but give their gifts to those outside.
Those, however, who attend on the holy ones,
on the wise ones esteemed as sagely, 418
and those whose faith in the Sugata(Lord Buddha)
is deeply rooted and well established,
go to the world of the devas(angels/gods)
or are born here in a good family.
Advancing in successive steps,
those wise ones attain nibbana(nirvana). [163]


59 Tikanna[]

Then the brahmin Tikanna approached the Lord(Buddha) and

exchanged greetings with him then, sitting to one side, the brahmin Tikanna, in the presence of the Lord(Buddha), spoke praise of the brahmins who had mastered the threefold knowledge: "Such are the brahmins who are masters of the threefold knowledge; thus are the brahmins who are masters of the three fold knowledge."

[The Lord(Buddha) said:] "But how, brahmin, do the brahmins describe a brahmin who is a master of the threefold knowledge?"

"Here, Master Gotama, a brahmin is well born on both his maternal and paternal sides, of pure descent, unassailable and impeccable with respect to birth as far back as the seventh paternal generation. He is a reciter and preserver of the hymns, a master of the three Vedas with their vocabularies, ritual, phonology, and etymology, and the histories as a fifth; skilled in philology and grammar, he is fully versed in natural philosophy and in the marks of a great man. It is in this way that the brahmins describe a brahmin who is a master of the threefold knowledge."

"Brahmin, a master of the threefold knowledge in the Noble One's discipline is quite different from a brahmin who is a master of the threefold knowledge as the brahmins describe him."

"But in what way. Master Gotama, is one a master of the threefold knowledge in the Noble One's discipline? It would be good if Master Gotama would teach me the Dhamma in such a way as to make clear how one is a master of the threefold knowledge in the Noble One's discipline."

"Well then, brahmin, listen and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, sir," the brahmin Tikanna replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"Here, brahmin, secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from harmful(akusala) states, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state), which consists of bliss(piti) and happiness(sukha) born of seclusion, accompanied by thought and examination. With the sub siding of thought and examination, he enters and dwells in the second jhana(trance state), which has internal placidity and unification of mind and consists of bliss(piti) and happiness(sukha) born of samadhi(self absorption/trance), without thought and examination. With the fading away as well of bliss(piti), he dwells equanimous and, mindful(meditating/sati) and completely comprehending, he experiences happiness(sukha) with the body; he enters and dwells in the third jhana(trance state) of which the noble ones declare: 'He is equanimous, mindful(meditating/sati), one who dwells happily.' With the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous passing away of joy and dejection; [164] he enters and dwells in the fourth jhana(trance state), neither painful nor pleasant, which has purification of mindfulness(meditation/sati) by indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha).

(1) "When his mind is thus self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita), purified, cleansed, unblemished, rid of defilement, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to the knowledge of the recollection of past abodes(of past rebirths). He recollects his manifold past abodes, that is, one rebirth, two rebirths, three rebirths, four rebirths, five rebirths, ten rebirths, twenty rebirths, thirty rebirths, forty rebirths, fifty rebirths, a hundred rebirths, a thousand rebirths, a hundred thousand rebirths, many eons of world-dissolution, many eons of world-evolution, many eons of world-dissolution and world evolution, thus: 'There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life span; passing away from there, I was reborn elsewhere, and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life span; pass ing away from there, I was reborn here. Thus he recollects his manifold past abodes(of past rebirths) with their aspects and details.

'This is the first true knowledge attained by him. Ignorance is dispelled, true knowledge has arisen; darkness is dispelled, light has arisen, as happens when one dwells alertful, ardent, and resolute.

(2) "When his mind is thus self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita), purified, cleansed, unblemished, rid of defilement, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to the knowledge of the passing away and rebirth of beings. With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and being reborn, inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he understands how beings fare in accordance with their kamma(karma/deeds) thus: 'These beings who engaged in misconduct by body, speech, and mind, who reviled the noble ones, held, wrong view, and undertook kamma(karma/deeds) based on wrong view, with the breakup of the body, after death, have been reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell; but these beings who engaged in good conduct by body, speech, and mind, who did not revile the noble ones, who held right [165] view, and under took kamma(karma/deeds) based on right view, with the breakup of the body, after death, have been reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world.' Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and being reborn, inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he understands how beings fare in accordance with, their kamma(karma/deeds).

"This is the second true knowledge attained by him. Ignorance is dispelled, true knowledge has arisen; darkness is dispelled, light has arisen, as happens when one dwells alertful, ardent, and resolute.

(3) "When his mind is thus self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita), purified, cleansed, unblemished, rid of defilement, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to the knowledge of the destruction of the taints. He understands as it really is: 'This is suffering'; he understands as it really is: 'This is the origin of suffering'; he understands as it really is: 'This is the cessation of suffering'; he understands as it really is: 'This is the way lead ing to the cessation of suffering.' He understands as it really is: 'These are. the taints'; he understands as it really is: 'This is the origin of the taints'; he understands as it really is: 'This is the cessation of the taints'; he understands as it really is: 'This is the way leading to the cessation of the taints.'

"When he knows and sees thus, his mind is liberated from the taint of sensuality, from the taint of existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth), and from the taint of ignorance. When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: 'it's liberated.' He understands: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming back to any state of being.'

"This is the third true knowledge attained by him. Ignorance is dispelled, true knowledge has arisen; darkness is dispelled, light has arisen, as happens when one dwells alertful, ardent, and resolute.


"He whose virtue is not wavering,
who is alert and meditative,
whose mind has been mastered,
one-pointed(ekagga sans. ekagra), well self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita);


"The wise one, dispeller of darkness,
the triple-knowledge bearer, victor over death;
the one they call an abandoner of all,
benefactor or devas(angels/gods) and humans;


"the one possessing the three knowledges,
who dwells without delusion(moha);
they worship him, the Buddha
Gotama, bearing his final body.


"One who knows his past abodes(of past rebirths),
who sees heaven and the plane of misery,
and has reached the destruction of rebirth
is a sage consummate in direct knowledge(abhinna). 419


"Through these three kinds of knowledge
one is a triple-knowledge brahmin.
I call him a triple knowledge master,
not the other who utters incantations.

"It is in this way, brahmin, that one is a master of the threefold knowledge in the Noble One's discipline."

"Master Gotama, a master of the threefold knowledge in the Noble One's discipline is quite different from a master of the threefold knowledge according to the brahmins. And a master of the threefold knowledge according to the brahmins is not worth a sixteenth part of a master of the threefold knowledge in the Noble One's discipline.

"Excellent, Master Gotama! ... Let Master Gotama consider me a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."


60 Janussoni[]

Then the brahmin Janussoni approached the Lord(Buddha) . . . and said to him:

"Master Gotama, whoever has a sacrifice, a memorial meal, an offering dish, or something to be given should give the gift to brahmins who are masters of the threefold knowledge." 420

[The Lord(Buddha) said:] "But how, brahmin, do the brahmins describe a brahmin who is a master of the threefold knowledge?"

"Here, Master Gotama, a brahmin is well born on both sides . . . [as in 3:58] . . . and [skilled] in the marks of a great man. It is in this way that the brahmins describe a master of the threefold knowledge."

"Brahmin, a master of the threefold knowledge in the Noble One's discipline is'quite different from the one that the brahmins describe."

"But in what, way. Master Gotama, is one a master of the threefold knowledge in the Noble One's discipline? It would be good if Master Gotama would teach me the Dhamma in such a way as to make clear how one is a master of the threefold knowledge in the Noble One's discipline."

"Well then, brahmin, listen and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, sir," the brahmin Janussoni replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"Here, brahmin, secluded from sensual pleasures . . . [all as in 3:58, down to:] [167] . . . This is the third true knowledge attained by him. Ignorance is dispelled, true knowledge has arisen; darkness is dispelled, light has arisen, as happens when one dwells alertful, ardent, and resolute.


"One consummate in virtue and observances,
who is resolute and composed,
whose mind has been mastered,
one-pointed(ekagga sans. ekagra) and well self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita);


"one who knows his past abodes(of past rebirths),
who sees heaven and the plane of misery,
and has reached the destruction of rebirth
is a sage consummate in direct knowledge(abhinna). [168]


"Through these three kinds of knowledge
one is a triple-knowledge brahmin.
I call him a triple-knowledge master,
not the other who utters incantations.

"It is in this way, brahmin, that one is a master of the threefold knowledge in the Noble One's discipline."

"A master of the threefold knowledge in the Noble One's discipline, Master Gotama, is quite different from a master of the threefold knowledge according to the brahmins. And a master of the threefold knowledge according to the brahmins is not worth a sixteenth part of a master of the threefold knowledge in the Noble One's discipline.

"Excellent, Master Gotama! . . . Let Master Gotama consider me a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."


61 Sangarava[]

Then the brahmin Sangarava approached the Lord(Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him Then, sitting to one side, the brahmin Sangarava said this to the Lord(Buddha):

"Master Gotama, we brahmins sacrifice and enjoin others to offer sacrifices. Now both one who himself sacrifices and one who enjoins others to offer sacrifices engage in a meritorious practice that extends to many people, that is, one based on sacrifice. But one who leaves his family and goes forth from the household life into hermit life tames only himself, calms only himself, and leads to nibbana(nirvana) only himself. In such a case, he engages in a meritorious practice that extends to only one person, that is, one based on going forth[into monkhood]."

"Well then, brahmin, I will question you about this mat ter. You should answer as you see fit. What do you think, brahmin? Here, a Tathagata(Buddha) arises in the world, an arahant, perfectly enlightened, accomplished in true knowledge and conduct, fortunate, knower of the world, unsurpassed trainer of persons to be tamed, teacher of devas(angels/gods) and humans, an Enlightened One, a Lord(Buddha). He says thus: 'Come, this is the path, this is the way. Practicing in accordance with it, I have realized for myself with direct knowledge(abhinna) the unsurpassed culmination of the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) 421 and make it known to others. Come, you too practice thus. Practicing in accordance with it, you too will realize for yourselves with direct knowledge(abhinna) the unsurpassed culmination of the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) and dwell in.it. Thus the teacher teaches this Dhamma and; others [169] practice accordingly. There are many hundreds, many thou sands, many hundreds of thousands who do so. What do you think? When this is the case, is that act of going forth[into monkhood] a meritorious practice that extends to one person or to many people?"

"When that is the case. Master Gotama, this is a meritorious practice that extends to many people, that is, one based on going forth[into monkhood]."

When this was said, the Venerable Ananda said to the brahmin Sahgarava: "Of these two practices, brahmin, which appeals to you more as being simpler and less harmful, and as being more fruitful and beneficial?"

Thereupon the brahmin Sahgarava said to the Venerable Ananda: "1 consider Master Gotama and Master Ananda worthy of veneration and praise." 422

A second time the Venerable. Ananda said to the brahmin: "Brahmin, I am not' asking you whom you consider worthy of veneration and praise. I am asking you which of those two practices appeals to you as being simpler and less harmful, and also as more fruitful and beneficial?"

But a second time the brahmin Sahgarava replied: "I consider Master Gotama and Master Ananda worthy of veneration and praise."

A third time the Venerable Ananda said to the brahmin: "Brahmin, I am not asking you whom you consider worthy of veneration and praise. I am asking you which of those two practices appeals to you as being simpler and less harmful, and also as more fruitful and beneficial?"

But a third time the brahmin Sahgarava replied: "I consider Master Gotama and Master Ananda worthy of veneration and praise." [170]

Then the Lord(Buddha) thought: "Even for a third time the brahmin Sahgarava, on being asked a legitimate question by Ananda, falters anddoes not answer. Let me release him." Then the Lord(Buddha) said to the brahmin Sahgarava: "What conversation/brahmin, arose today among the king's retinue when they assembled and were sitting in the royal palace?"

"The conversation was this. Master Gotama: 'Formerly there were fewer bhikkhus, but more who displayed superhuman wonders of psychic potency(magic/iddhi). But now there are more bhikkhus, but fewer who display superhuman wonders of psychic potency/ This was the conversation that arose today among the king's retinue." *

"There are, brahmin, these three kinds of wonders. What three? The wonder of psychic potency(magic/iddhi), the wonder of mind reading, and the wonder of instruction. 423 "

(1) "And what, brahmin, is the wonder of psychic potency(magic/iddhi)? Here, a bhikkhu wields the various kinds of psychic potency(magic/iddhi): having been one, he becomes many; having been many, he becomes one; he appears and vanishes; he goes unhindered through a wall, through a rampart, through a mountain as though through space; he dives in and out of the earth as though it were water; he walks on water without sinking as though it were earth; seated cross-legged, he travels in space like a bird; with his hand he touches and strokes the moon and sun so powerful and mighty; he exercises mastery with the body as fair as the brahma world. This is called the wonder of psychic potency.

(2) "And what, brahmin, is the wonder of mind-reading? There is one who, by means of some clue. 24 declares: 'Your thought is thus, such is what you are thinking, your mind is in such and such a state. And even if he makes many declarations, they are exactly-so and not otherwise.

"Again, someone does not declare [the state of mind] on the basis of a clue, [171] but he hears the sound of people, spirits, or devtas(angels) [speaking] and then declares: 'Your thought is thus, such is what you are thinking, your mind is in such and such a state. And even if he makes many declarations, they are exactly so and not otherwise.

"Again, someone does not declare [the state of mind] on the basis of a mark, or by hearing the sound of people, spirits, or devtas(angels) [speaking], but he hears the sound of the diffusion of thought 425 as one is thinking and examining [some matter] and then declares: 'Your thought is thus, such is what you are thinking, your mind is in such and such a state/ And even if he makes many declarations, they are exactly so and not otherwise.

"Again, someone does not. declare [the state of mind] on the basis of a mark, or by hearing the sound of people, spirits, or devtas(angels) [speaking], or by hearing the sound of the diffusion of thought as one is thinking and examining [some matter], but with his own mind he encompasses the mind of one who has attained samadhi(self absorption/trance) without thought and examination and he understands: 'This person's mental activities are so disposed that immediately afterward he will think this thought. 426 And even if he makes many declarations, they are exactly so and not otherwise. This is called the wonder of mind-reading.

(3) "And what, brahmin, is the wonder of instruction? Here, someone instructs [others] thus: 'Think in this way and not in that way! Attend to this and not to that! Abandon this and enter and dwell in that!' This is called the wonder of instruction. 427

"These, brahmin, are the three kinds of wonders. Of these three wonders, which appeals to you as the most excellent and sublime?"

"Among these. Master Gotama, when someone performs this wonder by which he wields the various kinds of psychic potency . . . exercises mastery with the body as far as the brahma world, only the one who performs this wonder experiences it and it occurs only to him. This wonder seems to me like a magical trick.

"Again, Master Gotama, when someone performs this wonder by which he declares another's state of mind on the basis of a clue . . . by hearing the sound of people, spirits, or devtas(angels) ... by hearing the sound of the diffusion of thought while he is thinking and examining [some matter] . . .by encompassing with his own mind the mind of one who has attained samadhi(self absorption/trance) that is without thought and examination such that he understands: [172] 'This person's mental activities are so disposed that immediately afterward he will think this thought. and, even if he makes many declarations, they are exactly so and not otherwise^again, only the one who performs this wonder experiences it and it occurs only to him. This wonder, too, seems to me like a magical trick.

"But, Master Gotama, when someone performs this wonder by which he instructs [others] thus: 'Think in this way and not in that way! Attend to this and not to that! Abandon this and enter and dwell in that!'— this wonder appeals to me as the most excellent and sublime of those three wonders.

"It is astounding and amazing. Master Gotama, how well this has been stated by Master Gotama! We consider Master Gotama to be one who can perform these three wonders. For Master Gotama wields the various kinds of psychic potency(magic/iddhi). . .exercises mastery with the body as far as the brahma world. Master Gotama encompasses with his own mind the mind of one who has attained samadhi(self absorption/trance) that is without thought and examination such that he understands: 'This person's mental activities are so disposed that immediately afterward he will think this thought.' And Master Gotama instructs [others] thus: 'Think in this way and not in that way! Attend to this and not to that! Abandon this(thought) and enter and dwell in that(thought)!'"

"Surely, brahmin, your words are prying and intrusive. 428 Nevertheless, I will answer you. I do wield the various kinds of psychic potency(magic/iddhi) . . . exercise mastery with the body as far as the brahma world. I do encompass with my own mind the mind of one who has attained a state of samadhi(self absorption/trance) that is without thought and examination such that I understand: "This person's mental activities are so disposed that immediately afterward he will think this thought.' And I do instruct [others] thus: 'Think in this way and not in that way! Attend to this and not to that! Abandon this (thought) and enter and dwell in that!"'

"But, Master Gotama, is there even one other bhikkhu apart from Master Gotama who can perform these three wonders?"

“There is not just one hundred, two hundred, three hundred, four hundred, or five hundred bhikkhus, but even more" who can perform these three wonders." "But where are those bhikkhus presently dwelling?" [173] "Right here, brahmin, in this Sangha of bhikkhus." "Excellent, Master Gotama! . . Let Master Gotama consider me a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."



(7)II. The Great Chapter (Mahavaggo)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


62 Sectarian (Titthayatanadisuttam )[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three sectarian tenets 429 which, when questioned, interrogated, and cross-examined by the wise, and taken to their conclusion, will eventuate in non-doing. 430 What are the three?

(1) "There are, bhikkhus, some ascetics and brahmins who hold such a doctrine and view as this: 'Whatever this person experiences — whether pleasure, pain, or neither-pain-nor pleasure — all that is caused by what was done in the past.' (2) There are other ascetics and brahmins who hold such a doctrine and view as this: 'Whatever this person experiences— whether pleasure, pain, or neither-pain-nor-pleasure — all that is caused by God's creative activity.' (3) And there are still other ascetics and brahmins who hold such a doctrine and view as this: 'Whatever this person experiences — whether pleasure, pain, or neither-paih-nor-pleasure — all that occurs Without a cause or condition.' 431

"Bhikkhus(Monks), I approached those ascetics and brahmins who hold such a doctrine and view as this: 'Whatever this person experiences — whether pleasure, pain, or neither-pain nor-pleasure — all that is caused by past deeds,' 432 and I said to them: 'Is it true that you venerable ones hold such a doctrine and view?' When I ask them this, they affirm it. [174] Then I say to them: 'In such a case, it is due to past deeds that you might destroy life, take what is not given, indulge in sexual activity, speak falsehood, utter divisive speech, speak harshly, indulge in idle chatter; that you might be full of longing, have a mind of ill will, and hold wrong view.' 433

"Those who fall back on past deeds as the essential truth have no desire [to do] what should be done and [to avoid doing] what should not be done, nor do they make an effort in this respect. Since they do not apprehend as true and valid anything that should be done or should not be done, they are muddle minded, they do not guard themselves, and even the personal designation 'Ascetic' could not be legitimately applied to them. This was my first legitimate refutation of those ascetics and brahmins who hold such a doctrine and view.

(2) "Then, bhikkhus(monks), I approached those ascetics and brah mins who hold such a doctrine and view as this: 'Whatever this person experiences — whether pleasure, pain, or neither-pain nor-pleasure — all that is caused by God's creative activity, and I said to them: 'it true that you venerable ones hold such a doctrine and view?' When I ask them this, they affirm it.. Then I say to them: In such a case, it is due to God's creative activity that you might destroy life, take what is not given, indulge in sexual activity, speak falsehood, utter divisive speech, speak harshly, indulge in idle chatter; that you might be full of longing, have a mind of ill will, and hold wrong view.'

"Those who fall back on God's creative activity as the essential truth have no desire [to do] what should be done and [to avoid doing] what should not be done, nor do they make an effort in this respect. Since they do not apprehend as true and valid anything that should be done or should not be done, they are muddle-minded, they do not guard themselves, and even the personal designation 'ascetic' could not be legitimately applied to them. This was my second legitimate refutation of those ascetics and brahmins who hold such a doctrine and view. [175]

(3) "Then, bhikkhus, I approached those ascetics and brah mins who hold such a doctrine and view as this: 'Whatever this person experiences — whether pleasure, pain, or neither-pain nor-pleasure — all that occurs without a cause or condition,' and I said to them: Is it true that you venerable ones hold such a doctrine and view?' When I ask them this, they affirm it. Then I say to them: In such a case, it is without a cause or condition that you might destroy life, take what is not given, indulge in sexual activity, speak falsehood, utter divisive speech, speak harshly, indulge in idle chatter; that you might be full of longing, have a mind of ill will, and hold wrong view.'

"Those who fall back on absence of cause and condition as the essential truth have no desire [to do]. what should be done and [to avoid doing] what should not be done, nor do they make an effort in this respect. Since they do not apprehend as true and valid anything that should be done or should not be done. they are muddle-minded, they do not guard themselves, and even the personal designation 'ascetic' could not be legitimately applied to them. This was my third legitimate refutation of those ascetics and brahmins who hold such a doctrine and view.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three sectarian tenets which, when questioned, interrogated, and cross-examined by the wise, and taken to their conclusion, will eventuate in non-doing.

"But, bhikkhus, this Dhamma taught by me is unrefuted, undefiled, irreproachable, and uncensored by wise ascetics and brahmins. 434 And what is the Dhamma taught by me that is unrefuted, undefiled, irreproachable, and uncensored by wise ascetics and brahmins?

"'These are the six elements': this, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma taught by me that is unrefuted. . . uncensored by wise ascetics and brahmins. 'These are the six senses for contact' . . . 'These are the eighteen mental examinations' ... 'These are the four noble truths': this, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma(path) taught by me that is unrefuted, undefiled, irreproachable, and uncensored by wise ascetics and brahmins.

"When it was said: 'These are the six elements ([Lok] Dhatu)': this, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma taught by me that is unrefuted... uncensored by wise ascetics and brahmins,' for what reason was this said? There are [176] these six elements: the earth element(Pathavi), the water element(Apo), the fire element(Tejo), the air element(vayo), the space element(Askasa), and the consciousness element(Vinnana). 435 When it was said: 'These are the six elements': this, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma taught by me that is unrefuted . . . uncensored by wise ascetics and brahmins, it is because of this that this was said, Note : The world is made of 6 phenomenon (Lok Dhatu) : Earth(Solidity), Water(Liquidity), Fire(Heat), Air(Gas), Space(Volume) and Consciousness(Awareness)

"When it was said: 'These are the six senses(Ayatana) for contact(with world)': this, bhikkhus(monks), is the Dhamma taught by me that is unrefuted. .. uncensored by wise ascetics and brahmins,' for what reason was this said? There are these six senses for contact: the eye as a sense(Ayatana) for contact, the ear as a sense for contact, the nose as a sense for contact, the tongue, as a sense for contact, the body as a sense for contact, and the mind as a sense for contact. When it was said: 'These are the six senses for contact': this, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma taught by me that is unrefuted . . . uncensored by wise ascetics and brahmins,' it is because of this that this was said.

"When it was said 'These are the eighteen mental examinations': this, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma taught by me that is unrefuted: .. uncensored by wise ascetics and brahmins for what reason was this said? 436 Having seen a form with the eye, one examines a form that is a basis for joy(somanassa); one examines a form that is a basis for dejection(domanassa); one examines a form that is a basis for indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha) . Having heard a sound with the ear . . . Having smelled an odor with the nose . . . Having tasted a taste with the tongue . . . Having felt a tactile object with the body . . . Having cognized a mental phenomenon(thought) with the mind, one examines a mental phenomenon that is a basis for joy; one examines a mental phenomenon that is a basis for dejection; one examines a mental phenomenon that is a basis for indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha). When it was said: 'These are the eighteen mental examinations': this, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma taught by me that is unrefuted . . . uncensored by wise ascetics and brahmins, it is because of this that this was said .

"When it was said: 'These are the four noble truths': this, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma(path) taught by me that is unrefuted . . . uncensored by wise ascetics and brahmins, for what reason was this said? In dependence on the six elements the descent of a [future] embryo occurs. 437 When the descent takes place, there is mind(naam)-and-form(body); with mind(naam)-and-form(body) as condition, there are the six sense spheres; with the six sense spheres as condition, there is contact; with contact as condition, there is sensation(vedana). Now it is for one who feels that I proclaim: 'This is suffering' and 'This is the origin of suffering,' and 'This is the cessation of suffering' and 'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.'

"And what, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of suffering? rebirth is suffering, old age is suffering, illness is suffering, death [177] is suffering; sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish are suffering; not to get what one wants is suffering; in brief, the five aggregates subject to clinging are suffering. This is called the noble truth of suffering.

"And what, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the origin of suffering? With ignorance as condition, character/behavior(sankhara/sanskar) [come to be]; with character/behavior(sankhara/sanskar) as condition, conscious ness; with consciousness as condition, mind(naam)-and-form(body); with mind(naam)-and-form(body) as condition, the six sense spheres; with the six sense spheres as condition, contact; with contact as condition. sensation(vedana); with sensation(vedana) as condition, craving(tanha/trishna); with craving(tanha/trishna) as condition, clinging; with clinging as condition, existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth); with existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) as condition, rebirth; with rebirth as condition, old age and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish come to be. Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. This is called the noble truth of the origin of suffering. 436

"And what, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering? With the remainderless fading away and cessation of ignorance comes cessation of characteristics(sankhara/sanskar); with the cessation of characteristics/behavior(sankhara/sanskar); with the, cessation of (bodily)consciousness; with the cessation of consciousness, cessation of mind(naam)-and-form(body); with the cessation of mind(naam)-and-form(body), cessation of the six sense bases; with the cessation of the six sense spheres, cessation of contact; with the cessation of contact, cessation of sensation(vedana); with the cessation of sensation(vedana), cessation of craving(tanha/trishna); with the cessation of craving; cessation of clinging; with the cessation of clinging, cessation of existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth); with the cessation of existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth), cessation of rebirth; with the cessation of rebirth, old age and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish cease. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering. This is called the noble truth of the cessation of suffering.

"And what, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering? It is just this noble eightfold path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right meditation(sati/mindfulness), and right samadhi(self absorption/trance). This is called the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering.

"When it was said 'These are the four noble truths': this, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma taught by me that is unrefuted, undefiled, irreproachable, and uncensored by wise ascetics and brahmins,' it is because of this that this was said." [178]


63 Three Perils[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), the uninstructed worldling speaks of these three perils that separate mother and son. 439 What three?

(1) "There comes a time when a great conflagration arises. When the great conflagration has arisen, it burns up villages, towns, and cities. When villages, towns, and cities are burning up, the mother does not find her son and the son does not find his mother. This is the first peril that separates mother and son of which the uninstructed-worldling speaks

(2) " Again, there comes a time when a great rain cloud arises. When the great rain cloud has arisen, a great deluge takes place. When the great deluge takes place, villages, towns, and cities are swept away. When villages, towns, and cities are being swept away, the mother does not find her son and the son does not find his mother. This is the second peril that separates mother and son of which the uninstructed worldling speaks.

(3) "Again, there comes a time of perilous turbulence in the wilderness, when the people of the countryside, mounted on their vehicles, flee on all sides. When there is perilous turbulence in the wilderness, and the people of the countryside, mounted on their vehicles, are fleeing on all sides, the mother does not find her son and the son does not find his mother. This is the third peril that separates mother and son of which the uninstructed worldling speaks.

"These are the three perils that separate mother and son of which the uninstructed worldling speaks.

"There are, bhikkhus, these three perils when mother and son reconnect that the uninstructed worldling speaks of as perils that separate mother and son. 440 What three?

(1) "There comes a time when a great conflagration arises. When the great conflagration has arisen, it burns up villages, towns, and cities. When villages, towns, and cities are burning up, there is sometimes an occasion when the mother [179] finds her son and the son finds his mother. This is the first peril when mother and son reconnect that the uninstructed worldling speaks of as a peril that separates mother and son.

(2) "Again, there comes a time when a great rain cloud arises. When the great rain cloud has arisen, a great deluge takes place. When the great deluge takes place, villages, towns, and cities are swept away. When villages, towns, and cities are being swept away, there is sometimes an occasion when the mother finds her son and the son finds his mother. This is the second peril when mother and son reconnect that the uninstructed worldling speaks of as a peril that separates mother and son.

(3) "Again, there comes a time of perilous turbulence in the wilderness, when the people of the countryside, mounted on their vehicles, flee on all sides. When there is perilous turbulence in the wilderness, and the people of the countryside, mounted on their vehicles, are fleeing on all sides, there is sometimes an occasion when the mother finds her son and the son finds his mother. This is the third peril when mother and son reconnect that the uninstructed worldling speaks of as a peril that separates mother and son.

"These are the three perils when mother and son reconnect that the uninstructed worldling speak of as perils that separate mother and son.

"There are, bhikkhus, these three perils that separate mother and son. 441 What three? The peril of old age, the peril of illness, and the peril of death.

(1) "When the son is growing old, the mother cannot fulfill her wish: Let me grow old, but may my son not grow old!' And when the mother is growing old, the son cannot fulfill his wish: 'Let me grow old, but may my mother not grow old!'

(2) "When the son has fallen ill, the mother cannot fulfill her wish: 'Let me fall ill, but may my son not fall ill!' And when the mother has fallen ill, the son cannot fulfill his wish: 'Let me fall ill, but may my mother not fall ill!'

(3) "When the son is dying, the mother cannot fulfill her wish: 'Let me die, but may my son not die!' And when the mother is dying, the son cannot fulfill his wish: 'Let me die, but may my mother not die!'

"These are the three perils that separate mother and son. [180]

"There is a path, bhikkhus, there is a way that leads to the abandoning and overcoming of these three perils when mother and son reconnect and of these three perils that separate mother and son. And what is the path and way? It is just this noble eightfold path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right meditation(sati/mindfulness), and right samadhi(self absorption/trance). This is the path and way that leads to the abandoning and overcoming of these three perils when mother and son reconnect and of these three perils that separate mother and son."


64 Venagapura (Nagpur)[]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was wandering on tour among the Kosalans together with a large Sangha of bhikkhus when he reached the Kosalan brahmin village named Venagapura. The brahmin householder's of Venagapura heard: "It is said that the ascetic Gotama, the son of the Sakyans who went forth from a Sakyan family, has arrived at Venagapura. Now a good report about that Master Gotama has circulated thus: "That Lord(Buddha) is an arahant, perfectly enlightened, accomplished in true knowledge and conduct, fortunate, knower of the world, unsurpassed leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of devas(angels/gods) and humans, the Enlightened One, the Lord(Buddha). Having realized by his own direct knowledge(abhinna) this world with its devas(angels/gods), Mara, and Brahma, this population with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas(angels/gods) and humans, he makes it known to others. He teaches a Dhamma that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing; he reveals a brahmacariya(celibate holy life) that is perfectly complete and pure.' Now it is good to see such arahants."

Then the brahmin householders of Venagapura approached the Lord(Buddha). Some paid homage to the Lord(Buddha) and sat down to one side; some exchanged greetings with him [ 181 ] and, when they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, sat down to one side; some reverentially saluted him and sat down to one side; some pronounced their name and clan and sat down to one side; some kept silent and sat down to one side. The brahmin Vacchagotta of Venagapura then said to the Lord(Buddha):

"It is astounding and amazing. Master Gotama, how Master Gotama's faculties are tranquil and the color of his skin is pure and bright. Just as a yellow jujube fruit in the autumn is pure and bright, so Master Gotama's faculties are tranquil and the color of his skin is pure and bright. Just as a palm fruit that has just been removed from its stalk is pure and bright, so Master Gotama's faculties are tranquil and the color of his skin is pure and bright. Just as an ornament of finest gold, well prepared by a skilled goldsmith and very skillfully wrought in the furnace, placed on red brocade, shines and beams and radiates, so Master Gotama's faculties are tranquil and the color of his skin is pure and bright.

"Whatever high and luxurious kinds of bedding there are — that is, a sofa, a divan, a long-haired coverlet, a coverlet of diverse colors, a white coverlet, a woolen coverlet with floral designs, a quilt of cotton wool, a woolen coverlet ornamented with animal! figures, a woolen coverlet with double borders, a woolen coverlet with a single border, a silken sheet studded with gems, a sheet made with silk threads and studded with gems, a dancer's rug, an elephant rug, a horse rug, a chariot rug, a rug of antelope hide, a spread made of the hide of the kadali-deer, [a bed] with a canopy above and red bolsters at both ends — Master Gotama surely gains them at will, without trouble or difficulty." 442

"Brahmin, those high and luxurious kinds of bedding are rarely obtained by those who have gone forth[into hermit life], and if they are obtained, they are not allowed.

"But, brahmin, there are three kinds of high and luxurious beds that at present I gain at will, without trouble or difficulty. What three? [182] The celestial high and luxurious bed, the divine high and luxurious bed, and the noble high and luxurious bed. 443 These are the three kinds of high and luxurious beds that at present I gain at will, without trouble or difficulty."

(1) "But, Master Gotama, what is the celestial high and luxurious bed that at present you gain at will, without trouble or difficulty?"

"Here, brahmin, when I am dwelling in dependence on a village or town, in the morning I dress, take my bowl and robe, and enter that village or town for. alms. After the meal, when I have returned from the alms round, I enter a grove. I collect some grass or leaves that I find there into a pile and then sit down. Having folded my legs crosswise and straightened my body, I establish mindfulness(meditation/sati) in front of me. Then, secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from harmful(akusala) states, I enter and dwell in the first jhana(trance state), which consists of bliss(piti) and happiness(sukha) born of seclusion, accompanied by thought and examination. With the subsiding of thought and examination, I enter and dwell ih the second jhana(trance state), which has internal placidity and unification of mind and consists of bliss(piti) and happiness(sukha) born of samadhi(self absorption/trance), without thought and examination. With the fading away as well of bliss(piti), I dwell equanimous and, mindful(meditating/sati) and completely comprehending, I experience happiness(sukha) with the body; I enter and dwell in the third jhana(trance state) of which the noble ones declare: 'He is equanimous, mindful(meditating/sati), one who dwells happily. With the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous passing away of joy and dejection, I enter and dwell in the fourth jhana(trance state), neither painful nor pleasant, which has purification of mindfulness(meditation/sati) by indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha).

“Then, brahmin, when I am in such a state, if I walk back and forth, on that occasion my walking back and forth is celestial. 444 If I am standing, on that occasion my standing is celestial. If I am sitting, on that occasion my sitting is celestial. If I lie down, on that occasion this is my celestial high and luxurious bed. This is that [183] celestial high and luxurious bed that at present I can gain at will, without trouble or difficulty."

"It is astounding and amazing. Master Gotama! Who else, apart from Master Gotama, can gain at will, without trouble or difficulty, such a celestial high and luxurious bed?

(2) "But, Master Gotama, what is the divine high and luxurious bed that at present you gain at will, without trouble or difficulty?"

"Here, brahmin, when I am dwelling in dependence on a village or town, in the morning I dress, take my bowl and robe, and enter that village or town for alms. After the meal, when I have returned from the alms round, I enter a grove. I collect some grass or leaves that I find there into a pile and then sit down. Having folded my legs crosswise and straightened my body, I establish mindfulness(meditation/sati) in front of me. Then I dwell pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with loving-kindness(metta), likewise the second quarter, the third quarter, and the fourth quarter. Thus above, below, across, and everywhere, and to all as to myself, I dwell pervading the entire world with a mind imbued with loving-kindness(metta), vast, exalted, measureless, with out enmity, without ill will. I dwell pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with compassion. . .with a mind imbued with altruistic joy . . . with a mind imbued with indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha), likewise the second quarter, the third quarter, and the fourth quarter. Thus above, below, across, and everywhere, and to all as to myself, I dwell pervading the entire world with a mind imbued with indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha), vast, exalted, measureless, without enmity, without ill will.

"Then, brahmin, when I am in such a state, if I walk back and forth, on that occasion my walking back and forth is divine. If I am standing, on that occasion my standing is divine. If I am sitting, on that occasion my sitting is divine. If I lie down, on that occasion this is my divine high and luxurious bed. This is that divine high and luxurious bed that at present I can gain at will, without trouble or difficulty." [184]

"It is astounding and amazing. Master Gotama! Who else, apart from Master Gotama, can gain at will, without trouble or difficulty, such a high and luxurious bed?

(3) "But, Master Gotama, what is the noble high and luxurious bed that at present you gain at will, without trouble or difficulty?"

"Here, brahmin, when I am dwelling in dependence on a village or town, in the morning I dress, take my bowl and robe, and enter that village or town for alms. After the meal, when I have returned from the alms round, I enter a grove. I collect some grass or leaves that I find there into a pile and then sit down. Having folded my legs crosswise and straightened my body, I establish mindfulness(meditation/sati) in front of me. Then I understand thus: T have abandoned greed, cut it off at the root, made it like a palm stump, obliterated it so that it is no more subject to future arising. I have abandoned hatred, cut it off at the root, made it like a palm stump, obliterated it so that it is no more subject. to future arising. I have abandoned delusion(moha), cut it off at the root, made it like a palm stump, obliterated it so that it is no more subject to future arising. 445

"Then, brahmin, when I am in such a state, if I walk back and forth, on that occasion my walking back ahd forth is noble. If I am standing, on that occasion my standing is noble. If I am sitting, on that occasion my sitting is noble. If I lie down, on that occasion this is my noble high and luxurious bed. This is that noble high and luxurious bed that at present I can gain at. will, without trouble or difficulty."

"It is astounding and amazing. Master Gotama! Who else, apart from Master Gotama, can gain at will, without trouble or difficulty, such a noble high and luxurious bed?

"Excellent, Master Gotama! Excellent, Master Gotama! Mas ter Gotama has made the D^amma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the darkness so those with good eyesight can see forms. We now go for refuge to Master Gotama, f!85] to the Dhamma, and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. Let Master Gotama consider us lay followers who from today have gone for refuge for life."


65 Sarabha[]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha on Mount Vulture Peak. Now on that occasion a ascetic named Sarabha had recently left this Dhamma and discipline. 446 He had been telling an assembly in Rajagaha: "I have learned the Dhamma(path) of the ascetics who follow the Sakyan son. After I learned their Dhamma, I left that Dhamma and discipline."

Then, one morning, a number of bhikkhus(monks) dressed, took their bowls and robes, and entered Rajagaha for alms. They then heard the ascetic Sarabha making such a statement to an assembly in Rajagaha. When those bhikkhus had walked for alms in Rajagaha, after their meal, when they returned from their alms round, they approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

"Bhante, the ascetic Sarabha, who recently left this Dhamma and discipline, has been telling an assembly in Rajagaha: 'I have learned the Dhamma(path) of the ascetics who follow the Sakyan son. After I learned their Dhamma, I left that Dhamma and discipline.' It would be good, Bhante, if the Lord(Buddha) would go to the ascetics' park on the bank of the Sappinika [river] and, out of compassion, approach the ascetic Sarabha." The Lord(Buddha) consented by silence.

Then, in the evening, the Lord(Buddha) emerged from seclusion and went to the ascetics' park on the bank of the Sappinika [river]. He approached the ascetic Sarabha, sat down on the seat that was prepared [186] for him, and said to him: "Is it true, Sarabha, that you have been saying: I have learned the Dhamma of the ascetics who follow the Sakyan son. After I learned their Dhamma, I left that Dhamma and discipline'?" When this was said, the ascetic Sarabha was silent.

A second time the Lord(Buddha) said to the ascetic Sarabha: "Tell me, Sarabha, how have you learned the Dhamma of the ascetics who follow the Sakyan son? If you have not learned it completely, I will complete it. But if you have learned it completely, I will rejoice." But a second time the ascetic Sarabha was silent.

A third time the Lord(Buddha) said to the ascetic Sarabha: 447 "Tell me, Sarabha, how have you learned the Dhamma of the ascetics who follow the Sakyan son? If you have not learned it completely, I will complete it. But if you have learned it completely, I will rejoice." But a third time the ascetic Sarabha was silent. us

Then those ascetics said to the ascetic Sarabha: "The ascetic Gotama has offered to give you whatever you might ask him for, friend Sarabha. Speak, friend Sarabha! How have you learned the Dhamma of the ascetics who follow the Sakyan son? If you have not learned it completely, the ascetic Gotama will complete it for you. But if you have learned it completely, he will rejoice." When this was said,, the ascetic Sarabha sat silenced, disconcerted, hunched over, downcast, glum, and speechless.

Then the Lord(Buddha), having understood that the ascetic Sarabha [sat] silenced, disconcerted, hunched over, downcast, glum, and speechless, said to those ascetics:

(1) "ascetics, if anyone should say about me: 'Though you claim to be perfectly enlightened, you are not fully enlightened about these things' [ 187]I might question him closely about this matter, interrogate him, and cross-examine him. 49 When he is being closely questioned by me, interrogated, and cross examined, it is impossible and inconceivable that he would not incur one or another of three consequences: he would either answer evasively and. divert the discussion to an irrelevant subject; [or] display anger, hatred, and bitterness; or would sit silenced, disconcerted, hunched over, downcast, glum, and speechless, just like the ascetic Sarabha. 450

(2) "If, ascetics, anyone should say about me: 'Though you claim to be one whose taints are destroyed, you have not fully destroyed these taints' I might question him closely about this matter, interrogate him, and cross-examine him. When he is being closely questioned by me, interrogated, and cross examined, it is impossible and inconceivable that he would not incur one or another of three consequences: he would either answer evasively and divert the discussion to an irrelevant subject; [or] display anger, hatred, and bitterness; or would sit silenced, disconcerted, hunched over, downcast, glum, and speechless, just like the ascetic Sarabha.

(3) "If, ascetics, anyone should say about me: 'The Dhamma does not lead one who practices it to the complete destruction of suffering, the goal for the sake of which you teach it/ 451 I might question him closely about this matter, interrogate him. and cross-examine him. When he is being closely questioned by me, interrogated, and cross-examined, it is impossible and inconceivable that he would not incur one or another of three consequences: he would either answer evasively and divert the discussion to an irrelevant subject, [or] display anger, hatred, and bitterness, or would sit silenced, disconcerted, hunched over, downcast, glum, and speechless, just like the ascetic Sarabha."

Then the Lord(Buddha), having roared his lion's roar three times in the ascetics' park on the bank of the Sappinika [river], rose up into the air and departed. 52

Then, soon after the Lord(Buddha) had left, those ascetics gave the ascetic Sarabha a thorough verbal lashing, 453 [saying:] "Just as an old jackal in a huge forest might think: I will roar a lion's roar and yet would only howl and yelp like a jackal, so, friend Sarabha, claiming in the absence of the ascetic Gotama: I will roar a lion's roar,' [188] you only howled and yelped like a jackal. Just as, friend Sarabha, a chick might think: 'I will sing like a cock,' and yet would only sing like a chick, so, friend Sarabha, claiming in the absence of the ascetic Gotama: 'I will sing like a cock, you only sang like a chick. 454 Just as, friend Sarabha, a bull might think to bellow deeply in an empty cow shed, so, friend Sarabha, in the absence of the ascetic Gotama you thought you could bellow deeply." [In this way] those ascetics gave the ascetic Sarabha a thorough verbal lashing.


66 Kesaputtiya 4S5[]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was wandering on tour among the Kosalans together with a large Sangha of monks when he reached the town of the Kalamas named Kesaputta. The Kalamas of Kesaputta heard: "It is said that the ascetic Gotama, the son of the Sakyans who went forth from a Sakyan family, has arrived at Kesaputta. Now a good report about that Master Gotama has circulated thus: 'That Lord(Buddha) is an arahant, perfectly enlightened . . . [as at 3:63] . . . [and] reveals a brahmacariya(celibate holy life) that is perfectly complete and pure.' Now it is good to see such arahants."

Then the Kalamas of Kesaputta-approached the Lord(Buddha). Some paid homage to the Lord(Buddha) and sat down to one side . . . [as at 3:63] . . . some kept silent and sat down to one side. Sitting to one side, the Kalamas said to the Lord(Buddha):

"Bhante, there are some ascetics and brahmins who come to Kesaputta. They explain and elucidate their own doctrines, but disparage, denigrate, deride, and denounce the doctrines of others. But then some other ascetics and brahmins come to Kesaputta, [189] and they too explain and elucidate their own doctrines, but disparage, denigrate, deride, and denounce the doctrines of others, We are perplexed and in doubt, Bhante, as to which of these good ascetics speak truth and which speak falsehood. 7

"It is fitting for you to be perplexed, Kalamas, fitting for you to be in doubt; Doubt has arisen in you about a perplexing matter 456 Come, Kalamas, do not go by oral tradition, by lineage of teaching, by hearsay, by a collection of scriptures, by logical reasoning, by inferential reasoning, by reasoned cogitation, by the acceptance of a view after pondering it, by the seeming competence [of a speaker], or because you think: 'The ascetic is our guru. 457 But when, Kalamas, you know for yourselves: 'These things are harmful(akusala); these things are blameworthy; these things are censured by the wise; these things, if accepted and undertaken, lead to harm and suffering,' then you should abandon them.

(1) "What do you think, Kalamas? When greed arises in a person, is it for his welfare or for his harm?" 453

"For his harm, Bhante."

"Kalamas, a greedy person, overcome by greed, with mind obsessed by it, destroys life, takes what is not given, transgresses with another's wife, and speaks falsehood; and he encourages others to do likewise. Will that lead to his harm and suffering for a long time?"

"Yes, Bhante."

(2) "What do you think, Kalamas? When hatred arises in a person, is it for his welfare or for his harm?"

"For his harm, Bhante."

"Kalamas, a person who is full of hate, overcome by hatred, with mind obsessed by it, destroys life . . . and he encourages others to do likewise. Will that lead to his harm and suffering for a long time?" '

"Yes, Bhante."

(3) "What do you think, Kalamas? When delusion(moha) arises in a person, is it for his welfare or for his harm?"

"For his harm, Bhante." [190]

"Kalamas, a person who is deluded, overcome by delusion(moha), with mind obsessed by it, destroys life . . . and he encourages others to do likewise. Will that lead to his harm and suffering for a long time?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"What do you think, Kalamas? Are these things beneficial(kusala) or harmful(akusala)?" — "harmful(akusala), Bhante." — "Blameworthy or blameless?" — "Blameworthy, Bhante." — "Censured or praised by the wise?" — "Censured by the wise, Bhante." — "Accepted and undertaken, do they lead to harm and suffering or not, or how do you take it?" — "Accepted and undertaken, these things lead to harm and suffering. So we take it."

"Thus, Kalamas, when we said: 'Come, Kalamas, do not go by oral tradition . . . But when you know for yourselves: "These things are harmful(akusala); these things are blameworthy; these things are. censured by the wise; these things, if undertaken and practiced, lead to harm and suffering," then you should abandon them,' it is because of this that this was said.

"Come, Kalamas, do not go by oral tradition, by lineage of teaching, by hearsay, by a collection of scriptures, by logical reasoning, by inferential reasoning, by reasoned cogitation, by the acceptance of a view after pondering it, by the seeming competence [of a speaker], or because you think: 'The ascetic is our guru.' But when you know for yourselves: 'These tilings are beneficial(kusala); these things are blameless; these tilings are praised by the wise; these things, if accepted and undertaken, lead to welfare and happiness/ then you should live in accordance with them.

(1) "What do you think, Kalamas? When non-greed arises in a person, is it for his welfare or for his harm?"

"For his welfare, Bhante."

"Kalamas, a person without greed, not overcome by greed, his mind not obsessed by it, does not destroy life, take what is not given, transgress with another's wife, or speak falsehood; nor does he encourage others to do likewise. [191] Will that lead to his welfare and happiness for a long time?"

"Yes, Bhante."

(2) "What do you think, Kalamas? When non-hatred arises in a person, is it for his welfare or for his harm?"

"For his welfare, Bhante."

"Kalamas, a person who is without hate, not overcome by hatred, his mind not obsessed by it, does not destroy life . . . nor does he encourage others to do. likewise. Will that lead to his welfare and happiness for a long time?"

"Yes, Bhante."

(3) "What do you think, Kalamas? When non-delusion(moha) arises in a person, is it for his welfare or for his harm?"

"For his welfare, Bhante."

"Kalamas, a person who is undeluded, not overcome by delusion(moha), his mind not obsessed by it, does not destroy life . . . nor does he encourage others to do likewise. Will that lead to his welfare and happiness for a long time?"

"Yes, Bhante." .

"What do you think, Kalamas? Are these things beneficial(kusala) or harmful(akusala)?" "beneficial(kusala), Bhante." — "Blameworthy or blameless?" "Blameless, Bhante." — "Censured or praised by the wise?" — "Praised by the wise, Bhante." — "Accepted and undertaken, do they lead to welfare and. happiness or not, or how do you take it?" — "Accepted and undertaken, these things lead to welfare and happiness. So we take it."

"Thus, Kalamas, when we said: 'Come, Kalamas, do not go by oral tradition . . . But when you know for yourselves: "These things are beneficial(kusala); these things are blameless; these things are praised by the wise; these things, if accepted and under taken, lead to welfare and happiness," then you should [192] live in accordance with them, it is because of this that this was said.

"Then, Kalamas, that noble disciple, who is thus devoid of longing, devoid of ill will, unconfused, completely comprehend ing, ever mindful(meditating/sati), dwells pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with loving-kindness(metta) . . . with a mind imbued with compassion: . .with a mind imbued with altruistic joy .. .with a mind imbued with indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha), likewise the second quarter, the third, quarter, and the fourth quarter. Thus above, below, across, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he dwells pervading the entire world with a mind imbued with indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha), vast, exalted, measureless, without enmity, without ill will.

“This noble disciple, Kalamas, whose mind is in this way without enmity, without ill will, undefiled, and pure, has won four assurances in this very life.

“The first assurance he has won is this: If there is another world, and if there is the fruit and result of good and bad deeds, it is possible that with the breakup of the body, after death, I will be reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world"

“The second assurance he has won is this: If there is no other world, and there is no fruit and result of good and bad deeds, still right here, in this very life, I maintain myself in happiness, without enmity and ill will, free of trouble.

“The third assurance he has won is this: 'Suppose evil comes to one who does evil. Then, when I have no evil intentions toward anyone, how can suffering afflict me, since I do no evil deed?' 459 ' .

“The fourth assurance he has won is this: 'Suppose evil does not come, to one who does evil. Then right here I see myself purified in both respects. 460

“This noble disciple, Kalamas, whose mind is in this way without enmity, without ill will, undefiled, and pure, has won these four assurances in this very life." 461

“So it is. Lord(Buddha)! So it is. Sugata(Lord Buddha)! This noble disciple whose mind is in this way without enmity, without ill will, undefiled, and pure, [193] has won four assurances in this very life.

“The first assurance he has won . . . [as above, down to:] . . . The fourth assurance he has won is this; 'Suppose evil does not befall the evil-doer. Then right here I see myself purified in both respects/

“This noble disciple, Bhante, whose mind is in this way with out enmity, without ill will, undefiled, and pure, has won these four assurances in this very life.

“Excellent, Bhante! . . . We go for refuge to the Lord(Buddha), to the Dhamma, and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. Let the Lord(Buddha) consider us lay followers who from today have gone for refuge for life."


67 Salha[]

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Venerable Nandaka was dwelling at Savatthi in Migaramata's Mansion in the Eastern Park. Then Salha, Migara's grandson, and Rohana, Pekhuniya's grandson, approached the Venerable Nandaka, paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Venerable Nandaka then said to Salha:

"Come, Salha, do not go by oral tradition, by lineage of teaching, by hearsay, by a collection of scriptures, by logical reasoning, by inferential reasoning, by reasoned cogitation, by the acceptance of a view after pondering it, by the seeming competence [of a speaker], or because you think: 'The ascetic is our guru. But when you 1194] know for yourselves: 'These things are harmful(akusala); these things are blameworthy; these things are censured by the wise; these things, if accepted and undertaken, lead to harm and suffering then you should abandon them.

(1) "What do you think, Salha, is there greed?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"I say this means longing. A greedy person, full of longing, destroys life, takes what is not given, transgresses with another's wife, and speaks falsehood; and he encourages others to do likewise. Will that lead to his harm and suffering for a long time?"

"Yes, Bhante."

(2) "What do you think, Salha, is there hatred?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"I say this means ill will. A person full of hate, with a mind of ill will, destroys life . . . and he encourages others to do likewise. Will that lead to his harm and suffering for a long time?"

"Yes, Bhante."

(3) "What do you think, Salha, is there delusion(moha)?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"I say this means ignorance. A deluded person, immersed in ignorance, destroys life . . . and he encourages others to do likewise. Will that lead to his harm and suffering for a long time?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"What do you think, Salha? Are these things beneficial(kusala) or harmful(akusala)?" — "harmful(akusala), Bhante." — "Blameworthy or blameless?" — "Blameworthy, Bhante." — "Censured or praised by the wise?" — "Censured by the wise, Bhante." — "Accepted and undertaken, do they lead to harm and suffering or not, or how do you take it?" [195] — "Accepted and undertaken, these things lead to harm and suffering. So we take it."

"Thus, Salha, when we said: "Come, Salha, do not go by oral tradition. . . But when you know for yourselves: "These things are harmful(akusala); these things are blameworthy; these things are censured by the wise; these things, if undertaken and practiced, lead to harm and suffering," then you should abandon them, it is because of this that this was said.

"Come, Salha, do not go by oral tradition, by lineage of teach ing, by hearsay, by a collection of scriptures, by logical reason ing, by inferential reasoning, by reasoned cogitation, by the acceptance of a view after pondering it, by the seeming competence [of a speaker], or because you think: 'The ascetic is our guru.' But when you know for yourselves: 'These things are beneficial(kusala); these things are blameless; these things are praised by the. wise; these things, if accepted and undertaken, lead to welfare and happiness,' then you should live in accordance with them.

(1) "What do you think, Salha, is there non-greed?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"I say this means absence of longing. A person without greed, without longing, does not destroy life, take what is not given, transgress with another's wife, or speak falsehood; nor does he encourage others to do likewise. Will that lead to his welfare and happiness for a long time?"

"Yes, Bhante."

(2) "What do you think, Salha, is there non-hatred?"

"Yes, Bhante." . . .

"I say this means good will. A person without hate, with a mind of good will, does not destroy life . . . nor does he encourage others to do likewise. Will that lead to his welfare and happiness for a long time?"

"Yes, Bhante."

(3) "What do you think, Salha, is there non-delusion(moha)?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"I say this means true knowledge. An undeluded person, [196] who has arrived at true knowledge, does not destroy life. . .nor does he encourage others to do likewise. Will that lead to his welfare and happiness for a long time?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"What do you think, Salha? Are these things beneficial(kusala) or harmful(akusala)?" "beneficial(kusala), Bhante-" — "Blameworthy or blameless?" — "Blameless, Bhante." "Censured or praised by the wise?" — "Praised by the wise, Bhante." — "Accepted and undertaken, do they lead to welfare and happiness or not, or how do you take it?" — "Accepted and undertaken, these things lead to welfare and happiness. So we take it."

"Thus, Salha, when we said: 'Come, Salha, do not go by oral tradition ... But when you know for yourselves: "These things are beneficial(kusala); these things are blameless; these things are praised by the wise; these things, if accepted and under taken, lead to welfare and happiness," then you should live in accordance with them, it is because of this that this was said.

"Then, Salha, that noble disciple, who is thus devoid of longing, devoid of ill will, unconfused, completely comprehend ing, ever mindful(meditating/sati), dwells pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with loving-kindness(metta) ... with a mind imbued with compassion . . . with a mind imbued with altruistic joy . . . with a mind imbued with indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha), likewise the second quarter, the third quarter, and the fourth quarter. Thus above, below, across, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he dwells pervading the entire world with a mind imbued with indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha), vast, exalted, measureless, without enmity, without ill will.

"He then understands thus: 'There is this; there is the inferior; there is the superior; there is a further escape from whatever is involved with perception(sanna/sangya).' 462 When he knows and sees thus, his mind is liberated from the taint of sensuality, from the taint of existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth), and from the taint of ignorance. [197] When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: '[It's] liberated.' He under stands: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming back to any state of being.'

"He understands thus: 'Formerly, there was greed; that was harmful(akusala). Now there is none; thus this is beneficial(kusala). Formerly, there was hatred; that was harmful(akusala). Now there is none; thus this is beneficial(kusala). Formerly, there was delusion(moha); that was harmful(akusala). Now there is none; thus this is beneficial(kusala).' ....

"Thus in this very life he dwells hunger less, quenched and cooled, experiencing bliss, having himself become divine." 463


68 Bases of Talk (Kathavatthu)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three bases of talk. What three? (1) Referring to the past, one would say: 'So it was in the past (2) Referring to the future, one would say: 'So it will be in the future (3) Referring to the present, one would say: 'So it is now, at present.

"It is in relation to talk, bhikkhus, that a person may be understood as either fit to talk or unfit to talk. If this person is asked a question that should be answered categorically and he does not answer it categorically; [if he is asked] a question that should be answered after making a distinction and he answers it without making a distinction; [if he is asked] a question that should be answered with a counter-question and he answers it without asking a counter-question; [if he is asked] a question that should be set aside and he does not set it aside, in such a case this person is unfit to talk. 464

"But if this person is asked a question that should be answered categorically and he answers it categorically; [if he is asked] a question that should be answered after making a distinction and he answers it after making a distinction; [if he is asked] a question that should be answered with a counter-question and he answers it with a counter-question; [if he is asked] a question that should be set aside and he sets it aside, in such a case this person is fit to talk.

"It is in relation to talk, bhikkhus, that a person should be understood as either fit to talk or unfit to talk. If this person is asked a question and he does not stand firm in regard to his position and the opposing position; if he does not stand firm in his stratagem; if he does not [198] stand firm in an assertion about what is known; if he does not stand firm in the procedure, in such a case this person is unfit to talk. 65

"But if this person is asked a question and he stands firm in regard to his position and the opposing position; if he stands firm in his stratagem; if he stands firm in an assertion about what is known; if he stands firm in the procedure, in such a case this person is fit to talk.

"It is in relation to talk, bhikkhus, that a person should be understood as either fit to talk or unfit to talk. If this person is asked a question and he answers evasively, diverts the discussion to an irrelevant subject, and displays anger, hatred, and bitterness, in such a case this person is unfit to talk.

"But if this person is asked a question and he does not answer evasively, divert the discussion to an irrelevant subject, or display anger, hatred, and bitterness, in such a case this person is fit to talk.

"It is in relation to talk, bhikkhus, that a person should be understood as either fit to talk or unfit to talk. If this person is asked a question and he overwhelms [the questioner], crushes him, ridicules him, and seizes upon a slight error, 466 in such a case this person is unfit to talk.

"But if this person is asked a question and he does not overwhelm [the questioner], or crush him, or ridicule him, or seize upon a slight error, in such a case this person is fit to talk.

"It is in relation to talk, bhikkhus, that a person should be understood as either having a supporting condition or not having a supporting condition. One who does not lend an ear does not have a supporting condition; one who lends an ear has a supporting condition. One who has a supporting condition directly knows one thing, fully understands one thing, abandons one thing, and realizes one thing. Directly knowing one thing, fully understanding one thing, abandoning one thing, and realizing one thing, he reaches right liberation. 467

"This, bhikkhus, is the goal of talk, the goal of discussion, the goal of a supporting condition, the goal of lending an ear, that is, the emancipation of the mind through non-clinging." [199]


Those who speak with quarrelsome intent,
settled in their opinions, swollen with pride,
ignoble, having assailed virtues, 468
look for openings [to attack] one another.


They mutually delight when their opponent
speaks badly and makes a mistake,
(they rejoice) in his bewilderment and defeat;
but noble Ones don't engage in such talk.


If a wise person wants to talk,
having known the time is right,
without quarrelsomeness or pride.
the sagely person should utter
the speech that the noble ones practice,
which is connected with the Dhamma and meaning. 469


Not being insolent or aggressive,
with a mind not elated, 470
he speaks free from envy
on the basis of right knowledge.
He should approve of what is well expressed
but should not attack what is badly stated.


He should not train in faultfinding
nor seize on the other's mistakes;
he should not overwhelm and crush his opponent,
nor speak mendacious words.
Truly, a discussion among the good
is for the sake of knowledge and confidence.


Such is the way the noble discuss things;
this is the discussion of the noble ones.
Having understood this, the wise person
should not swell up but should discuss things.


69 Other Sects (Annatitthiya)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), ascetics of other sects may ask you: 'Friends, there are these three things. What three? Greed, hatred, and delusion(moha). These are the three. What, friends, is the distinction, the disparity, the difference between them?' If you are asked this, how would you answer?"

"Bhante, our teachings are rooted in the Lord(Buddha), guided by the Lord(Buddha), take recourse in the Lord(Buddha). It would be good if the Lord(Buddha) would clear up the meaning of this statement. Having heard it from him, the bhikkhus will retain it in mind."

"Then listen, bhikkhus, and attend closely. I will speak." "Yes, Bhante," those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), if ascetics of other sects should ask you such a question, [200] you should answer them as follows: 'lust(raag), friends, is slightly blameworthy but slow to fade away; hatred is very blameworthy but quick to fade away; delusion(moha) is very blameworthy and slow to fade away." 171

(1) "[Suppose they ask:] 'But, friends, what is the reason unarisen lust(raag) arises and arisen lust(raag) increases and expands? You should answer: 'An attractive object. For one who attends carelessly to an attractive object, unarisen lust(raag) arises and arisen lust(raag) increases and expands. This, friends, is the reason unarisen lust(raag) arises and arisen lust(raag) increases and expands.

(2) "[Suppose they ask:] But what, friends, is the reason unarisen hatred(Dosa sans. dvesh) arises and arisen hatred increases and expands? You should answer: 'A repulsive object. For one who attends carelessly to a repulsive object, unarisen hatred arises and arisen hatred increases and expands. This, friends, is the reason unarisen hatred arises and arisen hatred increases and expands.

(3) "[Suppose they ask:] 'But what, friends, is the reason unarisen delusion(moha) arises and arisen delusion(moha) increases and expands?' You should answer: 'Careless attention. For one who attends carelessly, unarisen delusion(moha) arises and arisen delusion(moha) increases and expands. This, friends, is the reason unarisen delusion(moha) arises and arisen delusion(moha) increases and expands.

(1) "[Suppose they ask:] 'But what, friends, is the reason unarisen lust(raag) does not arise and arisen lust(raag) is abandoned? You should answer: 'An unattractive object. For one who attends carefully to an unattractive object, unarisen lust(raag) does not arise [201] and arisen lust(raag) is abandoned. This, friends, is the reason unarisen lust(raag) does not arise and arisen lust(raag) is abandoned.

(2) "[Suppose they ask:] 'But what, friends, is the reason unarisen hatred(dosa sans. dvesh)) does notarise and arisen hatred is abandoned? You should answer: 'The liberation of the mind by loving kindness. For one who attends carefully to the liberation of the mind by loving-kindness(metta); unarisen hatred does not arise and arisen hatred is abandoned. This, friends, is the reason unarisen hatred does not arise and arisen hatred is abandoned.

(3) "[Suppose they ask:} 'But what, friends, is the reason unarisen delusion(moha) does not arise and arisen delusion(moha) is abandoned? You should answer: 'Careful attention. For one who attends carefully, unarisen delusion(moha) does not arise and arisen delusion(moha) is abandoned. This, friends, is the reason unarisen delusion(moha) does not arise and arisen delusion is abandoned."

Note : Here lust(raag) means liking of worldly (objects or creatures/people etc.). Hatred(Dosa sans. dvesh) means disliking of worldly & delusion(moha) means a blinded mind, covered mind a mislead person (i.e. one who believes that this world & its pleasures are desirable).


70 Roots of Harm (Akusala-mula)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), there are these three harmful(akusala) roots. What three? The harmful(akusala) root, greed(Lobho); the harmful(akusala) root, hatred(Doso sans. dvesh); and the harmful(akusala) root, delusion(Moha).

(1) "Whatever greed(Lobho) occurs, bhikkhus, is harmful(akusala). Whatever [deed] a greedy person performs by body, speech, and mind is also harmful(akusala). When a greedy person, over come by greed, with mind obsessed by it, inflicts suffering upon another under a false pretext 472 — by killing, imprisonment, confiscation, censure, or banishment — [thinking]: I am powerful, I want power, that too is harmful(akusala). Thus numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) originate in him born of greed, caused by greed, arisen from greed, conditioned by greed.

(2) "Whatever hatred(Doso sans dvesh) occurs is harmful(akusala). Whatever [deed] a person full of hate performs by body, speech, and mind is also harmful(akusala). When a person full of hate, overcome by hatred, with mind obsessed by it, inflicts suffering upon another under a false pretext [thinking]: I am powerful, [202] I want power, that too is harmful(akusala). Thus numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) originate in him born of hatred, caused by hatred, arisen from hatred, conditioned by hatred.

(3) "Whatever delusion(Moha) occurs is harmful(akusala). Whatever [deed] a deluded person performs by body, speech, and mind is also harmful(akusala). When a deluded person, overcome by delusion(moha), with mind obsessed by it, inflicts suffering upon another under a false pretext. . . [thinking]: I am powerful, I want power,' that too is harmful(akusala). Thus numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) originate in him born of delusion(moha); caused by delusion(moha), arisen from delusion(moha), conditioned by delusion(moha). "Such a person, bhikkhus, is called one who speaks at an improper time, who speaks falsely, who speaks what is unbeneficial, who speaks non-Dhamma(wrong path), who speaks non discipline. And why is such a person called one who speaks at an improper time . . . who speaks non discipline? This person inflicts suffering upon another under a false pretext by killing, imprisonment, confiscation, censure or banishment — thinking: I am powerful, I want power, Thus when spoken to in accordance with fact, he despises [the one who reproaches him], he does not admit [his faults] . When spoken to contrary to fact, he does not make an effort to unravel what is said to him:

'For such and such a reason this is untrue; for such and such a reason this is contrary to fact. Therefore such a person is called one who speaks at an improper time, who speaks falsely, who speaks what is unbeneficial, who speaks non-Dhamma(wrong path), who speaks non-discipline.

"Such a person, overcome by bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) born of greed, . .born of haired . . . born of delusion(moha), with his mind obsessed by them, dwells in suffering in this very life, with distress, anguish, and fever, and with the breakup of the body, after death, a bad destination can be expected for him.

"Suppose a tree 473 was choked and enveloped by three maluva creepers. It would meet with calamity, with disaster, with calamity and disaster. So too, such a person overcome by bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) born of greed [203] ...born of hatred. . .born of delusion(moha), with his mind obsessed by them, dwells in suffering in this very life, with distress, anguish, and fever, and with the breakup of the body, after death, a bad destination can be expected for him. These are the three harmful(akusala) roots.

"There are, bhikkhus, these three beneficial(kusala) roots. What three? The beneficial(kusala) root, non-greed; the beneficial(kusala) root, non-hatred; and the beneficial(kusala) root, non-delusion(moha).

(1) "Whatever non-greed occurs, bhikkhus, is beneficial(kusala). Whatever [deed] one without greed performs by body, speech, and mind is also beneficial(kusala). When one without greed, not overcome by greed, with mind not obsessed by it, does not inflict suffering upon another under a false pretext — by killing, imprisonment, confiscation, censure, or banishment — thinking: I am powerful, I want power,' that too is beneficial(kusala). Thus numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) originate in him born of non greed, caused by non-greed, arisen from non-greed, conditioned by non-greed. ;

(2) "Whatever non-hatred occurs is beneficial(kusala). Whatever [deed] one without hate performs by body, speech, and mind is also beneficial(kusala). When one without hate, not overcome by hatred, with mind not obsessed by it, does not inflict suffering upon another under a false pretext . . . that too is beneficial(kusala). Thus numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) originate in him born of non-hatred, caused by non-hatred, arisen from non-hatred, conditioned by non-hatred.

(3) "Whatever non-delusion(moha) occurs is beneficial(kusala). Whatever [deed] one who is undeluded performs by body, speech, and mind is also beneficial(kusala). When one who is undeluded, not overcome by delusion(moha), with mind not obsessed by it, does not inflict suffering upon another under a false pretext. . . that too is beneficial(kusala). Thus [204] numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) originate in him born of non-delusion(moha), caused by non-delusion(moha), arisen from non-delusion(moha), conditioned by non-delusion(moha).

"Such a person, bhikkhus, is called one who speaks at the proper time, who speaks in accordance with fact, who speaks what is beneficial, who speaks Dhamma, who speaks discipline. And why is such a person called one who speaks at the proper time ... who speaks discipline? This person does not inflict suffering upon another under a false pretext — by killing, imprisonment, confiscation, censure, or banishment thinking: I am powerful, I want power, Thus when spoken to in accordance with fact, he admits [his faults]; lie does not despise [the one who reproaches him] . When spoken to contrary to fact, he makes an effort to unravel what is said to him: For such and such a reason this is untrue; for such and such a reason this is contrary to fact. Therefore such a person is called one who speaks at the proper time, who speaks in accordance with fact, who speaks what is beneficial, who speaks Dhamma, who speaks discipline.

"Such a person has abandoned the bad harmful(akusala) qualities born of greed . . . born of hatred . . . born of delusion(moha), cut them off at the root, made them like a palm stump, obliterated them so that they are no more subject to future arising. He dwells happily in this very life, without distress, anguish, or fever, and in this very life he attains nibbana(nirvana).

"Suppose a tree was choked and enveloped by three maluva creepers. Then a man would come along bringing a shovel and a basket. He would cut down the creepers at their roots, dig them up, and pull out the roots, even the fine rootlets and root fiber. He would cut the creepers into pieces, split the pieces, and reduce them to slivers. Then he would dry the slivers in the wind and sun, burn them in a fire, [205] reduce them to ashes, and winnow the ashes in a strong wind or let them be carried away by the swift current of a river. In this way, those maluva creepers would be cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so that they are no more subject to future arising.

"'So too, bhikkhus, such a person has abandoned the bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) born of greed . . . born of hatred . . .born of delusion(moha), cut them off at the root, made them like a palm stump, obliterated them so that they are no more subject to future arising. He dwells happily in this very life, without distress, anguish, or fever, and in this very life he attains nibbana. These are the three beneficial(kusala) roots."


71 Uposatha (Fasting)[]

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Migaramata's Mansion in the Eastern Park. Then Visakha Migaramata, on the day of the uposatha, approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord(Buddha) then said to her:

"Why, Visakha, have you come in the middle of the day?"

"Today, Bhante, I am observing the uposatha."

"There are, Visakha, three kinds of uposathas. What three? The cowherds' uposatha, the Niganthas'(Jains') uposatha, 474 and the noble ones' uposatha.

(1) "And how, Visakha, is the cowherds' uposatha observed? Suppose, Visakha, in the evening a cowherd returns the cows to their owners. He reflects thus: 'Today the cows grazed in such and such a place and drank water in such and such a place. Tomorrow the cows will graze in such and such a place and drink water in such and such a place.' So too, someone here observing the uposatha reflects thus: 'Today I ate this and that food; today I ate a meal of this and that kind. [206] Tomorrow I will eat this and that food; tomorrow I will eat a meal of this and that kind.' He thereby passes the day with greed and longing in his mind. It is in such a way that the cowherds' uposatha is observed. The cowherds' uposatha, thus observed, is not of great fruit and benefit, nor is it extraordinarily brilliant and pervasive.

(2) "And how, Visakha, is the Niganthas'(Jains') uposatha observed? There are, Visakha, ascetics called Niganthas(Jains). They enjoin their disciples thus: 'Come, good man, lay down the rod(violence) toward living beings dwelling more than a hundred yojanas' distance in the eastern quarter. 475 Lay down the rod(violence) toward living beings dwelling more than a hundred yojanas' distance in the western quarter. Lay down the rod toward living beings dwelling more than a hundred yojanas ' distance in the northern quarter. Lay down the rod toward living beings dwelling more than a hundred yojanas' distance in the southern quarter. Thus they enjoin them to be sympathetic and compassionate toward some living beings, but not to others. On the uposatha day, they enjoin their disciples thus: 'Come, good man, having laid aside all clothes, recite: 'I am not anywhere the belonging of anyone, nor is there anywhere anything in any place that is mine.' 476 However, his parents know: 'This is our son' And he knows: These are my parents. His wife and children know: 'He is our supporter' And he knows: 'These are my wife and children' His slaves, workers, and servants know: 'He is our master' And he knows: 'These are my slaves, workers, and servants.' Thus on an occasion when they should be enjoined in truthfulness, [the Niganthas] enjoin them in false speech. This, I say, is false speech. When that night has passed, he makes use of (same) possessions that have not been given. This, I say, is taking what has not been given(stealing). It is in such a Way that the Niganthas' uposatha is observed. When one has observed the uposatha in the way of the Niganthas, the uposatha is not of great fruit and benefit, nor is it extraordinarily brilliant and pervasive.

(3) "And how, Visakha, is the noble ones'(Buddhas' path) uposatha observed? [207] The defiled mind is cleansed by exertion. 477 And how is the defiled mind cleansed by exertion? Here, Visakha, a noble disciple recollects the Tathagata(Buddha) thus: 'The Lord(Buddha) is an arahant, perfectly enlightened, accomplished in true knowledge and conduct, fortunate, knower of the world, unsurpassed trainer of persons to be tamed, teacher of devas(angels/gods) and humans, the Enlightened One, the Lord(Buddha).' When a noble disciple recollects the Tathagata(Buddha), his mind becomes placid, joy arises, and the defilements of the mind are abandoned in the same way that one's head, when dirty, is cleansed by exertion.

"And how, Visakha, .does one cleanse a dirty head by exertion? By means of cleansing paste, clay, water, and the appropriate effort by the person. It is in such a way that one's head, when dirty, is cleansed by. exertion. So too, the defiled mind is cleansed by exertion. And how is the defiled mind cleansed by exertion? Here, Visakha, a noble disciple recollects the Tathagata(Buddha) thus: 'The Lord(Buddha) is . . . teacher of devas(angels/gods) and humans, the Enlightened One, the Lord(Buddha). When a noble disciple recollects the Tathagata(Buddha), his mind becomes placid, joy arises, and the defilements of the mind are abandoned. This is called a noble disciple who observes the uposatha of Brahma, who dwells together with Brahma, and it is by considering Brahma that his mind becomes placid, joy arises, and the defilements of the mind are abandoned. 478 It is in this way that the defiled mind is cleansed by exertion.

"The defiled mind, Visakha, is cleansed by exertion. And how is the defiled mind cleansed. by exertion? Here, Visakha, a noble disciple recollects the Dhamma(path) thus: 'The Dhamma is well expounded by the Lord(Buddha), directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be person ally experienced by the wise. When a noble disciple recollects the. Dhamma, his mind becomes placid, joy arises, and the defilements of the mind [208] are abandoned in the same way that one's body, when dirty, is cleansed by exertion.

"And how, Visakha, does one cleanse a dirty body by exertion? By means of a bathing brush, lime powder, water, and the appropriate effort by the person. It is in such a way that one's body, when dirty, is cleansed by exertion. So too, the defiled mind is cleansed by exertion. And how is the defiled mind cleansed by exertion? Here, Visakha, a noble disciple recollects the Dhamma thus: 'The Dhamma is well expounded by the Lord(Buddha)', to be personally experienced by the wise, When a noble disciple recollects the Dhamma, his mind becomes placid, joy arises, and the defilements of the mind are abandoned. This is called a noble disciple who observes the uposatha of the Dhamma, who dwells together with the Dhamma, and it is by considering the Dhamma that his mind becomes placid, joy arises, and the defilements of the mind are abandoned. It is in this way that the defiled mind is cleansed by exertion.

"The defiled mind, Visakha, is cleansed by exertion. And how is the defiled mind cleansed by exertion? Here, Visakha, a noble disciple recollects the Sangha thus: 'The Sangha of the Lord(Buddha)'s disciples is practicing the good way, practicing the straight way, practicing the true way, practicing the proper way; that is, the four pairs of persons, the eight types of individuals — this Sangha of the Lord(Buddha)'s disciples is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of reverential salutation, the unsurpassed field of merit for the world. When a noble disciple recollects the Sangha, his mind becomes placid, joy arises, and the defilements of the mind are abandoned in the same way that a dirty cloth is cleansed by exertion.

"And how, Visakha, does one cleanse a dirty cloth by exertion? [209] By means of heat, lye, cow dung, water, and the appropriate effort by the person. It is in such a way that a dirty cloth is cleansed by exertion. So too, the defiled mind is cleansed by exertion. And how is the defiled mind cleansed by exertion? Here, Visakha, a noble disciple recollects the Sangha thus: 'The Sangha of the Lord(Buddha)'s disciples is practicing the good way. . . the unsurpassed field of merit for the world. When a noble disciple recollects the Sangha, his mine! becomes placid, joy arises, and the defilements of the mind are abandoned. This is called a noble disciple who observes the uposatha of the Sangha, who dwells together with the Sangha, and it is by considering the Sangha that his mind becomes placid, joy arises, and the defilements of the mind are abandoned. It is in this way that the defiled mind is cleansed by exertion.

"The defiled mind, Visakha, is cleansed by exertion. And how is the defiled mind cleansed by exertion? Here, Visakha, a noble disciple recollects his own virtuous behavior as unbroken, flaw less, unblemished, unblotched, freeing, praised by the wise, ungrasped, leading to samadhi(self absorption/trance). When a noble disciple recollects his virtuous behavior, his mind becomes placid, joy arises, and the defilements of the mind are abandoned in the same way that a dirty mirror is cleansed by exertion.

"And how, Visakha, is a dirty mirror cleansed by exertion? By means of oil, ashes, a roll of cloth, and the appropriate effort by the person. It is in such a way that a dirty mirror is cleansed by exertion. So too, the defiled mind is cleansed by exertion. And how is the defiled mind cleansed by exertion? [210] Here, Visakha, a noble disciple recollects his own virtuous behavior as unbroken . . . leading to samadhi(self absorption/trance). When a noble disciple recollects his virtuous behavior, his mind becomes placid, joy arises, and the defilements of the mind are abandoned. This is called a noble disciple who observes the uposatha of virtuous behavior, who dwells together with virtuous behavior, and it is by considering virtuous behavior that his mind becomes placid, joy arises, and the defilements of the mind are abandoned. It is in this way that the defiled mind is cleansed by exertion.

"The defiled mind, Visakha, is cleansed by exertion. And how is the defiled mind cleansed by exertion? Here, Visakha, a noble disciple recollects the devtas(angels) thus: 'There are devas(angels/gods) [ruled by] the four great kings, Tavatimsa devas(angels/gods), Yama devas(angels/gods), Tusita devas(angels/gods), devas(angels/gods) who delight in creation, devas(angels/gods) who control what is created by others, devas(angels/gods) of Brahma's company, and devas(angels/gods) still higher than these. 479 I. too have such faith as those devtas(angels) possessed because of which, when they passed away here, they were reborn there; I too have such virtuous behavior . . . such learning . . . such generosity . . . such panna(divine knowledge) as those devtas(angels) possessed because of which, when they passed away here, they were reborn there. When a noble disciple recollects the faith, virtuous behavior, learning, generosity, and panna(divine knowledge) in himself and in those devtas(angels), his mind becomes placid, joy arises, and the defilements of the mind are abandoned in the same way that impure gold is cleansed by exertion.

"And how, Visakha, is impure gold cleansed by exertion? By means of a furnace, salt, red chalk, a blow-pipe and tongs, and the appropriate effort by the person. It is in such a way that impure gold is cleansed by exertion. So too, the defiled mind is cleansed by exertion. [211] And how is the defiled mind cleansed by exertion? Here, Visakha, a noble disciple recollects the devtas(angels) thus: 'There are devas(angels/gods) [ruled by] the four great kings . . . and devas(angels/gods) still higher than these. I too have such faith... such panna(divine knowledge) as those devtas(angels) possessed because of which, when they passed away here, they were reborn there.' When a noble disciple recollects the faith, virtuous behavior, learning, generosity, and panna(divine knowledge) in himself and in those deities, his mind becomes placid, joy arises, and the defilements of the mind are abandoned. This is called a noble disciple who observes the uposatha of the devtas(angels), who dwells together with the devtas(angels), and it is by considering the devtas(angels) that his mind becomes placid, joy arises, and the defilements of the mind are abandoned. It is in this way that the defiled mind is cleansed by exertion.

(i) "This noble disciple, Visakha, reflects thus: 480 'As long as they live the arahants abandon and abstain from the destruction of life; with the rod(violence) and weapon laid aside, conscientious and kindly, they dwell compassionate toward all living beings. Today, for this night and day, I too shall abandon and abstain from the destruction of life; with the rod(violence) and weapon laid aside, conscientious and kindly, I too shall dwell compassion ate toward all living beings. I shall imitate the arahants in this respect and the uposatha will be observed by me.

(ii) "As long as they live the arahants abandon and abstain from taking what is not given; they take only what is given, expect only what is given, and are honest at heart, devoid of theft. Today, for this night and day, I too shall abandon and abstain from taking what is not given; I shall accept only what is given, expect only what is given, and be honest at heart, devoid of theft. I shall imitate the arahants in this respect and the uposatha will be observed by me.

(hi) "As long as they live the arahants abandon sexual activity and observe celibacy, living apart, abstaining from sexual intercourse, the common person's practice. Today, for this night and day, I too shall abandon sexual activity and observe celibacy, living apart, abstaining from sexual intercourse, the common person's practice. I shall imitate the arahants in this respect and the uposatha will be observed by me. [212]

(iv) “As long as they live the arahants abandon and abstain from false speech; they speak truth, adhere to truth; they are trustworthy and reliable, no deceivers of the world. Today, for this night and day, I too shall abandon and abstain from false speech; I shall be a speaker of truth, an adherent of truth, trust worthy and reliable, no deceiver of the world. I shall imitate . the arahants in this respect and the uposatha will be observed by me.

(v) "As long as they live the arahants abandon and abstain from liquor, wine, and intoxicants, the basis for slothfulness. Today, for this night and day, I too shall abandon and abstain from liquor, wine, and intoxicants, the basis for slothfulness. I shall imitate the arahants in this respect and the uposatha will be observed by me.

(Vi) "'As long as they live the arahants eat once a day, 481 abstaining from eating at night and from food outside the proper time. Today, for this night and day, I too shall eat once a day, abstaining from eating at night and from food outside the proper time. I shall imitate the arahants in this respect and the uposatha will be observed by me.

(vii) "'As long as they live the arahants abstain from dancing, singing, instrumental music, and unsuitable shows, and from adorning and beautifying themselves by wearing garlands and applying scents and unguents. Today, for this night and day, I too shall abstain from dancing, singing, instrumental music, and unsuitable shows, and from adorning and beautifying myself by wearing garlands and applying scents and unguents. I shall imitate the arahants in this respect and the uposatha will be observed by me.

(viii) "'As long as they live the arahants abandon and abstain from the use of high and luxurious beds; they lie down on a low resting place, either a small bed or a straw mat. Today, for this night and day, I too shall abandon and abstain from the use of high and luxurious beds; I shall lie down on a low resting place, either a small bed or a straw mat. I shall imitate the arahants in this respect and the uposatha will be observed by me.

"It is in this way, Visakha, that the noble ones' uposatha is observed. When one has observed the uposatha in the way of the noble ones it is of great fruit and benefit, extraordinarily brilliant and pervasive.

"To what extent is it of great fruit and benefit? To what extent is it extraordinarily brilliant and pervasive? Suppose, Visakha, one were to exercise sovereignty and kingship over these sixteen great countries abounding in the seven precious substances, 482 [213] that is, [the countries of] the Angans(Bengal), the Magadhans, the Kasis, the Kosalans, the Vajjis, the Mallas, the Cetis, the Vahgas, the Kurus, the Pancalas, the Macchas, the Surasenas, the Assakas, the Avantis, the Gandharans, and the Kambojans: 483 this would not be worth a sixteenth part of the uposatha observance complete in those eight factors. For what reason? Because human kingship is poor compared to celestial happiness.

"For the devas(angels/gods) [ruled by] the four great kings, 484 a single night and day is equivalent to fifty human years; thirty such days make up a month, and twelve such months make up a year. The life span of the devas(angels/gods) [ruled by] the four great kings is five hundred such celestial years. It is possible, Visakha, that a woman or man here who observes the uposatha complete in these eight factors will, with the breakup of the body, after death, be reborn in companionship with the devas(angels/gods) [ruled by] the four great kings. It was with reference to this that I said human kingship is poor compared to celestial happiness.

"For the Tavatimsa devas(angels/gods) a single night and day is equivalent to a hundred human years; thirty such days make up a month, and twelve such months make up a year. The life span of the Tavatimsa devas(angels/gods) is a thousand such celestial years. It is possible, Visakha, that a woman or man here who observes the uposatha complete in these eight factors will, with the breakup of the body, after death, be reborn in companionship with the Tavatimsa devas(angels/gods). It was with reference to this that I said human kingship is poor compared to celestial happiness.

"For the Yama devas(angels/gods) a single night and day is equivalent to two hundred human years; thirty such days make up a month, and twelve such months make up a year. The life span of the Yama devas(angels/gods) is two thousand such celestial years. It is possible, Visakha, that a woman or man here who observes the uposatha complete in these eight factors will, with the breakup of the body, after death, be reborn in companionship with the Yama devas(angels/gods). It was with reference to this [214] that I said human king ship is poor compared to celestial happiness.

"For the Tusita devas(angels/gods), a single night and day is equivalent to four hundred human years; thirty such days make up a month, and twelve such months make up a year. The life span of the Tusita devas(angels/gods) is four thousand such celestial years. It is possible, Visakha, that a woman or man here who observes the uposatha complete in these eight factors will, with the breakup of the body, after death, be reborn in companionship with the Tusita devas(angels/gods). It was with reference to this that I said human kingship is poor compared to celestial happiness.

"For the devas(angels/gods) who delight in creation, a single night and day is equivalent to eight hundred human years; thirty such days make Up a month, and twelve such months make up a year. The life span of the devas(angels/gods) who delight in creation is eight thousand such celestial years. It is possible, Visakha, that a woman or man here who observes the uposatha complete in these eight factors will, with the breakup of the body, after death, be reborn in companionship with the devas(angels/gods) who delight in creation. It was with reference to this that I said human kingship is poor compared to celestial happiness.

"For the devas(angels/gods) who control what is created by others, a single night and day is equivalent to sixteen hundred human years; thirty such days make up a month, and twelve such months make up a year. The life span of the devas(angels/gods) who control what is created by others is sixteen thousand such celestial years. It is possible, Visakha, that a woman or man here who observes the uposatha complete in these eight factors will, with the breakup of the body, after death, be reborn in companionship with the devas(angels/gods) who control what is created by others. It was with reference to this that I said human kingship is poof compared to celestial happiness."


One should not kill living beings or take what is not given;
one should not speak falsehood or drink intoxicants;
one should refrain from sexual activity, from unchastity;
one should not eat at night or at an improper time.
One should not wear garlands or apply scents;
one should sleep on a [low] bed or a mat on the ground;
this, they say, is the eight-factored uposatha
proclaimed by the Buddha,
who reached the end of suffering.


As far as the sun and moon revolve,
shedding light, so beautiful to gaze upon,
dispellers of darkness, moving through the firmament,
they shine in the sky , 465 brightening up the quarters.


Whatever wealth exists in this sphere —
pearls, gems, and excellent beryl, 486
horn gold and mountain gold,
and the natural gold called hataka — 487


those are not worth a sixteenth part
of an uposatha complete in the eight factors,
just as all the hosts of stars
(do not match) the moon's radiance . 488


Therefore virtuous woman or man,
having observed the uposatha complete in eight factors.
and having made merit productive of happiness,
goes blameless to a heavenly state.



III. Ananda Section[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


72 Channa[]

Once Bhagava (Lord Buddha) was staying at Anathpindika's given Jetavana near Savatthi city. Then the ascetic(ascetic) Channa approached the Venerable Ananda and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to the Venerable Ananda:

"Friend Ananda, do you prescribe the abandoning of lust(raag), hatred(Doso sans dvesh), and delusion(Moha)?

"We do, friend." [216]

"But what is the danger that you have seen on account of which you prescribe the abandoning of lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha)?"

(1) "One excited by lust(raag), friend, overcome by lust(raag), with mind obsessed by it, intends for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, and for the affliction of both, and he experiences mental suffering and dejection. But when lust(raag) is abandoned, he does not intend for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both, and he does not experience mental suffering and dejection.

"One excited by lust(raag), overcome by lust(raag), with mind obsessed by it, engages in misconduct by body, speech, and mind. But when lust(raag) is abandoned, one does not engage in misconduct by body, speech, and mind. One excited by lust(raag), overcome by lust(raag), with mind obsessed by it, does not understand as it really is his own good, the good of others, and the good of both. But when lust(raag) is abandoned, one understands as it really is one's own good, the good of others, and the good of both. lust(raag) leads to blindness, loss of vision, and lack of knowledge; it is obstructive to panna(divine knowledge), aligned with distress, and does not lead to nibbana(nirvana).

(2) "One full of hate, overcome by hatred ...

(3) "One deluded, overcome by delusion(moha), with mind obsessed by it, intends for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, and for the affliction of both, and he experiences mental suffering and dejection. But when delusion(moha) is abandoned, he does not intend for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both, and he does not experience mental suffering and dejection.

"One deluded, overcome by delusion(moha), with mind obsessed by it, engages in misconduct by body, speech, and mind. But when delusion(moha) is abandoned he does not engage in misconduct by body, speech, and mind. One deluded, overcome by delusion(moha), with mind obsessed by it, does not understand as it really is his own good, the good of others, and the good of both. But when delusion(moha) [217] is abandoned) one understands as it really is one's own good, the good of others, and the good of both. Delusion(Moha) leads to blindness, loss of vision, and lack of knowledge; it is obstructive to panna(divine knowledge), aligned with distress, and does not lead to nibbana(nirvana).

"Having seen these dangers in lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha), we prescribe their abandoning."

"But is there a path, friend, is there a way to the abandoning of lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha)?" .

"There is a path, friend, there is a way to the abandoning of lust, hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha)."

. "But what is the path, what is the way to the abandoning of lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha)?"

"It is just this noble eightfold path, that is, right view . . . right samadhi(self absorption/trance). This is the path, the way to the abandoning of lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha)."

"Excellent, friend, is the path, excellent the way to the abandoning of lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha). It is enough, friend Ananda, to be alertful."


73 Ajivaka[]

On one occasion the Venerable Ananda was dwelling at Kosambi in Ghosita's Park. Then a certain householder, a disciple of the Ajivakas, 490 approached the Venerable Ananda, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

(1) "Bhante Ananda, whose Dhamma is well expounded? (2) Who in the world are practicing the good way? (3) Who in the world are the Sugata(Lord Buddha)s?" 491

"Well then, householder, I will question you about this matter. You should answer as you see fit.

(1) "What do you think, householder? Is the Dhamma(path) of those who teach the abandoning of lust(raag), hatred(doso sans. dvesh), and delusion(moha) (Moha) well expounded or not, or how do you take it?" [218]

"The Dhamma of those who teach the abandoning of lust(raag), hatred, and delusion(moha) is well expounded. So I take it."

(2) "What do you think, householder? Are those practicing for the abandoning of lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha) practicing the good way in the world or not, or how do you take it?"

"Those practicing for the abandoning of lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha) are practicing the good way in the world. So I take it."

(3) "What do you think, householder? Are those who have abandoned lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha), cut them off at the root, made them like a palm stump, obliterated them so that they are no more subject to future arising Sugata(Lord Buddha)s in the World or not, or how do you take it?"

"Those who have abandoned lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and. delusion(moha), cut them off at the root, made them like a palm stump, obliterated them so that they are no more subject to future arising are Sugata(Lord Buddha)s in the world. So I take it."

"Thus, householder, you have declared: 'The Dhamma of those who teach the abandoning of lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha) is well expounded.' You have declared: 'Those practicing for the abandoning of lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha) are practicing the good way in the world' And you have declared: 'Those who have abandoned lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha), cut them off at the root, made them like a palm stump, obliterated them so that they are no more subject to future arising are Sugata(Lord Buddha)s in the world."

"It is astounding and amazing, Bhante, that there is no extolling of one's own Dhamma nor any denigration of the Dhamma of others, but just the teaching of the Dhamma in its own sphere. The meaning is stated, but one does not bring oneself into the picture. 492

"Bhante Ananda, you teach the Dhamma for the abandoning of lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha), [219] so your Dhamma is well expounded. You are practicing for the abandoning of lust(raag), hatred, and delusion(moha), so you are practicing the good way in the world. You have abandoned lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha), cut them off at the root, made them like a palm stump, obliterated them so that they are no more subject to future arising, so you are the Sugata(Lord Buddha)s in the world.

"Excellent, Bhante! Excellent, Bhante! The noble Ananda has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the darkness so those with good eyesight can see forms. Bhante Ananda, I now go for refuge to the Lord(Buddha), to the Dhamma, and to the Sangha of bhikkhus(monks). Let the Noble Ananda consider me a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."


74 The Mahanam Sakyan[]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling among the Sakyans at Kapilavatthu in the Banyan Tree Park. Now on that occasion the Lord(Buddha) had just recently recovered from illness. Then the Sakyan Mahanama approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him;

"For a long time, Bhante, I have understood the Dhamma taught by the Lord(Buddha) thus: 'Knowledge occurs for one who is in samadhi(self absorption/trance), not for one who lacks samadhi(self absorption/trance). Does samadhi(self absorption/trance) precede knowledge, Bhante, or does knowledge precede samadhi(self absorption/trance)?" .

Then it occurred to the Venerable Ananda: "The Lord(Buddha) has just recently recovered from his illness, yet this Mahanama the Sakyan asks him a very deep question. Let me lead Mahanama the Sakyan off to one side and teach him the Dhamma."

Then the Venerable Ananda took Mahanama the Sakyan by the arm, led him off to one side, and said to him: "The Lord(Buddha) has spoken about the virtuous behavior of a trainee and the virtuous behavior of one beyond training, the samadhi(self absorption/trance) of a trainee [220] and the samadhi(self absorption/trance) of one beyond training, the panna(divine knowledge) of a trainee and the panna(divine knowledge) of one beyond training.

(1) "And what, Mahanama, is the virtuous behavior of a trainee? Here, a bhikkhu is virtuous; he dwells restrained by the Patimokkha, possessed of good conduct and resort, see ing danger in minute faults. Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them. This is called the virtuous behavior of a trainee.

(2) "And what is the samadhi(self absorption/trance) of a trainee? 493 Here, secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from harmful(akusala) states, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state). [as at 3:58] . . . the fourth jhana(trance state). . . . This is called the samadhi(self absorption/trance) of a trainee.

(3) "And what is the panna(divine knowledge) of a trainee? Here, a bhikkhu understands as it really is: 'This is suffering' . . . [as in 3:12] . . . 'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.' This is called the panna(divine knowledge) of a trainee.

"When this noble disciple is thus accomplished in virtuous behavior, samadhi(self absorption/trance), and panna(divine knowledge), with the destruction of the taints, he realizes for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, he dwells in it. 494

"It is in this way, Mahanama, that the Lord(Buddha) has spoken about the virtuous behavior of a trainee and the virtuous behavior of one beyond training; about the samadhi(self absorption/trance) of a trainee and the samadhi(self absorption/trance) of one beyond training; about the panna(divine knowledge) of a trainee and the panna(divine knowledge) of one beyond training."


75 The Nigantha(Jain)[]

On one occasion the Venerable Ananda was dwelling at Vesali in the hall with the peaked roof in the Great Wood. Then the Licchavi Abhaya and the Licchavi Panditakumara approached the Venerable Ananda, paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. 495 The Licchavi Abhaya then said to the Venerable Ananda:

"Bhante, the Nigantha Nataputta claims to be all-knowing and all-seeing and to have all-embracing knowledge and vision, [saying]: "When I am walking, standing, sleeping, and awake, knowledge and vision are constantly and continuously present to me. 496 He prescribes the termination of old kamma(karma/deeds)s(Sans. karma [deeds]) by means of austerity and the demolition of the bridge by not creating any new kamma(karma/deeds). 497 [221] Thus, through the destruction of kamma(karma/deeds), suffering is destroyed. Through the destruction of suffering, sensation(vedana) is destroyed. Through the destruction of sensation(vedana), all suffering will be worn away. In this way the overcoming [of suffering] takes place through this directly visible purification by wearing away. 498 What does the Lord(Buddha) say about this?"

" Abhaya, these three kinds of wearing-a way purification have been properly expounded by the Lord(Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One who knows and sees, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the passing away of pain and dejection, for the achievement of the method, for the realization of nibbana(nirvana). What three?

(1) "Here, Abhaya, a bhikku is virtuous . . . [as in 3:73] . . . Having under taken-the training rules, he trains in them, he does not create any new kamma(karma/deeds) and he terminates the old kamma(karma/deeds) having contacted it again and again. 499 The wearing away is directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise.

(2) "When, Abhaya, this bhikkhu(monk) is thus accomplished in virtuous behavior, secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from harmful(akusala) states, he enters and dwells in the first jhana . . . [as in 3:58] . . . the fourth jhana(trance state) He does not create any new kamma(karma/deeds) and he terminates the old kamma(karma/deeds) having contacted it again and again. The wearing away is directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise.

(3) "When, Abhaya, this bhikkhu is thus accomplished in virtuous behavior and samadhi(self absorption/trance), then, with the destruction of the taints, he realizes for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by wisdom(panna), and having entered upon it, he dwells in it. He does not create any new kamma(karma/deeds) and he terminates the old kamma(karma/deeds) having contacted it again and again. The wearing away is directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise. 500

"These, Abhaya, are the three kinds of wearing-away purification that have been properly expounded by the Lord(Buddha) , the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One who knows and sees, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the passing away of pain and dejection, for the achievement of the method, for the realization of nibbana."

When this was said, the Licchavi Panditakumara said to the Licchavi Abhaya: "Why, friend Abhaya, don't you thank 501 the Venerable Ananda for his well-stated words?"

"How, friend, could I not thank the Venerable Ananda for his well-stated words? [ 222 ] If one were not to thank the Venerable Ananda for his well-stated words, one's head would split apart!"


76 Should Be Encouraged (Nivesaka)[]

Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord(Buddha) then said to him: ’

"Ananda, those for whom you have compassion and who think you should be heeded, whether friends or companions, relatives or family members, should be encouraged, settled, and established by you in three things. What three?

(1) "They should be encouraged, settled, and established in unwavering confidence 502 in the Buddha thus: 'The Lord(Buddha) is . . . [as in 3:70] . . . teacher of devas(angels/gods) and humans, the Enlightened One, the Lord(Buddha).

(2) "They should be encouraged, settled, and established in unwavering confidence in the Dhamma(path) thus: 'The Dhamma is well expounded by the Lord(Buddha), directly visible . . . [as in 3:70] . . . to be personally experienced by the wise.

(3) "They should be encouraged, settled, and established in unwavering confidence in the Sangha thus: 'The Sangha of the Lord(Buddha)'s disciples is practicing the good way. . . [as in 3:70] ... . the unsurpassed field of merit for the world.

"There might be, Ananda, alteration in the four great elements— dhe earth element, the water element, the fire element, and the air element— but there cannot be alteration in a noble disciple who possesses unwavering confidence in the Buddha. In this context, this is alteration: that this noble disciple who possesses unwavering confidence in the Buddha could be reborn in hell, in the animal realm, or in the sphere of afflicted spirits. Such a thing is impossible. [223]

"There might be, Ananda, alteration in the four great elements — the earth element, the water element, the fire element, and the air element— but there cannot be alteration in a noble disciple who possesses unwavering confidence in the Dhamma ... in the Sangha. In this context, this is alteration: that this noble disciple who possesses unwavering confidence in the Sangha could be reborn in hell, in the animal realm, or in the sphere of afflicted spirits. Such a thing is impossible.

"Ananda, those for whom you have compassion and who think you should be heeded, whether friends or companions, relatives or family members, should be encouraged, settled, and established by you in these three things."


77 Existence(Cause for Rebirth)1 (Bhavo1)[]

Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

"Bhante, it is said: 'existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth), existence(bhavo). In what way, Bhante, is there existence(bhavo)?" 503

(1) "If, Ananda, there were no kamma(karma/deeds) ripening in the sensory realm, would sense-sphere existence be discerned?"

"No, Bhante."

"Thus, Ananda, for beings hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving(tanha/trishna), kamma(karma/deeds) is the field, consciousness the seed, and craving(tanha/trishna) the moisture for their consciousness to be established in an inferior realm. In this way there is the production of renewed existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) in the future. 504

(2) "If, Ananda, there were no kamma(karma/deeds) ripening in the form realm, would form-sphere existence be discerned?"

"No, Bhante "

"Thus, Ananda, for beings hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving(tanha/trishna), kamma(karma/deeds) is the field, consciousness the seed, and craving the moisture for their consciousness to be established in a middling realm. In this way there is the production of renewed existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) in the future.

. (3) "If, Ananda, there were no kamma(karma/deeds) ripening in the formless realm, would formless-sphere existence be discerned?" [224]

"No, Bhante."

"Thus, Ananda, for beings hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving(tanha/trishna), kamma(karma/deeds) is the field, consciousness the seed, and craving(tanha/trishna) the moisture for their consciousness to be established in a superior realm. In this way there is the production of renewed existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) in the future,

"It is in this way, Ananda, that there is existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth)."


78 Existence(Causative)2 [Conscious Action and Aspiration] (Bhavo2)[]

Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Lord(Buddha) . . . and said to him:

"Bhante, it is said: existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth), existence(bhavo). In what way, Bhante, is there existence(bhavo)?"

(1) "If, Ananda, there were no kamma(karma/deeds) ripening in the sensory realm, would sense-sphere existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) be discerned?"

"No, Bhante."

"Thus, Ananda, for beings hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving(tanha/trishna), kamma(karma/deeds) is the field, consciousness the seed, and craving(tanha/trishna) the moisture for their conscious action and aspiration 505 to be established in an inferior realm. In this way there is the production of renewed existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) in the future.

(2) "If, Ananda, there were no kamma(karma/deeds) ripening in the form realm, would form-sphere existence be discerned?"

"No, Bhante."

"Thus, Ananda, for beings hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving(tanha/trishna), kamma(karma/deeds) is the field, consciousness the seed, and craving(tanha/trishna) the moisture for their conscious action and aspiration to be established in a middling realm. In this way there is the production of renewed existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) in the future.

(3) "If, Ananda, there were no kamma(karma/deeds) ripening in the formless realm, would formless-sphere existence be discerned?"

"No, Bhante."

"Thus, Ananda, for beings hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving(tanha/trishna), kamma(karma/deeds) is the field, consciousness the seed, and craving(tanha/trishna) the moisture for their conscious action and aspiration to be established in a superior realm. In this way there is the production of renewed existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) in the future.

"It is in this way, Ananda, that there is existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth)." [225]


79 Setting Up (Silabbata Sans. Sheelvrat)[]

Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Lord(Buddha). . . . The Lord(Buddha) then said to him:

"Ananda, are all behavior and observances, [austere] life styles, and brahmacariya(celibate holy life) fruitful when set up as the essence?" 506

"Not exclusively so, Bhante."

"Well then, Ananda, distinguish [them]."

"Bhante, suppose one cultivates behavior and observances, an [austere] lifestyle, and a brahmacariya(celibate holy life), setting them up as if they were the essence. If harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) then increase and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline, such behavior and observances, [austere] lifestyle, and brahmacariya(celibate holy life), set up as the essence, are fruitless. But if harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline and beneficial(kusala) qualities increase, then such behavior and observances, [austere] lifestyle, and brahmacariya(celibate holy life), set up as the essence, are fruitful."

This is what the Venerable Ananda said. The Teacher agreed. Then the Venerable Ananda, thinking, "The Teacher has agreed," paid homage to the Lord(Buddha), circumambulated him keeping the right side toward him, and left.

Then, not long after the Venerable Ananda had left, the Lord(Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus: "Bhikkhus(Monks), Ananda is a trainee[not arahant], but it is not easy to find one equal to him in panna(divine knowledge)."


80 Fragrance (Gandha jata)[]

Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Lord(Buddha) . . . and said to him:

"Bhante, there are these three fragrances that spread with the wind but not against the wind. What three? The fragrance of roots, the fragrance of heartwood, and the fragrance of flowers. These three fragrances spread with the wind but not against the wind. Is there any fragrance that spreads with the wind, against the wind, and both with and against the wind?" .

"There is, Ananda, a fragrance that spreads with the wind, [2263 against the wind, and both with and against the wind."

"But, Bhante, what is that fragrance?"

"Here, Ananda, in whatever village or town a man or a woman has gone fof refuge to the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha; he or she is virtuous and of good character, abstaining from: the destruction of life, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, false speech, and liquor, wine, and intoxicants, the basis for slothfulness; and he or she dwells at home with a heart devoid of the stain of miserliness, freely generous, openhanded, delighting in relinquishment, devoted to charity, delighting in giving and sharing— in such a case, ascetics and brahmins in [all] quarters speak praise, saying: In such and such a village or town a man or a woman has gone for refuge to the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha . .. delighting in giving(donation) and sharing.

"The devtas(angels) and the spirits, 507 too, speak praise, saying: Ín such and such a village or town a man or a woman has gone for refuge to the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha ... is virtuous and of good character . . . delighting in giving(donation) and sharing.'

"This, Ananda, is the fragrance that spreads with the wind, against the wind, and both with and against the wind."

The fragrance of flowers does not spread against the wind, nor the fragrance of sandal, tagara, 508 or jasmine. But the fragrance of good people spreads against the wind: the good person's fragrance pervades all quarters. 509


81 Abhibhu (Culanika)[]

Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Lord(Buddha) . . . [227] . . . and said to him:

"Bhante, in the presence of the Lord(Buddha) I heard this; in his presence I learned this: 'Abhibhu, a disciple of the Lord(Buddha) Sikhi(earlier Buddha), while staying in the brahma world, conveyed his voice throughout a thousandfold world system. 510 How far, Bhante, can the Lord(Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One convey his voice?"

"He was a disciple, Ananda. The Tathagatas(Buddhas) are immeasurable." 511

A second time the Venerable Ananda said to the Lord(Buddha): "Bhante, in the presence of the Lord(Buddha) I heard this. . . . How far, Bhante, can the Lord(Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One convey his voice?"

"He was a disciple, Ananda. The Tathagatas(Buddhas) are immeasurable." ;

A third time the Venerable Ananda said to the Lord(Buddha): "Bhante, in the presence of the Lord(Buddha) I heard this. . . . How far, Bhante, can the Lord(Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One convey his voice?"

"Have, you heard, Ananda, about a thousandfold minor world system?"

"It is the time for this. Lord(Buddha). It is the time for this, Sugata(Lord Buddha), The Lord(Buddha) should speak. Having heard this from the Lord(Buddha), the bhikkhus will retain it in mind."

"Well then, Ananda, listen and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, Bhante," the Venerable Ananda replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

(1) "A thousand times the world in which the sun and moon revolve and light up the quarters with their brightness is called a thousandfold minor world system. 512 In that thousandfold world system there are a thousand moons, a thousand suns, a thousand Sinerus king of mountains, a thousand Jambudipas(Indias), a thousand Aparagoyanas, a thousand Uttarakurus, a thousand Pubbavidehas, 513 and a thousand four great oceans; a thousand four great kings, a thousand [heavens] of devas(angels/gods) [ruled by] the four great kings, a thousand Tavatimsa [heavens], a thousand [228] Yama [heavens], a thousand Tusita [heavens], a thousand [heavens] of devas(angels/gods) who delight in creation, a thousand [heavens] of devas(angels/gods) who control what is created by others, a thousand brahma worlds.

(2) " A world that is a thousand times a thousandfold minor world system is called a thousand-to-the-second-power middling world system. 514 (3) A world that is a thousand times a thousand-to-the-second-power middling world system is called a thousand-to-the-third-power great world system. Ananda, the Tathagata(Buddha) can convey his voice as far as he wants in a thousand-to-the-third-power great world system."

"But in what way, Bhante, can the Tathagata(Buddha) convey his voice as far as he wants in a thousand-to-the-third-power great world system?"

"Here, Ananda, the Tathagata(Buddha) suffuses with his radiance a thousand-to-the-third-power great world system. When those beings perceive that light, then the Tathagata(Buddha) projects his voice and makes them hear its sound. It is in such a way, Ananda, that the Tathagata(Buddha) can convey his voice as far as he wants in a thousand-to-the-third-power great world system." 515

When this was said, the Venerable Ananda said to the Lord(Buddha)

"It is my good fortune! I am very fortunate that my Teacher

is so powerful and mighty."

When this was said, the Venerable Udayi said to the Venerable Ananda: "What is it to you, friend Ananda, that your Teacher is so powerful and mighty?" 516

When this was said, the Lord(Buddha) said to the Venerable Udayi: "Do not say so, Udayi! Do, not say so, Udayi! 517 Udayi, if Ananda were to die without being free of lust(raag), then because of his confidence he would exercise celestial kingship among the devas(angels/gods) seven times and great kingship in this Jambudipa seven times. However, in this very life Ananda will attain final nibbana." [229]



IV. Ascetics (Samana)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


82 Ascetics (Samana)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three ascetic tasks to be practiced by an ascetic. What three? (1) The undertaking of the training in the higher virtuous behavior, (2) the undertaking of the training in the higher mind, and (3) the undertaking of the training in the higher panna(divine knowledge). These are the three ascetic tasks to be practiced by an ascetic.

"Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves thus: 'We will have a keen desire to undertake the training in the higher virtuous behavior; we will have a keen desire to undertake the training in the higher mind; we will have a keen desire to undertake the training in the higher panna(divine knowledge)'. It is in this way that you should train yourselves."


83 The Donkey 518 (Gardhaba)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), suppose a donkey was following right behind a herd of cattle, [thinking]: 'I am a cow too. I'm a cow too. 519 (1) But his appearance would not be like that of the cows, (2) his braying would not be like that of the cows, and (3) his footprint would not be like that of the cows. Yet he follows right behind a herd of’ cattle, [thinking]: 'I'm a cow too. I'm a cow too.

"So too, a bhikkhu might be following right behind the Sangha of bhikkhus, [thinking]: 'I'm a bhikkhu too. I'm a bhikkhu too.' (1) But his desire to undertake the training in the higher virtuous behavior is not like that of the other bhikkhus; (2) his desire to undertake the training in the higher mind is not like that of the other bhikkhus; (3) his desire to undertake the training in the higher panna(divine knowledge) is not like that of the other bhikkhus. Yet he follows right behind the Sangha of bhikkhus, [thinking]: 'I'm a bhikkhu too, I'm a bhikkhu too."

"Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves thus: 'We will have a keen desire to undertake the training in the higher virtuous behavior; we will have a keen desire to undertake the training in the higher, mind; we will have a keen desire to undertake the training in the higher panna(divine knowledge).' It is in this way that you should train yourselves."


84 The Field (Khetta)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three preliminary tasks of a farmer. What three? (1) Here, the farmer first of all thoroughly plows and harrows the field. (2) Next, he sows seeds at the proper time. (3) And then he occasionally irrigates [230] and drains the field. These are the three preliminary tasks of a farmer.

"So too, bhikkhus, there are these three preliminary tasks of a bhikkhu. What three? (1) The undertaking of the training in the higher virtuous behavior, (2) the undertaking of the training in the higher mind, and (3) the undertaking of the training in the higher panna(divine knowledge). These are the three preliminary tasks of a bhikkhu.

"Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves thus: 'We will have a keen desire to undertake the training in the higher virtuous behavior the training in the higher mind . . . the training in the higher panna(divine knowledge)' It is in this way that you should train yourselves.";


85 The Young Vajji (Vajjiputta)[]

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwell ing at Vesali in the hall with the peaked roof in the Great Wood. Then a certain Vajji bhikkhu approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, and said to him:

"Bhante, every half-month more than a hundred and fifty training rules come up for recitation. I cannot, train in them."

"Can you train in the three trainings, bhikkhu: the training in the higher virtuous behavior(adhi-sila-sikkhaya), the training in the higher mind (adhi-citta-sikkhaya), and the training in the higher panna(divine knowledge/adhi-panna-sikkhaya)?"

"I can, Bhante."

"Therefore, bhikkhu, train in the three trainings: the training in the higher virtuous behavior, the training in the higher mind, and the training in the higher panna(divine knowledge). As you train in them, you will abandon lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha). With the abandoning of lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha), you will do nothing harmful(akusala) or resort to anything bad."

Then, sometime later, that bhikkhu trained in the higher virtuous behavior, the higher mind, and the higher panna(divine knowledge). As he [231] trained in them, he abandoned lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha). With the abandoning of lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha), he did nothing harmful(akusala) and did not resort to anything bad.


86 A Trainee (Sekkha)[]

Then a certain bhikkhu approached the Lord(Buddha) . . . and said to him: "Bhante, it is said: 'A trainee, a trainee,' In what way is one a trainee?"

"He trains, bhikkhu, therefore he is called a trainee. And in what does he train? He trains in the higher virtuous behavior(Adhisila); he trains in the higher mind(Adhicitta); he trains in the higher panna(divine knowledge/Adhipanna). He trains, bhikkhu, therefore he is called a trainee."


As the trainee trains
along the straight path,
the knowledge of destruction arises first
immediately followed by final knowledge. 520


Thereafter, when the fetters of existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) are destroyed,
for one liberated by final knowledge,
the knowledge arises:
"My liberation is unshakable." 521


87 The Process of Training (1) (Pathama-Sikkha-Suttam)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), every half-month more than a hundred and fifty training rules come up for recitation; clansmen who desire their own good train in these. These are all comprised within these three trainings. What three? The training in the higher virtuous behavior, the training in the higher mind, and the training in the higher panna(divine knowledge). These are the three trainings in which all this is comprised.

"Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu fulfills virtuous behavior, but cultivates samadhi(self absorption/trance) and panna(divine knowledge) only to a moderate extent. He falls into offenses in regard to the lesser and minor train ing rules and rehabilitates himself. 522 For what reason? Because I have not said that he is incapable of this. 523 But in regard to those training rules that are fundamental to the brahmacariya(celibate holy life), in conformity with the brahmacariya(celibate holy life), 524 his behavior is constant and steadfast. Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them. With the utter destruction of three fetters, [232] he is a stream-enterer(7 rebirths,sotapatti), no longer subject to [rebirth in] the lower world, fixed in destiny, with enlightenment as his destination.

"Another bhikkhu fulfills virtuous behavior, but cultivates samadhi(self absorption/trance) and panna(divine knowledge) only to a moderate extent. He falls into offenses in regard to the lesser and minor training rules and rehabilitates himself. For what reason? Because I have not said that he is incapable of this. But in regard to those training rules that are fundamental to the brahmacariya(celibate holy life), in conformity with the brahmacariya(celibate holy life), his behavior is constant and steadfast. Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them. With the utter destruction of three fetters and with the diminishing of greed, hatred, and delusion(moha), he is a once-returner who, after coming back to this world only one more time, will make an end of suffering.

"Another bhikkhu fulfills virtuous behavior and samadhi(self absorption/trance), but cultivates panna(divine knowledge) only to a moderate extent. He falls into offenses in regard to the lesser and minor training rules and rehabilitates himself. For what reason? Because I have not said that he is incapable of this. But in regard to those training rules that are fundamental to the brahmacariya(celibate holy life), in conformity with the brahmacariya(celibate holy life), his behavior is constant and steadfast. Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them. With the utter destruction of the five lower fetters, he is one of spontaneous rebirth, due to attain final nibbana(nirvana) there without returning from that world.

"Another bhikkhu fulfills virtuous behavior, samadhi(self absorption/trance), and panna(divine knowledge). He falls into offenses in regard to the lesser and minor training rules and rehabilitates himself. For what reason? Because I have not said that he is incapable of this. But in regard to those training rules that are fundamental to the brahmacariya(celibate holy life), in conformity with the brahmacariya(celibate holy life), his behavior is constant and steadfast. Having undertaken the training rules, lie trains in them. With the destruction of the taints, he realizes for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, he dwells in it.

"Thus, bhikkhus, one who cultivates in part succeeds in part; one who cultivates fully reaches fulfillment. These training rules, I say, are not barren."


88 The Process of Training (2) (Dutiya-Sikkha-Suttam)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), every half-month more than a hundred and fifty training rules come up for recitation; clansmen who desire their own good [233] train in these. These are all comprised within these three trainings. What three? The training in the higher virtuous behavior, the training in the higher mind, and the training in the higher panna(divine knowledge). These are the three trainings in which all this is comprised.

"Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu fulfills virtuous behavior, but cultivates samadhi(self absorption/trance) and panna(divine knowledge) only to a moderate extent. He falls into offenses in regard to the lesser and minor train ing rules and rehabilitates himselfFor what reason? Because I have not said that he is incapable of this. But in regard to those training rules that are fundamental to the brahmacariya(celibate holy life), in conformity with the brahmacariya(celibate holy life), his behavior is constant and steadfast. Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them. With the utter destruction of three fetters, he is a seven times-at-most attainer who, after roaming and wandering on among devas(angels/gods) and humans seven times at most, makes an end of suffering. 525 With the utter destruction of three fetters, he is a family-to-family attainer who, after roaming and wandering on among good families two or three times, makes an end of suffering. With the utter destruction of three fetters, he is a one-seed attainer who, after being reborn once more in human existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth), makes an end of suffering. With the utter destruction of three fetters and with the diminishing of greed, hatred, and delusion(moha), he is a once-returner(1 rebirth,sakdagami) who, after coming back to this world only one more time, makes an end of suffering.

"Another bhikkhu fulfills virtuous behavior and samadhi(self absorption/trance), but cultivates panna(divine knowledge) only to a moderate extent. He falls into offenses in regard to the lesser and minor training rules and rehabilitates himself. For what reason? Because I have not said that he is incapable of this. But in regard to those training rules that are fundamental to the brahmacariya(celibate holy life), in conformity with the brahmacariya(celibate holy life), his behavior is constant and steadfast. Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them. With the utter destruction of the five lower fetters, he is one bound upstream, heading toward the Akanittha realm . , . an attainer of nibbana(nirvana) through exertion . . . an attainer of nibbana(nirvana) without exertion . . . an attainer of nibbana(nirvana) upon landing . . . an attainer of nibbana(nirvana) in the interval. 526

"Another bhikkhu fulfills virtuous behavior, samadhi(self absorption/trance), and panna(divine knowledge). He [234] falls into offenses in regard to the lesser and minor training rules and rehabilitates himself. For what reason? Because I have not said that he is incapable of this. But in regard to those training rules that are fundamental to the brahmacariya(celibate holy life), in conformity with the brahmacariya(celibate holy life), his behavior is constant and steadfast. Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them. With the destruction of the taints, he realizes for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, he dwells in it.

"Thus, bhikkhus, one who cultivates in part succeeds in part; one who cultivates fully reaches fulfillment. These training rules, I say, are not barren."


89 The Process of Training (3) (Tatiya-Sikkha-Suttam)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), every half-month more than a hundred and fifty training rules come up for recitation; clansmen who desire their own good train in these. These are all comprised within these three trainings. What three? The training in the higher virtuous behavior, the training in the higher mind, and the training in the higher panna(divine knowledge). These are the three trainings in which all this is comprised.

"Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu fulfills virtuous behavior, concentration, and panna(divine knowledge). He fails into offenses in regard to the lesser and minor training rules and rehabilitates himself. For what reason? Because I have not said that he is incapable of this. But in regard to those training rules that are fundamental to the brahmacariya(celibate holy life), in conformity with the brahmacariya(celibate holy life), his behavior is constant and steadfast. Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them. With the destruction of the taints, he realizes for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, he dwells in it.

"If he does not attain and penetrate this, 527 with the utter destruction of the five lower fetters, he is an attainer of nibbana(nirvana) in the interval. If he does not attain and penetrate this, with the utter destruction of the five lower fetters, he is an attainer of nibbana upon landing . . . an attainer of nibbana(nirvana) without exertion . . . an attainer of nibbana(nirvana) through exertion . . . one bound upstream, heading toward the Akanittha realm.

"If he does not attain and penetrate this, with the utter destruction of three fetters and with the diminishing of greed, hatred, and delusion(moha), he is a once-returner(1 rebirth,sakdagami) who, after coming back to this [235] world only one more time, makes an end of suffering. If he does not attain and penetrate this, with the utter destruction of three fetters, he is a one-seed attainer who, after being reborn once more in human existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth), makes an end of suffering. If he does not attain and penetrate this, with the utter destruction of three fetters, he is a family-to-family attainer who, after roaming and wandering in among good families two or three times, makes an end of suffering. If he does not attain and penetrate this, with the utter destruction of three fetters, he is a seven-times-at-most. attainer who, after roaming and wandering on among devas(angels/gods) and humans seven times at most, makes an end of suffering.

"Thus, bhikkhus, one who cultivates fully reaches fulfillment; one who cultivates in part succeeds in part. These training rules, I say, are not barren."


90 The Trainings (1) (Pathama-Sikkhattaya-Suttam)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three trainings. What three? The training in the higher virtuous behavior, the training in the higher mind, and the training in the higher panna(divine knowledge).

"And what, bhikkhus, is the training in the higher virtuous behavior? Here, a bhikkhu is virtuous. . . . Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them. This is called the training in the higher virtuous behavior.

"And what, bhikkhus, is the training in the higher mind? Here, secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unbeneficial(kusala) states, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhana . . . the fourth jhana(trance state). . . . This is called the training in the higher mind..

"And what, bhikkhus, is the training in the higher panna(divine knowledge)? Here, a bhikkhu understands as it really is: 'This is suffer ing' . . . 'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.' This is called the training in the higher panna(divine knowledge).

"These, bhikkhus, are the three trainings."


91 The Trainings (2) (Dutiya-Sikkhattaya-Suttam)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), there are these three, trainings. What three? The training in the higher virtuous behavior, the training in the higher mind, and the training in the higher panna(divine knowledge). .

" And what, bhikkhus, is the training in the higher virtuous behavior? Here, a bhikkhu is virtuous. . . . Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them. This is called the training in the higher virtuous behavior.

"And what, bhikkhus, is the training in the higher mind? Here, secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from harmful(akusala) states, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhana . . . [236] the fourth jhana(trance state). . . .This is called the training in the higher mind.

"And what, bhikkhus, is the training in the higher panna(divine knowledge)? Here, with the destruction of the taints, a bhikkhu realizes for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, he dwells in it.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three trainings."


Energetic, strong, and resolute,
meditative, mindful(meditating/sati), the faculties guarded,
one should practice the higher virtue,
the higher mind, and the higher panna(divine knowledge).


As before, so after;
as after, so before;
as below, so above;
as above, so below;


as by day, so at night;
as at night, so by day,
having overcome all quarters,
with measureless samadhi(self absorption/trance) 528


They call him a trainee on the path,
whose conduct has been well purified.


They call him enlightened in the world,
a wise one who has fulfilled the practice. 29


For one freed by craving(tanha/trishna)'s destruction,
with the cessation of consciousness
the emancipation of the mind
is like the extinguishing of a lamp. 530


92 Pankadha (Sankava)[]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was wandering on tour among the Kosalans together with a large Sangha of bhikkhus when he reached the Koslan town of Pahkadha. He then dwelled near Pahkadha.

Now on that occasion the bhikkhu Kassapagotta was resident at Pahkadha. There the Lord(Buddha) instructed, encouraged, inspired, and gladdened the bhikkhus with a Dhamma talk connected with the training rules. Then, while the Lord(Buddha) was instructing . . . and gladdening the bhikkhus with a talk on the Dhamma(path) connected with the training rules, the bhikkhu Kassapagotta became impatient and bitter, [thinking]: "This ascetic is too stringent ." 531

Then, having dwelled at Pahkadha as long as he wanted. the Lord(Buddha) set out on tour toward Rajagaha. Wander ing on tour, the Lord(Buddha) eventually arrived at Rajagaha. [237] There, at Rajagaha, the Lord(Buddha) dwelled on Mount Vulture Peak. Then, not long after the Lord(Buddha) had left, the bhikkhu Kassapagotta was filled with remorse and regret, [thinking]: "It is my misfortune and loss that when the Lord(Buddha) was instructing, encouraging, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus with a Dhamma(path) talk connected with the training rules, I became impatient and bitter, [thinking]: "This ascetic is too stringent. Let me now go to the Lord(Buddha) and confess my transgression to him."

Then the bhikkhu Kassapagotta cleaned up his lodging, took his bowl and robe, and set out for Rajagaha. Eventually he arrived at Rajagaha and went to Mount Vulture Peak. He approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said:

"Bhante, on one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at the Kosalan town of Pankadha. There the Lord(Buddha) instructed; encouraged, inspired; and gladdened the bhikkhus(monks) with a Dhamma talk connected with the training rules. While he was instructing . . . and gladdening them, I became impatient and bitter, thinking: 'This ascetic is too stringent.' Then, having dwelled at Pankadha as long as he wanted, the Lord(Buddha) set out on tour for Rajagaha. Not long after he left, I was filled with remorse and regret, thinking: It is my misfortune and loss that when the Lord(Buddha) was instructing . . . and gladdening the bhikkhus with a Dhamma talk connected with the training rules, I became impatient and bitter, thinking: 'This ascetic is too stringent.' Let me now go to the Lord(Buddha) and confess my transgression to him."

"Bhante, I have committed a transgression [238] in that, when the Lord(Buddha) was instructing, encouraging, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus with a Dhamma talk connected with the training rules, I so unwisely, stupidly, and unskillfully became impatient and bitter, thinking: 'This ascetic is too stringent.' Bhante, may the Lord(Buddha) accept my transgression seen as a transgression for the sake of future restraint."

"Surely, Kassapa, you have committed a transgression in that, when I was instructing; encouraging, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus with a talk on the Dhamma connected with the training rules, you so unwisely, stupidly, and unskillfully became impatient and bitter, thinking: 'This ascetic is too stringent.' But since you see your transgression as a transgression and make amends for it in accordance with the Dhamma, we accept it. For it is growth in the Noble One's discipline that one sees one's transgression as a transgression, makes amends for it in accordance with the Dhamma, and undertakes future restraint.

(1) "If, Kassapa, an elder bhikkhu 532 does not desire to train and does not speak praise of undertaking the training; if he does not encourage in the training other bhikkhus who do not desire to train; and if he does not speak genuine, real, and timely praise of those bhikkhus who desire to train, I do not speak praise of such an elder bhikkhu. For what reason? Because other bhikkhus, [hearing]: 'The Teacher speaks praise of him' might associate with him, and those who associate with him might follow his example. If they follow his example, this would lead to their harm and suffering for a long time. Therefore I do not speak praise of such an elder bhikkhu.

(2) "If, Kassapa, a bhikkhu(monk) of middle standing ... (3) If a junior bhikkhu does not desire to train and does not speak praise of undertaking the training; if he does not encourage in the training other bhikkhus who do not desire to train; and if he does not speak genuine, real, and timely praise of those bhikkhus who desire to train, I do not speak praise of such a junior bhikkhu. For what reason? Because other bhikkhus, [hearing]: 'The Teacher speaks praise of him,' might associate with him, and those who associate with him [239] might follow his example. If they follow his example, this would lead to their harm and suffering for a long time. Therefore I do not speak praise of such a junior bhikkhu.

(1) "If, Kassapa, an elder bhikkhu desires to train and speaks praise of undertaking the training; if he encourages in the training other bhikkhus who do not desire to train; and if he speaks genuine, real, ana timely praise of those bhikkhus who desire to train, I speak praise of such an elder bhikkhu. For what reason? Because other bhikkhus, [hearing]: 'The Teacher speaks praise of him' might associate with him, and those who associate with him might follow his example. If they follow his example, this would lead to their welfare and happiness for a long time. Therefore I speak praise of such an elder bhikkhu.'

(2) "If, Kassapa, a bhikkhu of middle standing . . . (3) If a junior bhikkhu desires to train and speaks praise of undertaking the training; if he encourages in the training other bhikkhus who do not desire to train; and if he speaks genuine, real, and timely praise of those bhikkhus who desire to train, I speak praise of such a junior bhikkhu. For what reason? Because other bhikkhus, [hearing]: 'The Teacher speaks praise of him/ might associate with him, and those who associate with him might follow his example. If they follow his example, this would lead, to their welfare and happiness for a long time. Therefore I speak praise of such a junior bhikkhu."



V. A Lump of Salt 533 (Lonaka-palla)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


93 Urgent (Accayika)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), there are these three urgent tasks of a farmer. 534 What three? (1) First, the farmer swiftly yet thoroughly plows the field and swiftly yet thoroughly harrows it. (2) Next, he swiftly sows seeds. (3) And then he swiftly [240] irrigates and drains the field. These are the three urgent tasks of a farmer.

"This farmer has no psychic potency(magic/iddhi) or spiritual might [by which he could command]: 'Let my crops start growing today! Let them mature tomorrow! Let them bear grain the day after tomorrow!' But, with the change of seasons, there comes a time when the crops grow, mature, and bear grain.

"So too, bhikkhus, there are these three urgent tasks of a bhikkhu. What three? (1) The undertaking of the training in the higher virtuous behavior, (2) the undertaking of the training in the higher mind, and (3) the undertaking of the training in the higher panna(divine knowledge). These are the three urgent tasks of a bhikkhu.

"This bhikkhu has no psychic potency(magic/iddhi) or spiritual might [by which he could command]: 'Let my mind be liberated from the taints by non-clinging today, or tomorrow, or the day after tomorrow!' Rather, as this bhikkhu trains in the higher virtuous behavior, the higher mind, and the higher panna(divine knowledge), there comes an occasion when his mind is liberated from the taints by non clinging.

"Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves thus: 'We will have a keen desire to undertake the training in the higher virtuous behavior, the training in the higher mind, and the training in the higher panna(divine knowledge)' It is in this way that you should train yourselves."


94 Discretion (Paviveka)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), ascetics of other sects prescribe these three kinds of descretion. What three? Discretion with respect to robes, descretion with respect to almsfood, and descretion with respect to lodgings. 535

"This, bhikkhus, is what ascetics of other sects prescribe as descretion with respect to robes: they wear hemp robes, robes of hemp-mixed cloth; shroud robes, rag-robes; robes made from tree bark., antelope hides, strips of antelope hide; robes of kusa grass, bark fabric, or wood-shavings fabric; a blanket made of head hair or of animal wool, [241] a covering made of owls' wings. That is what ascetics of other sects prescribe as descretion with respect to. robes.

"This is what ascetics of other sects prescribe as discretion with respect to almsfood: they eat greens, millet, forest rice, hide-parings, moss, rice bran, the scum of rice, sesamum flour, grass, or cow dung. They subsist on forest roots and fruits; they feed on fallen fruits. That is what ascetics of other sects prescribe as discretion with respect to almsfood.

"This is what ascetics of other sects prescribe as descretion with respect to lodgings: a forest, the foot of a tree, a charnel ground, remote lodgings in forests and jungle groves, the open air, a heap of straw, a chaff-house. That is what ascetics of other sects prescribe as descretion with respect to lodgings.

"These are the three kinds of descretion that ascetics of other sects prescribe.

"In this Dhamma and discipline, bhikkhus, there are these three kinds of descretion for a bhikkhu. What three?

"Here, (1) a bhikkhu is virtuous; he has abandoned immorality and remains secluded from it. (2) He holds right view; he has abandoned wrong view and remains secluded from it. 536 (3) He is one whose faints are destroyed: he has abandoned the taints and remains secluded from them.

"When a bhikkhu is virtuous, one who has abandoned immorality and remains secluded from it; when he is one of right view, who has abandoned wrong view and remains secluded from it; when he is one whose taints are destroyed, who has abandoned the taints and remains secluded from them, he is then called a bhikkhu who has attained the foremost, attained the core, one who is pure and established in the core.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, there is a farmer whose field of hill rice has ripened; The farmer would swiftly have the plants cut. Then he would swiftly have the plants collected. Then he would swiftly [242] have them transported [to the threshing place]. Then he would swiftly pile them up, have them threshed, get the straw removed, get the chaff removed, and winnow it. Then he would swiftly have it brought over, get it pounded, and get the husks removed. In this way, the farmer's grains of rice would be foremost, attained the core, pure, and established in the core.

"So too, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu is virtuous . . . one of right view . . . one who has abandoned the taints and remains secluded from them, he is then called a bhikkhu who is foremost, attained the core, pure, and established in the core."


95 Autumn 537 (Sarada Sans. Sharad)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), just as, in the autumn, when the sky is clear and cloudless, the sun, ascending in the sky, dispels all darkness from space as it shines and beams and radiates, so too, when the dust-free, stainless Dhamma-eye arises in the noble disciple, then, together with the arising of vision, the noble disciple abandons three fetters: personal-existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) view, doubt, and wrong grasp of behavior and observances. 538

"Afterward, when he departs from two states, longing and ill will, then, secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from harmful(akusala) states, he enters and dwells in the first jhana(trance state), which consists of bliss(piti) and happiness(sukha) born of seclusion, accompanied by thought and examination ; If, bhikkhus, the noble disciple should pass away on that occasion, there is no fetter bound by which he might return to this world." 539


96 Assemblies (Parisa sans. Parishad)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), there are these three kinds of assemblies. 540 What three? The assembly of the foremost, the divided assembly, and the harmonious assembly. [243]

(1) "And what, bhikkhus, is the assembly of the foremost? Here, in this kind of assembly the elder bhikkhus do not become luxurious and lax, but discard backsliding and take the lead in seclusion; they arouse energy(exertion/viriya) for the attainment of the as-yet unattained, for the achievement of the as-yet-unachieved, for the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. (Those in] the next generation follow their example. They too do not become luxurious and lax, but discard backsliding and take the lead in seclusion; they too arouse energy(exertion/viriya) for the attainment of the as-yet unattained, for the achievement of the as-yet-unachieved, for the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. This is called the assembly of the foremost.

(2) "And what is the divided assembly? Here, the assembly in which the bhikkhus take to arguing and quarreling and fall into disputes, stabbing each other with piercing words, is called the divided assembly.

(3) "And what is the harmonious assembly? Here, the assembly in which the bhikkhus dwell in concord, harmoniously, with out disputes, blending like milk and water, viewing each other with eyes of affection, is called the harmonious assembly.

"When the bhikkhus dwell in concord, harmoniously, with out disputes, blending like milk and water, viewing each other with eyes of affection, on that occasion they generate much merit. On that occasion the bhikkhus dwell in a divine abode, that is, in the liberation of mind through altruistic joy. When one is joyful, bliss(piti) arises. For one with a blissful mind, the body becomes tranquil. One tranquil in body feels happiness(sukha). For one in happiness, the mind becomes self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita).

"Just as, when it is raining and the rain pours down in thick droplets on a mountain top, the water flows down along the slope and fills the clefts, gullies, and creeks; these, becoming full, fill up the pools; these, becoming full, fill up the lakes; these, becoming full, fill up the streams; these, becoming full, fill up the rivers; and these, becoming full, fill up the ocean; so too, when the bhikkhus dwell in concord, harmoniously, with out disputes, blending like milk and water, viewing each other [244] with eyes of affection, on that occasion they generate much merit. On that occasion the bhikkhus dwell in a divine abode, that is, in the liberation of mind through altruistic joy. When one is joyful, bliss(piti) arises. For one with a blissful mind, the body becomes tranquil. One tranquil in body feels happiness(sukha). For one in happiness, the mind becomes self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita).

"These, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of assemblies."


97 Thoroughbred (1) (Pathama-Ajaniya)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three factors a king's excellent thorough bred horse is worthy of a king, an accessory of a king, and reck oned as a factor of kingship. What three? Here, a king's excellent thoroughbred horse possesses beauty, strength, and speed. Possessing these three factors, a king's excellent thoroughbred horse is . .. reckoned as a factor of kingship.

"So too, possessing three qualities, a bhikkhu is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of reverential salutation, an unsurpassed field of merit for the world. What three? Here, a bhikkhu possesses beauty, strength, and speed,

(1) "And how does a bhikkhu possess beauty? Here, a bhikkhu is virtuous; he dwells restrained by the Patimokkha, pos sessed of good conduct and resort, seeing danger in minute faults. Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them. It is in this way that a bhikkhu possesses beauty.

(2) " And how does a bhikkhu(monk) possess strength? Here, a bhikkhu arouses energy(exertion/viriya) for abandoning harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) and acquiring beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma); he is strong, firm in exertion, not casting off the duty of cultivating beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma). It is in tins way that a bhikkhu possesses strength.

(3) "And how does a bhikkhu possess speed? Here, a bhikkhu understands as it really is: 'This is suffering' and 'This is the origin of suffering', [245] and 'This is the cessation of suffering' and 'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.' It is in this way that a bhikkhu possesses speed.

"Possessing these three qualities, a bhikkhu is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of reverential salutation, an unsurpassed field of merit for the world."


98 Thoroughbred (2) (Dutiya-Ajaniya)[]

[All as in 3:96, with only the following difference in factor (3):]

"And how does a bhikkhu possess speed? Here, with the utter destruction of the five lower fetters, a bhikkhu is one of spontaneous rebirth, due to attain final nibbana(nirvana) there without ever returning from that world. It is in this way that a bhikkhu possesses speed.

"Possessing these three qualities, a bhikkhu is . . . an unsurpassed field of merit for the world."


99 Thoroughbred (3) (Tatiya-Ajaniya)[]

[All as in 3:96, with only the following difference in factor (3):] [246]

"And how does a bhikkhu possess speed? Here, with the destruction of the taints, a bhikkhu has realized for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, he dwells in it. It is in this way that a bhikkhu possesses speed.

"Possessing these three qualities, a bhikkhu is . . . an unsurpassed field of merit for the world."


100 Bark Fabric (Potthaka)[]

" Bhikkhus(monks), when it is new, cloth made of bark fabric 541 is ugly, uncomfortable, and of little value. When it has been worn, 542 cloth made of bark fabric is ugly, uncomfortable, and of little value. When it is old, cloth made of bark fabric is still ugly, uncomfortable, and of little value. They use old cloth made of bark fabric for cleaning pots or they discard it on a rubbish heap.

(1) (i) 543 "So too, bhikkhus, if a junior bhikkhu is immoral, of bad character, this, I say, counts as his ugliness. [247] Just as cloth made of bark fabric is ugly, so, I say, this person is similar.

(ii) "For those who associate with him, resort to him, attend on him, and follow his example, this leads to their harm and suffering for a long time. This, I say, counts as his uncomfortableness. Just as cloth made of bark fabric is uncomfortable, so, I say, this person is similar.

(iii) "When he accepts a robe, almsfood, lodging, and medicines and provisions for the sick, this [acceptance] is not of great fruit and benefit for those [who offer such things]This, I say, counts as his being of little value. Just as cloth made of bark fabric is of little value, so, I say, this person is similar.

(2) "If a bhikkhu of middle standing ...

(3) "If an elder bhikkhu is immoral, of bad character, this, I say, counts as his ugliness.. , [all as above] . . . Just as cloth made of bark fabric is of little value, so, I say, this person is similar.

"If such an elder bhikkhu speaks in the midst of the Sangha, the bhikkhus say to him: 'What gives you, an incompetent unwise, the right to speak? Do you think you too are entitled to speak?' He then becomes angry and displeased and utters speech on account of which the Sangha expels him, as if [discarding] the clothing made of bark fabric on the rubbish heap. 544

"When it is new, bhikkhus, cloth from Kasi is beautiful, comfortable, and of great value. When it has been worn, [248] cloth from Kasi is beautiful, comfortable, and of great value. When it is old, cloth from Kasi is beautiful, comfortable, and of great value. They use old cloth from Kasi as a. wrapping for gems or they, deposit it in a fragrant casket.

(1) (i) "So too, if a junior bhikkhu is virtuous, of good character, this, I say, counts as his beauty. Just as cloth from Kasi is beautiful, so, I say, this person is similar.

(ii) "For those who associate with him, resort to him, attend on him, and follow his example, this leads to their welfare and happiness for a long time. This, I say, counts as his comfort ableness. Just as cloth from Kasi is comfortable, so, I say, this person is similar.

(iii) "When he accepts a robe, almsfood, lodging, and medicines and provisions for the sick, this [acceptance] is of great fruit and benefit for those [who offer such things]. This, I say, counts as his being of great value. Just as cloth from Kasi is of great value, so, I say, this person is similar.

(2) "If a bhikkhu of middle standing ...

(3) "If an elder bhikkhu is virtuous, of good character, this, I say, counts as his beauty. . . . [all as above] . . . Just as cloth from Kasi is of great value, so, I say, this person is similar.

"If such an elder bhikkhu(monk) speaks in the midst of the Sangha, [249] the bhikkhus say: 'Please let the venerable ones be quiet. An elder bhikkhu is speaking on the Dhamma and the discipline.' Those words of his should be preserved, just as they deposit a cloth from Kasi in a fragrant casket. 545

"Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves thus: 'We will be like cloth from Kasi, not like cloth made of bark fabric.' It is in such a way that you should train yourselves."


101 A Lump of Salt[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), if one were to say thus: 'A person experiences kamma(karma/deeds) in precisely the same way that he created it' in such a case there could-be no living of the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) and no opportunity would be seen for completely making an end of suffering. 346 But if one were to say thus: 'When a person creates kamma(karma/deeds) that is to be experienced in a particular way, he experiences its result precisely in that way,' in such a case the living of the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) is possible and an opportunity is seen for completely making an end of suffering. 347

"Here, bhikkhus, some person has created trifling bad kamma(karma/deeds) yet it leads him to hell, while some other person here has created exactly the same trifling kamma(karma/deeds) yet it is to be experienced in this very life, without even a slight [residue] being seen, much less abundant [residue],

"What kind of person creates trifling bad kamma(karma/deeds) that leads him to hell? Here, some person is undeveloped in body, virtuous behavior, mind, and panna(divine knowledge); he is limited and has a mean character, 548 and he dwells in suffering. 549 When such a person creates trifling bad kamma(karma/deeds), it leads him to hell.

"What kind of person creates exactly the same trifling bad kamma(karma/deeds) and yet it is to be experienced in this very life, without even a slight [residue] being seen, much less abundant [residue]? Here, some person is developed in body, virtuous behavior, mind, and panna(divine knowledge). He is unlimited and has a lofty character, and he dwells without measure. 550 When such a person creates exactly the same trifling bad kamma(karma/deeds), it is to be experienced in this very life, without even a slight [residue] being seen, much less abundant [residue]. 551

(1) "Suppose a man would drop a lump of salt into a small bowl of water. What do you think, bhikkhus? Would that lump of salt make the small quantity of water in the bowl 552 salty and undrinkable?"

"Yes, Bhante. For what reason? Because the water in the bowl is limited, thus that lump of salt would make it salty and undrinkable."

"But suppose a man would drop a lump of salt into the river Ganges. What do you think, bhikkhus? Would that lump of salt make the river Ganges become salty and undrinkable?"

"No, Bhante. For what reason? Because the river Ganges contains a large volume of water, thus that lump of salt would not make it salty and undrinkable."

"So too, bhikkhus, some person here has created trifling bad kamma(karma/deeds) yet it leads him to hell, while some other person here has created exactly the same trifling kamma(karma/deeds) yet it is to be experienced in this very life, without even a slight [residue] being seen, much less abundant [residue],

"What kind of person creates trifling bad kamma(karma/deeds) that leads him to hell? Here, some person is undeveloped in body, virtuous behavior, mind, and panna(divine knowledge). When such a person creates a trifling bad kamma(karma/deeds), it leads him to hell.

"What kind of person creates exactly the same trifling bad kamma(karma/deeds) and yet it is to be experienced in this very life, with out even a slight [residue] being seen, much less an abundant [residue]? Here, some person is developed in body, virtuous behavior, mind, and panna(divine knowledge). When such a person has created exactly the same trifling bad kamma(karma/deeds), it is to be experienced in this very life, without even a slight [residue] being seen, much less abundant [residue].

(2) "Here, bhikkhus, someone is imprisoned for [stealing] half a kahapana, a. kahapana, [251] or a hundred kahapanas , 553 while someone else is not imprisoned for [stealing] the same amount of money.

"What kind of person is imprisoned for [stealing] half a kahapana, a kahapana, or a hundred kahapanas ? Here, someone is poor, with little property and wealth. Such a person is imprisoned for [stealing] half a kahapana, a kahapana, or a hundred kahapanas.

"What kind of person is not imprisoned for [stealing] half a kahapana, a kahapana, or a hundred kahapanas ? Here, someone is rich, with much money and wealth. Such a person is not imprisoned for [stealing] half a kahapana, a kahapana, or a hundred kahapanas.

"So too, bhikkhus, some person has created trifling bad kamma(karma/deeds) yet it leads him to hell, while some other person here has created exactly the same trifling kamma(karma/deeds) yet it is to be experienced in this very life, without even a slight [residue] being seen, much less abundant [residue].

"What kind of person creates trifling bad kamma(karma/deeds) that leads him to hell? Here, some person is undeveloped in body . . . and panna(divine knowledge). When such a person has created trifling bad kamma(karma/deeds), it leads him to hell.

"What kind of person creates exactly the same trifling bad kamma(karma/deeds) and yet it is to be experienced in this very life, without even a slight [residue] being seen, much less an abundant [residue]? Here, some person is developed in body, virtuous behavior, mind, and panna(divine knowledge). When such a person has created exactly the same trifling bad kamma(karma/deeds), it is to be experienced in this very life, without even a slight [residue] being seen, much less abundant [residue].

(3) "Bhikkhus(Monks), take the case of a sheep merchant or butcher, [252] who can execute, imprison, fine, or otherwise penalize someone who has stolen one of his sheep but can't do so to someone else who has stolen his sheep.

"What kind of person 554 can the sheep merchant or butcher execute, imprison, fine, or otherwise penalize for stealing a sheep? One who is poor, with little property and wealth. The sheep merchant or butcher can execute, imprison, fine, or other wise penalize such a person for stealing a sheep.

"What kind of person can't the sheep merchant or butcher execute, imprison, fine, or otherwise penalize for stealing a sheep? One Who is rich, with a lot of money and wealth, a king or royal minister. The sheep merchant or butcher can't execute, imprison, fine, or otherwise penalize such a person for stealing a sheep; he can only plead with him: 'Sir, return my sheep or pay me for it.'

"So too, bhikkhus, some person has created trifling bad kamma(karma/deeds) yet it leads him to hell, while some other person here has created exactly the same trifling kamma(karma/deeds) yet it is to be experienced in this very life, without even a slight [residue] being seen, much less abundant [residue],

"What kind of person creates trifling bad kamma(karma/deeds) that leads him to hell? Here, some person is undeveloped in body, virtuous behavior, mind, and. panna(divine knowledge); he is limited and has a mean character, and he dwells in suffering. When such kind of [253] person has created a trifling bad kamma(karma/deeds), it leads him to hell.

"What kind of person creates exactly the same trifling bad kamma(karma/deeds) and yet it is to be experienced in this very life, with out even a slight [residue] being seen, much less an abundant [residue]? Here, some person is developed in body, virtuous behavior, mind, and panna(divine knowledge). He is unlimited and has a lofty character, and he dwells without measure. When such a person has created exactly the same trifling bad kamma(karma/deeds), it is to be experienced in this very life, without even a slight [residue] being seen, much less abundant ^residue] .

"If, bhikkhus, one were to say thus; 'A person experiences kamma(karma/deeds) in precisely the same way that he created it, in such a case there could be no living of the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) and no opportunity would be seen for completely making an end of suffering. But if one were to say thus: 'When a person creates kamma(karma/deeds) that is to be experienced in a particular way, he experiences its result precisely in that way' in such a case the living of the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) is possible and an opportunity is seen for completely making an end of suffering."


102 The Soil Remover (Pamsudhovaka)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are gross defilements of gold: soil, grit, and gravel. Now the soil remover or his apprentice first pours the gold into a trough and washes, rinses, and cleans it. When that has been removed and eliminated, there still remain middle size defilements in the gold: fine grit and coarse sand. The soil remover or his apprentice washes, rinses, and cleans it again. When that has been removed and eliminated, there still remain subtle defilements in the gold: fine sand and black dust. So the soil remover or his apprentice washes, rinses, and cleans it again. When that has been removed and eliminated, only grains of gold remain.

"The goldsmith or his apprentice now pours the gold into a melting pot, and fans it, melts it, [254] and smelts it. But even when this has been done, the gold is not yet settled and the dross has not yet been entirely removed. 555 The gold is not yet malleable, wieldy, and luminous, but still brittle and not properly fit for work.

"But as the goldsmith or his apprentice continues to fan, melt, and smelt the gold, a time comes when the gold is settled and the dross has been entirely removed, so that the gold becomes malleable, wieldy, and luminous, pliant and properly fit for work. Then whatever kind of ornament the goldsmith wishes to make from it — whether a bracelet, earrings, a necklace, or a golden garland— he can achieve his purpose.

"So too, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu is devoted to the higher mind, (1) there are in him gross defilements: bodily, verbal, and mental misconduct. An earnest, capable bhikkhu abandons, dispels, terminates, and obliterates them. When this has been done, (2) there remain in him middling defilements: sensual thoughts, thoughts of ill will, and thoughts of harming. An earnest, capable bhikkhu abandons, dispels, terminates, and obliterates them. When this has been done, (3) there remain in him subtle defilements: thoughts about his relations, 556 thoughts about his country, and thoughts about his reputation. 557 An earnest, capable bhikkhu abandons, dispels, terminates, and obliterates them. When this has been done, then there remain thoughts connected with the Dhamma. 558 That samadhi(self absorption/trance) is not peaceful and sublime, not gained by full tranquilization, 559 not attained to unification, but is reined in and checked by forcefully suppressing [the defilements]. 560

"But, bhikkhus, there comes a time when his mind becomes internally steady, composed, unified, and self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita). That samadhi(self absorption/trance) is peaceful and sublime, gained by full tran tranquilization, and attained to unification; it is not reined in and checked by forcefully suppressing [the defilements]. 561 Then, there being a suitable basis, he is capable of realizing any state realizable by direct knowledge(abhinna) toward which he might incline his mind. 562 [255]

"If he wishes: 563 'May I wield the various kinds of psychic potency: having been one, may I become many; having been many, may I become one; may I appear and vanish; may I go unhindered through a wall, through a rampart, through a mountain as though through space; may I dive in and out of the earth as though it were water; may I walk on water with out sinking as though it were earth; seated cross-legged, may I travel in space like a bird; with my hand may I touch and stroke the moon and sun so powerful and mighty; may I exercise mastery with the body as far as the brahma world' he is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.

"If he wishes: 'May I, with the divine ear element, which is purified and surpasses the human, hear both kinds of sounds, the divine and human, those that are far as well as near,' he is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.

"If he wishes: 'May I understand the minds of other beings and persons, having encompassed them with my own mind. May I understand a mind with lust(raag) as a mind with lust(raag) and a mind without lust(raag) as a mind without lust(raag); a mind with hatred as a mind with hatred and a mind without hatred as a mind without hatred; a mind with delusion(moha) as a mind with delusion(moha) and a mind without delusion(moha) as a mind without delusion(moha); a contracted mind as contracted and a distracted mind as distracted; an exalted mind as exalted and an unexalted mind as unexalted; a surpassable mind as surpassable and an unsurpassable mind as unsurpassable; a self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita) mind as self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita) and an unconcentrated(asamahita) mind as unconcentrated(asamahita); a liberated mind as liberated and an unliberated mind as unliberated. 564 he is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.

"If he wishes: 'May I recollect my manifold past abodes(of past rebirths), that is, one rebirth, two rebirths, three rebirths, four rebirths, five rebirths, ten rebirths, twenty rebirths, thirty rebirths, forty rebirths, fifty rebirths, a hundred rebirths, a thousand rebirths, a hundred thousand rebirths, many eons of world-dissolution, many eons of world evolution, many eons of world-dissolution and world-evolution thus: "There [256] I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life span; passing away from there, I was reborn elsewhere, and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life span; passing away from there, I was reborn here"— may I thus recollect my manifold past abodes(of past rebirths) with their aspects and details' he is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.

"If he wishes: 'May I, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, see beings passing away and being reborn, inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and understand how beings fare in accordance with their kamma(karma/deeds) thus: "These beings who engaged in misconduct by body, speech, and mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong view, and undertook kamma(karma/deeds) based on wrong view, with the breakup of the body, after death, have been reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell; but these beings who engaged in good conduct by body, speech, and mind, who did not revile the noble ones, who held right view, and undertook kamma(karma/deeds) based on right view, with the breakup of the body, after death, have been reborn in a good destination, in the heavenly world" — thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, may I see beings passing away and being reborn, inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and understand how beings fare in accordance with their kamma(karma/deeds)' he is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.

"If he wishes: 'May I, with the destruction of the taints, in this very life realize for myself with direct knowledge(abhinna) the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, may I dwell in it' he is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis."


103 A Goldsmith 565[]

HIGHER MIND( Adhi-Citta) "Bhikkhus(Monks), when a bhikkhu is devoted to the higher mind, from time to time he should give attention to three marks. 566 (1) From time to time he should give attention to the mark of samadhi(self absorption/trance), (2) from time to time to the mark of exertion,, and (3) from time to time to the mark of indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha).

"If a bhikkhu devoted to the higher mind attends exclusively to the mark of samadhi(self absorption/trance), it is possible that his mind will veer toward laziness. If he attends exclusively to the mark of exertion, it is possible that his mind will veer toward restlessness. If [257] he attends exclusively to the mark of indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha), it is possible that his mind will not be properly self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita) for the destruction of the taints. But when a bhikkhu devoted to the higher mind from time to time gives attention to the mark of samadhi(self absorption/trance), from time to time to the mark of exertion, and from time to time to the mark of indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha), his mind becomes malleable, wieldy, and luminous, pliant and properly self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita) for the destruction of the taints.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, a goldsmith or his apprentice would prepare a furnace, heat up the crucible, take some gold with tongs, and put it into the crucible. Then from time to time he would blow on it, from time to time sprinkle water over it, and from time to time just look on. If the goldsmith or his apprentice were to exclusively blow on the gold, it is possible that the gold would just burn up. If he were to, exclusively sprinkle water on the gold, it is possible the gold would cool down. If he were exclusively to just look on, it is possible the gold would not reach the right consistency. But if the goldsmith or his apprentice from time to time blows on it, from time to time sprinkles water over it, and from time to time just looks on, the gold would become malleable, wieldy, and luminous, pliant and properly fit for work. Then whatever kind of ornament the goldsmith wishes to make from it — whether a bracelet, earrings, a necklace, or a golden garland — he can achieve his purpose.

"So too, when a bhikkhu is devoted to the higher mind, from time to time he should give attention to three marks. From time to time he should give attention to the mark of samadhi(self absorption/trance), from time to time to the mark of exertion, and from time to time to the mark of indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha).

"If a bhikkhu devoted to the higher mind attends exclusively to the mark of samadhi(self absorption/trance), [258] it is possible that his mind will veer toward laziness. If he attends exclusively to the mark of exertion, it is possible that his mind will veer toward restless ness. If he attends exclusively to the mark of indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha), it is possible that his mind will not be properly self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita) for the destruction of the taints. But when from time to time he gives attention to the mark of samadhi(self absorption/trance), from time to time to the mark of exertion, and from time to time to the mark of equanimity, his mind becomes malleable, wieldy, and luminous, not brittle but properly self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita) for the destruction of the taints. Then, there being a suitable basis, he is capable of real izing any state realizable by direct knowledge(abhinna) toward which he might incline his mind.

"If he wishes: 'May I wield the various kinds of psychic potency 7 . . . [all as in 3:101, down to:] . . ; If he wishes: 'May I, with the destruction of the taints, in this very life realize for myself with direct knowledge(abhinna) the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, may I dwell in it' he is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis."



The Third Fifty[]

I. Enlightenment[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


104 Before Enlightenment (Pubbeva-Sambodha-Suttam)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), before my enlightenment, while I was just a bodhisatta, not yet fully enlightened, it occurred to me: (1) 'What is the gratification(assado sans. aswad) in the world? (2) What is the danger(adinavo) in it? (3) What is the escape(nissarana) from it?' 567

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'The pleasure and joy that arise in dependence on the world: this is the gratification in the world. That the world is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change: this is the danger in the world. The removal and abandonment of desire and lust(raag) for the world, this is the escape from the world.'

"So long, bhikkhus, as I did not directly know as they really are the gratification in the world [259] as gratification, the danger as danger, and the escape from it as escape, I did not claim to have awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment in this world with its devas(angels/gods), Mara, and Brahma, in this population with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas(angels/gods) and humans. But when I directly knew as it really is the gratification in the world as gratification, the danger as danger, and the escape from it as escape, then I claimed to have awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment in this world with . . . its devas(angels/gods) and humans,

"The knowledge and vision arose in me: 'Unshakable is my liberation of mind; this is my last rebirth; now there is no more renewed existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth)' "


105 Gratification (1) [563] (Pathama-Assada-Suttam)[]

(1) "Bhikkhus(Monks), I set out seeking the gratification(Assada) in the world. Whatever gratification(assada sans. aswad) there is in the world — that I found. I have clearly seen with panna(divine knowledge) just how far the gratification in the world extends.

(2) "I set out seeking the danger(adinava) in the world. Whatever danger there is in the world — that I found. I have clearly seen with panna(divine knowledge) just how far the danger in the world extends.

(3) "I set out seeking the escape(nissarana) from the world. Whatever escape there is from the world— —that I found. I have clearly seen with panna(divine knowledge) just how far the escape from the world extends.

"So long, bhikkhus, as I did not directly know as they really are the gratification in the world as gratification, the danger as danger, and the escape from it as the escape, I did not claim to have awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment in this world with its devas(angels/gods), Mara, and Brahma, in this generation with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas(angels/gods) and humans. But when I directly knew as it really is the gratification in the world as gratification, the danger as danger, and the escape from it as escape, then I claimed to have awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment in this world with . . . its devas(angels/gods) and humans.

"The knowledge and vision arose in me: 'Unshakable is my liberation of mind; this is my last rebirth; now there is no more renewed existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth).'"


106 Gratification (2) (Dutiya-Assada-Suttam)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), (1) if there were no gratification in the world, beings would not become enamored of it; but because there is gratification in the world, beings become enamored of it. (2) If there were no danger in the world, beings would not become disenchanted with it; but because there is danger in the world, beings become disenchanted with it. (3) If there were no escape from the world, beings would not escape from it; but because there is an escape from the world, beings escape from it,

"So long, bhikkhus, as beings have not directly known as they really are the gratification in the world as gratification, the danger as danger, and the escape from it as escape, they have not escaped from this world with its devas(angels/gods), Mara, and Brahma, from this population with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas(angels/gods) and humans; they have not become detached from it, released from it, nor do they dwell with a mind rid of barriers. But when beings have directly known as it really is the gratification in the world as gratification, the danger as danger, and the escape from it as escape, then they have escaped from this world with ... its devas(angels/gods) and humans; they have become detached from it, released from it, and they dwell with a mind rid of barriers."


107 Ascetics & Brahmins [569] (Samana Brahmana)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), those ascetics or brahmins who do not understand as it really is (1) the gratification in the world as gratification, (2) the danger as danger, and (3) the escape from it as escape: these I do not consider to be ascetics among ascetics or brahmins among brahmins, and these venerable ones do not, by realizing it for themselves with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life enter and dwell in the goal of asceticism or the goal of brahminhood.

"But those ascetics and brahmins who understand as it really is the gratification in the world as gratification, the danger as danger, and the escape from it as escape: these I consider to be ascetics among ascetics and brahmins among brahmins, and these venerable ones, by realizing it for themselves with direct knowledge, in this very life enter and dwell in the goal of asceticism and the goal of brahminhood." [261]


108 Wailing (Runna)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), (1) in the Noble One's discipline, singing is wailing. (2) In the Noble One's discipline, dancing is madness. (3) In the Noble One's discipline, to laugh excessively, displaying one's teeth, is childishness. Therefore, bhikkhus, in regard to singing and dancing [let there be] the demolition of the bridge. When you smile rejoicing in the Dhamma, you may simply show a smile." 570


109 No Satiation (Atitti sans. Atripti)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are three things that give no satiation(Titti sans. tripti) by indulging in them. What three? (1) There is no satiation by indulging in sleep. (2) There is no satiation by indulging in liquor and wine. (3) There is no satiation by indulging in sexual intercourse. These are the three things that give no satiation by indulging in them."


110 Unprotected (Arakkhita sans. Arakshit)[]

Then the householder Anathapindika approached the Lord(Buddha) , paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord(Buddha) then said to him:

"Householder, when the mind is unprotected, bodily, verbal, and mental actions are unprotected.

"For one whose bodily, verbal, and mental deeds are unprotected, bodily, verbal, and mental actions become tainted. 573 For one whose bodily, verbal, and mental deeds become tainted, bodily, verbal, and mental actions become rotten. One whose bodily, verbal, and mental deeds become rotten will not have a good death. 572

"Suppose a house with a peaked roof is badly thatched: then the roof peak, the rafters, and the walls are unprotected; the roof peak, the rafters, and the walls become tainted; the roof peak, the rafters, and the walls become rotten.

"So too, householder, [262] when the mind is unprotected, bodily, verbal, and mental actions are unprotected. . . . One whose bodily, verbal, and mental deeds are rotten will not have a good death.

"When, householder, the mind is protected, bodily, verbal, and mental actions are protected.

"For one whose bodily, verbal, and mental deeds are protected, bodily, verbal, and mental actions do not become tainted.

For one whose bodily, verbal, and mental deeds do not become tainted, bodily, verbal, and mental actions do not become rotten. One whose bodily, verbal, and mental deeds do not become rotten will have a good death.

"Suppose a house with a peaked roof is well thatched: then the roof peak, the rafters, and the walls are protected; the roof peak, the rafters, and the walls do not become tainted; the roof peak, the rafters, and the walls do not become rotten.

"So too, householder, when the mind is protected, bodily, verbal; and mental actions are protected. . . . One whose bodily, verbal, and mental deeds do not become rotten will have a good death."


111 Failure (Byapanna sans. Vyaya)[]

The Lord(Buddha) then said to the householder Anathapindika:

"Householder, when the mind has failed, bodily, verbal, and mental actions fail; One whose bodily, verbal, and mental deeds fail will not have a good death.

"Suppose a house with a peaked roof is badly thatched: then the roof peak, the rafters, and the walls fail. So too, when the mind has failed, bodily, verbal, and mental actions fail. One whose bodily, verbal, and mental deeds have failed will not have a good death.

"Householder, when the mind has not failed, bodily, verbal, and mental actions do not fail. One whose deeds of body, speech, and mind do not fail will have a good death.

"Suppose a house with a peaked roof is well thatched: then the roof peak, [263] the rafters, and the walls do not fail. So too, when the mind has not failed, bodily, verbal, and mental actions do not fail. One whose deeds of body, speech, and mind do not fail will have a good death."


112 Causes (1) (Nidana1)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three causes for the origination of kamma(karma/deeds) . What three? Greed is a cause for the origination of (wrong) kamma; hatred is a cause for the origination of (wrong) kamma(karma/deeds); delusion(moha) is a cause for the origination of (wrong) kamma(karma/deeds).

(1) "Any kamma(karma/deeds) fashioned by greed, born of greed, caused by greed, originating from greed, is harmful(akusala) and blame worthy and results in suffering. That kamma(karma/deeds) leads to the origination of kamma(karma/deeds), not to the cessation of kamma(karma/deeds). 573

(2) "Any kamma(karma/deeds) fashioned by hatred . . . (3) Any kamma(karma/deeds) fashioned by delusion(moha), born of delusion(moha), caused by delusion(moha), originating from delusion(moha), is harmful(akusala) and blameworthy and results in suffering. That kamma(karma/deeds) leads to the origination of kamma(karma/deeds), not to the cessation of kamma(karma/deeds).

"These are the three causes for the origination of kamma(karma/deeds). 574

"There are, bhikkhus, these three [other] causes for the origination of (right) kamma(karma/deeds). 575 What three? Non-greed is a cause for the origination of (right) kamma(karma/deeds); non-hatred is a cause for the origination of (right) kamma(karma/deeds); non-delusion(moha) is a Cause for the origination of (right) kamma(karma/deeds).

(1) "Any kamma(karma/deeds) fashioned by non-greed, born of non-greed, caused by non-greed, originating from non-greed, is beneficial(kusala) and blameless and results in happiness. That kamma(karma/deeds) leads to the cessation of (wrong) kamma(karma/deeds), not to the origination of kamma(karma/deeds).

(2) "Any kamma(karma/deeds) fashioned by non-hatred . . . (3) Any kamma(karma/deeds) fashioned by non-delusion(moha), born of non-delusion(moha), caused by non-delusion(moha), originating from non-delusion(moha), is beneficial(kusala) and blameless and results in happiness. That kamma(karma/deeds) leads to the cessation of (wrong) kamma(karma/deeds), not to the origination of kamma(karma/deeds).

"These are the three [other] causes for the origination of kamma."


113 Causes (2) (Nidana2)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), there are these three causes for the origination of kamma.. What three? (1) Desire arises with reference to things in the past that are the basis for desire and lust(raag). (2) Desire arises with reference to things in the future that are the basis for desire and lust(raag). (3) Desire arises with reference to things presently existing that are the basis for desire and lust(raag).

(1) "And how, bhikkhus, does desire arise with reference to things in the past that are the basis for desire and lust(raag)? One thinks about and mentally examines things in the past that are the basis for desire and lust(raag). As one does so, desire arises. When desire springs up, one is fettered by those things. The mental infatuation is what I call the fetter. It is in this way that desire Arises with reference to things in the past that are the basis for desire and lust(raag).

(2) "And how does desire arise with reference to things in the future that are the basis for desire and lust(raag)? One thinks about and mentally examines things in the future that are the basis for desire and lust(raag). As one does so, desire arises. When desire springs up, one is fettered by those things. The mental infatuation is what I call the fetter. It is in this way that desire arises with reference to things in the future that are the basis for desire and lust(raag).

(3) "And how does desire arise with reference to things presently existing that are the basis for desire and lust(raag)? One thinks about and mentally examines things presently existing that are the basis for desire and lust(raag). As one does so, desire arises. When desire springs up, one is fettered by those things. The mental infatuation is what I call the fetter. It is in this way that desire arises with reference to things presently existing that are the basis for desire and lust(raag).

"These are the three causes for the origination of kamma(karma/deeds). 576 [265]

"There are, bhikkhus, these three [other] causes for the origination of kamma(karma/deeds). What three? Desire does not arise with refer ence to things in the past that are the basis for desire and lust(raag). Desire does not arise with reference to things in the future that are the basis for desire and lust(raag). Desire does not arise with reference to things presently existing that are the basis for desire and lust(raag).

(1) "And how, bhikkhus, does desire not arise with reference to things in the past that are the basis for desire and lust(raag)? One understands the future result of things in the past that are the basis for desire and lust(raag). Having understood the future result, one avoids it. 577 Having avoided it, one becomes dispassionate(viraga) in mind, and having pierced through with panna(divine knowledge), one sees. 578 It is in this way that desire does not arise with reference to things in the past that are the basis for desire and lust(raag).

(2) "And how, bhikkhus, does desire not arise with reference to things in the future that are the basis for desire and lust(raag)? One understands the future result of things in the future that are the basis for desire and lust(raag). Having understood the future result, one avoids it. Having avoided it, one becomes dispassionate(viraga) in mind and, having pierced through with panna(divine knowledge), one sees. It is in this way that desire does not arise with reference to things in the future that are the basis for desire and lust(raag).

(3) "And how, bhikkhus, does desire not arise with reference to things presently existing that are the basis for desire and lust(raag)? One understands the future result of things presently existing that are the basis for desire and lust(raag). Having understood the future result, one avoids it. Having avoided it, one becomes dispassionate(viraga) in mind and, having pierced through with panna(divine knowledge), one sees. It is in this way that desire does not arise with reference to things presently existing that are the basis for desire and lust(raag).

"These are the three [other] causes for the origination of kamma."



II. Bound for the Plane of Misery (Apayika-vaggo)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


114 Bound for the Plane of Misery (Apayika-Suttam)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are three who, if they do not abandon this [fault of theirs], are bound for the plane of misery, bound for. hell. Which three? [266] (1) One who, though not celibate, claims to be celibate; (2) one who slanders a pure celibate leading a pure celibate life with a groundless charge of non-celibacy; and (3) one who holds such a doctrine and view as this: "There is no fault in sensual pleasures,' and then falls into indulgence in sensual pleasures. 579 These are the three who, if they do not abandon this [fault of theirs], are bound for the plane of misery, bound for hell."


115 Rare (Dullabha sans. Durlabha)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), the manifestation of three [persons] is rare in the world. 'What three? (1) The manifestation of a Tathagata(Buddha), an Arahant, a Perfectly Enlightened One is rare in the world (2) A person who teaches the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha) is rare in the world. (3) A grateful and thank ful person is rare in the world . The manifestation of these three [persons] is rare in the world."


116 Immeasurable (Appameyya sans. Apramaniya)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three kinds of persons found existing in the world. What three? The one who is easily-measured(suppameyyo), the one who is hard to measure(duppameyyo), and the immeasurable one(appameyyo).

(1) "And what, bhikkhus, is the person who is easily measured? Here, some person is restless, puffed up, personally vain, talkative, rambling in his talk, muddle-minded, without complete comprehension(sampajanna), unconcentrated(asamahita), with a wandering mind, with loose sense faculties. This is called the person who is easily measured.

(2) "And what is the person who is hard to measure? Here, some person is not restless, puffed up, and personally vain; he is not talkative and rambling in his talk; he has mindfulness(meditation/sati) established and completely comprehends, is self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita), with a one-pointed mind(ekaggacitta sans. ekagracitta), with restrained sense faculties. This is called the person who is hard to measure.

(3) "And what is the person who is immeasurable? Here, a bhikkhu is an arahant, one whose taints have been destroyed. This is called the person who is immeasurable.

"These are the three kinds of persons found existing in the world " [267]


117 Distinction (Anenja sans. Anenya)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), there are these three kinds of persons found existing in the world. What three?

(1) "Here, bhikkhus, with the complete surmounting of perceptions of forms, with the passing away of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of sensory impingement, with non-attention to perceptions(sanna/sangya) of diversity, [perceiving] 'space is infinite' some person enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space. He relishes it, desires it, and finds satisfaction in it. If he is firm in it, focused on it, often dwells in it, and has not lost it when he dies, he is reborn in companionship with the devas(angels/gods) of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space. The life span of the devas(angels/gods) of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space is 20,000 eons. The worldling remains there all his life, and when he has completed the entire life span of those devas(angels/gods), he goes (either) to hell, to the animal realm, or to the sphere of afflicted spirits(ghosts). 580 But the Lord(Buddha)'s disciple remains there all his life, and when he has completed the entire life span of those devas(angels/gods), he attains final nibbana(nirvana) in that very same state of existence. This is the distinction, the disparity, the difference between the instructed noble disciple and the uninstructed worldling, that is, when there is future destination and rebirth. 581

(2) "Again, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space, [perceiving] 'consciousness is infinite' someone here enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness. He relishes it, desires it, and finds satisfaction in it. If he is firm in it, focused on it, often dwells in it, and has not lost it when he dies, he is reborn in companionship with the devas(angels/gods) of the base of the infinity of consciousness. The life span of the devas(angels/gods) of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness is 40,000 eons. The worldling remains there all his life, and when he has completed the entire life span of those devas(angels/gods), he goes (either) to hell, to the animal realm, or to the sphere of afflicted spirits. But the Lord(Buddha)'s disciple remains there all his life, and when he has completed the entire life span of those devas(angels/gods), he attains final nibbana(nirvana) in that very same state of existence. This is the distinction, the disparity, the difference [268] between the instructed noble disciple and the uninstructed worldling, that is, when there is future destination and rebirth.

(3) "Again, bhikkhus, by completely surmounting the base of the infinity of consciousness [perceiving] "there is nothing,' some person here enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness. He relishes it, desires it, and finds satisfaction in it. If he is firm in it, focused on it, often dwells in it and has not lost it when he dies, he is reborn in companionship with the devas(angels/gods) of the base of nothingness. The life span of the devas(angels/gods) of the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness is 60,000 eons. The worldling remains there all his life, and when he has completed the entire life span of those devas(angels/gods), he goes (either) to hell, to the animal realm, or to the sphere of afflicted spirits. But the Lord(Buddha)'s disciple remains there all his life, and when he has completed the entire life span of those devas(angels/gods), he attains final nibbana(nirvana) in that very same state of existence. This is the distinction, the disparity, the difference between the instructed noble disciple and the uninstructed worldling, that is, when there is future destination and rebirth.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of persons found exist ing in the world."


118 Failures and accomplishments(sampada) (Vipatti-Sampada)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three failures(vipatti). What three? Failure in virtuous behavior, failure(vipatti) in mind, and failure(vipatti) in view.

(1) "And what is failure(vipatti) in virtuous behavior? Here, someone destroys life, takes what is not given, engages in sexual misconduct, speaks falsehood, speaks divisively, speaks harshly, and indulges in idle chatter. This is called failure(vipatti) in virtuous behavior.

(2) "And what is failure(vipatti) in mind? Here, someone is full of long ing and has a mind of ill will. This is called failure(vipatti) in mind.

(3) "And what is failure(vipatti) in view? Here, someone holds wrong view and has an incorrect perspective thus: "There is nothing given, nothing sacrificed, nothing offered; there is no fruit or result of good and bad actions; there is no this world, no other world; there is no mother, no father; there are no beings spontaneously reborn; there are in the world no ascetics and brahmins of right conduct and right practice who, having realized this world and the other world for themselves by direct knowledge, make them known to others." This is called failure(vipatti) in view.

"Because of failure(vipatti) in virtuous behavior, with the breakup of the body, after death, beings are reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell. Because of failure(vipatti) in mind . . . Because of failure(vipatti) in view, with the breakup of the body, after death, beings are reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three failures(vipatti).

"There are, bhikkhus, these three accomplishments(sampada). What three? accomplishment(sampada) in virtuous behavior, accomplishment(sampada) in mind, and accomplishment(sampada) in view.

(1) "And what is accomplishment(sampada) in virtuous behavior? Here, someone abstains from the destruction of life, from taking what is not given, from sexual misconduct, from false speech, from divisive speech, from harsh speech, and from idle chatter. This is called accomplishment(sampada) in virtuous behavior.

(2) "And what is accomplishment(sampada) in mind? Here, someone is without longing and has a mind free of ill will. This is called accomplishment(sampada) in mind.

(3) "And what is accomplishment(sampada) in view? Here, someone holds right view and has a correct perspective thus: "There is what is given, sacrificed, and offered; there is fruit and result of good and bad actions; there is this world and the other world; there is mother and father; there are beings spontaneously reborn; there are in the world ascetics and brahmins of right conduct and right practice who, having realized this world and the other world for themselves by direct knowledge(abhinna), make them known to others.' This is called accomplishment(sampada) in view. [270]

"Because of accomplishment(sampada) in virtuous behavior, with the breakup of the body, after death, beings are reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world. Because of accomplishment(sampada) in mind . . . Because of accomplishment(sampada) in view, with the breakup of the body, after death, beings are reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three accomplishments(sampada)."


119 Dice (Apannaka)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three failures(vipatti). What three? Failure in virtuous behavior, failure(vipatti) in mind, and failure(vipatti) in view.

"And what is failure(vipatti) in virtuous behavior? Here someone destroys life . . . [as in 3:117] . . . This is called failure(vipatti) in view.

"Because of failure(vipatti) in virtuous behavior, with the breakup of the body, after death, beings are reborn, in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell. Because of failure(vipatti) in mind ... Because of failure(vipatti) in view, with the breakup of the body, after death, beings are reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell.

"Just as dice, 582 when thrown upward, will rest firmly wherever they fall, so too, because of failure(vipatti) in virtuous behavior . . failure(vipatti) in mind . . . failure(vipatti) in view , with the breakup of the body, after death, beings are reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three failures(vipatti).

"There are, bhikkhus, these three accomplishments(sampada). What three? accomplishment(sampada) in virtuous behavior, accomplishment(sampada) in mind, and accomplishment(sampada) in view.

"And what, bhikkhus, is accomplishment(sampada) in virtuous behavior? Here, someone abstains from the destruction of life . . . [as in 3:117] . . . This is called accomplishment(sampada) in view.

"Because of accomplishment(sampada) in virtuous behavior, with the breakup of the body; after death, beings are reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world. Because of accomplishment(sampada) in mind . . . Because of accomplishment(sampada) in view, with the breakup of the body, after death, beings are reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world.

"Just as dice, when thrown upward, will rest firmly wherever they fall, so too, because of accomplishment(sampada) in virtuous behavior . . . accomplishment(sampada) in mind . . . accomplishment(sampada) in view, with the breakup of body, after death, beings are reborn in a good destination, a heavenly world.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three accomplishments(sampada) . "


120 Activity (Kammanta)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three failures(vipatti). What three? Failure in activity, failure(vipatti) in livelihood, and failure(vipatti) in view.

(1) "And what is failure(vipatti) in activity? Here, someone destroys life . . . and indulges in idle chatter. This is called failure(vipatti) in activity.

(2) "And what is failure(vipatti) in livelihood? Here, someone is of wrong livelihood and earns a living by a wrong type of livelihood. This is called failure(vipatti) in livelihood.

(3) "And what is failure(vipatti) in view? [271] Here, someone holds wrong view and has an incorrect perspective thus: 'There is nothing given . . . there are in the world no ascetics and brahmins of right conduct and right practice who, having realized this world and the other world for themselves by direct knowledge(abhinna), make them known to others. This is called failure(vipatti) in view.

"These are the three failures(vipatti).

"There are, bhikkhus, these three accomplishments(sampada). What three? accomplishment(sampada) in activity, accomplishment(sampada) in livelihood, and accomplishment(sampada) in view.

(1) "And what is accomplishment(sampada) in activity? Here, someone abstains from the destruction of life . . . and from idle chatter. This is called accomplishment(sampada) in activity:

(2) "And what is accomplishment(sampada) in livelihood? Here, some one is of right livelihood and earns a living by a right type of livelihood. This is called accomplishment(sampada) in livelihood.

(3) "And what is accomplishment(sampada) in view? Here, someone holds right view and has a correct perspective thus: 'There is what is given . . . there are in the world ascetics and brahmins of right conduct and right practice who, having realized this world and the other world for themselves by direct knowledge(abhinna), make them known to others.' This is called accomplishment(sampada) in view.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three accomplishments(sampada)."

121 Purity (1) (Socceyya1 sans. Shuchita)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three purities. What three? Bodily purity, verbal purity, and mental purity!

(I) "And what is bodily purity? Here, someone abstains from the destruction of life, from taking what is not given, and from sexual misconduct. This is called bodily purity.

(2) "And what is verbal purity? Here, someone abstains from false speech, from divisive speech, from harsh speech, and from idle chatter. This is called verbal purity.

(3) "And what is mental purity? Here, someone is without longing, without ill will, [272] and holds right view. This is called mental purity.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three purities."


122 Purity (2) (Socceyya2 sans. Shuchita)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), there are these three purities. What three? Bodily purity, verbal purity, and mental purity.

(1) "And what is bodily purity? Here, a bhikkhu abstains from the destruction of life, from taking what is not given, and from sexual activity. This is called bodily purity.

(2) "And what is verbal purity? Here, a bhikkhu abstains from false speech, from divisive speech, from harsh speech, and from idle chatter. This is called verbal purity.

(3) "And what is mental purity? 583 Here, when there is sensual desire in him, a bhikkhu understands: 'There is sensual(sexual) desire in me'; or when there is no sensual(sexual) desire in him, he understands: 'There is no sensual(sexual) desire in me'; and he also understands how unarisen sensual(sexual) desire arises, how arisen Sensual(sexual) desire is abandoned, and how abandoned sensual(sexual) desire does not arise again in the future.

"When there is ill will in him . . . When there is dullness and drowsiness in him . . . When there is restlessness and remorse in him . ... [273] . . . When there is doubt in him, he understands: 'There is doubt in me'; or when there is no doubt in him, he understands: 'There is no doubt in me'; and he also understands how unarisen doubt arises, how; arisen doubt is abandoned, and how abandoned doubt does not arise again in the future. This is called mental purity.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three purities."


Pure in body, pure in speech,
pure in mind, without taints
-
they call the pure one, accomplished in purity,
-
"one who has washed away evil."


123 Saintliness (Moneyya sans. Munitva)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three kinds of saintliness. What three? Bodily saintliness, verbal saintliness, and mental saintliness.

(1) "And what is bodily saintliness? Here, someone abstains from the destruction of life, from taking what is not given, and from sexual activity. This is called bodily saintliness.

(2) "And what is verbal saintliness? Here, someone abstains from false speech, from divisive speech, from harsh speech, and from idle chatter. This is called verbal saintliness.

(3) "And what is mental saintliness? Here, with the destruction of the taints, a bhikkhu has realized for himself with direct knowledge, in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, he dwells in it. This is called mental saintliness.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of saintliness"


A sage by body, a sage in speech,
a sage in mind, without taints:
they call the sage, abundant in silence,
"one who has abandoned all." [274]



III. Kusinara [584][]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


124 Kusinara[]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Kusinara, in the Baliharana forest thicket. There the Lord(Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus ...

"Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells in dependence on a certain village or town. A householder or a householder's son approaches him and invites him for the next day's meal. If he wishes, the bhikkhu accepts. When the night has passed, in the morning the bhikkhu dresses, takes his bowl and robe, and goes to the residence of that householder or householder's son. He sits down in the seat that has been prepared and that householder or householder's son, with his own hand, serves and satisfies him with various kinds of delicious food. (1) It occurs to him: 'How good, indeed, that this householder or householder's son, with his own hand, serves and satisfies me with various kinds of delicious food!' (2) It also occurs to him: 'Oh, in the future too may this householder or householder's son, with his own hand, serve and satisfy me with a similar variety of delicious food!' (3) He uses that food while being tied to it, infatuated with it, blindly absorbed in it, not seeing the danger in it and understanding the escape from it. He thinks sensual thoughts in relation to it; he thinks thoughts of ill will; he thinks thoughts of harming. What is given to such a bhikkhu, I say, is not of great fruit. For what reason? Because the bhikkhu is slothful.

"Here, a bhikkhu dwells in dependence on a certain village or town. A householder or a householder's son approaches him and invites him for the next day's meal. If he wishes, the bhikkhu accepts . When the night has passed, in the morning the bhikkhu dresses, takes his bowl and robe, and goes to the residence of that householder or householder's son. He sits down in the seat that has been prepared and that householder or householder's son, with his own hand, serves and satisfies, him with various kinds of delicious food. (1) It does not occur to him: 'How good, indeed, that this householder [275] or householder's son, with his own hand, serves and satisfies me with various kinds of delicious food!' (2) It also does not occur to him: 'Oh, in the future too may this householder or householder's son, with his own hand, serve and satisfy me with a similar variety of delicious food!' (3) He uses that food without being tied to it, infatuated with it, and blindly absorbed in it, but seeing the danger in it and understanding the escape from it. He thinks thoughts of renunciation in relation to it; he thinks thoughts of good will; he thinks thoughts of non-harming. What is given to such a bhikkhu, I say, is of great fruit. For what reason? Because the bhikkhu(monk) is alertful."


125 Arguments (Bandhana)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), wherever bhikkhus take to arguing and quarreling and fall into a dispute, stabbing each other with piercing words, I am uneasy even about-directing my attention there, let alone about going there. I conclude about them: 'Surely, those venerable ones have abandoned three things and cultivated three [other] things.'

"What are the three things they have abandoned? Thoughts of renunciation, thoughts of good will, and thoughts of non harming. These are the three things they have abandoned.

"What are the three things they have cultivated? Sensual thoughts, thoughts of ill will, and thoughts of harming. These are the three things they have cultivated.

"Wherever bhikkhus take to arguing and quarreling and fall into a dispute ... I conclude: "Surely, those venerable ones have abandoned these three things and cultivated these three [other] things.'

"'Bhikkhus, wherever bhikkhus are dwelling in concord, har moniously, without disputes, blending like milk and water, viewing each other with eyes of affection, I am at ease about going there, let alone about directing my attention there. I con clude: "Surely, those venerable ones have abandoned three things and cultivated three [other] things.'

"'What are the three things they have abandoned? [276] Sen sual thoughts, thoughts of ill will, and thoughts of harming. These are the three things they have abandoned.

"What are the three things they have cultivated? Thoughts of renunciation, thoughts of good will, and thoughts of non harming. These are the three things they have cultivated.

"Wherever bhikkhus are dwelling in concord ... I conclude: 'Surely, those venerable ones have abandoned these three things and cultivated these three [other] things"


126 Gotamaka[]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Vesali at the Gotamaka Shrine. 585 There the Lord(Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus ...

"Bhikkhus(Monks), (1) I teach the Dhamma through direct knowledge, not without direct knowledge(abhinna). (2) I teach the Dhamma(path) with a basis, not without a basis. (3) I teach the Dhamma that is antidotal, not one without antidotes. 586 Since I teach the Dhamma through direct knowledge(abhinna), not without direct knowledge(abhinna); since I teach the Dhamma with a basis, not without a basis; since I teach the Dhamma that is antidotal, not one without antidotes, my exhortation should be acted upon, my instructions should be acted upon. It is enough for you to rejoice, enough for you to be elated, enough for you to be joyful: "The Lord(Buddha) is perfectly enlightened! The Dhamma is well expounded by the Lord(Buddha)! The Sangha is practicing the good path!"

This is what the Lord(Buddha) said. Elated, those bhikkhus delighted in the Lord(Buddha)'s statement. And while this discourse was being spoken, the thousandfold world system shook.


127 Bharandu[]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was wandering on tour among the Kosalans when he reached Kapilavatthu. Mahanama the Sakyan heard: "The Lord(Buddha) has arrived at Kapilavatthu." Then Mahanama the Sakyan approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, and stood to one side. The Lord(Buddha) then said to him:

"Go, Mahanama, and find a suitable rest house in Kapilavatthu where we might stay for the night." [277]

"Yes, Bhante," Mahanama replied. He then entered Kapilavatthu and searched the entire city but did not see a suitable rest house where the Lord(Buddha) could stay for the night. So he returned to the Lord(Buddha) and told him: "Bhante, there is no suitable rest house in Kapilavatthu where the Lord(Buddha) might stay for the night. But Bharandu the Kalama, formerly the Lord(Buddha)'s fellow monk, [is here]. 587 Let the Lord(Buddha) spend the night at his hermitage."

"Go, Mahanama, and prepare a mat for me."

"Yes, Bhante," Mahanama replied. Then he went to Bharandu's hermitage, prepared a mat, set out water for wash ing the feet, returned to the Lord(Buddha), and said:

"I have spread a mat, Bhante, and set out water for washing the feet. The Lord(Buddha) may go at his own convenience."

Then the Lord(Buddha) went to Bharandu's hermitage, sat down on the seat that was prepared for him, and washed his feet. It then occurred to Mahanama: "This is not a proper time for staying with the Lord(Buddha), for he is tired. I will visit him tomorrow." Then he paid homage to the Lord(Buddha), circumambulated him keeping the right side toward him, and departed.

Then, when the night had passed, Mahanama approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord(Buddha) then said to him:

"There are, Mahanama, these three kinds of teachers found existing in the world. What three?

(1) "Here, Mahanama, some teacher prescribes the full under standing of sensual pleasures, but not of forms or sensations(vedana). (2) Another teacher prescribes the full understanding of sensual pleasures and forms, but not [278] of sensations(vedana). (3) Still another teacher prescribes the full understanding of sensual pleasures, forms, and sensations(vedana). These are the three kinds of teachers found existing in the world. Is the goal of these three kinds of teachers the same or different?"

When this was said, Bharandu the Kalama said to Mahanama: "Say the same, Mahanama." But the Lord(Buddha) said to Mahanama: "Say different, Mahanama."

A second time ... A third time Bharandu the Kalama said to Mahanama: "Say the same, Mahanama." But the Lord(Buddha) said to Mahanama: "Say different, Mahanama."

Then it occurred to Bharandu: "The ascetic Gotama has con tradicted me three times in front of the influential Mahanama the Sakyan. I had better leave Kapilavatthu."

Then Bharandu the Kalama left Kapilavatthu. When he left Kapilavatthu, he left for good and never returned.


128 Hatthaka[]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Then, when the night had advanced, the young deva(angel/god) Hatthaka, 588 illuminating the entire Jeta's Grove, approached the Lord(Buddha). Having approached, [while thinking:] "I will stand in front of the Lord(Buddha)," he sank down, descended, and could not remain in place. Just as ghee or oil, when poured on sand, sinks down, descends, and does not remain in place, so the young deva(angel/god) Hatthaka:, [while thinking:] "I will stand in front of the Lord(Buddha)," sank down, descended, and could not remain in place. [279]

Then the Lord(Buddha) said to Hatthaka: "Create a gross body, Hatthaka."

"Yes, Bhante," Hatthaka replied. Then he created a gross body, paid homage to the Lord(Buddha), and stood to one side. The Lord(Buddha) then said to him:

"Hatthaka, do those teachings that you could recall in the past, when you were a human being, come back to you now?" 589

"Bhante, those teachings that I could recall in the past, when I was a human being, come back to me now; and those teachings that I could not recall in the past, when I was a human being, come back to me now. 590 Just as the Lord(Buddha) is now hemmed in by bhikkhus, Bhikkhunis(Nuns), male and female lay followers, kings and royal ministers, sectarian teachers and their disciples, so I am hemmed in by other young devas(angels/gods). Young devas(angels/gods) come to me even from a distance, [thinking]: 'We will hear the Dhamma from the young deva(angel/god) Hatthaka.'

"I died, Bhante, insatiable and unquenchable in three things. What three? (1)I died insatiable and unquenchable in seeing the Lord(Buddha). (2) I died insatiable and unquenchable in hearing the good Dhamma(path of Buddha). (3) I died insatiable and unquenchable in attending upon the Sangha(monks order). I died insatiable and unquenchable in these three things.


"I could never get enough of
seeing the Lord(Buddha),
hearing the good Dhamma,
and attending on the Sangha.


Training in the higher virtuous behavior,
I rejoiced in hearing the good Dhamma.
Hatthaka has gone to [rebirth in] Aviha 591 (higher heaven)
not having gotten enough of these three things."


129 Pollution (Katuviya)[]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling in Baranasi at the deer park in Isipatana. Then, in the morning, the Lord(Buddha) dressed, took his bowl and robe, and entered Baranasi for alms. [280] While walking for alms near the cattle-yoking fig tree, 592 the Lord(Buddha) saw a dissatisfied bhikkhu, [seeking] gratification outwardly, 593 muddle-minded, without complete comprehension, unconcentrated(asamahita), with a wandering mind and loose sense faculties. Having seen him, he said to that bhikkhu:

"Bhikkhu(monk)! Do not pollute yourself. 594 It is inevitable, bhikkhu, that flies will pursue and attack one who has polluted himself and been tainted by a stench." 595

Then, being exhorted thus by the Lord(Buddha), that bhikkhu acquired a sense of urgency. 595

When the Lord(Buddha) had walked for alms in Baranasi, after his meal, when he had returned from his alms round, he addressed the bhikkhus:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), this morning I di essed, took my bowl and robe, and entered Baranasi for alms. While walking for alms near the cattle-yoking fig tree, I saw a dissatisfied bhikkhu [seeking] gratification outwardly, muddle-minded, without complete comprehension, unconcentrated(asamahita), with a wandering mind and loose sense faculties. Having seen him, I said to that bhikkhu: 'Bhikkhu, bhikkhu! Do not pollute yourself: It is inevitable, bhikkhu,' that flies will pursue and attack one who has polluted himself and been tainted by a stench/ Then, being exhorted thus by me, that bhikkhu acquired a sense of urgency. When this was said, a certain bhikkhu asked the Lord(Buddha): "What, Bhante, is meant by 'pollution'? What is the 'stench'? And what are the 'flies'?" '

(1) "Longing, bhikkhu, is what is meant by 'pollution.' (2) ill will is the 'stench.' (3) Bad harmful(akusala) thoughts are the 'flies.' It is inevitable that flies will pursue and attack one who has polluted himself and been tainted by a stench." [281]


The flies — thoughts based on lust(raag)
will run in pursuit of one
unrestrained in the sense faculties,
unguarded in the eye and ear.


A bhikkhu who is polluted,
tainted by a stench,
is far from nibbana(nirvana)
and reaps only distress


Whether in the village or the forest,
the childish unwise person,
not having gained peace for himself,
goes around followed by flies. 597


But those accomplished in virtuous behavior
who delight in panna(divine knowledge) and peace,
those peaceful ones live happily,
having destroyed the flies" 98


130 Anuruddha (1)[]

Then the Venerable Anuruddha approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage id him, sat down to one side, and said: "Now, Bhante, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, I see that women, with the breakup of the body, after death, are mostly reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell. What qualities does a woman possess on account of which, with the breakup of the body, after death, she is reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell?"

"When she possesses three qualities, Anuruddha, with the breakup of the body, after death, a woman is reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell. What three?

(1) "Here, Anuruddha, in the morning a woman dwells at home with a mind obsessed by the stain of miserliness. (2) At midday she dwells at home with a mind obsessed by envy. (3) And in the evening she dwells at home with a mind obsessed by sensual lust(raag). When she possesses these three qualities, with the breakup of the body, after death, a woman is reborn in the plane' of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell."


131 Anuruddha (2)[]

Then the Venerable Anuruddha approached the Venerable Sariputta and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, [282] he sat down to one side and said to the Venerable Sariputta:

"Here, friend Sariputta, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, I survey a thousandfold world system. Energy is aroused in me without slackening; my mindfulness(meditation/sati) is established without confusion; my body is tranquil without disturbance; my mind is self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita) and one-pointed. Yet my mind is still not liberated from the taints through non clinging."

[The Venerable Sariputta said:] (1) "Friend Anuruddha, when you think: 'With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, I survey a thousandfold world system' this is vour conceit.

(2) "And when you think: 'Energy is aroused in me without slackening; my mindfulness(meditation/sati) is established without confusion; my body is tranquil without disturbance; my mind is concentrated(samahita) and one-pointed(ekagga sans. ekagra)' this is your restlessness.

(3) "And when you think: 'Yet my mind is still not liberated from the taints through non-clinging' this is your remorse. "it would be good if you would abandon these three qualities and stop attending to them. Instead, direct your mind to the deathless(amata/amrit) element."

Some time later the Venerable Anuruddha abandoned those three qualities and stopped attending to them. Instead, he directed his mind to the deathless(amata/amrit) element. Then, dwelling alone, withdrawn, alertful, ardent, and resolute, in no long time the Venerable Anuruddha realized for himself with direct knowledge, in this very life, that unsurpassed goal of the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the household life into hermit life, and having entered upon it, he dwelled in it. He directly knew. "Destroyed is rebirth, the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming back to any state of being." And the Venerable Anuruddha became one of the arahants.


132 Concealed (Paticchanna)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three things that flourish when concealed not when exposed. What three? (i) Women flourish when concealed, not when exposed. (2) The hymns of the brahmins flourish when concealed , not [283] when exposed. (3) And wrong views flourish when concealed, not when exposed These are the three things that flourish when concealed, not when exposed.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three things that shine when exposed, not when concealed. What three? (1) The moon shines when exposed, not when concealed. (2) The sun shines when exposed, not when concealed. (3) The Dhamma(path) and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha) shines when exposed, not when concealed. These arc Liie three things that shine when exposed, not when concealed."


133 Line Etched in Stone[]

" Bhikkhus, there are these three kinds of persons found existing in the world. What three? The person who is like a line etched in stone, the person who is like a line etched in the ground, and the person who is like a line etched in water.

(1) "And what kind of person is like a line etched in stone? Here, some person often gets angry, and his anger persists for a long time, fust as a line etched in stone is not quickly erased by the wind and water but persists for a long time, so too, some person often gets angry, and his anger persists for a long time. This is called the person who is like a line etched in stone.

(2) "And what kind of person is like a line etched in the ground? Here, some person often gets angry, but his anger does not persist for a long time. Just as a line etched in the ground is quickly erased by the wind and water and does not persist for a long time, so too, some person often gets angry, but his anger does not persist for a long time. This is called the person who is like a line etched in the ground.

(3) "And what kind of person is like a line etched in water? Here, some person, even when spoken to roughly [284] and harshly, in disagreeable ways, remains on friendly terms [with his antagonist], mingles [with him], and greets [him]. Just as a line etched in water quickly disappears and does not persist for a long time, so too, some person, even when spoken to roughly and harshly, in disagreeable ways, remains on friendly terms [with his antagonist], mingles [with him], and greets [him]. This is called the person who is like a line etched in water.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of persons found exist ing in the world."



IV. A Warrior (Yodhajiva)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


134 A Warrior (Yodhajiva)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), possessing three factors, a warrior is worthy of a king, an accessory of a king, and reckoned a factor of king ship. What three? Here, a warrior is a long-distance shooter, a sharp-shooter, and one who splits a great body. Possessing these three factors, a warrior is worthy of a king, an accessory of a king, and reckoned a factor of kingship. So too, possessing three factors, a bhikkhu is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospital ity, worthy of offerings, worthy of reverential salutation, an unsurpassed field of merit for the world. What three? Here, a bhikkhu is a long-distance shooter, a sharp-shooter, and one who splits a great body.

(1) "And how if a bhikkhu a long-distance shooter? Here, any kind of form whatsoever— whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near — a bhikkhu sees all form as it really is with correct panna(divine knowledge) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' Any kind of sensation(vedana) whatsoever . . . [285] . . . Any kind of perception(sanna/sangya) whatsoever . . . Any kind of one's characteristics/behavior(sankhara/sanskar) whatsoever . . . Any kind of consciousness whatsoever — whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near — -a bhikkhu sees all consciousness as it really is with correct panna(divine knowledge) thus: 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.' It is in this way that a bhikkhu is a long-distance shooter.

(2) "And how is a bhikkhu a sharp-shooter? Here, a bhikkhu understands as it really is: 'This is suffering.' He understands as it really is: 'This is the origin of suffering.' He understands as it really is: 'This is the cessation of suffering.' He understands as it really is: 'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.' It is in this way that a bhikkhu is a sharp-shooter.

(3) "Arid how is a bhikkhu one who splits a great body? Here, a bhikkhu splits the great mass of ignorance. It is in this way that a bhikkhu is one who splits a great body.

"Possessing these three qualities, a bhikkhu is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of reverential salutation, an unsurpassed field of merit for the world."


135) Assemblies (Parisa sans. Parishad)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three kinds of assemblies. What three? The assembly trained in vain talk, the assembly trained in interrogation, and the assembly trained to the limits. These are the three kinds of assemblies." 600 [286] .


136 A Friend (Mitta sans. Mitra)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), one should associate with a friend who possesses three factors. What three? (1) Here, a bhikkhu gives what is hard to give. (2) He does what is hard to do. (3) He patiently endures what is hard to endure. One should associate with a friend who possesses these three factors."


137 Arising (Uppada sans. Utpad)[]

(1) "Bhikkhus(Monks), whether Tathagatas(Buddhas) arise or not, there persists that law, that stableness of the Dhamma, that fixed course of the Dhamma: 601 'All conditioned phenomena(sanharas/sanskaras/emotions) are impermanent' A Tathagata(Buddha) awakens to this and breaks through to it, and then he explains it, teaches it, proclaims it, establishes it, discloses it, analyzes it, and elucidates it thus: 'All conditioned phenomena(sanharas/sanskaras/emotions) are impermanent.' 602

(2) "Bhikkhus(Monks), whether Tathagatas(Buddhas) arise or not, there persists that law, that stableness of the Dhamma, that fixed course of the Dhamma: 'All conditioned phenomena(sanharas/sanskaras/emotions) are suffering.' A Tathagata(Buddha) awakens to this and breaks through to it, and then he explains it, teaches it, proclaims it, establishes it, discloses it, analyzes it, and elucidates it thus: 'All conditioned phenomena(sanharas/sanskaras/emotions) are suffering.'

(3) "Bhikkhus(Monks), whether Tathagatas(Buddhas) arise or not, there persists that law, that stableness of the Dhamma, that fixed course of the Dhamma: 'All phenomena(dhamma)are non-self A Tathagata(Buddha) awakens to this and breaks through to it, and then he explains it, teaches it, proclaims it, establishes it, discloses it, analyzes it, and elucidates it thus: 'All phenomena(dhamma)are non-self."


138 A Hair Blanket (Kes-Kambala sans Kesh-Kambala)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), a hair blanket is declared to be the worst kind of woven garment. 603 A hair blanket is cold, in cold weather, hot in hot weather, ugly, foul-smelling, and uncomfortable. So too, the doctrine of Makkhali is declared the worst among the doctrines of the various ascetics. 604 The hollow man Makkhali teaches the doctrine and view: 'There is no kamma(karma/deeds), no deed, no energy(exertion/viriya)' [287]

(1) "Bhikkhus(Monks), the Lord(Buddha)s, Arahants, Perfectly Enlightened Ones of the past taught a doctrine of kamma(karma/deeds), a doctrine of deeds, a doctrine of energy(exertion/viriya). Yet the hollow man Makkhali contradicts them [with his claim]: 'There is no kamma(karma/deeds), no deed, no energy(exertion/viriya).'

(2) "The Lord(Buddha)s, Arahants, Perfectly Enlightened Ones of the future will also teach a doctrine of kamma(karma/deeds), a doctrine of deeds, a doctrine of energy(exertion/viriya). Yet the hollow man Makkhali contradicts them [with his claim]: 'There is no kamma(karma/deeds), no deed, no energy(exertion/viriya).'

(3) "At present I am the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, and I teach a doctrine of kamma(karma/deeds), a doctrine of deeds, a doctrine of energy(exertion/viriya). Yet the hollow man Makkhali contradicts me (with his claim]: 'There is no kamma(karma/deeds), no deed, no energy(exertion/viriya)'

"Just as a trap set at the mouth of a river would bring about harm, suffering, calamity, and disaster to many fish, so too. the hollow man Makkhali is, as it were, a "trap for people' who has arisen in the world for the harm, suffering, calamity, and disaster of many beings."


139 Wealth (Sampada)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three wealths. What three? Wealth of faith, wealth of virtuous behavior, and wealth of panna(divine knowledge). These are the three wealths."


140 Growth 605 (Vuddhi sans. Vriddhi)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three kinds of growth. What three? Growth in faith, growth in virtuous behavior, and growth in panna(divine knowledge). These are the three kinds of growth."


141 Horses (1) (Assakhalunka sans. Ashva..)[]

"Bhikkhus; I will teach you the three kinds of wild colts and the three kinds of persons who are like wild colts. Listen and attend closely. I will speak."

" Yes, Bhante," those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"And what, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of wild colts? [288] (1) Here, one kind of wild colt possesses speed but not beauty or the right proportions. (2) Another kind of wild colt possesses speed and beauty but not the right proportions. (3) And still another kind of wild colt possesses speed, beauty, and the right proportions. These are the three kinds of wild colts.

"And what, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of persons who are like wild colts? (1) Here, one kind of person who is like a wild colt possesses speed but not beauty or the right proportions. (2) Another kind of person who is like a wild colt possesses speed and beauty but not the right proportions. (3) And still another kind of person who is like a wild colt possesses speed, beauty, and the right proportions.

(1) "And how does a person who is like a wild colt possess speed but not beauty or the right proportions? Here, a bhikkhu understands as it really is: 'This is suffering.' and 'This is the origin of suffering.' and 'This is the cessation of suffering.' and 'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.' This, I say, is his speed. But when asked a question pertaining to the Dhamma or the discipline, he falters and does not answer.

This, I say, is his lack of beauty. And he does not gain robes, almsfood, lodgings, and medicines and provisions for the sick. This, I say, is his lack of the right proportions, in this way a person who is like a wild colt possesses speed but not beauty or the right proportions.

(2) "And how does a person who is like a wild colt possess speed and beauty but not the right proportions? Here, a bhikkhu understands as it really is: 'This is suffering' , . . 'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.' This, I say, is his speed. And when asked a question pertaining to the Dhamma or the discipline, he answers and does not falter. This, I say, is his beauty. But he does not gain robes . . . and provisions for the sick. This, I say, is his lack of the right proportions. In this way [289] a person who is like a wild colt possesses speed and beauty but not the right proportions.

(3) "And how does a person wire is like a wild colt possess speed, beauty, and the right proportions? Here, a bhikkhu understands as it really is: 'This is suffering,' and 'This is the origin of suffering,' and 'This is the cessation of suffering,' and 'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.' This, I say, is his speed. And when asked a question pertaining to the Dhamma or the discipline, he answers and does not falter. This, I say, is his beauty. And he gains robes . . . and provisions for the sick. This, I say, is his right proportions. In this way a person who is like a wild colt possesses speed, beauty, and the right proportions.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of persons who are like wild colts."


142 Horses (2) (Assaparassa sans. Ashvapurush)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the three kinds of good horses and the three kinds of persons who are like good horses. 606 Listen ...

"And what, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of good horses? (1) Here, one kind of good horse possesses speed but not beauty or the right proportions. (2) Another kind of good horse possesses speed and beauty but not the right proportions. (3) Still another kind of good horse possesses speed, beauty, and the right proportions. These are the three kinds of good horses.

"And what, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of persons who are like good horses? (1) Here, one kind of person who is like a good horse possesses speed but not beauty or the right proportions. (2) Another kind of person who is like a good horse possesses speed and beauty but not the right proportions. (3) Still another kind of person who is like a good horse possesses speed, beauty, and the right proportions. [290]

(1) "And how does a person who is like a good horse possess speed but not beauty or the right proportions? Here, with the utter destruction of the five lower fetters, a bhikkhu becomes one of spontaneous rebirth, due to attain final nibbana(nirvana) there with out ever returning from that world. This, I say, is his speed. But when asked a question pertaining to the Dhammna or the discipline, he falters and does not answer. This, I say, is his lack of beauty. And he does not gain robes, almsfood, lodgings, and medicines and provisions for the sick. This, I sa y, is his lack of the right proportions. In this, way a person who is Like a good horse possesses speed but not beauty or the right proportions.

(2) "And how does a person who is like a good horse possess speed and beauty but not the right proportions? Here, with the utter destruction of the five lower fetters, a bhikkhu becomes one of spontaneous rebirth, due to attain final nibbana(nirvana) there without ever returning from that world. This, I say, is his speed. And when asked a question pertaining to the Dhamma or the discipline, he answers and does not falter. This, I say, is his beauty. But he does not gain robes , . . and provisions for the sick. This, I say, is his lack of the right proportions. In this way a person who is like a good horse possesses speed and beauty but not the right proportions.

(3) "And how does a person who is like a good horse possess speed, beauty, and the right proportions? Here, with the utter destruction of the five lower fetters, a bhikkhu(monk) becomes one of spontaneous rebirth, due to attain final nibbana(nirvana) there without ever returning from that world. This, I say, is his speed. And when asked a question pertaining to the Dhamma or the discipline, he answers and does not falter. This, I say, is his beauty. And he gains robes . . . and provisions' for the sick. This, I say, is his right proportions. In this way a person who is like a good horse possesses speed, beauty, and the right proportions.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of persons who are like good horses."


143 Horses (3) (Assajaniya Sans Ashva-Jana)[]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the three kinds of excellent thorough bred horses and the three kinds of excellent thoroughbred per sons. Listen . . . [291]

" And what, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of excellent thoroughbred horses? Here, one kind of excellent thoroughbred horse . . . possesses speed, beauty, and the right proportions. These are the three kinds of excellent thoroughbred horses.

"And what, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of excellent thoroughbred persons? Here, one kind of person possesses speed, beauty, and the right proportions.

"And how does an excellent thoroughbred person . . possess speed, beauty, and the right proportions? Here, with the destruction of the taints, a bhikkhu has realized for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, he dwells in it. This, I say, is his speed. And when asked a question pertaining to the Dhamma or the discipline, he answers and does not falter. This, I say, is his beauty. And he gains robes . . . and provisions for the sick. This, I say, is his right proportions. In this way an excellent thoroughbred person possesses speed, beauty, and the right proportions.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three kinds of excellent thorough bred persons."


144 The Peacock Sanctuary (l) 607 (Mora-Nivapa1 sans. Mayura..)[]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Rajagaha at the ascetics' park, the peacock sanctuary. There the Lord(Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus(monks): ...

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three qualities, a bhikkhu is best among devas(angels/gods) and humans: one who has reached the ultimate conclusion, won ultimate security from bondage, lived the ultimate brahmacariya(celibate holy life), and gained the ultimate goal. What three? (1) The aggregate of virtuous behavior of one beyond training, (2) the aggregate of samadhi(self absorption/trance) of one beyond train ing, and (3) the aggregate of panna(divine knowledge) of one beyond training. 608 Possessing these three qualities, a bhikkhu is best among devas(angels/gods) and humans . . . and gained the ultimate goal."


145 The Peacock Sanctuary (2) (Mora-Nivapa2 sans. Mayura..)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three qualities, a bhikkhu is best among devas(angels/gods) and humans: one who has reached the ultimate conclusion, won ultimate security from bondage, lived the ultimate brahmacariya(celibate holy life), and gained the ultimate goal. What three? [292] (1) The wonder of psychic potency(magic/iddhi), (2) the wonder of mind-reading(adesana), and (3) the wonder of instruction(anusasana). Possessing these three qualities, a bhikkhu is best among devas(angels/gods) and humans . . . and gained the ultimate goal."

Note: This is about magic i.e. iddhi(magical powers),adesana(reading others minds), anusasana(making others act as per your instruction).


146 The Peacock Sanctuary (3) (Mora-Nivapa3 sans. Mayura..)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three qualities, a bhikkhu is best among devas(angels/gods) and humans: one who has reached the ultimate conclusion, won ultimate security from bondage, lived the ultimate spiritual life, and gained the ultimate goal. What three? (1) Right view, (2) right knowledge, and (3) Right liberation. Possessing these three qualities, a bhikkhu is best among devas(angels/gods) and humans . . and gained the ultimate goal."



V. Auspicious (Mangala-vaggo)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


147 Harmful (Akusala sans. Akushal)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three qualities, one is deposited in hell as if brought there. What three? harmful(akusala) bodily action, harmful(akusala) verbal action, and harmful(akusala) mental action. Possessing these three qualities, one is deposited in hell as if brought there.

"Possessing three qualities, one is deposited in heaven as if brought there. What three? beneficial(kusala) bodily action, beneficial(kusala) verbal action, and beneficial(kusala) mental action. Possessing these three qualities, one is deposited in heaven as if brought there."

Note : Akusala means harmful


148 Blameworthy (Savajja )[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three qualities, one is deposited in hell as if brought there. What three? Blameworthy bodily action, blameworthy verbal action, and blameworthy mental action. Possessing these three qualities, one is deposited in hell as if brought there.

"Possessing three qualities, one is deposited in heaven as if brought there. What three? Blameless bodily action, blameless verbal action, and blameless mental action. Possessing these three qualities., one is deposited in heaven as if brought there." [293].


149 Unrighteous (Visama)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three qualities, one is deposited in hell as if brought there: What three? Unrighteous bodily action, unrighteous verbal action, and unrighteous mental action. Possessing these three qualities, one is deposited in hell as if brought there.

"Possessing three qualities, one is deposited in heaven as if brought there. What three? Righteous bodily action, righteous verbal action, and righteous mental action. Possessing these three qualities, one is deposited in heaven as if brought there."


150 Impure (Asuci)[]

"Bhikkhus, possessing three qualities, one is deposited in hell as if brought there. What three? Impure bodily action, impure verbal action, and impure mental action. Possessing these three qualities, one is deposited in hell as if brought there.

"Possessing three qualities, one is deposited in heaven as if brought there. What three? Pure bodily action, pure verbal action, and pure mental action. Possessing these three qualities, one is deposited in heaven as if brought there."


151 Maimed (1) (Khata1 sans Kshata)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three qualities, the unwise, incompetent, bad person maintains himself in a maimed and injured condition; he is blameworthy and subject to reproach by the wise; and he generates much demerit. What three? harmful(akusala) bodily action, harmful(akusala) verbal action, and harmful(akusala) mental action. Possessing these three qualities . . . he generates much demerit.

"Possessing three qualities, the wise, competent, good person preserves himself unmaimed and uninjured; he is blame less and beyond reproach by the wise; and he generates much merit. What three? beneficial(kusala) bodily action, beneficial(kusala) verbal action, and beneficial(kusala) mental action. Possessing these three qualities ... he generates much merit."


152 Maimed (2) (Khata2 sans. Kshata)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three qualities . . . Blameworthy bodily action, blameworthy verbal action, and blameworthy mental action. ...

"Possessing three qualities . . . Blameless bodily action, blame less verbal action, and blameless mental action. . . ."


153 Maimed (3) (Khata3 sans. Kshata)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three qualities ... Unrighteous bodily action, unrighteous verbal action; and unrighteous mental action. , . . [294]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three qualities ... Righteous bodily action, righteous verbal action, and righteous mental action "


154 Maimed (4) (Khata4 sans. Kshata)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three qualities . . . Impure bodily action, impure verbal action, and impure mental action. . . .

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing three qualities . . . Pure bodily action, pure verbal action, and pure mental action. Possessing these three qualities, the wise, competent, good person preserves himself unmaimed and uninjured; he is blameless and beyond reproach by the wise; and he generates much merit."


155 Homage (Vandana)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three kinds of homage. What three? By body, by speech, and by mind. These ate the three kinds of homage."


156 A Good Morning (Pubbanha sans. Poorvanha)[]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), those beings who engage in good conduct by body, speech, and mind in the morning have a good morning. Those beings who engage in good conduct by body, speech, and mind in the afternoon ha ve a good afternoon. And those beings who engage in good conduct by body, speech, and mind in the evening have a good evening."


Truly propitious and auspicious,
a happy morning and a joyful rising,
a precious moment and a blissful hour
will come for those who offer alms
to those leading the celibate life(Brahmacariya).


Upright acts of body and speech,
upright thoughts and aspirations:
when one does what is upright
one gains upright benefits.


Those happy ones who have gained such benefits
come to growth in the Buddha's teaching.
May you and all your relatives
be healthy and happy!



VI. Ways of Practice [609] (Acelaka )[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


157 (Establishments of Mindfulness(meditation/sati) ) [610][]

"Bhikkhus(monks), there are these three ways of practice. What three? The coarse way of practice, the blistering way of practice, and the middle way of practice. 611

(1) "And what, bhikkhus, is the coarse way of practice? Here, someone holds such a doctrine and view as this: 'There is no fault in sensual pleasures.' and then indulges in sensual pleasures. This is called the coarse way of practice.

(2) "And what is the blistering way of practice? 612 Here, some one goes naked, rejecting conventions, licking his hands, not coming when asked, not stopping when asked; he does not accept food brought or food specially made or an invitation to a meal; he receives nothing from a pot, from a bowl, across a threshold, across a stick, across a pestle, from two eating together, from a pregnant woman, from a woman nursing a child, from a woman being kept by a man, from where food is advertised to be distributed, from where a dog is waiting, from where flies are buzzing; he accepts no fish or meat; he drinks no liquor, wine, or fermented brew.

"He keeps to one house [on alms round], to one morsel of food; he keeps to two houses, to two morsels . . . he keeps to seven houses, to seven morsels. He lives on one saucer a day, on two saucers a day . . . on seven saucers a day. He takes food once a day, once every two days . . . once every seven days; thus even up to once every fortnight, he dwells pursuing the practice of taking food at stated intervals.

"He is an eater of greens or millet or forest rice or hide-parings or moss or rice bran or rice scum or sesame flour or grass or cow dung. He subsists on forest roots and fruits; he feeds on fallen fruits.

"He wears hemp robes, robes of hemp-mixed cloth, shroud robes, rag-robes; robes made from tree bark, antelope hides, strips of antelope hide; robes of kusa grass, bark fabric, or wood shavings fabric; a mantle made of head hair [296] or of animal wool; a covering made of owls' wings.

"He is one who pulls out hair and beard, pursuing the practice of pulling out hair and beard. He is one who stands con tinuously, rejecting seats. He is one who squats continuously, devoted to maintaining the squatting position. He is one who uses a mattress of thorns; he makes a mattress of thorns his bed. He dwells pursuing the practice of bathing in water three times daily including the evening. Thus in such a variety of ways he dwells pursuing the practice of tormenting and mortifying the body. This is called the blistering way of practice.

(3) "And what is, the middle way of practice? Here, a bhikkhu dwells watching(in meditation/anupassi) the body in the body, ardent, completely comprehending, mindful(meditating/sati), having removed longing and dejection in regard to the world. He dwells watching(in meditation/anupassi) sensations(vedana) in sensations(vedana) . . . mind in mind . . . phenomena(dhamma)in phenomena, ardent, completely comprehending, mindful(meditating/sati), having removed longing and dejection in regard to the world. This is called the middle way of practice.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three ways of practice."


158—l63 (Right Strivings, Etc.) [613][]

(158) "Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these three ways of practice. What three? The coarse way of practice, the blistering way of practice, and the middle way of practice.

(1) "And what, bhikkhus, is the coarse way of practice? . . . [as in 3:156] . . . This is called the coarse way of practice.

(2) "And what is the blistering way of practice? . . . [as in 3:156] . . . This is called the blistering way of practice.

(3) "And what is the middle way of practice? Here, a bhikkhu generates desire for the non-arising of unarisen bad/harmful(akusala) states; he makes an effort, arouses energy(exertion/viriya), applies his mind, and strives. He generates desire for the abandoning of arisen bad harmful(akusala) states . . . for the arising of unarisen beneficial(kusala) states . . . for the maintenance of arisen beneficial(kusala) states, for their non-decline, increase, expansion, and fulfill ment by development; [297] he makes an effort, arouses energy(exertion/viriya), applies his mind, and strives.

(159) ". . . he develops the basis for psychic potency(magic/iddhi) that possesses samadhi(self absorption/trance) due to desire and activities of striving. He develops the basis for psychic potency(magic/iddhi) that possesses samadhi(self absorption/trance) due to energy(exertion/viriya) and activities of striving . . . that possesses samadhi(self absorption/trance) due to mind and activities of striving ... that possesses samadhi(self absorption/trance) due to investigation and activities of striving. . . . .

(160) ". . . he develops the faculty of faith, the faculty of energy(exertion/viriya), the faculty of mindfulness(meditation/sati), the faculty of samadhi(self absorption/trance), the faculty of panna(divine knowledge): ..."

(161) ". . . he develops the power of faith, the power of energy(exertion/viriya), the power of mindfulness(meditation/sati), the power of samadhi(self absorption/trance), the power of panna(divine knowledge). . . . .

(162) ". ...he develops the enlightenment factor of mindfulness(meditation/sati), the enlightenment factor of discrimination of phenomena, the enlightenment factor of energy(exertion/viriya), the enlightenment factor of bliss(piti), the enlightenment factor of tranquility(passaddhi), the enlightenment factor of samadhi(self absorption/trance), the enlightenment factor of indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha). . ."

(163) . . he develops right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right samadhi(self absorption/trance). This is called the middle way of practice.

"These, bhikkhus, are the three ways of practice."



VII. Paths of Kamma(karma/deeds) Series (Kamma-pathapeyyalam sans. Karma..)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


164-183 [614][]

(164) "Bhikkhus(Monks), one possessing three qualities is deposited in hell as if brought there. What three? (1) One destroys life one self, (2) encourages others to destroy life, and (3) approves of the destruction of life. One possessing these three qualities is deposited in hell as if brought there."

(165) "Bhikkhus(Monks), one possessing three qualities is deposited in heaven as if brought there. What three? (1) One abstains from the destruction of life Oneself, (2) encourages others to abstain from the destruction of life, and (3) approves of abstaining from the destruction of life. One possessing these three qualities is deposited in heaven as if brought there."

(166) ". . . (1) One takes what is not given oneself, (2) encourages others to take what is not given, and (3) approves of taking what is not given. . . ."

(167) ". . . (1) One abstains from taking what is not given one self, (2) encourages others to abstain from taking what is not given, and (3) approves of abstaining from taking what is not given...."

(168) "... (1) One engages in sexual misconduct oneself, (2) encourages others [298] to engage in sexual misconduct, and (3) approves of engaging in sexual misconduct. .

(169) (1) One abstains from sexual misconduct oneself, (2) encourages others to abstain from sexual misconduct, and (3) approves of abstaining from sexual misconduct. ..."

(170) ". . (1) One speaks falsely oneself, (2) encourages others to speak falsely, and (3) approves of false speech. ..."

(171) "... (1) One abstains from false speech oneself, (2) encourages others to abstain from false speech, and (3) approves of abstaining from false speech. ., ."

(172) "...(1) One speaks divisively oneself, (2) encourages others to speak divisively, and (3) approves of divisive Speech. ..."

(173) .(1) One abstains from divisive speech oneself, (2) encourages others to abstain from divisive speech, and (3) approves of abstaining from divisive speech. ..."

(174) ": . . (1) One speaks harshly oneself, (2) encourages others to speak harshly, and (3) approves of harsh speech. . . ."

(175) ". /.(l) One abstains from harsh speech oneself, (2) encourages others to abstain from harsh speech, and (3) approves of abstaining from harsh speech. ..."

(176) "... (1) One indulges in idle chatter oneself, (2) encourages others to indulge in idle chatter, and (3) approves of indulging in idle chatter. "

(177) ", . . (1) One abstains from idle chatter oneself, (2) encourages others to abstain from idle chatter, and (3) approves of abstaining from idle chatter. ..."

(178) ". . . (1) One is full of longing oneself, (2) encourages others in longing, and (3) approves of longing.

(179) ". . . (1) One is without longing oneself, (2) encourages others to be without longing, and (3) approves of being without longing. . . [299]

(180) . . (1) One has ill will oneself, (2) encourages others in ill will, and (3) approves of ill will. . .

(181) ". . . (1) One is without ill will oneself, (2) encourages others to be without ill will, and (3) approves of being without ill will... ."

(182) ". . . (1) One holds wrong view oneself, (2) encourages others in wrong view, and (3) approves of wrong view. . . ."

(183) (1) One holds right view oneself, (2) encourages others in right view, and (3) approves of right view. One possessing these three qualities is deposited in heaven as if brought there."



VIII. Lust(Raag) Etc. Series 615 (Raga-peyyalam)[]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


184

"Bhikkhus(Monks), for direct knowledge(abhinna) of lust(raag), three things [616] are to be developed. What three? Emptiness samadhi(self absorption/trance), markless samadhi(self absorption/trance), and wishless samadhi(self absorption/trance). [617] For direct knowledge of lust(raag), these three things are to be developed."

185 — 353

"Bhikkhus(Monks), for full understanding of lust(raag) ... for the utter destruction . . . for the abandoning . . . for the destruction . . . for the vanishing . . . for the fading away . . . for the. cessation . . . for the giving up . . . For the relinquishment of lust(raag), these three things are to be developed.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), for direct knowledge(abhinna) . . . for full understand ing . . . for the utter destruction . . . for the abandoning . . . for the destruction . * . for the vanishing . . . for the fading away . . . for the cessation . . . for the giving up . . . for the relinquishment of hatred . . . delusion(moha) . . . anger . ... hostility . . . denigration . . . insolence . . . envy . . . miserliness . . . deceitfulness . . . craftiness . . . obstinacy . . . vehemence . . . conceit . . . arrogance . . . intoxication . . .slothfulness, three things are to be developed. What three? Emptiness samadhi(self absorption/trance), markless samadhi(self absorption/trance), and wishless samadhi(self absorption/trance). For the relinquishment of slothfulness, these three things are to be developed." This is what the Lord(Buddha) said. Elated, those bhikkhus delighted in the Lord(Buddha)'s statement.

The Book of the Threes is finished.


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