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Tipitaka >> Sutta Pitaka >> Anguttara Nikaya >> 10.Book of Tens


Pali Versions : Pali-English and Pali-Devanagri Versions are embedded in the texts.


This is Book Ten of Anguttara Nikaya. This is modified version of Bhikkhu Bodhi.


Important Suttas: 21. Lion's Roar(Ten Powers of Buddha)


Numerical Discourses (Anguttara Nikaya)

(Counting on Fingers section)

Note : 'c' of Pali word is pronounced as 'ch' as in 'China'


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Contents

The Book of the Tens (Dasakanipata)[edit | edit source]

Namo Tassya Bhagavato, Arahato, Samma-Sam-Buddhassya

Homage to that Bhagavato(Lord) , Enemy Vanquisher , the Rightly and Perfectly Enlightened(Awakened) One



The First Fifty[edit | edit source]

I. Benefits[edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


1 What Purpose?[edit | edit source]

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park, Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

(1) "Bhante, what is the purpose and benefit of beneficial(kusala) virtuous behavior?"

(2) "Ananda, the purpose and benefit of beneficial(kusala) virtuous behavior is non-regret(Avippatti-sarana)."

(3) "And what, Bhante, is the purpose and benefit of non regret?"

"The purpose and benefit of non-regret is joy."

(4) "And what, Bhante, is the purpose and benefit of joy?" "The purpose and benefit of joy is bliss(piti)."

(5) "And what, Bhante, is the purpose and benefit of bliss(piti)?"

"The purpose and benefit of bliss(piti) is tranquility(passaddhi)."

(6) "And what, Bhante, is the purpose and benefit of tranquility?"

"The purpose and benefit of tranquility(passaddhi) is happiness(sukha)."

(7) "And what, Bhante, is the purpose and benefit of happiness(sukha)?"

"The purpose and benefit of happiness(sukha) [2] is samadhi(self absorption/trance)."

(8) "And what, Bhante, is the purpose and benefit of samadhi(self absorption/trance)?"

"The purpose and benefit of samadhi(self absorption/trance) is the knowledge and vision of things as they really are."

(9) "And what, Bhante, is the purpose and benefit of the knowledge and vision of things as they really are (Yatha-bhuta-nana-dassana sans. Yatha-bhuta-gyan-darshan)?"

"The purpose and benefit of the knowledge and vision of things as they really are is disenchantment(nibbida) and dispassion(viraga)."

(10) "And what, Bhante, is the purpose and benefit of disenchantment and dispassion?"

"The purpose and benefit of disenchantment and dispassion(viraga) is the knowledge and vision of liberation (Vimutti-nana-dassana sans. Vimukti-gyan-darshan).

"Thus, Ananda, (1)— (2) the purpose and benefit of beneficial(kusala) virtuous behavior is non-regret(Avippatti-sarana); (3) the purpose and benefit of non-regret is joy; (4) the purpose and benefit of joy is bliss(piti); (5) The purpose and benefit of bliss(piti) is tranquility(passaddhi); (6) the purpose and benefit of tranquility is happiness(sukha); (7) the purpose and benefit of happiness(sukha) is samadhi(self absorption/trance); (8) the purpose and benefit of samadhi(self absorption/trance) is the knowledge and vision of things as they really are; (9) the purpose and benefit of the knowledge and vision of things as they really are is disenchantment(nibbida) and dispassion(viraga); and (10) the purpose and benefit of disenchantment and dispassion is the knowledge and vision of liberation (Vimutti-nana-dassana sans. Vimukti-gyan-darshan). Thus, Ananda, beneficial(kusala) virtuous behavior progressively leads to the foremost. " 1961


2 Conscious Action (Cetanakaraniya)[edit | edit source]

(Note : This sutta is meant for samadhi/trance states)

(1)— (2) "Bhikkhus(Monks), for a virtuous person (with 5 sheel especially sexual abstinence), one whose behavior is virtuous, no conscious action need be exerted: 'Let non-regret(Avippatti-sarana) arise in me.' It is natural 1965 that non-regret arises in a virtuous person, one whose behavior is virtuous.

(3) "For one without regret no conscious action need be exerted (as): 'Let joy arise in me' It is natural that joy arises in one without regret.

(4) "For one who is joyful no conscious action need be exerted (as): 'Let bliss(piti) arise in me.' It is natural that bliss(piti) arises in one who is joyful. [3]

(5) "For one with a blissful mind no conscious action need be exerted (as) : 'Let my body be tranquil.' It is natural that the body of one with a blissful mind is tranquil.

(6) "For one tranquil in body no conscious action need be exerted (as): 'Let me feel happiness(sukha).' It is natural that one tranquil in body feels happiness(sukha).

(7) "For one in happiness no conscious action need be exerted (like this) : 'Let my mind be self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita/in samadhi).' It is natural that the mind of one in happiness is self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita).

(8) "For one who is self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita) no conscious action need be exerted (as) : 'Let me know and see things as they really are.' It is natural that one who is self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita) knows and sees things as they really are.

(9) "For one who knows and sees things as they really are no conscious action need be exerted (like this): 'Let me be disenchanted and dispassionate'. It is natural that one who knows and sees things as they really are is disenchanted and dispassionate(viraga).

(10) "For one who is disenchanted and dispassionate no volition need be exerted: 'Let me realize the knowledge and vision of liberation.' It is natural that one who is disenchanted and dispassionate(viraga) realizes the knowledge and vision of liberation (Vimutti-nana-dassana sans. Vimukti-gyan-darshan)..

"Thus, bhikkhus, (9)— (10) the knowledge and vision of liberation is the purpose and benefit of disenchantment(nibbida) and dispassion(viraga); (8) disenchantment and dispassion(viraga) are the purpose and benefit of the knowledge and vision of things as they really are (Yatha-bhuta-nana-dassana sans. Yatha-bhuta-gyan-darshan); (7) the knowledge and vision of things as they really are (Yatha-bhuta-nana-dassana sans. Yatha-bhuta-gyan-darshan) is the purpose and benefit of samadhi(self absorption/trance); (6) samadhi(self absorption/trance) is the purpose and benefit of happiness(sukha); (5) happiness(sukha) is the purpose and benefit of tranquility(passaddhi); (4) tranquility is the purpose and benefit of bliss(piti); (3) bliss(piti) is the purpose and benefit of joy; (2) joy is the purpose and benefit of non-regret(Avippatti-sarana); and (1) non-regret is the purpose and benefit of virtuous behavior.

"Thus, bhikkhus, one stage [4] flows into the next stage, one stage fills up the next stage, for going from the near shore to the far shore." 1966


3 Virtuous Behavior 1967 (Upanisa1)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), (1) for an immoral person, for one deficient in virtuous behavior, (2) non-regret(Avippatti-sarana) lacks its proximate cause. When there is no non-regret, for one deficient in non-regret, (3) joy lacks its proximate cause. When there is no joy, for one deficient in joy, (4) bliss(piti) lacks its proximate cause. When there is no bliss(piti), for one deficient in bliss(piti), (5) tranquility(passaddhi) lacks its proximate cause. When there is no tranquility, for one deficient in tranquility(passaddhi), (6) happiness(sukha) lacks its proximate cause. When there is no happiness(sukha), for one deficient in happiness(sukha), (7) right con centration lacks its proximate cause. When there is no right samadhi(self absorption/trance), for one deficient in right samadhi(self absorption/trance), (8) the knowledge and vision of things as they really are (Yatha-bhuta-nana-dassana sans. Yatha-bhuta-gyan-darshan) lacks its proxi mate cause. When there is no knowledge and vision of things as they really are, for one deficient in the knowledge and vision of things as they really are, (9) disenchantment(nibbida) and dispassion(viraga) lack their proximate cause. When there is no disenchantment and dispassion, for one deficient in disenchantment and dispassion(viraga), (10) the knowledge and vision of liberation (Vimutti-nana-dassana sans. Vimukti-gyan-darshan) lacks its proximate cause.

"Suppose there is a tree deficient in branches and foliage. Then its shoots do hot grow to fullness; also its bark, softwood, and hear twood do not grow to fullness. So too, for an immoral person, one deficient in virtuous behavior, non-regret(Avippatti-sarana) lacks its proximate cause. When there is no non-regret . . . the knowledge and vision of liberation lacks its proximate cause.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), (1) for a virtuous person, for one whose behavior is virtuous, (2) non-regret(Avippatti-sarana) possesses its proximate cause. When there is non-regret, for one possessing non-regret, (3) joy possesses its proximate cause. When there is joy, for one possessing joy, (4) bliss(piti) possesses its proximate cause. When there is bliss(piti), for one possessing bliss(piti), (5) tranquility(passaddhi) possesses its proximate cause. When there is tranquility, for one possessing tranquility(passaddhi), (6) Happiness(sukha) possesses its proximate cause. When there is happiness(sukha), for one possessing happiness(sukha), (7) right samadhi(self absorption/trance) possesses its proximate cause. [5] When there is right samadhi(self absorption/trance), for one possessing right samadhi(self absorption/trance), (8) the knowledge and vision of things as they really are (Yatha-bhuta-nana-dassana sans. Yatha-bhuta-gyan-darshan) possesses its proximate cause. When there is the knowledge and vision of things as they really are, for one possessing the knowledge and vision of things as they really are, (9) disenchantment(nibbida) and dispassion(viraga) possess their proximate cause. When there is disenchantment and dispassion, for one possessing disenchantment and dispassion, (10) the knowledge and vision of liberation (Vimutti-nana-dassana sans. Vimukti-gyan-darshan) possesses its proximate cause.

"Suppose there is a tree possessing branches and foliage. Then its shoots grow to fullness; also its bark, softwood, and heartwood grow to fullness. So too, for a virtuous person, one whose behavior is virtuous, non-regret(Avippatti-sarana) possesses its proximate cause. When there is non-regret . . . the knowledge and vision of liberation possesses its proximate cause."


4 Proximate Cause (Upanisa2)[edit | edit source]

There the Venerable Sariputta addressed the bhikkhus: [Identical with 10:3, but spoken by Sariputta.] [6]


5 Ananda (Upanisa3)[edit | edit source]

There the Venerable Ananda addressed the bhikkhus: [Identical with 10:3, but spoken by Ananda.] [7]


6 Samadhi(Self Absorption/Trance)[edit | edit source]

Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

"Bhante, could a bhikkhu obtain such a state of samadhi(self absorption/trance) that (1) he would not be perceptive of earth in relation to earth; 1968 (2) of water in relation to water; (3) of fire in relation to fire; (4) of air in relation to air; (5) of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space in relation to the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space; (6) of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness in relation to the base of the infinity of consciousness; (7) of the sphere(ayatana) of nothing ness in relation to the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness; (8) of the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception in relation to the base of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)nor-non-percep.tion; (9) of this world in relation to this world; (10) of the other world in relation to the other world, but he would still be perceptive?"

"He could, Ananda."

"But how, Bhante, could he obtain such a state of samadhi(self absorption/trance)?" [8]

"Here, Ananda, a bhikkhu is perceptive thus: 'This is peaceful, this is sublime, that is, the stilling of all activities, the relinquishing of all acquisitions, the destruction of craving(tanha/trishna), dispassion(viraga), cessation, nibbana(nirvana).' 1969 It is in this way, Ananda, that a bhikkhu could obtain such a state of samadhi(self absorption/trance) that he would not be perceptive of earth in relation to earth; of water in relation to water; of fire in relation to fire; of air in relation to air; of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space in relation to the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space; of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness in relation to the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness; of the base of nothingness in relation to the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness; of the base of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception in relation to the base of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception; of this world in relation to this world; of the other world in relation to the other world, but he would still be perceptive."


7 Sariputta[edit | edit source]

Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Venerable Sariputta and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to the Venerable Sariputta:

"Friend Sariputta, could a bhikkhu obtain such a state of samadhi(self absorption/trance) that (1) he would not be perceptive of earth in relation to earth; (2) of water in relation to water; (3) of fire in relation to fire; (4) of air in relation to air; (5) of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space in relation to the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space; [91 (6) of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness in relation to the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness; (7) of the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness in relation to the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness; (8) of the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception in relation to the base of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception; (9) of this world in relation to this world; (10) of the other world in relation to the other world, but he would still be perceptive?"

"He could, friend Ananda."

"But how, friend Sariputta, could he obtain such a state of samadhi(self absorption/trance)?"

"On one occasion, friend Ananda, I was dwelling right here in Savatthi in the Blind Men's Grovel There I attained such a state of samadhi(self absorption/trance) that I was not perceptive of earth in relation to earth; of water in relation to water; of fire in relation to fire; of air in relation to air; of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space in relation to the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space; of the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness in relation to the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness; of the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness in relation to the base of nothingness; of the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor non-perception in relation to the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya) nor-non-perception; of this world in relation to this world; of the other world in relation to the other world, but I was still perceptive."'

"But of what was the Venerable Sariputta perceptive on that occasion?"

"One perception(sanna/sangya) arose and another perception(sanna/sangya) ceased in me: 'The cessation of existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) is nibbana(nirvana); the cessation of existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) is nibbana(nirvana).' 1970 Just as, when a fire of twigs is burning, one flame arises and another flame ceases, so one perception(sanna/sangya) [10] arose and another perception(sanna/sangya) ceased in me: 'The cessation of existence is nibbana(nirvana); the cessation of existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) is nibbana(nirvana)' On that occasion, friend, I was perceptive: 'The cessation of existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) is nibbana(nirvana)'"


8 Meditation [1971] (Jhanasans. Dhyana)[edit | edit source]

(1) "Bhikkhus(Monks), a bhikkhu may be endowed with faith but he is not virtuous; thus he is incomplete with respect to that factor. He should fulfill that factor, [thinking]: 'How can I be endowed with faith and also be virtuous?' But when a bhikkhu is endowed with faith and is also virtuous, then he is complete with respect to that factor.

(2) "A bhikkhu may be endowed with faith and virtuous, but he is not learned.. . . (3) . . . learned, but not a speaker on the Dhamma . . . (4) . . . a speaker on the Dhamma, but not one who frequents assemblies. . . (5) one who frequents assemblies, but not one. who confidently teaches the Dhamma to an assembly . . . (6) . . . one who confidently teaches the Dhamma to an assembly, but not an expert on the discipline . . . (7) ... an expert on the discipline, but not a forest-dweller who resorts to remote lodgings . . . (8) ... a forest-dweller who resorts to remote lodgings, but not one who gains at will, without trouble or difficulty, the four jhanas(trance states) that constitute the higher mind and are pleasant dwellings in this very life . . . (9) . . . one who gains at will, without trouble or difficulty, the four jhanas(trance states) that constitute the higher mind and are pleasant dwellings in this very life, but not one who, with the destruction of the taints, has realized for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, dwells in it.

"Thus he is incomplete with respect to that factor. He should fulfill that factor, [thinking]: 'How can I be endowed with faith . . . [11] . . . and also be one who, with the destruction of the taints, has realized for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, dwells in it?'

(10) "But when a bhikkhu is (i) endowed with faith, (ii) virtuous, and (iii) learned; (iy) a speaker on the Dhamma; (v) one who frequents assemblies; (vi) one who confidently teaches the Dhamma to an assembly; (vii) an expert on the discipline; (viii) a forest-dweller who resorts to remote lodgings; (ix) one who gains at will, without trouble or difficulty, the four jhanas(trance states) that constitute the higher mind and are pleasant dwellings in this very life; and (x) one who, with the destruction of the taints, has realized for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, dwells in it, then he is complete with respect ‘ to that factor.

"A bhikkhu who possesses these ten qualities is one who inspires confidence in all respects and who is complete in all aspects."


9 Peaceful Liberation [1972] (Santavimokkha sans. Shanti-vimoksha)[edit | edit source]

(1) "Bhikkhus(Monks), a bhikkhu may be endowed with faith but he is not virtuous . . . (2) . . . endowed with faith and virtuous, but he is not learned . . . (3) . . . learned, but not a speaker on the Dhamma . . . (4) . . . a speaker on the Dhamma, but not one who frequents assemblies . . . (5) . . . one who frequents assemblies, but not one who confidently teaches the Dhamma to an assembly . . . (6) . . . one who confidently teaches the Dhamma to an assembly, but not an expert on the discipline . . .. (7) . . . an expert on the discipline, but not a forest-dweller who resorts to remote lodgings . . . (8) ... a forest-dweller who resorts to remote lodgings, but not one who contacts with the body and dwells in those peaceful emancipations, transcending forms, that are formless . . . (9) . . . one who contacts with the body and dwells in those peaceful emancipations, transcending forms, [12] that are formless, but not one who, with the destruction of the taints, has realized for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, dwells in it.

"Thus he is incomplete with respect to that factor. He should fulfill that factor, [thinking]: "How can I be endowed with faith . . . and also be one who, with the destruction of the taints.

has realized for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, dwells in it?'

(10) "But when a bhikkhu is (i) endowed with faith, (ii) virtuous, and (iii) learned; (iv) a speaker on the Dhamma(path); (v) one who frequents assemblies; (vi) one who confidently teaches the Dhamma to an assembly; (vii) an expert on the discipline; (viii) a forest-dweller who resorts to remote lodgings; (ix) one who dwells having contacted with the body those peaceful emancipations, transcending forms, that are formless; and (x) one who, with the destruction of the taints, has realized for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, dwells in it, then he is complete with respect to that factor.

"A bhikkhu Who possesses these ten qualities is one who inspires confidence in all respects and who is complete in all aspects."


10 True Knowledges (Vijja sans. Vidya)[edit | edit source]

(1) "Bhikkhus(Monks), a bhikkhu may be endowed with faith but he is not virtuous . . . [13] . . . (2) . . . endowed with faith and virtuous, but he is not learned . . . (3) . . . learned, but not a speaker on the Dhamma . . . (4) ... a speaker on the Dhamma, but not one who frequents assemblies . . . (5) . . . one who frequents assemblies, but not one who confidently teaches the Dhamma to an assembly . . . (6) . ... one who confidently teaches the Dhamma to an assembly, but not an expert on the discipline . . . (7) . . . an expert on the discipline, but not one who recollects his manifold past abodes(of past rebirths), that is, one rebirth, two rebirths . . . [as in 6:2 §4] . . . thus he does not recollect his manifold past abodes(of past rebirths) with their aspects and details . . . (8) . . . one who recollects his manifold past abodes(of past rebirths) . . . but not one who, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human . . . [as in 6:2 §5] . . . understands how beings fare in accordance with their kamma(karma/deeds) . . . (9) . . . one who, with the divine eye . . . understands how beings fare in accordance with their kamma(karma/deeds), but not one who, with the destruction of the taints, has realized for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, dwells in it.

"Thus he is incomplete with respect to that factor. He should fulfill that factor, [thinking]: 'How can I be endowed with faith . . . [14] . . . and also be one who, with the destruction of the taints, has realized for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, dwells in it?'

(10) "But when a bhikkhu(monk) is (i) endowed with faith, (ii) virtuous, and (iii) learned; (iv) a speaker on the Dhamma; (v) one who frequents assemblies; (vi) one who confidently teaches the Dhamma to an assembly; (vii) an expert on the discipline; (viii) one who recollects his manifold past abodes(of past rebirths) . . . with their aspects and details; (ix) one who, with the divine eye . . . under stands how beings fare in accordance with their kamma(karma/deeds); and (x) one who, with the destruction of the taints, has realized for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, dwells in it, then he is complete with respect to that factor.

"A bhikkhu who possesses these ten qualities is one who inspires confidence in all respects and who is complete in all aspects." [15]



II. Lord Section (Nathavaggo)[edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


11 Lodging [1973] (Senasana sans. Shayan-asana)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(monks), when a bhikkhu who possesses five factors resorts to and uses a lodging that possesses five factors, in no long time, with the destruction of the taints, he might realize for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, dwell in it.

"And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu possess five factors?

(1) "Here, a bhikkhu is endowed with faith. He has faith in the enlightenment of the Tathagata(Buddha) thus: 'The Lord(Buddha) is an arahant, perfectly enlightened, accomplished in true knowledge and conduct, fortunate, knower of the world, unsurpassed trainer of persons to be tamed, teacher of devas(angels/gods) and humans, the Enlightened One, the Lord(Buddha)"

(2) "He is seldom ill or afflicted, possessing an even digestion that is neither too cool nor too hot but moderate and suitable for striving.

(3) "He is honest and open, one who reveals himself as he really is to the Teacher and his wise fellow monks.

(4) "He has aroused energy(exertion/viriya) for abandoning harmful(akusala) qualities and acquiring beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma); he is strong, firm in exertion, not casting off the duty of cultivating beneficial(kusala)

(5) "He is wise; he possesses the panna(divine knowledge) that discerns arising and passing away, which is noble and penetrative and leads to the complete destruction of suffering.

"It is in this way that a bhikkhu possesses five factors.

"And how does a lodging possess five factors?

(6) "Here, the lodging is neither too far [from a place for alms] nor too close, and'it possesses a means for going and returning.

(7) "During the day it is not disturbed by people and at night it is quiet and still.

(8) "There is little contact with flies, mosquitoes, wind, the burning sun, and serpents.

(9) "One dwelling in that lodging can easily obtain robes, almsfood, lodging, and medicines and provisions for the sick.

(10) "In that lodging elder bhikkhus are dwelling who are learned, heirs to the heritage, [16] experts on the Dhamma, experts on the discipline, experts on the outlines. He approaches them from time to time and inquires: 'How is this, Bhante? What is the meaning of this?' Those venerable ones then disclose to him what has not been disclosed, clear up what is obscure, and dispel his perplexity about numerous perplexing points.

"It is in this way that a lodging possesses five factors.

"When a bhikkhu who possesses these five factors resorts to and uses a lodging that possesses these five factors, in no long time, with the destruction of the taints, he might realize for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, dwell in it."


12 Five Factors [1974] (Pancanga)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), a bhikkhu who has abandoned five factors and possesses five factors is called, in this Dhamma and discipline, a supreme person who is consummate and has completely lived the brahmacariya(celibate holy life).

"And how has a bhikkhu abandoned five factors? Here, a bhikkhu has abandoned sensual(sexual) desire, ill will, dullness and drowsiness, restlessness and remorse, and doubt. It is in this way that a bhikkhu has abandoned five factors.

"And how does a bhikkhu possess five factors? Here, a bhikkhu possesses the aggregate of virtuous behavior of one beyond training, the aggregate of samadhi(self absorption/trance) of one beyond training, the aggregate of panna(divine knowledge) of one beyond training, the aggregate of liberation of one beyond training, and the aggregate of the knowledge and vision of liberation (Vimutti-nana-dassana sans. Vimukti-gyan-darshan) of one beyond training. It is in this way that a bhikkhu possesses five factors.

“When a bhikkhu has abandoned these five factors and possesses these five factors, he is called, in this Dhamma and discipline, a supreme person who is consummate and complete in living the brahmacariya(celibate holy life)."


When sensual(sexual) desire and ill will,
dullness and drowsiness,
restlessness, and doubt are
totally absent in a bhikkhu; [17]
when one like this possesses
the virtue and samadhi(self absorption/trance)
of one beyond training,
and [similar] liberation and knowledge;
possessing five factors
and having removed five factors,
he is truly called a consummate one
in this Dhamma(path) and discipline.


13 Fetters (Samyojana)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these ten fetters. What ten? The five lower fetters and the five higher fetters. And what are the five lower fetters? Personal-existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) view, doubt, wrong grasp of behavior and observances, sensual(sexual) desire, and ill will. These are the five lower fetters. And what are the five higher fetters? lust(raag) for form, lust(raag) for the formless, conceit, restlessness, and ignorance. These are the five higher fetters. These, bhikkhus, are the ten fetters."


14 Mental Barrenness [1975] (Cetokhila)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), if any'bhikkhu or Bhikkhuni(nun)has not abandoned five kinds of mental barrenness and eradicated five bondages of the mind, then, whether night or day comes, only deterioration in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) and not growth is to be expected for this person.

"What are the five kinds of mental barrenness that he has not abandoned?

(1) "Here, a bhikkhu is perplexed about the Teacher, doubts him, is not convinced about him and does not place confidence in him. When a bhikkhu is perplexed about the Teacher, doubts him, is not convinced about him and does not place confidence in him, his mind does not incline to ardor, effort, perseverance, and striving. Since his mind does not incline to ardor . . . [18] . . . and striving, this is the first kind of mental barrenness that he has not abandoned.

(2) — (5) "Again, a bhikkhu is perplexed about the Dhamma . . . perplexed about the Sangha . .. perplexed about the training . . . is irritated by his fellow monks,. displeased with them, aggressive toward them, ill disposed toward them. When a bhikkhu is irritated by his fellow monks, displeased with them, aggressive toward them, ill disposed toward them, his mind does not incline to ardor, effort, perseverance, and striving. Since his mind does not incline to ardor . . . and striving, this is the fifth kind of mental barrenness that he has not abandoned.

"These are the five kinds of mental barrenness that he has not abandoned.

"What are the five bondages of the mind that he has not eradicated?

(6) "Here, a bhikkhu is not devoid of lust(raag) for sensual pleasures, not devoid of desire, affection, thirst, passion, and craving(tanha/trishna) for them. When a bhikkhu is not devoid of lust(raag) for sensual pleasures, not devoid of desire, affection, thirst, passion, and craving(tanha/trishna) for them, his mind does not incline to ardor, effort, perseverance, and striving. Since his mind does not incline to ardor . . . and striving, this is the first bondage of the mind that he has not eradicated.

(7) — (10) "Again, a bhikkhu is not devoid of lust(raag) for the body, not devoid of desire, affection, thirst, passion, and craving(tanha/trishna) for it. . . . He is not devoid of lust(raag) for form, not devoid of desire, affection, thirst, passion, and craving(tanha/trishna) for it. . . . Having eaten as much as he wants until his belly is full, he is intent upon the pleasure of rest, the pleasure of sloth, the pleasure of sleep . . he lives the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) aspiring for [rebirth in] a certain order of devas(angels/gods), [thinking]: 'Bv this virtuous behavior, observance, austerity, or brahmacariya(celibate holy life) I will be a deva(angel/god) or one [in the retinue] of the devas(angels/gods).' When he lives the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) aspiring for [rebirth in] a certain order of devas(angels/gods) . . . his mind does not incline [19] to ardor, effort, perseverance, and striving. Since his mind does not incline to ardor . . and striving, this is the fifth bondage of the mind that he has not eradicated.

"These are the five bondages of mind that he has not eradicated."

"If any bhikkhu or Bhikkhuni(nun)has not abandoned these five kinds of mental barrenness and eradicated these five bondages of the mind, then, whether night or day comes, only deterioration and not growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) is to be expected for that person. Just as during the dark fortnight, whether night or day comes, the moon only deteriorates in beauty, roundness, and brightness, in diameter and circumference, so too, if any bhikkhu or Bhikkhuni(nun)has not abandoned these five, kinds of mental barrenness . . only deterioration . . . is to be expected for that person.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), if any bhikkhu or Bhikkhuni(nun)has abandoned five kinds of mental barrenness and eradicated five bondages of the mind, 1976 then, whether night or day comes, only growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) and not deterioration is to be expected for that person.

"And what are the five kinds of mental barrenness that he has abandoned?

(1) "Here, a bhikkhu is not perplexed about the Teacher, does not doubt him, is convinced about him and places confidence in him. When a bhikkhu(monk) is not perplexed about the Teacher, does not doubt him, is convinced about him and places confidence in him, his mind inclines to ardor, effort, perseverance, and striving. Since his mind inclines to ardor . . . and striving, this is the first kind of mental barrenness that he has abandoned.

(2) — (5) "Again, a bhikkhu is not perplexed about the Dhamma . . . not perplexed about the Sangha . . . not perplexed about the training [20] ... is not irritated by his fellow monks, is pleased with them, not aggressive toward them, well disposed toward them. When a bhikkhu is not irritated by his fellow monks . . . well disposed toward them, his mind inclines to ardor, effort, perseverance, and striving. Since his mind inclines to ardor . . . and striving, this is the fifth kind of mental barren ness that he has abandoned.

"These are the five kinds of mental barrenness that he has abandoned.

"What are the five bondages of the mind that he has well eradicated?

(6) "Here, a bhikkhu is devoid of lust(raag) for sensual pleasures, devoid of desire, affection, thirst, passion, and craving(tanha/trishna) for them. When a bhikkhu is devoid of lust(raag) for sensual pleasures, devoid of desire, affection, thirst, passion, and craving(tanha/trishna) for them, his mind inclines to ardor, effort, perseverance, and striving. Since his mind inclines to ardor . . . and striving, this is the first bond age of the mind that he has well eradicated.

(7) -(10) "Again, a bhikkhu is devoid of lust(raag) for the body, devoid of desire, affection, thirst, passion, and craving(tanha/trishna) for it; . . . He is devoid of lust(raag) for form, devoid of desire, affection, thirst, passion, and craving(tanha/trishna) for it. . . . He does not eat as much as he wants until his belly is full nor is he intent upon the pleasure of rest, the pleasure of sloth, the pleasure of sleep. . . . He does not live the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) aspiring for [rebirth in] a certain order of devas(angels/gods), [thinking]: 'By this virtuous behavior, observance, austerity, or brahmacariya(celibate holy life) I will be a deva(angel/god) or one [in the retinue] of the devas(angels/gods)'. Since he does not live the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) aspiring for [rebirth in] a certain order of devas(angels/gods) . . . his mind inclines to ardor, effort, perseverance, and striving. Since his mind inclines to ardor . . . and striving, this is the fifth bondage of the mind that he has well eradicated.

"These are the five bondages of the mind that he has well eradicated

"If any bhikkhu or Bhikkhuni(nun)has abandoned these five kinds of mental barrenness and well eradicated these five bondages of the mind, [21] then, whether night or day comes, only growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) and not deterioration is to be expected for that person. Just as during the bright fortnight, whether night or day comes, the moon only increases in beauty, roundness, and brightness, in diameter and circumference, so too, if any bhikkhu or Bhikkhuni(nun)has abandoned these five kinds of mental barrenness and well eradicated these five bondages of the mind, then, whether night or day comes, only growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities and not deterioration is to be expected for that person."

15 Alertfulness (Appamada)[edit | edit source]

(1) "Bhikkhus(Monks), to whatever extent there are beings, whether footless or with two feet, four feet, or many feet, whether having form or formless, whether perceptive or non-perceptive, or neither perceptive nor non-perceptive, the Tathagata(Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One is declared foremost among them. 1977 So too, all beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) are rooted in alertfulness and converge upon alertfulness and alertfulness is declared foremost among them.

(2) "Just as the footprints of all animals that roam on land fit into the footprint of the elephant, and the elephant's footprint is declared foremost, among them, that is, with respect to size, so too, all beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) are rooted in alertfulness and converge upon alertfulness and alertfulness is declared foremost among them.

(3) "Just as all the rafters of a peaked house lean toward the roof peak, slope toward the roof peak, converge upon the roof peak, and the roof peak is declared foremost among them, so too, all beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) are rooted in alertfulness and converge upon alertfulness and alertfulness is declared foremost among them. [22]

(4) "Just as, of all fragrant roots, black orris is declared foremost among them, so too ...

(5) "Just as, of all fragrant heartwoods, red sandalwood is declared foremost among them, so too ...

(6) "Just as, of all fragrant flowers, jasmine is declared foremost among them, so too ...

(7) "Just as all petty princes are the vassals of a wheel-turning monarch, and the wheel-turning monarch is declared foremost among them, so too ...

(8) "Just as the radiance of all the stars does not amount to a sixteenth part of the radiance of the moon, and the radiance of the moon is declared foremost among them, so too . . .

(9) "Just as, in the autumn, when the sky is clear and cloud less, the sun, ascending in the sky, dispels all darkness from space as it shines and beams and radiates, so too . . .

(10) "Just as, whatever great rivers there are — that is, the Ganges, the Yamuna, the Aciravati, the Sarabhu, and the Mahi — all head toward the ocean, slant, slope, and incline toward the ocean, and the ocean is declared foremost among them, so too, all beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) are rooted in alertfulness and converge upon alertfulness and alertfulness is declared foremost among them." [23]


16 Worthy of Gifts [1978] (Ahuneyya)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(monks), these ten persons are worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of reverential salutation, an unsurpassed field of merit for the world. What ten? The Tathagata(Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One; a paccekabuddha; the one liberated in both respects; the one liberated by panna(divine knowledge); the body witness; the one attained to view; the one liberated by faith; the Dhamma follower; the faith follower; and the clan member. These ten persons are worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of reverential salutation, an unsurpassed field of merit for the world."


17 Protector (1) (Natha1)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), live under a protector, not without a protector. One without a protector lives in suffering. There are these ten qualities that serve as a protector. 1975 What ten?

(1) "Here, a bhikkhu is virtuous; he dwells restrained by the Patimokkha, possessed of good conduct and resort, seeing danger in minute faults. Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them. Since a bhikkhu is virtuous . . . trains in them, this is a quality that serves as a protector.

(2) "Again, a bhikkhu has learned much, remembers what he has learned, and accumulates what he has learned. Those teachings that are good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, which proclaim the perfectly complete and pure brahmacariya(celibate holy life) — such teachings as these he has learned much of, retained in mind, recited verbally, investigated mentally, and penetrated well by view. Since a bhikkhu has learned much . . . and penetrated well by view, this , too, is a quality that serves as a protector.

(3) "Again, a bhikkhu has good friends, [24] good companions, good comrades. Since a bhikkhu has good friends, good companions, good comrades, this, toe, is a quality that serves as a protector.

(4) "Again, a bhikkhu is easy to correct and possesses qualities that make him easy to correct; he is patient and receives instruction respectfully. Since a bhikkhu is easy to correct . . . and receives instruction respectfully, this, too, is a quality that serves as a protector.

(5) "Again, a bhikkhu is skillful and diligent in attending to the diverse chores that are to be done for his fellow monks; he possesses sound judgment about them in order to carry out and arrange them properly. Since a bhikkhu is skillful and diligent . . . this, too, is a quality that serves as a protector.

(6) "Again, a bhikkhu loves the Dhamma and is pleasing in Iris assertions, filled with a lofty joy pertaining to the Dhamma and discipline.' 980 Since a bhikkhu(monk) loves the Dhamma . . . this, too, is a quality that serves as a protector.

(7) "Again, a bhikkhu has aroused energy(exertion/viriya) for abandoning , harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) and acquiring beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma); he is strong, firm in exertion, not casting off the duty of cultivating beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma). Since a bhikkhu has aroused energy(exertion/viriya) . . . not Casting off the duty of cultivating beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma), this, too, is a quality that serves as a protector. [25]

(8) "Again, a bhikkhu is content with any kind of robe, almsfood, lodging, and medicines and provisions for the sick. Since a bhikkhu is content with any kind of . . . provisions for the sick, this, too, is a quality that serves as a protector.

(9) "Again, a bhikkhu is mindful(meditating/sati), possessing supreme mind fulness and alertness, one who remembers and recollects what was done and said long ago. Since a bhikkhu is mindful(meditating/sati) . . . and recollects what was done and said long ago, this, too, is a quality that serves as a protector.

(10) "Again, a bhikkhu is wise; he possesses the panna(divine knowledge) that discerns arising and passing away, which is noble and penetrative and leads to the complete destruction of suffering. Since a bhikkhu is wise . . . this, too, is a quality that serves as a protector.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), live under a protector, not without a protector. One without a protector lives in suffering. These are the ten qualities that serve as a protector."


18 Protector (2) (Natha2)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), live under a protector, not without a protector. One without a protector lives in suffering. There are these ten qualities that serve as a protector. What ten?

(1) "Here, a bhikkhu is virtuous; he dwells restrained by the Patimokkha, possessed of good conduct and resort, seeing danger in minute faults. Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them. [Having considered:] 'This bhikkhu is truly virtuous. . . . Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them, the elder bhikkhus, [26] those of middle stand ing, and the junior bhikkhus think he should be corrected and instructed. Since they all have compassion for him, only growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) and not decline is to be expected for him. This is a quality that serves as a protector.

(2) " Again, a bhikkhu has learned much, remembers what he has learned, and accumulates what he has learned. Those teach ings that are good in the beginning . . . with the right meaning arid phrasing, which proclaim the perfectly complete and pure brahmacariya(celibate holy life) — such teachings as these he has learned much of, retained in mind, recited verbally, investigated mentally, and penetrated well by view. [Having considered:] 'This bhikkhu has truly learned much... and penetrated well by view, the elder bhikkhus, those of middle standing, and the junior bhikkhus think he should be corrected and instructed. Since they all have compassion for him, only growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) and not decline is to be expected for him. This, too, is a quality that serves as a protector.

(3) "Again, a bhikkhu has good friends, good companions, good comrades. [Having considered:] 'This bhikkhu truly has good friends, good companions, good comrades,' the elder bhikkhus, those of middle standing, and the junior bhikkhus think he should be corrected and instructed. Since they all have compassion for him, only growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) and not decline is to be expected for him. This, too, is a quality that serves as a protector.

(4) "Again, a bhikkhu is easy to correct and possesses qualities that make him easy to correct; he is patient and receives instruction respectfully. [Having considered:] 'This bhikkhu is truly easy to correct and possesses qualities that make him easy to correct; he is patient and receives instruction respectfully,' the elder bhikkhus, [27] those of middle standing, and the junior bhikkhus think he should be corrected and instructed. Since they all have compassion for him, only growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities and not decline is to be expected for him. This, too, is a quality that serves as a protector.

(5) " Again, a bhikkhu is skillful and diligent in attending to the diverse chores that are to be done for his fellow monks; he possesses sound judgment about them in order to carry out and arrange them properly. [Having considered:] 'This bhikkhu is truly skillful and diligent ... in order to carry out and arrange them properly, the elder bhikkhus, those of middle standing, and the junior bhikkhus think he should be corrected and instructed. Since they all have compassion for him, only growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) and not decline is to be expected for him. This, too, is a quality that serves as a protector.

(6) "Again, a bhikkhu loves the Dhamma and is pleasing in his assertions, filled with a lofty joy pertaining to the Dhamma and discipline. [Having considered:] 'This bhikkhu truly loves the Dhamma and is pleasing in his assertions, filled with a lofty joy pertaining to the Dhamma and discipline,' the elder bhikkhus, those of middle standing, and the junior bhikkhus think he should be corrected and instructed. Since they all have compassion for him, only growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) and not decline is to be expected for him. This, too, is a quality that serves as a protector.

(7) "Again, a bhikkhu has aroused energy(exertion/viriya) for abandoning harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) and acquiring beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma); he is strong, firm in exertion, not casting off the duty of cultivating beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma). [Having considered:] 'This bhikkhu truly has aroused energy(exertion/viriya) . . . [28] . . . not casting off the duty of cultivating beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma), the elder bhikkhus, those of middle standing, and the junior bhikkhus think he should be corrected and instructed. Since they all have compassion for him, only growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) and not decline is to be expected for him. This, too, is a quality that serves as a protector.

(8) "Again, a bhikkhu is content with any kind of robe, alms food, lodging, and medicines and provisions for the sick. [Having considered:] 'This bhikkhu truly is content with any kind of robe, almsfood, lodging, and medicines and provisions for the sick, the elder bhikkhus, those of middle standing, and the junior bhikkhus think he should be corrected and instructed. Since they all have compassion for him, only growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities and not decline is to be expected for him. This, too, is a quality that serves as a protector.

(9) "Again, a bhikkhu(monk) is mindful(meditating/sati), possessing supreme mind fulness and alertness, one who remembers and recollects what was done and said long ago. [Having considered:] "This bhikkhu truly is mindful(meditating/sati), possessing supreme mindfulness(meditation/sati) and alertness, one who remembers and recollects what was done and said long ago, the elder bhikkhus, those of middle stand ing, and the junior bhikkhus think he should be corrected and instructed. Since they all have compassion for him, only growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) and not decline is to be expected for him. This, too, is a quality that serves as a protector.

(10) "Again, a bhikkhu is wise; he possesses the panna(divine knowledge) that discerns arising and passing away, which is noble and penetrative and leads to the complete destruction of suffering. [Having considered:] 'This bhikkhu truly is wise; he possesses the wisdom that discerns arising and passing away, which is noble and penetrative and leads to the complete destruction of suffering," the elder bhikkhus, those of middle standing, and the junior bhikkhus think he should be corrected [29] and instructed. Since they all have compassion for him, only growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities and rvot decline is to be expected for him. This, too, is a quality that serves as a protector.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), live under a protector, not without a protector. One without a protector lives in suffering. These are the ten qualities that serve as a protector."


19 Abodes of the Nobl'e Ones (1) (Ariyavasa1)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these ten abodes of the noble ones in which the noble ones of the past, present, or future abide. 1981 What ten?

"Here, a bhikkhu (1) has abandoned five factors; (2) possesses six factors; (3) has a single guard (4) and four supports; (5) has dispelled personal truths, (6) totally renounced seeking, (7) purified his intentions, (8) tranquilized bodily activity, and become (9) well liberated in mind and (10) well liberated by panna(divine knowledge). These are the ten abodes of the noble ones in which the noble ones of the past, present, or future abide."


20 Abodes of the Noble Ones (2) (Ariyavasa2)[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling among the Kurus near the Kuru town named kammasadamma. [30] There the Lord(Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus. . . . The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these ten abodes of the noble ones in which the noble ones abide in the past, present, or future. What ten?

"Here, a bhikkhu (1) has abandoned five factors; (2) pos sesses six factors; (3) has a single guard (4) and four supports; (5) has dispelled personal truths, (6) totally renounced seeking, (7) purified his intentions, (8) tranquilized bodily activity, and become (9) well liberated in mind and (10) well liberated by panna(divine knowledge).

(1) "And how has a bhikkhu abandoned five factors? Here, a bhikkhu has abandoned sensual(sexual) desire, ill will, dullness and drowsiness, restlessness and remorse, and doubt. It is in this way that a bhikkhu has abandoned five factors.

(2) "And how does a bhikkhu possess six factors? Here, having seen a form with the eye, a bhikkhu is neither joyful nor saddened, but dwells equanimous, mindful(meditating/sati) and complete comprehending. Having heard a sound with the ear . . . Having smelled an odor with the nose . . . Having experienced a taste with the tongue . . . Having felt a tactile object with the body . . . Having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, a bhikkhu is neither joyful nor saddened, but dwells equanimous, mindful(meditating/sati) and completely comprehending. 1982 It is in this way that a bhikkhu possesses six factors.

(3) "And how does a bhikkhu have a single guard? Here, a bhikkhu possesses a mind guarded by mindfulness(meditation/sati). It is in this way that a bhikkhu has a single guard.

(4) "And how does a bhikkhu have four supports? Here, having reflected, a bhikkhu uses some things, patiently endures other things, avoids still other things, and dispels still other things. It is in this way that a bhikkhu has four supports. [31]

(5) "And how has a bhikkhu dispelled personal truths? Here, whatever ordinary personal truths may be held by ordinary ascetics and brahmins — that is, 'The world is eternal' or 'The world is not eternal'; 'The world is finite' or 'The world is infinite'; 'The soul and the body are the same' or 'The soul is one thing and the body another'; 'The Tathagata(Buddha) exists after death' or 'The Tathagata(Buddha) does not exist after death' or 'The Tathagata(Buddha) both exists and does not exist after death' or 'The Tathagata(Buddha) neither exists nor does not exist after death' — a bhikkhu has discarded and dispelled them all, given them up, rejected them, let go of them, abandoned and relinquished them. It is in this way that a bhikkhu has dispelled personal truths.

(6) "And how has a bhikkhu(monk) totally renounced seeking? Here, a bhikkhu has abandoned the search for sensual pleasures and the search for existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) and has allayed the search for a brahmacariya(celibate holy life). It is in this way that a bhikkhu has totally renounced seeking.

(7) "And how has a bhikkhu purified his intentions? Here, a bhikkhu has abandoned sensual intention, intention of ill will, and intention of harming. It is in this way that a bhikkhu has purified his intentions.

(8) "And how has a bhikkhu tranquilized bodily activity? Here, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous passing away of joy and dejection, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the fourth jhana(trance state), neither painful nor pleasant, which has purification of mindfulness(meditation/sati) by indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha). It is in this way that a bhikkhu has tranquilized bodily activity.

(9) "And how is a bhikkhu well liberated in mind? Here, a bhikkhu's mind is liberated from lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha). It is in this way that a bhikkhu is well liberated in mind.

(10) "And how is a bhikkhu well liberated by panna(divine knowledge)? [32] Here, a bhikkhu understands: 'I have abandoned lust(raag), cut it off at the root, made it like a palm stump, obliterated it so that it is no more subject to future arising; I have abandoned hatred . . . abandoned delusion(moha), cut it off at the root, made it like a palm stump, obliterated it so that it is no more subject to future arising.' It is in this way that a bhikkhu is well liberated by panna(divine knowledge).

"Bhikkhus(Monks), whatever noble ones in the past abided in noble abodes, all abided in these same ten noble abodes. Whatever noble ones in the future will abide in noble abodes, all will abide in these same ten noble abodes. Whatever noble ones at present abide in noble abodes, all abide in these same ten noble abodes.

"These are the ten abodes of the noble ones in which the noble ones abide in the past, present, or future."



III. The Great Chapter (Mahavaggo sans. Maha-varga)[edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


21 The Lion Roar (Sihanada sans. Singha-nada)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(monks), in the evening the lion, the king of beasts, comes out from his lair, stretches his body, surveys the four quarters all around, [33] and roars his lion's roar three times. Then he sets out in search of game. For what reason? [With the thought:] 'Let me not cause harm to small creatures that might cross my track.'

"The lion, bhikkhus, is a designation for the Tathagata(Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One. When the Tathagata(Buddha) teaches the Dhamma to an assembly, this is his lion's roar. "

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these ten Tathagata(Buddha)'s powers that the Tathagata(Buddha) has, possessing which he claims the place of the chief bull, roars his lion's roar in the assemblies, and sets in motion the brahma wheel. 1983 What ten?

(1) "Here, the Tathagata(Buddha) understands as it really is the possible as possible and the impossible as impossible. Since the Tathagata(Buddha) understands as it really is the possible as possible and the impossible as impossible, this is a Tathagata(Buddha)'s power that the Tathagata(Buddha) has, on account of which he claims the place of the chief bull, roars his lion's roar in the assemblies, and sets in motion the brahma wheel.

(2) "Again, the Tathagata(Buddha) understands as it really is the result of the undertaking of kamma(karma/deeds) past, future, and present in terms of possibilities and causes. Since the Tathagata(Buddha) understands as it really is . . . the result of the undertaking of kamma(karma/deeds) . . . this too is a Tathagata(Buddha)'s power that the Tathagata(Buddha) has, on account of which he ... sets in motion the brahma wheel.

(3) "Again, the Tathagata(Buddha) understands as it really is the ways leading everywhere. 1984 Since the Tathagata(Buddha) understands as it really is the ways leading everywhere, this too is a Tathagata(Buddha)'s power that the Tathagata(Buddha) has, on account of which he . . . sets in motion the brahma wheel.

(4) "Again, the Tathagata(Buddha) [34] understands as it really is the world with its numerous and diverse elements. 1985 Since the Tathagata(Buddha) understands as it really is the world with its numer ous and diverse elements, this too is a Tathagata(Buddha)'s power that the Tathagata(Buddha) has, on account of which . . . he sets in motion the brahma wheel.

(5) " Again, the Tathagata(Buddha) understands as it really is the diversity in the dispositions of beings. 1986 Since the Tathagata(Buddha) understands as it really is the diversity in the dispositions of beings, this too is a Tathagata(Buddha)'s power that the Tathagata(Buddha) has, on account of which . . . he sets in motion the brahma wheel.

(6) "Again, the Tathagata(Buddha) understands as it really is the supe rior or inferior condition of the faculties of other beings and persons. 1987 Since the Tathagata(Buddha) understands as it really is the superior or inferior condition of the faculties of other beings and persons, this too is a Tathagata(Buddha)'s power that the Tathagata(Buddha) has, on account of which . . . he sets in motion the brahma wheel.

(7) "Again, the Tathagata(Buddha) understands as it really is the defile ment, the cleansing, and the emergence in regard to the jhanas(trance states), emancipations, samadhi(self absorption/trance)s, and meditative attainments. Since the Tathagata(Buddha) understands as it really is the defilement; the cleansing, and the emergence in regard to the jhanas(trance states) . . . this too is a Tathagata(Buddha)'s power that the Tathagata(Buddha) has, on account of which . . . he sets in motion the brahma wheel.

(8) "Again, the Tathagata(Buddha) recollects his manifold past abodes(of past rebirths), that is, one rebirth, two rebirths, three rebirths, four rebirths, five rebirths, ten rebirths, twenty rebirths, thirty rebirths, forty [35] rebirths, fifty rebirths, a hundred rebirths, a thousand rebirths, a hundred thousand rebirths, many eons of world-dissolution, many eons of world evolution, many eons of world-dissolution and world-evolution thus: 'There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life. span; passing away from there, I was reborn elsewhere, and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life span; passing away from there, I was reborn here.' Thus he recollects his manifold past abodes(of past rebirths) with their aspects and details. Since the Tathagata(Buddha) recollects his manifold past abodes(of past rebirths) ... with their aspects and details, this too is a Tathagata(Buddha)'s power that the Tathagata(Buddha) has, on account of which . . . he sets in motion the brahma wheel.

(9) "Again, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, the Tathagata(Buddha) sees beings passing away and being reborn, inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he understands how beings fare in accordance with their kamma(karma/deeds) thus: 'These beings who engaged in misconduct by body, speech, and mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong view, and undertook kamma(karma/deeds) based on wrong view, with the breakup of the body, after death, have been reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell; but these beings who engaged in good conduct by body, speech, and mind, who did not revile the noble ones, who held right view, and undertook kamma(karma/deeds) based on right view, with the breakup of the body, after death, have been reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world.' Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and being reborn, inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he understands how beings fare in accordance with their kamma(karma/deeds). [36] Since the Tathagata(Buddha) . . . understands how beings fare in accordance with their kamma(karma/deeds), this too is a Tathagata(Buddha)'s power that the Tathagata(Buddha) has, on account of which ... he sets in motion the brahma wheel. .

(10) "Again, with the destruction of the taints, the Tathagata(Buddha) has realized for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, he dwells in it. Since the Tathagata(Buddha) has real ized for himself . . . the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge) . . . this too is a Tathagata(Buddha)'s power that the Tathagata(Buddha) has, on account of which he claims the place of the chief bull, roars his lion's roar in the assemblies, and sets in motion the brahma wheel.

"These, bhikkhus, are the ten Tathagata(Buddha)'s powers that the Tathagata(Buddha) has, possessing which he claims the place of the chief bull, roars his lion's roar in the assemblies, and sets in motion the brahma wheel."


22 Doctrinal Principles (Adhivuttipada)[edit | edit source]

Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord(Buddha) then said to him:

"Ananda, I claim to be confident about the things that lead to the realization by direct knowledge(abhinna) of the various doctrinal principles, 1988 [and I am thus able] to teach the Dhamma to various people in various ways such that one who practices accordingly will know of what exists that it exists and of what does not exist that it does not exist; such that one will know of the inferior that it is inferior and of the sublime that it is sublime; such that one will know of what is surpassable that it is surpass able and of what is unsurpassable that it is unsurpassable; such that [37] it is possible that one will know, see, and realize this just as it is to be known, seen, and realized.

"But among knowledges, Ananda, this one is unsurpassed, namely, the knowledge of these things and those things as they really are. 1989 And, I say, there is no other knowledge higher or more excellent than this.

"There are, Ananda, these ten Tathagata(Buddha)'s powers that the Tathagata(Buddha) has, possessing which he claims the place of the chief bull, roars his lion's roar in the assemblies, and sets in motion the brahma wheel. What ten? ...

[As in 10:21] [38]...

"These, Ananda, are the ten Tathagata(Buddha)'s powers that the Tathagata(Buddha) has, possessing which he claims the place of the chief bull, roars his lion's roar in the assemblies, and sets in motion the brahma wheel." [39]


23 Body (Kaya)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are things to be abandoned by body, not by speech. There are things to be abandoned by speech, not by body. There are things to be abandoned neither by body nor by speech but by having repeatedly seen with panna(divine knowledge). 1990

"And what, bhikkhus, are the things to be abandoned by body, not by speech? Here, a bhikkhu has committed a particular harmful(akusala) deed with the body. His wise fellow monks investigate him and say thus: 'You have committed a particular harmful(akusala) deed with the body. It would really be good if you would abandon bodily misconduct and develop bodily good conduct.' When his wise fellow monks investigate him and speak to him, he abandons bodily misconduct and develops bodily good conduct. These are called things to be abandoned by body, not by speech.

"And what are the things to be abandoned by speech, not by body? Here, a bhikkhu has committed a particular harmful(akusala) deed by speech. His wise fellow monks investigate him and say thus: 'You have committed a particular harmful(akusala) deed by speech. It would really be good if you would abandon verbal misconduct and develop verbal good conduct.' When his wise fellow monks investigate him and speak to him, he abandons verbal misconduct and develops verbal good conduct. These are called things to be abandoned by speech, not by body.

"And what are the things to be abandoned neither by body nor by speech but by having repeatedly seen with panna(divine knowledge)? Greed is to be abandoned neither by body nor by speech but by having repeatedly seen with panna(divine knowledge); Hatred . . . Delusion(Moha) . . . Anger . . . Hostility . . . Denigration . . . Insolence [40] . . . Miserliness is to be abandoned neither by body nor by speech but by having repeatedly seen with panna(divine knowledge).

"Evil envy, 1991 bhikkhus, is to be abandoned neither by body nor by speech but by having repeatedly seen with panna(divine knowledge). And what is evil envy? Here, a householder or householder's son is prospering in wealth or grain, in silver or gold. A slave or dependent might think of him: 'Oh, may this householder or householder's son not prosper in wealth or grain, in silver or gold!' Or else an ascetic or brahmin gains robes, almsfood, lodging, and medicines and provisions for the sick. Another ascetic or brahmin might think of him: 'Oh, may this venerable one not gain robes, almsfood, lodging, and medicines and provisions for the sick!' This is called evil envy. Evil envy is to be abandoned neither by body nor by speech but by having repeatedly seen with panna(divine knowledge).

"Evil desire, bhikkhus, is to be abandoned neither by body nor by speech but by having repeatedly seen with panna(divine knowledge). And what is evil desire? Here, one without faith desires: 'Let them know me as one endowed with faith.' An immoral person desires: 'Let them know me as virtuous.' One with little learn ing desires: 'Let them know me as learned.' One who delights in company desires: 'Let them know me as solitary.' One who is lazy desires: 'Let them know me as energetic.' One who is muddle-minded desires: 'Let them know me as mindful(meditating/sati).' One who is unconcentrated(asamahita) desires: 'Let them know me as concentrated.' One who is unwise desires: 'Let them know me as wise.' One whose taints are not destroyed desires: 'Let them know me as one whose taints are destroyed.' [41] This is called evil desire. Evil desire is to be abandoned neither by body nor by speech but by having repeatedly seen with panna(divine knowledge).

"If, bhikkhus, greed overcomes that bhikkhu and continues on; if hatred . . . delusion(moha) . . . anger . . . hostility . . . denigration . . . insolence . . . miserliness . . . evil envy . . . evil desire overcomes that bhikkhu and continues on 992 he should be understood thus: 'This venerable one does not understand in such a way that he would have no greed; thus greed overcomes him and continues on. This venerable one does not understand in such a way that he would have no hatred . . . no delusion(moha) . . . no anger . . . no hostility . . . no denigration . . . no insolence . . . no miserliness . . . no evil envy . . . no evil desire; thus evil desire overcomes him and continues on' . . .

"If, bhikkhus, greed does not overcome that bhikkhu and continue on; if hatred .. . . delusion(moha) . . , anger . . . hostility . . . denigration . ... insolence . . . miserliness . . . evil envy . . . evil desire does not overcome that bhikkhu and continue on, he should be understood thus: 'This venerable one understands in such a way that he would have no greed;, thus greed does not over come him and continue on. This venerable one understands in such a way that he would have no hatred . . . no delusion(moha) . . . no anger . . . no hostility . . . no denigration . . . no insolence . . . no miserliness . . . no evil envy . . . no evil desire; thus evil desire does not overcome him and continue on"


24 MahaCunda[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Venerable Mahacunda was dwelling among the Cetis at Sahajati. There the Venerable Mahacunda addressed the bhikkhus: "Friends, bhikkhus!"

"Friend!" those [42] bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Mahacunda said this:

"Friends, making a declaration bf knowledge, a bhikkhu(monk) says: 'I know this Dhamma, I see this Dhamma' 1993 If, however, greed overcomes that bhikkhu and persists; 1994 if hatred . . . delusion . . . anger . . . hostility . . . denigration . . . insolence . . . miser liness evil envy . . . evil desire overcomes that bhikkhu and persists, he should be understood thus: 'This venerable one does not understand in such a way that he would have no greed; thus greed overcomes him and persists. This venerable one does not understand in such a way that he would have no hatred . . . no delusion(moha) . . . no anger . . . no hostility . . . no denigration , . . no insolence . . . no miserliness . . . no evil envy . . . no evil desire; thus evil desire overcomes him and persists'

"Friends, making a declaration-of-development, a bhikkhu says: 'I am developed in body, virtuous behavior, mind, and panna(divine knowledge)' If, however, greed overcomes that bhikkhu and persists; if hatred . . . evil desire overcomes that bhikkhu and per sists, he should be understood thus: 'This venerable one does not understand in such a way that he would have no greed; thus greed overcomes him and persists. This venerable one does not understand in such a way that he would have no hatred . . . no evil desire; thus evil desire overcomes him and persists'

"Friends, making a declaration of knowledge and develop ment, a bhikkhu says: 'I know this Dhamma, I see this Dhamma. I am developed in body, virtuous behavior, mind, and panna(divine knowledge)' If, however, greed overcomes that bhikkhu and persists; if hatred . . evil desire [43] overcomes that bhikkhu and persists, he should be understood thus: 'This venerable one does not understand in such a way that he would have no greed; thus greed overcomes him and persists. This venerable one does not understand in such a way that he would have no hatred ... no evil desire; thus evil desire overcomes him and persists'

"Suppose a poor, destitute, and needy person claims to be rich, affluent, and wealthy. If, when he wants to buy something, he cannot pay with money, grain, silver, or gold, they would know him as a poor, destitute, and needy person claiming to be rich, affluent, and wealthy. For what reason? Because when he wants to buy something, he cannot pay with money, grain, silver, or gold.

"So too, friends, making a declaration of knowledge and development, a bhikkhu says: 'I know this Dhamma, I see this Dhamma. I am developed in body, virtuous behavior, mind, and panna(divine knowledge) 'If, however, greed overcomes that bhikkhu and persists . . . evil desire overcomes that bhikkhu and persists, he should be understood thus: 'This venerable one does not understand in such a way that he would have no greed; thus greed overcomes him and persists. This venerable one does not understand in such a way that he would have no hatred , . . [44] . . . no evil desire; thus evil desire overcomes him and persists'

"Friends, making a declaration of knowledge, a bhikkhu says: 'I know this Dhamma, I see this Dhamma' If greed does not overcome that bhikkhu and persist; if hatred . . . delusion(moha), . . anger . . . hostility . . . denigration . . . insolence . . . miserliness . . . evil envy . . . evil desire does not overcome that bhikkhu and persist, he should be understood thus: 'This venerable one understands in such a way that he has no greed; thus greed does not overcome him and persist. This venerable one understands in such a way that he has no hatred . . . no evil desire; thus evil desire does not overcome him and persist'

"Friends, making a declaration of development, a bhikkhu says: 'I am developed in body, virtuous behavior, mind, and panna(divine knowledge)' If greed does not overcome that bhikkhu and persist; if hatred . -. . evil desire does hot overcome that bhikkhu and persist, he should be understood thus: 'This venerable one understands in such a way that he has no greed; thus greed does not overcome him and persist. This venerable one understands in such a way that he has no hatred . . . no evil desire; thus evil desire does not overcome him and persist'

"Friends, making a declaration of knowledge and develop ment, a bhikkhu says: 'I know this Dhamma, I see this Dhamma. I am developed in body, virtuous behavior, mind, and panna(divine knowledge)' If greed does not overcome that bhikkhu and persist; if hatred . . . evil desire does not overcome that bhikkhu and persist, he should be understood thus: 'This venerable one under stands in such a way that he has no greed; [45] thus greed does not overcome him and persist. This venerable one understands in such a way that he has no hatred . . . no evil desire; thus evil desire does not overcome him and persist.'

"Suppose a rich, affluent, and wealthy person claims to be rich, affluent, and wealthy. If, when he wants to buy something, he can pay with money, grain, silver, or gold, they would know him as a rich, affluent, and wealthy person who claims to be rich, affluent, and wealthy. For what reason? Because when he wants to buy something, he can pay with money, grain, silver, or gold.

"So too, friends, making a declaration of knowledge and development, a bhikkhu(monk) says: 'I know this Dhamma, I see this Dhamma. I am developed in body, virtuous behavior, mind, and panna(divine knowledge)'. If greed docs not overcome that bhikkhu and persist; if hatred . . . delusion(moha) . . . anger . . . hostility . . . denigration . . . insolence . . . miserliness . . . evil envy . . . evil desire does not overcome that bhikkhu and persist, he should be understood thus: 'This venerable one understands in such a way that he has no greed; thus greed does not overcome him and persist. This venerable one understands in such a way that he has no hatred . . . no evil desire; thus evil desire does not overcome him. and persist" [46]


25 Kasinas[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(monks), there are these ten kasina bases. 995 What ten? One person perceives the earth kasina above, below, across, nondual, measureless. 1996 One person perceives the water kasina . . . the fire kasina . . . the air kasina . . . the. blue kasina . . . the yellow kasina . . . the red kasina . . . the white kasina . , . the space kasina . . . the consciousness kasina above, below, across, nondual, measureless. These are the ten kasina bases."


26 Kali[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Venerable Mahakaccana was dwelling among the people of Avanti on Mount Pavatta at kuraraghara. Then the female lay follower Kali of Kuraraghara approached him, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him: [1997]

"Bhante, this was said by the Lord(Buddha) in 'The Maidens' Questions': [1998]

'"Having conquered the army of the pleasant and agreeable, meditating alone, I discovered bliss, the attainment of the goal, the peace of the heart. Therefore I don't form intimate ties with people, nor does intimacy with anyone get a chance with me' [47]

"How, Bhante, is the meaning of this statement that the Lord(Buddha) spoke in brief to be seen in detail?"

"Some ascetics and brahmins; sister, for whom the attainment of the earth kasina is supreme, generated it as their goal. [1999] The Lord(Buddha) directly knew to what extent the attainment of the earth kasina is supreme. Having directly known this, he saw the beginning, [2000] the danger, and the escape, and he saw the knowledge and vision of the path and the non-path. By seeing the beginning, the danger, and the escape, and by seeing the knowledge and vision of the path and the non-path, he knew the attainment of the goal, the peace of the heart.

"Some ascetics and brahmins, sister, for whom the attainment of the water kasina . . . the fire kasina . . . the air kasina . . . the blue kasina . . . the yellow kasina . . . the red kasina . . . the white kasina . . the space kasina .. . . the consciousness kasina is supreme, generated it as their goal. The Lord(Buddha) directly knew to what extent the attainment of the consciousness kasina is supreme. Having directly known this, he saw the beginning, the danger, and the escape, and he saw the knowledge and vision of the path and the non-path. By seeing the beginning, the danger, and the escape, and by seeing the knowledge And vision of the path and the non-path, he knew the attainment of the goal, the peace of the heart.

"Thus, sister, it is in such a way that the meaning should be seen in detail of this statement that the Lord(Buddha) spoke in brief in 'The Maidens' Questions':

"'Having conquered the army of the pleasant and agreeable, meditating alone, I discovered bliss, the attainment of the goal, the peace of the heart. [48] Therefore I don't form intimate ties with people, nor does intimacy with anyone succeed in my case."'


27 Great Questions (1) (Mahapanha1 Sans. Maha-prashna)[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Then, in the morning, a number of bhikkhus dressed, took their bowls and robes, and entered Savatthi for alms. Then it occurred to those bhikkhus: "It is still too early to walk for alms in Savatthi. Let us go to the park of the ascetics of other sects."

Then those bhikkhus went to the park of the ascetics of other sects. They exchanged greetings with those ascetics and, when they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, sat down to one side. Those ascetics then said to them:

"Friends, the ascetic Gotama teaches the Dhamma to his disciples in such a way as this: 'Come, bhikkhus, directly know all phenomena(dhamma). 2001 Dwell having directly known all phenomena(dhamma).' 2002 We too teach the Dhamma to our disciples in such a way as this: 'Come, friends, directly know all phenomena(dhamma). Dwell having directly known all phenomena(dhamma).' What now is the distinction, the disparity, the difference between the ascetic Gotama's [49] teaching of the Dhamma and our teaching, between his instruction and our instruction?"

Then those bhikkhus neither applauded nor rejected the statement of those ascetics. Without applauding it, without rejecting it, they rose from their seats and left, [thinking]: "We shall find out what the Lord(Buddha) has to say about this statement."

Then, when those bhikkhus had walked for alms in Savatthi, after their meal, on returning from their alms round, they approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said: "Here, Bhante, in the morning, we dressed, took our bowls and robes, and entered Savatthi for alms. .'. . [They here report the entire course of events, down to:] [50] We rose from our seats and left, [thinking]: 'We shall find out what the Lord(Buddha) has to say about this statement"

"Bhikkhus(Monks), when ascetics of other sects speak thus, they should be answered in this way: 'A question about one, a concise statement about one, an explanation of one. 2003 A question about two, a concise statement about two, an explanation of two. A question about three, a concise statement about three, an explanation of three. A question about four, a concise state ment about four, an explanation of four. A question about five, a concise statement about five, an explanation of five. A question about six, a concise statement about six, an explanation of six. A question about seven, a concise statement about seven, an explanation of seven. A question about eight, a concise statement about eight, an explanation of eight. A question about nine, a concise statement about nine, an explanation of nine. A question about ten, a concise statement about ten, an explanation of ten. If ascetics of other sects were questioned thus, they would not be able to reply and, further, they would meet with distress. For what reason? Because that would not be within their domain. I do not see anyone, bhikkhus, in the world with its devas(angels/gods), Mara, and Brahma, in this population with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas(angels/gods) and humans, who could satisfy the mind with an answer to these questions apart from the Tathagata(Buddha) or a disciple of the Tathagata(Buddha) or one who has heard it from them.

(1) "When it was said: 'A question about one, a concise state ment about one, an explanation of one' with reference to what was this said? 2004 When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted, with one thing, completely dispassionate(viraga) toward it, completely liberated from it, completely sees its delimitations, and completely breaks through its meaning, in this very life he makes an end of suffering. What one thing? All beings exist through nutriment(food). 2005 [51] When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with this one thing, completely dispassionate(viraga) toward it, completely liberated from it, completely sees its delimitations, and completely breaks through its meaning, in this very life he makes an end of suffering.

"When it was said: 'A question about one, a concise state ment about one, an explanation of one' it is with reference to this that this was said.

(2) "When it was said: 'A question about two, a concise state ment about two; an explanation of two,' with reference to what, was this said? When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with two things, completely dispassionate toward them, completely liberated from them, completely sees their delimitations, and completely breaks through their meaning, in this very life he makes an end of suffering. What two things? mind(naam) and form(body). When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with these two things ... in this very life he makes an end of suffering.

"When it was said: 'A question about two, a concise state ment about two, an explanation of two' it is with reference to this that this was said.

(3) "When it was said: 'A question about three, a concise statement about three, an explanation of three' with reference to what was this said? When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with three things, completely dispassionate(viraga) toward them, completely liberated from them, completely sees their delimitations, and completely breaks through their meaning, in this very life he makes an end of suffering. What three things? The three kinds of sensations( Vedana i.e. pleasent, painful, indifferent) . 2006 When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with these three things ... in this very life he makes an end of suffering.

"When it was said: 'A question about three, a concise state ment about three, an explanation of three' it is with reference to this that this was said.

(4) "When it was said: 'A question about four, a concise statement about four, an explanation of four' with reference to what was this said? [52] When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted(nibbida) with four things, completely dispassionate(viraga) toward them, completely liberated from them, completely sees their delimitations, and completely breaks through their meaning, in this very life he makes an end of suffering. What four things? The four kinds of nutriment (Ahara) . 2007 When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with these four things ; . . in this very life he makes an end of suffering.

"When it was said: 'A question about four, a concise state ment about four, an explanation of four' it is with reference to this that this was said.

(5) "When it was said: 'A question about five, a concise state ment about five, an explanation of five' with reference to what was this said? When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with five things, completely dispassionate(viraga) toward them, completely liberated from them, completely sees their delimitations, and completely breaks through their meaning, in this very life he makes an end of suffering. What five things? The five aggregates subject to clinging (upadana khandha). When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with these five things ... in this very life he makes an end of suffering.

"When it was said: 'A question about five, a concise state ment about five, an explanation of five,' it is with reference to this that this was said.

(6) "When it was said: 'A question about six, a concise statement about six, an explanation of six' with reference to what was this said? When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with six things, completely dispassionate(viraga) toward them, completely liberated from them, completely sees their delimitations, and completely breaks through their meaning, in this very life he makes an end of suffering. What six things? The six internal sense bases(ayatana i.e. eyes, ears, nose, taste, touch & mind). When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with these six things ... in this very life he makes an end of suffering.

"When it was said: 'A question about six, a concise statement about six, an explanation of six,' it is with reference to this that this was said.

(7) "When it was said: 'A question about seven, a concise statement about seven, an explanation of seven' with reference to what was this said? When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with seven things, completely dispassionate toward them, completely liberated from them, completely sees their delimitations, and completely breaks through their meaning, in this very life he makes an end of suffering. What seven things? The seven stations for consciousness (Vinnana). 2003 When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with these seven things ... in this very life he makes an end of suffering.

"When it was said: 'A question about seven, a concise state ment about seven, an explanation of seven' it is with reference to this that this was said.

(8) "When it was said: 'A question about eight, a concise statement about eight, an explanation of eight' with reference to what was this said? When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with eight things, completely dispassionate(viraga) toward them, completely liberated from them, completely sees their delimitations, and completely breaks through their meaning, in this very life he makes an end of suffering. What eight things ? The eight worldly conditions (lokdhamma). 2009 When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with these eight things ... in this very life he makes an end of suffering.

"When it was said: 'A question about eight, a concise state ment about eight, an explanation of eight,' it is with reference to this that this was said.

(9) "When it was said: 'A question about nine, a concise state ment about nine, an explanation of nine' with reference to what was this said? When a bhikkhu(monk) is completely disenchanted with nine things, completely dispassionate toward them, completely liberated from them, completely sees their delimitations, and completely breaks through their meaning, in this very life he makes an end of suffering. What nine things? The nine abodes of beings(Sattavasa). 2010 [54] When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with these nine things ... in this very life he makes an end of suffering.

"When it was said: 'A question about nine, a concise state ment about nine, an explanation of nine,' it is with reference to this that this was said.

(10) "When it was said: "A question about ten, a concise state ment about ten, an explanation of ten' with reference to what was this said? When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with ten things, completely dispassionate(viraga) toward them, completely liberated from them, completely sees their delimitations, and completely breaks through their meaning, in this very life he makes an end of suffering. What ten things? The ten harmful(akusala) courses of kamma(karma/deeds). 2011 When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with these ten things, completely dispassionate(viraga) toward them, completely liberated from them, completely sees their delimitations, and completely breaks through their mean ing, in this very life he makes an end of suffering,

"When it was said: ' A question about ten, a concise statement about ten, an explanation of ten' it is with, reference to this that this was said."


28 Great Questions (2) (Mahapanha2 sans. Maha-prashna)[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Kajahgala in the Bamboo Grove. Then a number of lay followers from Kajahgala approached the Bhikkhuni(nun)from Kajahgala, 2012 paid homage to her, sat down to one side and said to her:

"Noble lady, this was said by the Lord(Buddha) in 'The Great Questions': 'A question about one, a concise statement about one, an explanation of one. A question about two, a concise statement about two, an explanation of two. A question about three, a concise statement about three, an explanation of three. [55] A question about four, a concise statement about four, an explanation of four. A question about five, a concise state ment about five, an explanation of five. A question about six, a concise statement about six, an explanation of six. A question about seven, a concise statement about seven, an explanation of seven. A question about eight, a concise statement about eight, an explanation of eight. A question about nine, a concise statement about nine, an explanation of nine. A question about ten, a concise statement about ten, an explanation of ten.' How, noble lady, is the meaning of this statement that the Lord(Buddha) spoke in brief to be seen in detail?"

"Friends, I have not heard and learned this in the presence of the Lord(Buddha), nor have I heard and learned this in the presence of esteemed bhikkhus. However, listen and attend closely as I explain what it seems to mean to me."

"Yes, noble lady," those lay followers of Kajahgala replied. The Bhikkhuni(nun)of Kajahgala said this:

(1) "When it was said by the Lord(Buddha): 'A question about one, a concise statement about one, an explanation of one' with reference to what was this said? When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with one thing, completely dispassionate(viraga) toward it, completely liberated from it, completely sees its delimitations, and completely breaks through its meaning, in this very life he makes an end of suffering. What one thing? All beings exist through nutriment(food/taste). When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with this one thing, completely dispassionate toward it, completely liberated from it, completely sees its delimitations, and completely breaks through its meaning, in this very life he makes an end of suffering.

“When it was said by the Lord(Buddha): 'A question about one, a concise statement about one, an explanation of one' it is with reference to this that this was said;

(2) “When it was said by the Lord(Buddha): 'A question about two, a concise statement about two, an explanation of two' with reference to what was this said? When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with two things, completely dispassion ate toward them, completely liberated from them, completely sees their delimitations, and completely breaks through their meaning, in this very life he makes an end of suffering. What two things? Mind(Naam) and form(body). . . .

(3) . ... " What three things? The three kinds of sensations(vedana). When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with these three things ... in this very life he makes an end of suffering.

“When it was said by the Lord(Buddha): 'A question about three, a concise statement about three, an explanation of three' it is with reference to this that this was said.

(4) “When it was said by the Lord(Buddha): 'A question about four; a concise statement about four, an explanation of four' with reference to what was this said? When a bhikkhu has a mind completely well developed in four things, completely sees their delimitations, and completely breaks through their meaning, in this very life he makes an end of suffering. 2013 What four things? The four establishments of mindfulness(meditation/sati). When a bhikkhu has a mind completely well developed in these four things ... in this very life he makes an end of suffering.

“When it was said by the Lord(Buddha): "A question about four, a concise statement about four, an explanation of four' it is with reference to this that this was said.

(5) — (8) “When it was said by the Lord(Buddha): 'A question about five, a concise statement about five, an explanation of five' with reference to what was this said? When a bhikkhu has a mind completely well developed in five things, completely sees their delimitations, and completely breaks through their meaning, in this very life he makes an end of suffering. What five things? The five faculties(sense organs). 2014 . . . What six things? [57] The six elements of escape. 2015 . . . What seven things? The seven factors of enlightenment. . . .. What eight things? The noble eightfold path. When a bhikkhu has a mind completely well developed in these eight things ... in this very life he makes an end of suffering. .

"When it was said by the Lord(Buddha): 'A question about eight, a concise statement about eight, an explanation of eight' it is with reference to this that this was said.

(9) "When it was said by the Lord(Buddha): 'A question about nine, a concise statement about nine, an explanation of nine,' with reference to what was this said? When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with nine things, completely dispassionate(viraga) toward them, completely liberated from them, completely sees their delimitations, and completely breaks through their meaning, in this very life he makes an end of suffering. What nine things? The nine abodes of beings. When a bhikkhu is completely disenchanted with these nine things . . . in this very life he makes an end of suffering.

"When it was said by the Lord(Buddha): 'A question about nine, a concise statement about nine, an explanation of nine' it is with reference, to this that this was said.

(10) "When it was said by the Lord(Buddha): 'A question about ten, a concise statement about ten, an explanation of ten' with reference to what was this said? When a bhikkhu has a mind completely well developed in ten things, completely sees their delimitations, and completely breaks through their meaning, in this very life he makes an end of suffering. What ten things? The ten beneficial(kusala) courses of kamma(karma/deeds). [58] When a bhikkhu has a mind completely well developed in these ten things ... in this very life he makes an end of suffering.

"When it was said by the Lord(Buddha): 'A question about ten, a concise statement about ten, an explanation of ten' it is with reference to this that this was said.

Thus, friends, when it was said by the Lord(Buddha) in 'The Great Questions': 'A question about one, a concise statement about one, an explanation of one. ... A question about ten, a concise statement about ten, an explanation of ten' it is in such a way that I understand in detail the meaning of this statement that the Lord(Buddha) spoke in brief. But if you wish, approach the Lord(Buddha) and ask him about this matter. As the Lord(Buddha) answers you, so should you retain it in mind."

Saying, "Yes, noble lady," those lay followers of Kajahgala delighted and rejoiced in the statement of the Bhikkhuni(nun)of Kajahgala. Then they rose from their seats, paid homage to her, circumambulated her keeping the right side toward her, and approached the Lord(Buddha). They paid homage to the Lord(Buddha) , sat down to one side, and reported to the Lord(Buddha) their entire discussion with the Bhikkhuni(nun)of Kajahgala. [The Lord(Buddha) said:]

"Good, good, householders! The Bhikkhuni(nun)of Kajahgala is wise, of great panna(divine knowledge). If you had approached me and asked me about this matter, I [59] would have answered exactly as the Bhikkhuni(nun)of Kajahgala has answered. That is its meaning, and it is in this way that you should retain it in mind."


29 Kosala (1)[edit | edit source]

(1) "Bhikkhus(Monks), as far as Kasi and Kosala extend, as far as the realm of King Pasenadi of Kosala extends, there King Pasenadi of Kosala ranks as the foremost. But even for King Pasenadi there is alteration; there is change. Seeing this thus, the instructed noble disciple becomes disenchanted with it; being disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate(viraga) toward the foremost, not to speak of what is inferior.

(2) "Bhikkhus(Monks), as far as sun and moon revolve and light up the quarters with their brightness, so far the thousandfold world system extends. 2016 In that thousandfold world system there are a thousand moons, a thousand suns, a thousand Sinerus king of mountains, a thousand Jambudipas(Indias), a thousand Aparagoyanas, a thousand Uttarakurus, a thousand Pubbavidehas, and a thousand four great oceans; a thousand four great kings, a thousand [heavens ruled by] the four great kings, a thousand Tavatimsa [heavens], a thousand Yama [heavens], a thousand Tusita [heavens], a thousand [heavens] of devas(angels/gods) who delight in creation, a thousand [heavens] of devas(angels/gods) who control what is created by others, a thousand brahma worlds. As far, bhikkhus, as this thousandfold world system' extends, Mahabrahma there ranks as the foremost. But even for Mahabrahma there is alteration; there is change. Seeing this thus, the instructed noble disciple becomes disenchanted with it; being disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate toward the foremost, not to speak of what is inferior.

(3) "There comes a time, bhikkhus, when this world dissolves. When the world is dissolving, beings for the most part migrate to the devas(angels/gods) of streaming radiance. 2017 There they exist mind made, feeding on bliss(piti), self-luminous, moving through the skies, living in glory, and they remain thus for a very long time. When the world is dissolving, the devas(angels/gods) of streaming radiance rank as the foremost. But even for these devas(angels/gods) there is alteration; there is change. Seeing this thus, the instructed noble disciple becomes disenchanted with it; being disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate(viraga) toward the foremost, not to speak of what is inferior.

(4) "Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these ten kasina bases. [2018] What ten? One person perceives the earth kasina above, below, across, undivided, measureless. One person perceives the water kasina . . . the fire kasina . . . the air kasina . . . the blue kasina . . . the yellow kasina . . . the red kasina . . . the white kasina . . . the space kasina . . ..the consciousness kasina above, below, across, undivided, measureless. These are the ten kasina bases. Of these ten kasina bases, this is the foremost, namely, when one perceives the consciousness kasina above, below, across, undivided, measureless. There are beings who are perceptive in such a way. But even for beings who are perceptive in such a way there is alteration; there is change. Seeing this thus, [61] bhikkhus, the instructed noble disciple becomes disenchanted with it; being disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate(viraga) toward the foremost, not to speak of what is inferior.

(5) "Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these eight bases of overcoming. 2019 What eight?

(i) "One perceptive of forms internally sees forms externally. Limited, beautiful or ugly. Having overcome them, he is percipient thus: 'I know, I see'. This is the first basis of overcoming.

(ii) "One perceptive of forms internally sees forms externally, measureless, beautiful or ugly. Having overcome them, he is perceptive thus: 'I know, I see' This is the second basis of overcoming.

(iii) "One not perceptive of forms internally sees forms externally, limited, beautiful or ugly. Having overcome them, he is perceptive thus: 'I know, I see'. This is the third basis of overcoming.

(iv) "One not perceptive of forms internally sees forms externally, measureless, beautiful or ugly. Having overcome them, he is perceptive thus: 'I know, I see'. This is the fourth basis of overcoming.

(v) "One not perceptive of forms internally sees forms externally, blue ones, blue in color, with a blue hue, with a blue tint. Just as the flax flower is blue, blue in color, with a blue hue, with a blue tint, or just as Baranasi cloth, smoothened on both sides, might be blue, blue in color, with a blue hue, with a blue tint, so too, one not perceptive of forms internally sees forms externally, blue ones. . . . Having overcome them, he is perceptive thus: 'I know, I see'. This is the fifth basis of overcoming.

(vi) "One not perceptive of forms internally sees forms externally, yellow ones, with a yellow hue, with a yellow tint. Just as the kanikara flower is yellow, yellow in color, with a yellow hue, with a yellow tint, or just as Baranasi cloth, [62] smoothened on both sides, might be yellow, yellow in color, with a yellow hue, with a yellow tint, so too, one not perceptive of forms internally sees forms externally, yellow ones. . . . Having overcome them, he is perceptive thus: 'I know, I see'. This is the sixth basis of overcoming.

(vii) "One not perceptive of forms internally sees forms externally, red ones, with a red hue, with a red tint. Just as the bandhujivaka flower is red, red in color, with a red hue, with a red tint, or just as Baranasi cloth, smoothened on both sides, might be red, red in color with a red hue, with a red tint, so too, one not perceptive of forms internally sees forms externally, red ones. . . . Having overcome them, he is perceptive thus: 'I know, I see'. This is the seventh basis of overcoming.

(viii) "One not perceptive of forms internally sees forms externally, white ones, white in color, with a white hue, with a white tint. Just as the morning star is white, white in color, with a white hue, with a white; tint, or just as Baranasi cloth, smoothened on both sides, might be white, white in color, with a white hue, with a white tint, so too, one not perceptive of forms internally sees forms externally, white ones Having overcome them, he is perceptive thus: 'I know, I see'. This is the eighth basis of overcoming.

"These are the eight bases of overcoming. Of these eight bases of overcoming, this is the foremost, namely, that one not percipient of forms internally sees forms externally, white ones, white in color with a white hue, with a white tint, and having overcome them, he is perceptive thus: 'I know, I see.' There are beings who are perceptive in such a way. But even for beings who are perceptive in such a way there is [63] alteration; there is change. Seeing this thus, the instructed noble disciple becomes disenchanted with it; being disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate toward the foremost, not to speak of what is inferior.

(6) "Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these four modes of practice. 2020 What four? Practice that is painful with sluggish direct knowledge(abhinna); practice that is painful with quick direct knowledge(abhinna); practice that is pleasant with sluggish direct knowledge(abhinna); and practice that is pleasant with quick direct knowledge(abhinna). These are the four modes of practice. Of these four modes of practice, this is the foremost, namely, practice that is pleasant with quick direct knowledge(abhinna). There are beings who practice in such a way. But even for beings who practice in such a way there is alteration; there is change. Seeing this thus, the instructed noble disciple becomes disenchanted with it; being disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate toward the foremost, not to speak of what is inferior.

(7) "Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these four modes of perception(sanna/sangya). What four? One person perceives what is limited; another perceives what is exalted; another perceives what is measureless; and still another, [perceiving] 'There is nothing' perceives the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness. 2021 These are the four modes of perception(sanna/sangya). Of these four modes of perception(sanna/sangya), this is the foremost, namely, when, [perceiving] 'There is nothing,' one perceives the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness. There are beings who perceive in such a way. But even for beings who perceive in such a way there is alteration; there is change. Seeing this thus, the instructed noble disciple becomes disenchanted with it; being disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate toward the foremost, not to speak of what is inferior.

(8) "Bhikkhus(Monks), of the speculative views held by outsiders, this is the foremost, namely: 'I might not be and it might not be mine; I shall not be, [and] it will not be mine.' 2022 For it can be expected that one who holds such a view will not be unrepelled by existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) [64] and will not be repelled by the cessation of existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth). 2023 There are beings who hold such a view. But even for beings who hold such a view there is alteration; there is change. Seeing this thus, the instructed noble disciple becomes disenchanted with it; being disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate toward the foremost, hot to speak of what is inferior.

(9) "Bhikkhus(Monks), there are some ascetics and brahmins who proclaim supreme purification. 2024 Of those who proclaim supreme purification, this is the foremost, namely, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness, one enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception. They teach their Dhamma for the direct knowledge(abhinna) and realization of this. There are beings who assert thus. But even for those. who assert thus, there is alteration; there is change. Seeing this thus, the instructed noble disciple becomes disenchanted with it; being disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate(viraga) toward the foremost, not to speak of what is inferior.

(10) "Bhikkhus(Monks), there are some ascetics and brahmins who proclaim supreme nibbana(nirvana) in this very life. 2025 Of those who proclaim supreme nibbana(nirvana) in this very life, this is the foremost, namely, emancipation through non-clinging after one has seen as they really are the origin and passing away, the gratification, danger, and escape in regard to the six senses for contact.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), though I assert and declare [my teaching] in such a way, some ascetics and brahmins untruthfully, baselessly, falsely, and wrongly misrepresent me, [by saying]; "The ascetic Gotama does not proclaim the full understanding of sensual pleasures, the full understanding of forms, or the full under standing of sensations(vedana)'. [65] But, bhikkhus, I do proclaim the full understanding of sensual pleasures, the full understanding of forms, and the full understanding of sensations(vedana). In this very life, hungerless, quenched, and cooled, I proclaim final nibbana(nirvana) through non-clinging." 2026


30 Kosala (2)[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Now on that occasion King Pasenadi of Kosala had returned from the war front, victorious in battle, his purpose having been achieved. 2027 Then King Pasenadi of Kosala set out for the park. He went by carriage as far as the ground was suitable for a carriage, and then he dismounted from his carriage and entered the park on foot. Now on that occasion a number of bhikkhus were walking back and forth in the open air. Then King Pasenadi of Kosala approached those bhikkhus and asked them:

"Bhante, where is the Lord(Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One now dwelling? For I wish to see the Lord(Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One,"

"Great king, that is his dwelling with the closed door. Approach it quietly. Without hurrying, enter the porch, clear your throat, and tap on the bolt. The Lord(Buddha) will open the door for you."

Then, King Pasenadi of Kosala went quietly up to the dwelling with the closed door. Without hurrying, he entered the porch, cleared his throat, and tapped on the bolt. The Lord(Buddha) opened the door.

Then King Pasenadi of Kosala entered the dwelling, prostrated himself with his head at the Lord(Buddha)'s feet, and covered the Lord(Buddha)'s feet with kisses and caressed them with his hands, pronouncing his name: "Bhante, I am King Pasenadi of Kosala! Bhante, I am King [66] Pasenadi of Kosala!" 2028

"But, great king, what reasons do you have for showing such supreme honor to this body and displaying such an offering of loving-kindness(metta)?"

"Bhante, it is out of my gratitude and thankfulness that I show such supreme honor toward the Lord(Buddha) and display such an offering of loving-kindness(metta) to him.

(1) "For, Bhante, the Lord(Buddha) is practicing for the welfare of many people, for the happiness of many people; he has established many people in the noble method, that is, in the way of the good Dhamma, in the way of the beneficial(kusala) Dhamma. 2029 This is one reason I show such supreme honor toward the Lord(Buddha) and display such an offering of loving kindness to him.

(2) "Again, Bhante, the Lord(Buddha) is virtuous, of mature behavior, of noble behavior, of beneficial(kusala) behavior, possess ing beneficial(kusala) behavior. This is another reason I show such supreme honor toward the Lord(Buddha). . . .

(3) "Again, Bhante, for a long time the Lord(Buddha) has been a forest-dweller who resorts to remote lodgings in forests and jungle groves. Since that is [67] so, this is another reason I show such supreme honor toward the Lord(Buddha). . . .

(4) "Again, Bhante, the Lord(Buddha) is content with any kind of robe, almsfood, lodging, and medicines and provisions for the sick. This is another reason I show such supreme honor toward the Lord(Buddha). .. .

(5) "Again, Bhante, the Lord(Buddha) is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of reverential salutation, an unsurpassed field of merit for the world. This is another reason I show such supreme honor toward the Lord(Buddha) . ...

(6) "Again, Bhante, the Lord(Buddha) gets to hear at will, with out trouble or difficulty, talk concerned with the austere life that leads to the elimination [of defilements], that is conducive to opening up the heart, that is, talk on fewness of desires, on contentment, on solitude, on not getting bound up [with others], on arousing energy(exertion/viriya), on virtuous behavior, on samadhi(self absorption/trance), on panna(divine knowledge), on liberation, on the knowledge and vision of liberation. This is another reason I show such supreme honor toward the Lord(Buddha). . . .

(7) "Again, Bhante, the Lord(Buddha) gains at will, without trouble or difficulty, the four jhanas(trance states) that constitute the higher mind and are pleasant dwellings in this very life. [68] This is another reason I show such supreme honor toward the Lord(Buddha) ...

(8) "Again, Bhante, the Lord(Buddha) recollects his manifold past abodes(of past rebirths), that is, one rebirth, two rebirths, three rebirths, four rebirths, five rebirths, ten rebirths, twenty rebirths, thirty rebirths, forty rebirths, fifty rebirths, a hundred rebirths, a thousand rebirths, a hundred thousand rebirths, many eons of world-dissolution, many eons of world-evolution, many eons of world-dissolution and world-evolution thus: "There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such iny life span; passing away from there, I was reborn elsewhere, and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life span; passing away from there, I was reborn here'. Thus he recollects his manifold past abodes(of past rebirths) with their aspects and details. Since that is so, this is another reason I show such supreme honor toward the Lord(Buddha). ...

(9) " Again, Bhante, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, the Lord(Buddha) sees beings passing away and being reborn, inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he understands how beings fare, in accordance with their kamma(karma/deeds) thus:. 'These beings who engaged in misconduct by body, speech, and mind, who reviled the noble ones, [69] held wrong view, and undertook kamma(karma/deeds) based on wrong view, with the breakup of the body, after death, have been reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell; but these beings who engaged in good conduct by body, speech, and mind, who did not revile the noble ones,, who held right view, and undertook kamma(karma/deeds) based on right view, with the breakup of the body, after death, have been reborn in a good destination, in the heavenly world'. Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and being reborn, inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he understands how beings fare in accordance with their kamma. Since that is so, this is another reason I show such supreme honor toward the Lord(Buddha). ...

(10) "Again, Bhante, with the destruction of the taints, the Lord(Buddha) has realized for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by wisdom, and having entered upon it, he dwells in it. Since that is so, this is another reason I show such supreme honor toward the Lord(Buddha) and display such an offering of loving-kindness(metta) to him.

"And now, Bhante, we must be going. We are busy and have much to do."

"You may go, great king, at your own convenience."

Then King Pasenadi of Kosala rose from his seat, paid homage to the Lord(Buddha), circumambulated him keeping the right side toward him, and departed. [70]



IV. Upali[edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


31 Upali[edit | edit source]

Then the Venerable Upali approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

"Bhante, on how many grounds has the Tathagata(Buddha) prescribed the training rules 2030 for his disciples and recited the Patimokkha?"

"It is, Upali, on ten grounds that the Tathagata(Buddha) has prescribed the training rules for his disciples and recited the Patimokkha. What ten? (1) For the well-being of the Sangha; (2) for the ease of the Sangha; (3) for keeping recalcitrant persons in check; (4) so that welk-behaved bhikkhus can dwell at ease; (5) for the restraint of taints pertaining to this present life; (6) for the dispelling of taints pertaining to future lives; (7) so that those with out confidence might gain confidence; and (8) for increasing, [the confidence] of those with confidence; (9) for the continuation of the good Dharma; and (10) for promoting discipline.

"If is on these ten grounds that the Tathagata(Buddha) has prescribed the training rules for his disciples and recited the Patimokkha."


32 Suspending [2031] (Patimokkhatthapana)[edit | edit source]

"Bhante, how many reasons are there for suspending the Patimokkha?"

"There are, Upali, ten reasons for suspending the Patimokkha. What ten? (1) One who has committed a parajika is sitting in that assembly; (2) a discussion about one who has committed a parajika is underway; 2032 (3) one not fully ordained is sitting in that assembly; [71] (4) a discussion about one not fully ordained is underway; (5) one who has given up the training is sitting in that assembly; (6) a discussion about one who has given up the training is underway; (7) a eunuch is sitting in that assembly; 2033 (8) a discussion about a eunuch is underway; (9) a seducer of a Bhikkhuni(nun)is sitting in that assembly; 2034 (10) a discussion about a seducer of a Bhikkhuni(nun)is underway. These are the ten reasons for suspending the Patimokkha."


33 Adjudication (Ubbahika)[edit | edit source]

"Bhante, how many qualities should a bhikkhu possess to be agreed upon to adjudicate [in a disciplinary issue]?" 2035

"A bhikkhu who possesses ten qualities, Upali, may be agreed upon to adjudicate [in a disciplinary issue]. What ten? (1) Here, a bhikkhu is virtuous; he dwells restrained by the Patimokkha, possessed of good conduct and resort, seeing danger in minute faults. Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them. (2) He has learned much, remembers what he has learned, and accumulates what he has learned. Those teachings that are good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, which proclaim the perfectly complete and pure brahmacariya(celibate holy life) — such teachings as these he has learned much of, retained in mind, recited verbally, investigated mentally, and penetrated well by view. (3) Both Patimokkhas have been well transmitted to him in detail, well analyzed, well mastered, well determined in terms of the rules and their detailed explication. (4) He is firm in the discipline, immovable. (5) He is able to convince those on both sides of the issue, to describe matters to them, to persuade them, to demonstrate to them, and to placate them. (6) He is skilled in the origination and [72] settlement of disciplinary issues. (7) He knows what a disciplinary issue is. 2036 (8) He knows the origin of a disciplinary issue. (9) He knows the cessation of a disciplinary issue. (10) He knows the way leading to the cessation of a disciplinary issue. 2037 A bhikkhu who possesses these ten qualities may be agreed upon to adjudicate [in a disciplinary issue]."


34 Full Ordination (Upasampada)[edit | edit source]

"Bhante, how many qualities should a bhikkhu possess to give full ordination?"

"A bhikkhu(monk) who possesses ten qualities, Upali, may give full ordination. What ten? (1 ) Here, a bhikkhu is virtuous ... he trains in them. (2) He has learned much . . . and penetrated well by view. (3) Both Patimokkhas have been well transmitted to him in detail, well analyzed, well mastered, well determined in terms of the rules and their detailed explication. (4) He is able to look after a patient or to get someone else to look after him. (5) He is able to eliminate one's dissatisfaction or to get someone else to eliminate it. (6) He is able to use the Dhamma(path) to dispel regrets that might arise [in his pupils]. (7) He is able to dissuade them, by way of the Dhamma, from erroneous views that have arisen. (8) He is able to encourage them in the higher virtuous behavior. (9) He is able to encourage them in the higher mind. (10) He is able to encourage them in the higher panna(divine knowledge). A bhikkhu who possesses these ten qualities may give full ordination." [73]


35 Dependence (Nissaya)[edit | edit source]

"Bhante, how many qualities should a bhikkhu possess to give dependence?"

"A bhikkhu who possesses ten qualities, Upali, may give dependence. What ten?" .. .

[The same ten qualities as in the preceding sutta.]

"A bhikkhu who possesses these ten qualities may give dependence." .


36 Novice [2038](Samanera)[edit | edit source]

"Bhante, how many qualities should a bhikkhu possess to be attended upon by a novice?" ...

"A bhikkhu who possesses ten qualities, Upali, may be attended upon by a novice. What ten?" ...

[The same ten qualities as in 10:34.]

"A bhikkhu who possesses these ten qualities may be attended upon by a novice."


37 Schism (1) (Sanghabheda1)[edit | edit source]

"Bhante, it is said: 'Schism in the Sangha, schism in the Sangha' How, Bhante, is there schism in the Sangha?"

"Here, Upali, (1) bhikkhus explain non-Dhamma(wrong path) as Dhamma, (2) and Dhamma(path) as non-Dhamma(wrong path). (3) They explain non discipline as discipline, [74] and (4) discipline as non-discipline. (5) They explain what has not been stated and uttered by the Tathagata(Buddha) as having been stated and uttered by him, and (6) what has been stated and uttered by the Tathagata(Buddha) as not having been stated and uttered by him. (7) They explain what has not been practiced by the Tathagata(Buddha) as having been practiced by him, and (8) what has been practiced by the Tathagata(Buddha) as not having been practiced by him. (9) They explain what has not been prescribed by the Tathagata(Buddha) as having been prescribed by him, and (10) what has been prescribed by the Tathagata(Buddha) as not having been prescribed by him. On these ten grounds they withdraw and go apart. They perform legal acts separately and recite the Patimokkha separately. It is in this way, Upali, that there is schism in the Sangha."


38 Schism (2) (Sanghabheda1)[edit | edit source]

"Bhante, it is said: "Concord in the Sangha, concord in the Sangha.' How is there concord in the Sangha?"

"Here, Upali, (1) bhikkhus explain non-Dhamma(wrong path) as non Dhamma, and (2) Dhamma as Dhamma (3) They explain non discipline as non-discipline, and (4) discipline as discipline. (5) They explain what has not been stated and uttered by the Tathagata(Buddha) as not having been stated and uttered by him, and (6) what has been stated and uttered by the Tathagata(Buddha) as having been stated and uttered by him. (7) They explain what has not been practiced by the Tathagata(Buddha) as not having been practiced by him, and (8) what has been practiced by the Tathagata(Buddha) as having been practiced by him. (9) They explain what has not been prescribed by the Tathagata(Buddha) as not having been prescribed by him, and (10) what has been prescribed by the Tathagata(Buddha) as having been prescribed by him. On these ten grounds, they do not withdraw and go apart. They do not perform legal acts separately or recite the Patimokkha separately. It is in this way, Upali, that there is concord in the Sangha." [75]


39 Ananda (1)[edit | edit source]

Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

"Bhante, it is said: "Schism in the Sangha, schism in the Sangha' How is there schism in the Sangha?"

"Here, Ananda, (1) bhikkhus explain non-Dhamma(wrong path) as Dhamma . . . [as in 10:37] . . . and (10) what has been prescribed by the Tathagata(Buddha) as not having been prescribed by him. On these ten grounds they withdraw and go apart. They perform legal acts separately and recite the Patimokkha separately. It is in this way, Ananda, that there is schism in the Sangha." 2039

"But, Bhante, when one causes schism in a harmonious Sangha, what does one generate?"

"One generates evil lasting for an eon, Ananda." 2040 "But, Bhante, what is that evil lasting for an eon?"

"One is tormented in hell for an eon, Ananda." [76] One who causes schism in the Sangha is bound for misery, bound for hell, to abide there for an eon.

Delighting in factions, established in non-Dhamma(wrong path), he falls away from security from bondage.

Having caused schism in a harmonious Sangha, he is tormented in hell for an eon.


40 Ananda (2)[edit | edit source]

"Bhante,. it is said: 'Concord in the Sangha, concord in the Sangha'. How is there concord in the Sangha?"

"Here, Ananda, (1) bhikkhus explain non-Dhamma(wrong path) as non Dhamma . . . [as in 10:38] . . . and (10) what has been prescribed by the Tathagata(Buddha) as having been prescribed by him. On these ten grounds they do not withdraw and go apart. They do not perform legal acts separately or recite the Patimokkha separately. It is in this way, Ananda, that there is concord in the Sangha." 2041

"But, Bhante, when one reconciles a divided Sangha, what does one generate?" "One generates divine merit, Ananda." "But, Bhante, what is divine merit?" "One rejoices in heaven for an eon, Ananda." [77] Pleasant is concord in the Sangha, and the mutual help 2042 of those who live in concord. Delighting in concord, established in Dhamma, one does not fall away from security from bondage. Having brought concord to the Sangha, one rejoices in heaven for an eon.



V. Insults (Akkosa sans. Akrosh)[edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


41 Disputes (Vivada)[edit | edit source]

Then the Venerable Upali approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

"Bhante, why is it that arguments, quarrels, contention, and disputes arise in the Sangha and bhikkhus do not dwell at ease?"

"Here, Upali, (1) bhikkhus explain non-Dhamma(wrong path) as Dhamma . . . [as in 10:37] . . . [78] . . . and (10) what has been prescribed by the Tathagata(Buddha) as not having been prescribed by him. This, Upali, is why arguments, quarrels, contention, and disputes arise in the Sangha and bhikkhus do not dwell at ease."


42 Roots of Disputes (1) (Vivadamula1)[edit | edit source]

"Bhante, how many roots of disputes are there?"

"There are, Upali, ten roots of disputes. What ten? Here, (1) bhikkhus explain non-Dhamma(wrong path) as Dhamma . . : [as in 10:37] — and (10) what has been prescribed by the Tathagata(Buddha) as not having been prescribed by him. These, Upali, are the ten roots of disputes."


43 Roots of Disputes (2) (Vivadamula2)[edit | edit source]

"Bhante, how many roots of disputes are there?"

"There are, Upali, ten roots of disputes. What ten? Here, (1) bhikkhus explain what is no offense as an offense, and (2) what is an offense as no offense. (3) They explain a light offense as a grave offense, and (4) a grave offense as a light offense. (5) They explain a coarse offense as not a coarse offense, and (6) an offense that is not coarse as a coarse offense. (7) They explain a remediable offense as an irremediable offense, and (8) an irremediable offense as a remediable offense. [79] (9) They explain an offense with redress as an offense without redress, and (10) an offense without redress as an offense with redress. 2043 These, Upali, are the ten roots of disputes."


44 Kusinara[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Kusinara, in the forest thicket of oblations. There the Lord(Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus: "Bhikkhus!"

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), a bhikkhu who wishes to reprove another person should examine himself with respect to five things and establish five things in himself before he reproves the other person, 2044 With respect to what five things should he examine himself?

(1) "Bhikkhus(Monks), a bhikkhu who wishes to reprove another should examine himself thus: 'Is my bodily behavior pure? Do I possess bodily behavior that is pure, flawless, and irreproachable? Does this quality exist in me or not?" If the bhikkhu's bodily behavior is not pure, and he does not possess bodily behavior that is pure, flawless, and irreproachable, there will be those who say to him: "Please first train yourself bodily' There will be those who say this to him.

(2) "Again, a bhikkhu who wishes to reprove another should examine himself thus: 'Is my verbal behavior pure? Do I possess verbal behavior that is pure, flawless, and irreproachable? Does this quality exist in me or not?" If the bhikkhu's verbal behavior is not pure, and he does not possess verbal behavior that is pure, flawless, and irreproachable, there will be those who say to him: "Please first train yourself verbally'. There will be those who say this to him. [80]

(3) "Again, a bhikkhu who wishes to reprove another should examine himself thus: "Have .1 established a mind of loving kindness without resentment toward my fellow monks? Does this quality exist in me or not?" If the bhikkhu has not established a mind of loving-kindness(metta) without resentment toward his fellow monks, there will be those who say to him: "Please first establish a mind of loving-kindness(metta) toward your fellow monks/ There will be those who say this to him.

(4) "'Again, a bhikkhu who wishes to reprove another should examine himself thus: "Am I learned, and do I retain and preserve what I have learned? Have I learned much of those teachings that are good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, which proclaim the perfectly complete and pure brahmacariya(celibate holy life)? Have I retained them in mind, recited them verbally, mentally investigated them, and penetrated them well by view? Does this quality exist in me or not?" If the bhikkhu is not learned . . . and has not penetrated them well by view, there will be those who say to him: "Please first learn the heritage' There will be those who say this to him.

(5) "Again, a bhikkhu who wishes to reprove another should examine himself thus: "Have both Patimokkhas been well transmitted to me in detail, well analyzed, well mastered, well determined in terms of the rules and their detailed explication? Does there exist in me this quality or not?" If both Patimokkhas [81] have not been well transmitted to him in detail ... in terms of the rules and their detailed explication, and if, when asked: "Where did the Lord(Buddha) state this?' he is unable to reply, there will be those who say to him: ' Please first learn the discipline'. There will be those who say this to him.

"It is with respect to these five things that he should examine himself.

"And what are the five things that he should establish in himself? [He should consider:] '( 6 ) I will speak at a proper time, not at an improper time; (7) I will speak truthfully, not falsely; (8) I will speak gently, not harshly; (9) I will speak in a beneficial way, not in a harmful way; (10) 'I will speak with a mind of loving-kindness(metta), not while harboring hatred'. These are the five things that he should establish in himself.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), a bhikkhu who wishes to reprove another person should examine himself with respect to these five things and establish these five things in himself before he reproves the other person."


45 Entering King's Inner Palace (Rajantepurappavesana)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(monks), there are these ten dangers in entering the king's inner palace. What ten?

(1) "Here, the king is sitting with his queen. The bhikkhu enters, and either the queen smiles when she sees the bhikkhu or the bhikkhu smiles when he sees the queen. The king thinks: 'Surely, something has gone on between them, or something is about to go on'. This is the first danger in entering the king's inner palace.

(2) "Again, when the king has been busy, engaged with much work, he has had intercourse with one of the women but does not remember this, and because of their relations she has become pregnant. The king thinks: 'No one [82] else has entered here except the monk. Could this be the monk's work?' This is the second danger in entering the king's inner palace.

(3) "Again, a gem has been lost in the king's inner palace. The king thinks: 'No one else has entered here except the monk. Could this be the monk's work?' This is the third danger in entering the king's inner palace.

(4) "Again, the secret deliberations of the king's inner palace have spread to others. 2045 The king thinks: 'No one else has entered here except the monk. Could this be the monk's work?' This is the fourth danger in entering the king's inner palace.

(5) "Again, in the king's inner palace a father longs for his son, or a son longs for his father. 2046 They think: 'No one else has entered here except the monk. Could this be the monk's work?' This is the fifth danger in entering the king's inner palace.

(6) "Again, the king promotes someone. Those who are upset by this, think: 'The king has close ties with the monk. Could this be the monk's work?' This is the sixth danger in entering the king's inner palace.

(7) "Again, the king demotes someone. Those who are upset by this think: 'The king has close ties with the monk. Could this be the monk's work?' This is the seventh danger in entering the king's inner palace.

(8) "Again, the king dispatches his army at an improper time. Those who are upset by this think: 'The king has close ties with the monk. Could this be the monk's work?' This is the eighth danger in entering the king's inner palace.

(9) "Again, after dispatching his army at a proper time, the king orders it to turn back while en route. Those who are upset by this think: [83] 'The king has close ties with the monk. Could this be the monk's work?' This is the ninth danger in entering the king's inner palace.

(10) "Again, in the king's inner palace there is the trampling of elephants, 21147 horses, and chariots, as well as tantalizing forms, sounds, odors, tastes, and tactile objects that are not suitable for a monk. This is the tenth danger in entering the king's inner palace.

"These, bhikkhus, are the ten dangers in entering the king's inner palace."


46 Sakyans[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling among the Sakyans at Kapilavatthu in the Banyan Tree Park. Then, on the uposatha day, a number of Sakyan lay followers approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord(Buddha) then said to them:

"Sakyans, do you observe the uposatha complete in eight factors?" 2048

"Sometimes we do, Bhante, and sometimes we don't."

"It is your misfortune and loss, Sakyans! When life is endangered by sorrow and death, you observe the uposatha complete in eight factors [only] sometimes, and sometimes you don't. What do you think, Sakyans? Suppose there was a man here who, without doing anything harmful(akusala), would earn half a kahapana daily for his work. [84] Would that suffice for calling him a clever and enterprising man?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"What do you think, Sakyans? Suppose there was a man here who, without doing anything harmful(akusala), would earn a kahapana daily for his work.. Would that suffice for calling him a clever and enterprising man?"

"Yes, Bhante."

" What do you think, Sakyans? Suppose there was a man here who, without doing anything harmful(akusala), would earn two kahapanas . . . three . , . four . . . five . ., six . . . seven . . . eight . . .nine . . . ten . . . twenty . . . thirty . . . forty.. . fifty kahapanas 2049 daily for his work. Would that suffice for calling him a clever and enter prising man?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"What do you think, Sakyans? If he earns a hundred or a thousand kahapanas day after day, deposits whatever he gains, and has a life span of a hundred years, living a hundred years, would he acquire a great mass of wealth?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"What do you think, Sakyans? On account of his wealth, because of his wealth, by reason of his wealth, could that man experience exclusively happiness for one night or one day, or for half a night or half a day?"

"No, Bhante. Why not? Because sensual pleasures are impermanent, empty, false, and deceptive."

"However, Sakyans, my disciple who dwells alertful, ardent, and resolute for ten years, practicing as I instruct him, might experience exclusively happiness for a hundred years, ten thousand years, 2050 [85] a hundred thousand years, and ten million years. 2051 And he might be a once-returner(1 rebirth,sakdagami), a non returner(no earthly rebirth,anagami), or surely a stream-enterer(7 rebirths,sotapatti).

"Let alone ten years, Sakyans. My disciple who dwells alertful, ardent, and resolute for nine years . . . eight years . . . seven years ... six years . . . five years . . . four years . . . three years . . . two years . . . one year, practicing as I instruct him, might experience exclusively happiness for a hundred years, ten thousand years, a hundred thousand years, and ten million years. And he might be a once-returner(1 rebirth,sakdagami), a non-returner(no earthly rebirth,anagami), or surely a stream-enterer(7 rebirths,sotapatti).

"Let alone one year, Sakyans. My disciple who dwells alertful, ardent, and resolute for ten months, practicing as I instruct him, might experience exclusively happiness for a hundred years, ten thousand years, a hundred thousand years, and ten million years. And he might be a once-returner(1 rebirth,sakdagami), a non-returner(no earthly rebirth,anagami), or surely a stream-enterer(7 rebirths,sotapatti).

"Let alone ten months, Sakyans. My disciple who dwells alertful, ardent, and resolute for nine months v... eight months . . . seven months . . . six months . . .five months . ... four months . . . three months . . . two months . . . one month . . .half a month, practicing as I instruct him, might experience exclusively happiness for a hundred years, ten thousand years, a hundred thousand years, and ten million years. And he might be a once-returner(1 rebirth,sakdagami), a non-returner(no earthly rebirth,anagami), or surely a stream-enterer(7 rebirths,sotapatti).

"Let alone half a month, Sakyans. My disciple who dwells alertful, ardent, and resolute for ten nights and days, practicing as I instruct him, might experience exclusively happiness for a hundred years, ten thousand years, a hundred thousand years, and ten million years. And he might be a once-returner(1 rebirth,sakdagami), a non-returner(no earthly rebirth,anagami), or surely a stream-enterer(7 rebirths,sotapatti).

"Let alone ten nights and days, Sakyans. My disciple who dwells alertful, ardent, and resolute for nine nights and days . . . eight nights and days . . . seven nights and days . . . [86] six nights and days . . . five nights and days . . . four nights and days . . . three nights and days . . . two nights and days . . ! one night and day, practicing as I instruct him, might experience exclusively happiness for a hundred years, ten thousand years, a hundred thousand years, and ten million years. And he might be a once returner(1 rebirth,sakdagami), a non-returner(no earthly rebirth,anagami), or surely a stream-enterer(7 rebirths,sotapatti).

"It is your misfortune and loss, Sakyans! When life is endangered by sorrow and death, you observe the uposatha complete in eight factors [only] sometimes, and sometimes you don't."

"From today on, Bhante, we will observe the uposatha complete in eight factors."


47 Mahali[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Vesali in the hall with the peaked roof in the Great Wood. Then Mahali the Licchavi approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

"Bhante, what is the cause and condition for the doing of bad kamma, for the occurrence of bad kamma(karma/deeds)?" 2052

"Mahali, (1) greed is a cause and condition for the doing of bad kamma(karma/deeds), for the occurrence of bad kamma(karma/deeds). (2) Hatred is a cause and condition .'. . (3) Delusion(Moha) is a cause and condition ... (4) Careless attention is a cause [87] and condition . . . (5) A wrongly directed mind is a cause and condition for the doing of bad kamma(karma/deeds), for the occurrence of bad kamma(karma/deeds). This is the cause and condition for the doing of bad kamma(karma/deeds), for the occurrence of bad kamma(karma/deeds)."

"Bhante, what is the cause and condition for the doing of good kamma(karma/deeds), for the occurrence of good kamma(karma/deeds)?"

"Mahali, (6) non-greed is a cause and condition for the doing of good kamma(karma/deeds), for the occurrence of good kamma(karma/deeds). (7) Non hatred is a cause and condition ... (8) Non-delusion(moha) is a cause and condition . . . (9) Careful attention is a cause and condition . . . (10) A rightly directed mind is a cause and condition for the doing of good kamma(karma/deeds), for the occurrence of good kamma(karma/deeds). This is the cause and condition for the doing of good kamma(karma/deeds), for the occurrence of good kamma(karma/deeds).

"If, Mahali, these ten qualities did not exist in the world, unrighteous conduct, conduct Contrary to the Dhamma, and righteous conduct, conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, would not be seen. But because these ten qualities exist in the world, unrighteous conduct, conduct contrary to the Dhamma, and righteous conduct, conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, are seen. "


48 Things[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these ten things that one who has gone forth should often reflect upon. What ten?

(1) "One who has gone forth[into hermit life] should often reflect: I have entered upon a classless condition.' 2053

(2) "One who has gone forth[into hermit life] should often reflect: 'My living is dependent upon others.' 2054 [88]

(3) "One who has gone forth[into hermit life] should often reflect: 'My deportment should be different.' 2055

(4) "One who has gone forth[into hermit life] should often reflect: 'Do I reproach myself in regard to virtuous behavior?' 2056

(5) "One who has gone forth[into hermit life] should often reflect: 'Do my wise" fellow monks, having investigated, reproach me in regard to virtuous behavior?'

(6) "One who has gone forth[into hermit life] should often reflect: 'I must be parted and separated from everyone and everything dear and agreeable to me.' 2857

(7) "One who has gone forth[into hermit life] should often reflect: 'I am the owner of my kamma(karma/deeds), the heir of my kamma(karma/deeds); I have kamma(karma/deeds) as my origin, kamma(karma/deeds) as my relative, kamma(karma/deeds) as my resort; I will be the heir of whatever kamma(karma/deeds), good or bad, that I do.'

(8) "One who has gone forth[into hermit life] should often reflect: 'How am I spending my nights and days?'

(9) "One who has gone forth[into hermit life] should often reflect: 'Do I take delight in empty huts?'

(10) "One who has gone forth[into hermit life] should often reflect: 'Have I attained any superhuman distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones, so that in my last days, when I am questioned by my fellow monks, I will not be embarrassed?'

"These, bhikkhus, are the ten things that one who has gone forth should often reflect upon."


49 Subsisting through the Body[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), these ten things subsist through the body. What ten? Cold, heat, hunger, thirst, defecation, urination, bodily restraint, verbal restraint, restraint in one's livelihood, and the formative activity of existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) that leads to renewed exis tence. 2058 These ten things subsist through the body."


50 Arguments[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park: Now on that occasion, after their meal, on returning from their alms round, a number of bhikkhus assembled in the assembly hall and were sitting together when they took to arguing and quarreling and fell into a dispute, stabbing each other with piercing words.

Then, in the evening, the Lord(Buddha) emerged from seclusion and went to the assembly hall, where he sat down on the prepared seat. The Lord(Buddha) then addressed the bhikkhus:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), what discussion were you engaged in just now as you were sitting together here? What was the conversation that was underway?"

"Here, Bhante, after our meal, on returning from our alms round, we assembled in the assembly hall and were sitting together when we took to arguing and quarreling and fell into a dispute, stabbing each other with piercing words."

"Bhikkhus(Monks), it is not suitable for you clansmen who have gone forth out of faith from the household life into hermit life to take to arguing and quarreling and to fall into a dispute, stabbing each other with piercing words.

"There are, bhikkhus, these ten principles of cordiality that create affection and respect and conduce to cohesiveness, to non-dispute, to concord, and to unity.. 2059 What ten?

(1) "Here, a bhikkhu is virtuous; he dwells restrained by the Patimokkha, possessed of good conduct and resort, seeing danger in minute faults. Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them. Since a bhikkhu is virtuous . . . this is a principle of cordiality that creates affection and respect and conduces to cohesiveness, to non-dispute, to concord, and to unity.

(2) "Again, a bhikkhu(monk) has learned much, remembers what he has learned, and accumulates what he has learned. Those teach ings that are good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, which proclaim the perfectly complete and pure brahmacariya(celibate holy life) — such teachings as these he has learned much of, retained in mind, recited verbally, [90] investigated mentally, and penetrated well by view. Since a bhikkhu has learned much . . . this is a principle of cordiality that creates affection and respect and conduces ... to unity.

(3) "Again, a bhikkhu has good friends, good companions, good comrades. Since a bhikkhu has good friends . . . this is a principle of cordiality that creates affection and respect and conduces ... to unity.

(4) "Again, a bhikkhu is easy to correct and possesses qualities that make him easy to correct; he is patient and receives instruction respectfully. Since a bhikkhu is easy to correct . . . this is a principle of cordiality that creates affection and respect and conduces ... to unity.

(5) " Again, a bhikkhu is skillful and diligent in attending to the diverse chores that are to be done for his fellow monks; he possesses appropriate investigation there,, and he is able to carry out and arrange everything properly. Since a bhikkhu is skillful and diligent . . . this is a principle of cordiality that creates affection and respect and conduces ... to unity.

(6) "Again, a bhikkhu loves the Dhamma(path) and is pleasing in his assertions, filled with a lofty joy pertaining to the Dhamma and discipline. Since a bhikkhu loves the Dhamma . . . this is a principle of cordiality that creates affection and respect and conduces ... to unity.

(7) "Again, a bhikkhu has aroused energy(exertion/viriya) for abandoning harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) and acquiring beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma); he is strong, firm in exertion, not casting off the duty of cultivating beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma). Since a bhikkhu has aroused energy(exertion/viriya) . . . [91] . . . this is a principle of cordiality that creates affection and respect and conduces ... to unity.

(8) "Again, a bhikkhu is content with any kind of robe, alms food, lodging, and medicines and provisions for the sick. Since a bhikkhu is content with any kind of robe . . . this is a principle of cordiality that creates affection and respect and conduces to unity.

(9) "Again, a bhikkhu is mindful(meditating/sati), possessing supreme mind fulness and alertness, one who remembers and recollects what was done and said long ago. Since a bhikkhu is mindful(meditating/sati) . . . this is a principle of cordiality that creates affection and respect and conduces ... to unity.

(10) "Again, a bhikkhu is wise; he possesses the panna(divine knowledge) that discerns arising and passing away, which is noble and penetrative and leads to the complete destruction of suffering. Since a bhikkhu is wise . . . this is a principle of cordiality that creates affection and respect and conduces ... to unity.

"These, bhikkhus, are the ten principles of cordiality that create affection and respect and conduce to cohesiveness, to non-dispute, to concord, and to unity." [92]



The Second Fifty[edit | edit source]

I. Minding One's Own Mind (Sacittavaggo sans. Sad-chitta-varga )[edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


51 Minding One's Own Mind (Sacitta)[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There the Lord(Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus: "Bhikkhus!"

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), a bhikkhu(monk) who is not skilled in the ways of others' minds [should train]: T will be skilled in the ways of my own mind/ It is in this way that you should train yourselves.

"And how is a bhikkhu skilled in the ways of his own mind? It is just as if a woman or a man-young, youthful, and fond of ornaments — would look at her or his own facial reflection in a clean bright mirror or in a bowl of clear water. If they see any dust or blemish there, they will make an effort to remove it. But if they do not see any dust or blemish there, they will be glad about it; and their wish fulfilled, they will think, 'How fortunate that I'm clean!' 2060 So too, self-examination is very helpful for a bhikkhu [to grow] in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma).

"[One should ask oneself:] (1) 'Am I often given to longing [93] or without longing? (2) Am I often given to ill will or with out ill will? (3) Am I often overcome by dullness and drowsiness or free from dullness and drowsiness? (4) Am I often restless or calm? (5) Am I often plagued by doubt or free from doubt? (6) Am I often angry or without anger? (7) Is my mind often defiled or undefiled? (8) Is my body often agitated or unagitated? (9) Am I often lazy or energetic? (10) Am I often unconcentrated(asamahita) or self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita)?' 2061

"If, by such self-examination!, a bhikkhu knows: 'I am often given to longing, given to ill will, overcome by dullness and drowsiness, restless, plagued by doubt, angry, defiled in mind, agitated in body, lazy, and unconcentrated(asamahita), he should put forth extraordinary desire, effort, zeal, enthusiasm, indefatigability, mindfulness, and complete comprehension(sampajanna) to abandon those same bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma). Just as one whose clothes or head had caught fire would put forth extraordinary desire, effort, zeal, enthusiasm, indefatigability, mindfulness(meditation/sati), and complete comprehension to extinguish [the fire on] his clothes or head, so too that bhikkhu should put forth extraordinary desire, effort, zeal, enthusiasm, indefatigability, mindfulness(meditation/sati), and complete comprehension to abandon those same bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma).

"But if, by such self-examination, a bhikkhu knows: 'I am often without longing, without ill will, free from dullness and drowsiness, calm, free from doubt, without anger, undefiled in mind, unagitated in body, energetic, and self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita), he should base himself on those same beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) and make a further effort to reach the destruction of the taints."


52 Sariputta[edit | edit source]

There the Venerable Sariputta addressed the bhikkhus(monks): "Friends, bhikkhus!"

"Friend!" those bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Sariputta said this:

[Identical with 10:51, but spoken by Sariputta.] [95— 96]


53 Standstill (Thiti)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), I do not praise even a standstill in beneficial(kusala) qualities, much less decline. I praise only growth in beneficial(kusala) qual ities, not a standstill or deterioration. 2062

"And how is there deterioration — not a standstill or growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma)? Mere, a bhikkhu has a certain degree of faith, virtuous behavior, learning, renunciation, panna(divine knowledge), and discernment. Those qualities of his do not remain the same or increase. This, I say, is deterioration rather than a standstill or growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma). Thus there is deterioration — not a standstill or growth-in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma).

"And how is there a standstill — not deterioration or growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma)? Mere, a bhikkhu has a certain degree of faith, virtuous behavior, learning, renunciation, panna(divine knowledge), and discernment. Those qualities of his do not deteriorate or increase. This, I say, is a standstill rather than deterioration or growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma). Thus there is a standstill — not deterioration or growth — in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma).

"And how is there growth — not a standstill or deterioration in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma)? Here, a bhikkhu has a certain degree of faith, virtuous behavior, learning, renunciation, panna(divine knowledge), and discernment. Those qualities of his do not remain the same or deteriorate. This, I say, is growth rather than a standstill or deterioration in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma). Thus there is growth-— not a standstill or deterioration— in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma).

"Bhikkhus(Monks), a bhikkhu who is not skilled in the ways of others' minds [should train]: 'I will be skilled in the ways of my own mind.' . . . [97—98] . . . [as in 10:51 down to:] . . . But if, by such self-examination, a bhikkhu knows: 'I am often without long ing , . . and self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita),' then he should base himself on those same beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) and make a further effort to reach the destruction of the taints."


54 Equanimity (Samatha)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), a bhikkhu who is not skilled in the ways of others' minds [should train]: 'I will be skilled in the ways of my own mind.' It is in this way that you should train yourselves.

"And how is a bhikkhu skilled in the ways of his own. mind? It is just as if a woman or a man — young, youthful, and fond of ornaments— would look at her or his own facial reflection in a clean bright mirror or in a bowl of clear water. If they see any dust or blemish there, they will make an effort to remove it. But if they do not see any dust or blemish there, they will be glad about it, [99] and their wish fulfilled, they will think, 'How fortunate for me that I am clean!'

"So too, bhikkhus, self-examination is very helpful for a bhikkhu [to grow] in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma): 2063 'Do I gain internal equanimity(samatha) of mind or not? Do I gain the higher panna(divine knowledge) of insight(vipassana) into phenomena(dhamma)or not?'

(1) "If, by such self-examination, a bhikkhu knows: 'I gain internal equanimity(samatha) of mind but not the higher panna(divine knowledge) of insight(vipassana) into phenomena,' he should base himself on internal serenity of mind and make an effort ( to gain the higher panna(divine knowledge) of insight(vipassana) into phenomena(dhamma). Then, some time later, he gains both internal equanimity(samatha) of mind and the higher panna(divine knowledge) of insight(vipassana) into phenomena(dhamma). )

(2) "But if, by such self-examination, he knows: 'I gain the higher panna(divine knowledge) of insight(vipassana) into phenomena(dhamma)but not internal equanimity(samatha) of mind,' he should base himself on the higher panna(divine knowledge) of insight(vipassana) into phenomena(dhamma)and make an effort to gain internal equanimity(samatha) of mind. Then, some time later, he gains both the higher panna(divine knowledge) of insight(vipassana) into phenomena(dhamma)and internal equanimity(samatha) of mind.

(3) "But if, by such self-examination, he knows: "I gain neither internal equanimity(samatha) of mind nor the higher panna(divine knowledge) of insight(vipassana) into phenomena, he should put forth extraordinary desire, effort, zeal, enthusiasm, indefatigability, mindfulness(meditation/sati), and complete comprehension to obtain both those beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma). Just as one whose clothes or head had caught fire would put forth extraordinary desire, effort, zeal, enthusiasm, indefatigability, mindfulness(meditation/sati), and complete comprehension(sampajanna) to extinguish [the fire on] his clothes or head, so that bhikkhu should put forth extraordinary desire, [100] effort, zeal, enthusiasm, indefatigability, mindfulness(meditation/sati), and complete comprehension(sampajanna) to obtain both those beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma). Then, some time later, he gains both internal equanimity(samatha) of mind and the higher panna(divine knowledge) of insight(vipassana) into phenomena(dhamma).

(4) "But if, by such self-examination, he knows: 'I gain both internal equanimity(samatha) of mind and the higher panna(divine knowledge) of insight(vipassana) into phenomena,' he should base himself on those same beneficial(kusala) qualities and make a further effort to reach the destruction of the taints.

"Robes, I say, are twofold: to be used and those not to be used. 2064 Almsfood too, I say, is twofold: that to be used and that not to be used. Lodgings too, I say, are twofold: those to be used and those not to be used. Villages or towns too, I say, are twofold: those to be resorted to and those not to be resorted to. Countries or regions too, I say, are twofold: those to be resorted to and those not to be resorted to. Persons too, I say, are two fold: those to be associated with and those not to be associated with.

(5) "When it was said: 'Robes, I say, are twofold: those to be used and those not to be used' for what reason was this said? If one knows of a robe: 'When I use this robe, harmful(akusala) qualities increase in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline' one should not use such a robe. But if one knows of a robe: 'When I use this robe, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities increase,' one should use such a robe. When it was said: 'Robes, I say, are twofold: to be used and not to be used' it is because of this that this was said.

(6) "When it was said: 'Almsfood too, I say, is twofold: that to be used and that not to be used' for what reason was this said? If one knows of some alms food: 'When I use this almsfood, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities decline' one should not use such almsfood. But if one knows of some almsfood: 'When I use this almsfood,harmful(akusala) qualities decline in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase' one should use such almsfood. When it was said: 'Almsfood too, I say, is twofold: that to be used and that not to be used' it is because of this that this was said.

(7) "When it was said: 'Lodgings too, I say, are twofold: those to be used and those not to be used' for what reason was this said? If one knows of a lodging: 'When I use this lodging, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline' one should not use such a lodging. But if one knows of a lodging: 'When I use this lodging, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase' one should use such a lodging. When it was said: 'Lodgings too, I say, are twofold: those to be used and those not to be used' it is because of this that this was said.

(8) "When it was said: 'Villages or towns too, I say, are two fold: those to be resorted to and those not to be resorted to,' for what reason was this said? If one knows of a village or town: 'When I resort to this village or town, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline' one should not resort to such a village or town. But if one knows of a village or town: 'When I resort to this village or town, harmful(akusala) qualities decline in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase' one should resort to such a village or town. When it was said: 'Villages or towns too, I say, are twofold: those to be resorted to and those not to be resorted to,' it is because of this that this was said.

(9) "When it was said: 'Countries or regions too, I say, are twofold: those to be resorted to and those not to be resorted to,' for what reason was this said? If one knows of a country or region: 'When I resort to this country or region, harmful(akusala) qualities increase in me [102] and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline/ one should not resort to such a country or region. But if one knows of a country or region: 'When I resort to this country or region, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities increase' one should resort to such a country or region. When it was said: 'Countries or regions too, I say, are twofold: those to.be resorted to and those not to be resorted to,' it is because of this that this was said."

(10) "When it was said: 'Persons too, I say, are twofold: those to be associated with and those not to be associated with,' for what reason was this said? If one knows of a person: 'When I associate with this person, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline,' one should not associate with such a person. But if one knows of a person: 'When I associate with this person, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline in me and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase,' one should associate with such a person. When it was said: 'Persons too, I say, are twofold: those to be associated with and those not to be associated with,' it is because of this that this was said."


55 Decline (Parihana)[edit | edit source]

There the Venerable Sariputta addressed the bhikkhus: "Friends, bhikkhus!"

"Friend!" those bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Sariputta said this:

"Friends, it is said: 'A person subject to decline, a person subject to decline.' In what way has the Lord(Buddha) said that a person is subject to decline, and in what way that a person is not subject to decline?"

"We would come from far away, friend, to learn the mean ing of this statement from the Venerable Sariputta. It would be good if he would clear up the meaning of this statement, [103] Having heard it from him, the bhikkhus will retain it in mind."

"Well then, friends, listen and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, friend," those bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Sariputta said this:

"In what way, friends, has the Lord(Buddha) said that a person is subject to decline? Here, a bhikkhu does not get to hear a teaching he has not heard before, forgets those teachings he has already heard, does not bring to mind those teachings with which he is already familiar, and does not understand what he has not understood. It is in this way that the Lord(Buddha) has said a person is subject to decline. 2065

"And in what way, friends, has the Lord(Buddha) said that a person is not subject to decline? Here, a bhikkhu gets to hear a teaching he has not heard before, does not forget those teach ings he has already heard, brings to mind those teachings with which he is already familiar, and understands what he has not understood. It is in this way that the Lord(Buddha) has said a person is not subject to decline.

"Friends, a bhikkhu who is not skilled in the ways of others' minds [should train]: 'I will be skilled in the ways of my own mind/ It is in this way that you should train yourselves.

"And how, friends, is a bhikkhu skilled in the ways of his own, mind? It is just as if a woman or a man— young, youthful, and fond of ornaments — Would look at her or his own facial reflection in a clean and bright mirror or in a bowl of clear water: If they see any dust or blemish there, they will make an effort to remove it. But if they do not see any dust or blemish there, they will be glad about it; [104] and their wish fulfilled, they will think, 'How fortunate for me that I'm clean!' So too/self examination is very helpful for a bhikkhu [to grow] in beneficial(kusala) qualities.

"[One should ask oneself:] (1) 'Am I often without longing? Does this quality exist in me or not? (2) Am I often without ill will? Does this quality exist in me or not? (3) Am I often free from dullness and drowsiness? Does this quality exist in me or not? (4) Am I often calm? Does this quality exist in me or not? (5) Am I often free from doubt? Does this quality exist in me or not? (6) Am I often without anger? Does this quality exist in me or not? (7) Is my mind often undefiled? Does this quality exist in me or not? (8) Do I gain internal joy of the Dhamma? Does this quality exist in me or not? (9) Do I gain internal equanimity(samatha) of mind? Does this quality exist in me or not? (10) Do I gain the higher panna(divine knowledge) of insight(vipassana) into phenomena? Does this quality exist in me or not?'

"If, by such self-examination, a bhikkhu does not see any of these beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) present in himself, then he should put forth extraordinary desire, effort, zeal, enthusiasm, inde fatigability, mindfulness(meditation/sati), and complete comprehension(sampajanna) to obtain those beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma). Just as one whose clothes or head had caught fire would put forth extraordinary desire, effort, zeal, enthusiasm, indefatigability, mindfulness(meditation/sati), and complete comprehension to extinguish [the fire on] his clothes or head, so that bhikkhu should put forth extraordinary desire, effort, zeal. enthusiasm, indefatigability, mindfulness(meditation/sati), and complete comprehension to obtain those beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma).

"But if, by such self-examination, a bhikkhu sees some beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) present in himself but not others, [105] he should base himself on those beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that he sees in himself and put forth extraordinary desire, effort, zeal, enthusiasm, indefatigability, mindfulness(meditation/sati), and complete comprehension to obtain those beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that he does not see in himself. Just as one whose clothes or head had caught fire would put forth extraordinary desire . . . to extinguish [the fire on] his clothes or head, so that bhikkhu should base himself on the beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that he sees in himself and put forth extraordinary desire ... to obtain those beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that he does not see in himself.

"But if, by such self-examination, a bhikkhu sees all these beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) present in himself, he should base himself on those same beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) and make a further effort to reach the destruction of the taints."


56 (6) Perceptions (1) (Sanna1 sans. Sangya)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), these ten perceptions(sanna/sangya), when developed and cultivated, are of great fruit and benefit, culminating in the death less, having the deathless(amata/amrit) as their goal. 2066 What ten? (1) The perception of unattractiveness, (2) the perception of death, (3) the perception of the repulsiveness of food, (4) the perception of non-delight in the entire world, (5) the perception of impermanence(aniccha/anitya), (6) the perception of suffering in the impermanent, (7) the perception of non-self in what is suffering, (8) the perception of abandoning, (9) the perception of dispassion(viraga), and (10) the perception of cessation. These ten perceptions(sanna/sangya), when developed and cultivated, are of great fruit and benefit, culminating in the deathless, having the deathless(amata/amrit) as their goal." [106]


57 Perceptions (2) (Sanna2 sans. Sangya)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), these ten perceptions(sanna/sangya), when developed and cultivated, are of great fruit and benefit, culminating in the death less, having the deathless(amata/amrit) as their goal. What ten? (1) The perception of impermanence(aniccha/anitya), (2) the perception of non-self, (3) the perception of death, (4) the perception of the repulsiveness of food, (5) the perception of non-delight in the entire world, (6) the perception of a skeleton, (7) the perception of a worm-infested corpse, (8) the perception of a livid corpse, (9) the perception of a fissured corpse, and (10) the perception of a bloated corpse. 2067 These ten perceptions(sanna/sangya), when developed and cultivated, are of great fruit and benefit, culminating in the deathless, having the deathless(amata/amrit) as their goal."


58 Roots (Mulaka)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(monks), ascetics of other sects may ask you: (1) 'In what, friends, are all things rooted? (2) Through what do they come into being? (3) From what do they originate? (4) Upon what do they converge? (5) By what are they headed? (6) What exercises authority over them? (7) What is their supervisor? (8) What is their core? (9) In what do they culminate? (10) What is their goal?' If you are asked thus, how would you answer them?" 2068

"Bhante, our teachings are rooted in the Lord(Buddha), guided by the Lord(Buddha), take recourse in the Lord(Buddha). It would be good if the Lord(Buddha) would clear up the meaning of this statement. Having heard it from him, the bhikkhus will retain it in mind."

"Then listen, bhikkhus, and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, Bhante," those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), if ascetics of other sects should ask you: 'What, friends, are all things rooted in? . ... [107] . . . What is their goal?' you should answer them as follows.

"'Friends, (1) all things are rooted in desire. (2) They come into being through attention. (3) They originate from contact. (4) They converge upon sensation(vedana). (5) They are headed by self-absorption(samadhi). (6) mindfulness(meditation/sati) exercises authority over them. (7) panna(divine knowledge) is their supervisor. (8) Liberation is their core. (9) They culminate in the deathless(amata/amrit) (state). (10) Their goal is nibbana.' 2069

"If you are asked thus, bhikkhus, it is in such a way that you should answer those ascetics of other sects."


59 Going Forth into Renunciation (Pabajja sans. Pravarjya)[edit | edit source]

"Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves thus: 'Our minds will be strengthened in accordance with [the spirit of] our going forth[into monkhood] and arisen bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) will not obsess our minds. 2070 (1) Our minds will be strengthened in the perception(sanna/sangya) of impermanence(aniccha/anitya). (2) Our minds will be strengthened in the perception(sanna/sangya) of non-self. (3) Our minds will be strengthened in the perception(sanna/sangya) of unattractiveness. (4) Our minds will be strengthened in the perception(sanna/sangya) of danger. (5) We will know the even and uneven ways of the world, 2071 and our minds will be strengthened in this perception(sanna/sangya). (6) We will know the coming into being and extermination of the world, 2072 and our minds will be strengthened in this perception(sanna/sangya). (7) We will know the origination and passing away of the world, and our minds will be strengthened in this perception(sanna/sangya). (8) Our minds will be strengthened in the perception(sanna/sangya) of abandoning. (9) Our minds will be strengthened in the perception(sanna/sangya) of dispassion(viraga). (10) Our minds will be strengthened in the perception(sanna/sangya) of cessation 2073 [108] It is in such a way that you should you train yourselves.

“When a bhikkhu's mind has been strengthened in accordance with [the spirit of] his going forth[into monkhood], and arisen bad harmful(akusala) qualities do not obsess his mind — when his mind has been strengthened in the perception(sanna/sangya) of impermanence(aniccha/anitya) . . . when his mind has been strengthened in the perception(sanna/sangya) of cessation, one of two fruits is to be expected for him: either final knowledge in this very life or, if there is a residue remaining, the state of non-returning(no earthly rebirth,anagami). "


60 Girimananda[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Mow on that occasion the Venerable Girimananda was sick, afflicted, and gravely ill. 2074 Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

“Bhante, the Venerable Girimananda is sick, afflicted, and gravely ill. It would be good if the Lord(Buddha) would visit him out of compassion."

“If, Ananda, you visit the bhikkhu Girimananda and speak to him about ten perceptions(sanna/sangya), if is possible that on hearing about them his affliction will immediately subside. What are the ten? [109]

“[Ten right perceptions(sanna/sangya) i.e.] (1) The perception(sanna/sangya) of impermanence(aniccha/anitya), (2) the perception(sanna/sangya) of non-self(Anatta), (3) the perception(sanna/sangya) of unattractiveness(Asubha), (4) the perception(sanna/sangya) of danger(Adinava), (5) the perception(sanna/sangya) of abandoning(Pahana), (6) the perception(sanna/sangya) of dispassion(Viraag), (7) the perception(sanna/sangya) of cessation(Nirodha), (8) the perception(sanna/sangya) of non-delight in the entire world(Anabhirati), (9) the perception(sanna/sangya) of impermanence(aniccha/anitya) in all conditioned phenomena(sanharas/sanskaras/emotions) , and (10) mindfulness(meditation/sati) of breathing(anapana).

(1) "And what, Ananda, is the perception(sanna/sangya) of impermanence(Aniccha sans. Anitya)? Here, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, a bhikkhu reflects thus: 'Form(rupa) is impermanent, sensation(vedana) is impermanent, perception(sanna/sangya) is impermanent, one's characteristics(sankhara/sanskar) are impermanent, consciousness is impermanent.' Thus he dwells watching(in meditation/anupassi) impermanence(aniccha/anitya) in these five aggregates subject to clinging. This is called the perception(sanna/sangya) of impermanence(aniccha/anitya).

(2) "And what, Ananda, is the perception(sanna/sangya) of non-self(Anatta sans. Anatma)? Here, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, a bhikkhu reflects thus: 'The eye is non-self, forms are non self; the ear is non-self, sounds are non-self; the nose is non-self, odors are non-self; the tongue is non-self, tastes are non-self; the body is non-self, tactile objects are non-self; the mind is non-self, mental phenomena(dhamma)are non-self.' Thus he dwells watching(in meditation/anupassi) non-self in these six internal and external sense bases. This is called the perception(sanna/sangya) of non-self.

(3) "And what, Ananda, is the perception(sanna/sangya) of unattractiveness(Asubh)? Here, a bhikkhu(monk) reviews this very body upward from the soles of the feet and downward from the tips of the hairs, enclosed in skin, as full of many kinds of impurities: 'There are in this body hair of the head, hair of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach, excrement, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, snot, fluid of the joints, urine.' Thus he dwells watching(in meditation/anupassi) unattractiveness in this body. This is called the perception(sanna/sangya) of unattractiveness.

(4) "And what, Ananda, is the perception(sanna/sangya) of danger(Adinava)? Here, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, a bhikkhu reflects thus: 'This body is the source of much pain [110] and danger; for all sorts of afflictions arise in this body, that is, eye-disease, disease of the inner ear, nose-disease, tongue disease, body-disease, head-disease, disease of the external ear, mouth-disease, tooth-disease, 2075 cough, asthma, cataract, pyrexia, fever, stomach ache, fainting, dysentery, gripes, cholera, leprosy, boils, eczema, tuberculosis, epilepsy, ringworm, itch, scab, chickenpox, scabies, haemorrhage, diabetes, hemorrhoids, cancer, fistula; illnesses originating from bile, phlegm, wind, or their combination; illnesses produced by change of climate; illnesses produced by careless behavior; illnesses produced by assault; or illnesses produced as the result of kamma(karma/deeds); and cold, heat, hunger, thirst, defecation, and urination.' Thus he dwells seeing(in meditation/anupassi) danger in this body. This is called the perception(sanna/sangya) of danger.

(5) "And what, Ananda, is the perception(sanna/sangya) of abandoning(Pahana sans. Prahan)? Here, a bhikkhu does not tolerate an arisen sensual thought; he abandons it, dispels it, terminates it, and obliterates it. He does not tolerate an arisen thought of ill will . . . an arisen thought of harming . . . bad harmful(akusala) states whenever they arise; he abandons them, dispels them, terminates them, and obliterates them. This is called the perception(sanna/sangya) of abandoning.

(6) "And what, Ananda, is the perception(sanna/sangya) of dispassion(viraga)? Here, having gone to the forest, to the root of a tree, or to an empty hut, a bhikkhu reflects thus: 'This is peaceful, this is sublime, that is, the stilling of all activities, the relinquishment of all acquisitions, the destruction of craving(tanha/trishna), dispassion, nibbana(nirvana).' This is called the perception(sanna/sangya) of dispassion. 2076

(7) "And what, Ananda, is the perception(sanna/sangya) of cessation(Nirodha)? Here, having gone to the forest, to the root of a tree, or to an empty hut, a bhikkhu reflects thus: 'This is peaceful, [HI] this is sublime, that is, the stilling of all activities, the relinquishment of all acquisitions, the destruction of craving(tanha/trishna), cessation, nibbana(nirvana).' This is called the perception(sanna/sangya) of cessation.

(8) "And what, Ananda, is the perception(sanna/sangya) of non-delight in the entire world? Here, a bhikkhu refrains from 2077 any engagement and clinging, mental standpoints, adherences, and underlying tendencies in regard to the world, abandoning them without clinging to them. This is called the perception(sanna/sangya) of non-delight in the entire world.

(9) "And what, Ananda, is the perception(sanna/sangya) of impermanence(aniccha/anitya) in all conditioned phenomena(sanharas/sanskaras/emotions) ? Here, a bhikkhu is repelled, humiliated, and disgusted by all conditioned phenomena(sanharas/sanskaras/emotions) . This is called the perception(sanna/sangya) of impermanence(aniccha/anitya) in all conditioned phenomena(dhamma). 2078

(10) "And what, Ananda, is mindfulness(meditation/sati) of breathing(anapana)? Here, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, sits down. Having folded his legs crosswise, straightened his body, and established mindfulness(meditation/sati) in front of him, just mindful(meditating/sati) he breathes in, mindful he breathes out(anapana).

"Breathing in long, he knows: 'I breathe in long'; or breathing out long, he knows: 'I breathe out long.' Breathing in short, he knows: 'I breathe in short'; or breathing out short, he knows: 'I breathe out short.' He trains thus: 'Experiencing the whole body, I will breathe in'; he trains thus: 'Experiencing the whole body, I will breathe out.' He trains thus: 'Tranquilizing the I bodily activity, I will breathe in'; he trains thus: 'Tranquilizing the bodily activity, I will breathe out.'

"He trains thus: 'Experiencing bliss(piti), I will breathe in'; he trains thus: 'Experiencing bliss(piti), I will breathe out.' He trains thus: 'Experiencing happiness, I will breathe in'; he. trains thus: 'Experiencing happiness, I will breathe out'. He trains thus: 'Experiencing the mental activity, I will breathe in'; he trains thus: 'Experiencing the mental activity, I will breathe out'. He trains thus: 'Tranquilizing the mental activity, I will breathe in'; he trains thus: 'Tranquilizing the mental activity, I will breathe out.' 2079

"He trains thus: 'Experiencing the mind, I will breathe in'; he trains thus: 'Experiencing the mind, I will breathe out.' [112] He trains thus: 'Gladdening the mind, I will breathe in'; he trains thus: 'Gladdening the mind, I will breathe out'. He trains thus: 'Concentrating the mind, I will breathe in'; he trains thus: 'Concentrating the mind, I will breathe out'. He trains thus: 'Liberating the mind, I will breathe in'; he trains thus: 'Liberating the mind, I will breathe out.' 2080

"He trains thus: 'watching(in meditation/anupassi) impermanence(aniccha/anitya), I will breathe in'; he trains thus: 'watching(in meditation/anupassi) impermanence(aniccha/anitya), I will breathe out.' He trains thus: 'watching(in meditation/anupassi) fading away, I will breathe in'; he trains thus: 'watching(in meditation/anupassi) fading away, I will breathe out' He trains thus: 'watching(in meditation/anupassi) cessation, I will breathe in'; he trains thus: 'watching(in meditation/anupassi) cessation, I will breathe out.' He trains thus: 'watching(in meditation/anupassi) relinquishment, I will breathe in'; he trains thus: 'watching(in meditation/anupassi) relinquishment, I will breathe out.'

"This is called mindfulness(meditation/sati) of breathing(anapana).

"If, Ananda, you visit the bhikkhu Girimananda and speak to him about these ten perceptions(sanna/sangya), it is possible that on hearing about them he will immediately recover from his affliction."

Then, when the Venerable Ananda had learned these ten perceptions(sanna/sangya) from the Lord(Buddha), he went to the Venerable Girimananda and spoke to him about them. When the Venerable Girimananda heard about these ten perceptions(sanna/sangya), his affliction immediately subsided. The Venerable Girimananda recovered from that affliction, and that is how he was cured of his affliction. [113] :



II. Pairs Section (Yamakavagga)[edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


61 Ignorance (Avijja sans. Avidya)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), this is said: 'A first point of ignorance, bhikkhus, is not seen such that before this there was no ignorance and afterward it came into being.' 2081 Still, ignorance is seen to have a specific condition.

"I say, bhikkhus, that ignorance has a nutriment; 2082 it is not without nutriment. And what is the nutriment for ignorance? It should be said: the five hindrances. The five hindrances, too, I say, have a nutriment; they are not without nutriment. And what is the nutriment for the five hindrances? It should be said: the three kinds of misconduct. The three kinds of misconduct, too, I say, have a nutriment; they are not without nutriment. And what is the nutriment for the three kinds of misconduct? It should be said: non-restraint of the sense faculties. Non restraint of the sense faculties, too, I say, has a nutriment; it is not without nutriment. And what is the nutriment for non restraint of the sense faculties? It should be said: lack of mind fulness and complete comprehension(sampajanna). Lack of mindfulness(meditation/sati) and complete comprehension, too, I say, has a nutriment; it is not without nutriment. And what is the nutriment for lack of mindfulness(meditation/sati) and complete comprehension(sampajanna)? It should be said: careless attention. Careless attention, too, I say, has a nutriment; it is not without nutriment. And what is the nutriment for careless attention? It should be said: lack of faith. Lack of faith, too, I say, has a nutriment; it is not without nutriment. And what is the nutriment for lack of faith? It should be said: not hearing the good Dhamma. Not hearing the good Dhamma, too, I say, has a nutriment; it is not without nutriment. And what is the nutriment for not hearing the good Dhamma? It should be said: not associating with good persons. 2083

"Thus not associating with good persons, becoming full, fills up not hearing the good Dhamma. Not hearing the good Dhamma, becoming full, fills up lack of faith. Lack of faith, becoming full, fills up careless attention. Careless attention, becoming full, fills up lack of mindfulness(meditation/sati) and complete comprehension. Lack of mindfulness(meditation/sati) and complete comprehension(sampajanna), becoming full, [114] fills up non-restraint of the sense faculties. Non-restraint of the sense faculties, becoming full, fills up the three kinds of misconduct. The three kinds of misconduct, becoming full, fill up the five hindrances. The five hindrances, becoming full, fill up ignorance. Thus there is nutriment for ignorance, and in this way it becomes full.

"Just as, when it is raining and the rain pours down in thick, droplets on a mountain top, the water flows down along the slope and fills the clefts, gullies, and creeks; these, becoming full, fill up the pools; these, becoming full, fill up the lakes; these, becoming full, fill up the streams; these, becoming full, fill up the rivers; and these, becoming full, fill up the great ocean; thus there is nutriment for the great ocean, and in this way it becomes full. So too, not associating with good persons, becoming full, fills up not hearing the good Dhamma. . . . The five hindrances, becoming full, fill up ignorance. Thus there is nutriment for ignorance, and in this way it becomes full.

"I say, bhikkhus, that (1) true knowledge and liberation have a nutriment; they are not without nutriment. And what is the nutriment for true knowledge and liberation? It should be said: (2) the seven factors of enlightenment. The seven factors of enlightenment, too, I say, have a nutriment; they are not with out nutriment. And what is the nutriment for the seven factors of enlightenment? It should be said: (3) the four establishments of mindfulness(meditation/sati). The four establishments of mindfulness(meditation/sati), too, I say, have a nutriment; they are not without nutriment. And what is the nutriment for the four establishments of mindfulness(meditation/sati)? It should be said: (4) the three kinds of good conduct. The three kinds of good conduct, too, I say, have a nutriment; they are not without nutrimentAnd what is the nutriment for the three kinds of good conduct? It should be said: (5) restraint of the sense faculties. Restraint of the sense faculties, too, I say, has a nutriment; it is not without nutriment. And what is the nutriment for restraint of the sense faculties? It should be said: (6) mindfulness(meditation/sati) and complete comprehension(sampajanna), mindfulness(meditation/sati) and complete comprehension(sampajanna), too, I say, have a nutriment; they are not without nutriment. And what is the nutriment for mindfulness(meditation/sati) and complete comprehension(sampajanna)? It should be said: (7) careful attention. Careful attention, too, I say, has a nutriment; it is not without nutriment. And what is the nutriment for careful attention? It should be said: (8) Faith. Faith, too, I say, has a nutriment; it is not without nutriment. And. what is the nutriment for faith? It should be said: (9) hearing the good Dhamma. Hearing the good Dhamma, too, I say, has a nutriment; it is not without nutriment. And what is the nutriment for hearing the good Dhamma? It should be said: (10.) associating with good persons.

"Thus associating with good persons, becoming full, fills up hearing the good Dhamma. Hearing the good Dhamma, becoming full, fills up faith. Faith, becoming full, fills up careful attention. Careful attention, becoming full, fills up mindfulness(meditation/sati) and complete comprehension(sampajanna). mindfulness(meditation/sati) and complete comprehension(sampajanna), becoming full, fill up restraint of the sense faculties. Restraint of the sense faculties, becoming full, fills up the three kinds of good conduct. The three kinds of good conduct, becoming full, fill up the four establishments of mindfulness(meditation/sati). The four establishments of mindfulness(meditation/sati), becoming full, fill up the seven factors of enlightenment. The seven factors of enlightenment, becoming full, fill up true knowledge and liberation. Thus there is nutriment for true knowledge and liberation, and in this way they become full.

"Just as, when it is raining and the rain pours down in thick droplets on a mountaintop, the water flows down along the slope and fills the clefts, gullies, and creeks; these, becoming full, fill up the pools; these, becoming full, fill up the lakes; these, becoming full, fill up the streams; these, becoming full, fill up the rivers; and these, becoming full, [116] fill up the great ocean; thus there is nutriment for the great ocean, and in this way it becomes full. So too, associating with good persons, becoming full, fills up hearing the good Dhamma. . . .The seven factors of enlightenment, becoming full, fill up true knowledge and liberation. Thus there is nutriment for true knowledge and liberation, and in this way they become full."


62 Craving (Tanha sans. Trishna)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), it is said: 'A first point of craving(tanha/trishna) for existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth), bhikkhus, is not seen such that before this there was no craving(tanha/trishna) for existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) and afterward it came into being.' Still, craving(tanha/trishna) for existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) is seen to have a specific condition,

"I say, bhikkhus, that craving(tanha/trishna) for existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) has a nutriment; it is not without nutriment. And what is the nutriment for craving(tanha/trishna) for existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth)? It should be said: ignorance. Ignorance, too, I say, has a nutriment; it is not without nutriment. And what is the nutriment for ignorance? It should be said: the five hindrances [as in 10:61] [117] . . And what is the nutriment for not hear ing the good Dhamma? It should be said: not associating with good persons...

"Thus not associating with good persons, becoming full, fills up not hearing the good Dhamma. . . . The five hindrances, becoming full, fill up ignorance. Ignorance, becoming full, fills up craving(tanha/trishna) for existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth). Thus there is nutriment for craving(tanha/trishna) for existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth), and in this way it becomes full.

"Just as, when it is raining and the rain pours down in thick droplets on a mountaintop, the water flows down along the slope . . . [118] . . . and the rivers, becoming full, fill up the great ocean; thus there is nutriment for the great ocean, and in this way it becomes full. So too, not associating with good persons, becoming full, fills up not hearing the good Dhamma . . . and ignorance, becoming full, fills up craving(tanha/trishna) for existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth). Thus there is nutriment for craving(tanha/trishna) for existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth), and in this way it becomes full.

"I say, bhikkhus(monks), that (1) true knowledge and liberation have a nutriment; they are not without nutriment. And what is the nutriment for true knowledge and liberation? It should be said: (2) the seven factors of enlightenment. . . . Hearing the good Dhamma, too, I say, has a nutriment; it is not without nutriment. And what is the nutriment for hearing the good Dhamma? It should be said: (10) associating with good persons.

"Thus associating with good persons, becoming full, fills up hearing the good Dhamma — [119] The seven factors of enlightenment, becoming full, fill up true knowledge and liberation. Thus there is nutriment for true knowledge and liberation, and in this way they become full.

"Just as, when it is raining and the rain pours down in thick droplets on a mountain top, the water flows down along the slope . . . and the rivers, becoming full, fill up the great ocean; thus there is nutriment for the great ocean, and in this way it becomes full. So too, associating with good persons, becoming full, fills up hearing the good Dhamma. . . . The seven factors of enlightenment, becoming full, fill up true knowledge and liberation. Thus there is nutriment for true knowledge and liberation, and in this way they become full."


63 Certainty (Nitthangata)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), all those who have reached certainty about me are accomplished in view. Of those accomplished in view, five gain the goal here in this world; 2084 five gain the goal having left this world.

"Who are the five that gain the goal here in this world? [120] The seven-times-at-most attainer, the family-to-family attainer, the one-seed attainer, 2085 the once-returner(1 rebirth,sakdagami), and one who, in this very life, is an arahant. These five gain the goal in this world.

"Who are the five that gain the goal having left this world? The attainer of nibbana(nirvana) in the interval, the attainer of nibbana(nirvana) upon landing, the attainer of nibbana(nirvana) without exertion, the attainer of nibbana(nirvana) through exertion, and one bound upstream, heading toward the Akanittha realm. 2086 These five gain the goal having left this world.

"All those, bhikkhus, who have reached certainty about me are accomplished in view. Of those accomplished in view, the former five gain the goal here in this world; the latter five gain the goal having left this world."


64 Unwavering (Aveccappasanna)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), all those who have unwavering confidence in me are stream-enterer(7 rebirths,sotapatti)s. 2087 Of those stream-enterers(7 rebirths,sotapatti), five gain the goal here in this world; five gain the goal having left this world.

"Who are the five that gain the goal here in this world? The seven-times-at-most attainer, the family-to-family attainer, the one-seed attainer, the once-returner(1 rebirth,sakdagami), and one who, in this very life, is an arahant. These five gain the goal here in this world.

"Who are the five that gain the goal having left this world? The attainer of nibbana(nirvana) in the interval, the attainer of nibbana(nirvana) upon landing, the attainer of nibbana(nirvana) without exertion, the attainer of nibbana(nirvana) through exertion, and one bound upstream, heading toward the Akanittha realm. These five gain the goal having left this world.

"All those, bhikkhus, who have unwavering confidence in me are stream-enterers(7 rebirths,sotapatti). Of those stream-enterers, the former five gain the goal here in this world; the latter five gain the goal having left this world."


65 Happiness (1) (Sukha1)[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Venerable Sariputta was dwelling among the Magadhans at Nalakagamaka. Then the ascetic Samandakani [121] approached the Venerable Sariputta and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to the Venerable Sariputta:

"Friend Sariputta, what is happiness? What is suffering?"

"Rebirth, friend, is suffering. No rebirth is happiness. When there is rebirth, this suffering is to be expected: cold; heat, hunger, thirst, defecation, and urination; being afflicted by fire, sticks, or knives; and relatives and friends get together and scold one. When there is rebirth, this suffering is to be expected.

"When there is no rebirth, this happiness is to be expected: no cold, no heat, no hunger, no thirst, no defecation, and no urination; not being afflicted by fire, sticks, or knives; and relatives and friends don't get together and scold one. When there is no rebirth, this happiness is to be expected."


66 Happiness (2) (Sukha2)[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Venerable Sariputta was dwelling among the Magadhans at Nalakagamaka. Then the ascetic Samandakani approached the Venerable Sariputta and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side [122] and said to the Venerable Sariputta:

"Friend Sariputta, what is happiness in this Dhamma and discipline, and what is suffering?"

"Dissatisfaction; friend, is suffering in this Dhamma and discipline. Enjoyment is happiness. When there is dissatisfaction, this suffering is to be expected. (1) When walking, one does not find happiness or comfort. (2) When standing still . . . (3) When sitting . . . (4) When lying down ... (5) When in the village ... (6) When in the forest . . . (7) When at the foot of a tree . . . (8) When in an empty hut . . . (9) When in the open air ... (10) When amid the bhikkhus, one does not find happiness or comfort. When there is dissatisfaction, this suffering is to be expected.

'"When there is enjoyment, this happiness is to be expected. (1) When walking, one finds happiness and comfort. (2) When standingstill . . . (3) When sitting . . . (4) When lying down . . . (5) When in the village . . . (6) When in the forest . . . (7) When at the foot of a tree ... . (8) When in an empty hut . . . (9) When in the open air . . . (10) When amid the bhikkhus, one finds happiness or comfort. When there is enjoyment, this happiness is to be expected."


67 Nalakapana (1)[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was wandering on tour among the Kosalans together with a large Sangha of bhikkhus when he reached the Kosalan town named Nalakapana. There at Nalakapana the Lord(Buddha) dwelled in a Palaas tree grove. Now on that occasion, on the day of the uposatha, the Lord(Buddha) was sitting surrounded by the Sangha of bhikkhus. Having instructed, encouraged, inspired, and gladdened the Sangha of bhikkhus with a Dhamma talk for much of the night, and having surveyed the utterly silent Sangha of bhikkhus, the Lord(Buddha) addressed the Venerable Sariputta: "The Sangha of bhikkhus is free from dullness and drowsiness, Sariputta. Give a [123] Dhamma talk to the bhikkhus. My back is aching, so I will stretch it."

"Yes, Bhante," the Venerable Sariputta replied.

Then the Lord(Buddha) folded his outer robe in four and lay down on his right side in the lion's posture, with one foot over lapping the other, mindful(meditating/sati) and completely comprehending, after noting in his mind the idea of rising. The Venerable Sariputta then addressed the bhikkhus: "Friends, bhikkhus!"

"Friend!" those bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Sariputta said this:

"Friends, for one who does not have faith in [cultivating] beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma), who does not have a sense of moral shame . . . who does not have moral dread . . . who does not have energy(exertion/viriya) . ..who does not have panna(divine knowledge) in [cultivating] beneficial(kusala) qualities, whether night or day comes, only deterioration and not growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) is to be expected. Just as, during the dark fortnight, whether night or day comes, the moon only deteriorates in beauty, roundness, and brightness, in diameter and circumference, so too, for one who does not have faith . . . panna(divine knowledge) in [cultivating] beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma), whether night or day comes, only deterioration and not growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities is to be expected.

(1) "A person without faith', friends: this is a case of decline. (2) 'A morally shameless person' . . . (3) 'A morally reckless person' . ... (4) 'A lazy person' . . . (5) 'An unwise person' ... . (6) 'An angry person' ; . . (7) 'A hostile person' . . . (8) 'A person of evil desires' . . . (9) 'A person with bad friends' . . . (10) 'A person who holds wrong view': this is a case of decline.

"Friends, for one who has faith in [cultivating] beneficial(kusala) qualities, for one who has a sense of moral shame . . . for one who has moral dread . . . for one who has energy(exertion/viriya) . . . [124] for one who has panna(divine knowledge) in [cultivating] beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma), whether night or day comes, only growth and not deterioration in beneficial(kusala) qualities is to be expected. Just as, during the bright fortnight, whether night or day comes, the moon only increases in beauty, roundness, and brightness, in diameter and circumference, so too, for one who has faith . . .panna(divine knowledge) in [cultivating] beneficial(kusala) qualities, whether night or day comes, only growth and not deterioration in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) is to be expected.

(1) "'A person with faith,' friends: this is a case of non-decline. (2) 'A person with a sense of moral shame' , . . (3) 'A person with moral dread' . . . (4) 'An energetic person' . . . (5) 'A wise person' . . . (6) 'A person without anger' . . I (7) 'A person without hostility' . . . (8) 'A person without evil desires' . . . (9) 'A person with good friends' . . . (10) 'A person who holds right view': this is a case of non-decline."

Then the Lord(Buddha) got up and addressed the Venerable Sariputta: "Good, good, Sariputta! Sariputta, for one who does not have faith in [cultivating] beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) . . . [the Bud dha here repeats Sariputta's entire discourse:] [125] . . . (10) 'A person who holds right view': this is a case of non-decline."


68 Nalakapana (2)[edit | edit source]

[Opening as in 10:67, down to:] [126]

The Venerable Sariputta then addressed the bhikkhus: "Friends, bhikkhus!"

"Friend!" those bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Sariputta said this:

"Friends, for one (1) who does not have faith in [cultivating] beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma), (2) who does not have a sense of moral shame . . . (3) who does not have moral dread . . . (4) who does not have energy(exertion/viriya) . . . (5) who does not have panna(divine knowledge) . . . (6) who does not lend an ear . . . (7) who does not retain the Dhamma in mind . . . (8) who does not examine the meaning . . . (9) who does not practice in accordance with the Dhamma . . ..(10) who is not alertful in [cultivating] beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma), whether night or day comes, only deterioration and not growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) is to be expected. Just as, during the dark fortnight, whether night or day comes, the moon only deteriorates in beauty, roundness, and brightness, in diameter and circumference, so too, for one who does not have faith in [cultivating] beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) . . . for one who is not alertful in [cultivating] beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma), whether night or day comes, only deterioration and not growth in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) is to be expected.

"Friends, for one (1) who has faith in [cultivating] beneficial(kusala) qualities, (2) who has a sense of moral shame . . . (3) who has moral dread . . . (4) who has energy(exertion/viriya) . . . (5) who has panna(divine knowledge) . . . (6) who lends an ear . . . (7) who retains the Dhamma in mind . . . (8) who examines the meaning . . . (9) who practices in accordance with the Dhamma . . . (10) who is alertful [cultivating] beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma), whether night or day comes, only growth and not deterioration in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) is to be expected. Just as, [127] during the bright fortnight, whether night or day comes, the moon only increases in beauty, roundness, and brightness, in diameter and circumference, so too, for one who has faith in [cultivating] beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) . . .alertfulness in [cultivating] beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma), whether night or day comes, only growth and not deterioration in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) is to be expected."

Then the Lord(Buddha) got up and addressed the Venerable Sariputta: "Good, good, Sariputta! Sariputta, for one who does not have faith in [cultivating] beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) ... [the Buddha here repeats Sariputta's entire discourse down to: ] [128] . . . whether night or day comes, only growth and not deterioration in beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) is to be expected."


69 Topics of Discussion (1) (Kathavatthu1 sans. Kathavastu)[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Now on that occasion, after their meal, on returning from their alms round, a number of bhikkhus(monks) had assembled in the assembly hall and were sitting together engaging in various kinds of pointless talk, that is: talk about kings, thieves, and ministers of state; talk about armies, perils, and wars; talk about food, drink, garments, and beds; talk about garlands and scents; talk about relatives, vehicles, villages, towns, cities, and countries; talk about women and talk about heroes; street talk and talk by the well; talk about the departed; miscellaneous talk; speculation about the world and the sea; talk about becoming this or that.

Then, in the evening, the Lord(Buddha) emerged from seclusion and went to the assembly hall, where he sat down on the prepared seat. The Lord(Buddha) then addressed the bhikkhus:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), what discussion were you engaged in just now as you were sitting together here? What was the conversation that was underway?"

"Here, Bhante, after our meal, on returning from our alms round, we assembled in the assembly hall and were sitting together engaging in various kinds of pointless talk, that is: talk about kings, thieves, and ministers of state . . . talk about becoming this or that."

"Bhikkhus(Monks), it is not suitable for you, [129] clansmen who have gone forth from the household life into hermit life out of faith, to engage in various kinds of pointless talk, that is: talk about kings, thieves, and ministers of state ... talk about becoming this or that.

"There are, bhikkhus, these ten topics of discussion. What ten? Talk on fewness of desires, on contentment, on solitude, on not being bound up with others, on arousing energy(exertion/viriya), on virtuous behavior, on samadhi(self absorption/trance), on panna(divine knowledge), on liberation, on knowledge and vision of liberation (Vimutti-nana-dassana sans. Vimukti-gyan-darshan). These are the ten topics of discussion.

"If, bhikkhus, you engage in discussion on any of these ten topics, your splendor might surpass even the splendor of the sun and moon, as powerful and mighty as they are, how much more then that of the ascetics of other sects!"


70 Topics of Discussion (2) (Kathavatthu2 sans. Kathavastu)[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Now on that occasion, after their meal, on returning from their alms round, a number of bhikkhus had assembled in the assembly hall and were sitting together engaging in various kinds of pointless talk, that is: talk about kings, thieves, and ministers of state . . . talk about becoming this or that. 2088

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these ten grounds for praise. What ten? [130]

(1) "Here, a bhikkhu is himself of few desires and speaks to the bhikkhus on fewness of desires. This is a ground for praise: 'The bhikkhu is himself of few desires and speaks to the bhikkhus on fewness of desires.'

(2) "He is himself content and speaks to the bhikkhus on contentment. This is a ground, for praise: 'The bhikkhu is himself content '

(3) "He is himself given to solitude and speaks to the bhikkhus on solitude. This is a ground for praise: 'The bhikkhu is himself given to solitude. . . . ' .

(4) "He is himself not bound up with others and speaks to the bhikkhus on not being bound up with others. This is a ground for praise: 'The bhikkhu is himself not bound up with others. . . '

(5) "He is himself energetic and speaks to the bhikkhus on arousing energy(exertion/viriya). This is a ground for praise: 'The bhikkhu is himself energetic. . . . '

(6) "He is himself accomplished in virtuous behavior and speaks to the bhikkhus on accomplishment(sampada) in virtuous behavior. This is a ground for praise: 'The bhikkhu is himself accomplished in virtuous behavior. . . . '

(7) "He is himself accomplished in samadhi(self absorption/trance) and speaks to the bhikkhus on accomplishment(sampada) in samadhi(self absorption/trance). This is a ground for praise: 'The bhikkhu is himself accomplished in samadhi(self absorption/trance). . . .'

(8) "He is himself accomplished in panna(divine knowledge) and speaks to the bhikkhus on accomplishment(sampada) in panna(divine knowledge). This is a ground for praise: 'The bhikkhu is himself accomplished in panna(divine knowledge) '

(9) "He is himself accomplished in liberation and speaks to the bhikkhus on accomplishment(sampada) in liberation. This is a ground for praise: 'The bhikkhu(monk) is himself accomplished in liberation. . . . '

(10) "He is himself accomplished in the knowledge and vision of liberation and speaks to the bhikkhus on accomplishment(sampada) in the knowledge and vision of liberation (Vimutti-nana-dassana sans. Vimukti-gyan-darshan). This is a ground for praise: 'The bhikkhu is himself accomplished in the knowledge and vision of liberation and speaks to the bhikkhus on accomplishment in the knowledge and vision of liberation (Vimutti-nana-dassana sans. Vimukti-gyan-darshan)'.

"These, bhikkhus, are the ten grounds for praise."



III. Wish Section (Akankhavaggo sans. Akankshavarga)[edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


71 Wish [2039] (Akankha sans. Akanksha)[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There the Lord(Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus(monks): "Bhikkhus!"

"Venerable sir." those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"Bhikkhus(Monks), be observant of virtuous behavior and observant of the Patimokkha. Dwell restrained by the Patimokkha, possessed of good conduct and resort, seeing danger in minute faults. Having undertaken them, train in the training rules.

(1) "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I be pleasing and agree able to my fellow monks, respected and esteemed by them, let him fulfill virtuous behavior, be devoted to internal equanimity(samatha) of mind, not neglect the jhanas(trance states), be possessed of insight(vipassana), and resort to empty huts.

(2) "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I gain robes, alms food, lodging, and medicines and provisions for the sick, let him fulfill virtuous behavior . . . and resort to empty huts.

(3) "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May the services of those whose robes, almsfood, lodging, and medicines and provisions for the sick I use be of great fruit and benefit to them,' let him fulfill virtuous behavior . . . and resort to empty huts.

(4) "If a bhikkhu should wish: [132] 'When my deceased relatives and family members, after passing away, remember me with confidence in their minds, may this be of great fruit and benefit to them,' let him fulfill virtuous behavior . . . and resort to empty huts.

(5) "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I be content with any kind of robe, almsfood, lodging, and medicines and provisions for the sick.' let him fulfill virtuous behavior . . . and resort to empty huts.

(6) "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I patiently endure cold and heat; hunger and thirst; contact with flies, mosquitoes, wind, the burning sun, and serpents; and rude and offensive ways of speech. May I be able to bear up with arisen bodily sensations(vedana) that are painful, racking, sharp, piercing, harrowing, disagreeable, sapping one's vitality,' let him fulfill virtuous behavior ... and resort to empty huts.

(7) "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I become one who van quishes discontent and delight, and may discontent and delight not vanquish me. May I overcome discontent and delight when ever they arise,' let him fulfill virtuous behavior .'. . and resort to empty huts.

(8) "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I become one who vanquishes fear and terror, and may fear and terror not vanquish me. May I overcome fear and terror whenever they arise,' let him fulfill virtuous behavior . . . and resort to empty huts.

(9) "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I gain at will, without trouble or difficulty, the four jhanas(trance states) that constitute the higher mind and are pleasant dwellings in this very life,' let him fulfill virtuous behavior . . ..and resort to empty huts.

(10) "If a bhikkhu should wish: 'May I, with the destruction of the taints, realize for myself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), [133] and having entered upon it, dwell in it', let him fulfill virtuous behavior, be devoted to internal equanimity(samatha) of mind, not neglect the jhanas(trance states), be possessed of insight(vipassana), and resort to empty huts.

"When it was said: 'Bhikkhus, be observant of virtuous behavior and observant of the Patimokkha; dwell restrained by the Patimokkha, possessed of good conduct and resort, seeing danger in minute faults; having undertaken them, train in the training rules,' it is because of this that this was said."


72 Thorns (Kantaka)[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Vesali in the hall with the peaked roof in the Great Wood together with a number of very well-known elder disciples: the Venerable Cala, the Venerable Upacala, the Venerable Kakkata, the Venerable Katimbha, the Venerable Kata, the Venerable Katissanga, and other very well-known elder disciples.

Now on that occasion a number of very well-known Licchavis had entered the Great Wood in order to see the Lord(Buddha) , and as they followed one another in their finest carriages they made an uproar and a racket. It then occurred to those venerable ones: "A number of very well-known Licchavis have entered the Great Wood in order to see the Lord(Buddha), and as they follow one another in their finest carriages they are making an uproar and a racket. Now the Lord(Buddha) has called noise a thorn to the jhanas(trance states). Let us go to the Gosinga Sal Woods. [134] There we can dwell at ease, without noise and without any crowds." Then those venerable ones went to the Gosinga Sal Woods, where they dwelt at ease, without noise and crowds.

Then the Lord(Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus: "Bhikkhus(Monks), where is Cala? Where is Upacala? Where is Kakkata? Where is Katimbha? Where is Kata? Where is Katissanga? Where have those elder disciples gone?"

"Bhante, it occurred to those venerable ones: 'A number of very well-known Licchavis . . . are making an uproar and a racket. . . . Let us go to the Gosinga Sal Woods, where we can dwell at ease, without noise and crowds'. So they went to the Gosinga Sal Woods, where they dwell at ease, without noise and crowds."

"Good, good, bhikkhus! Those great disciples spoke rightly when they said that I have called noise a thorn to the jhanas(trance states). There are, bhikkhus, these ten thorns. What ten? (1) Delight in company is a thorn to one who delights in solitude. (2) Pursuit of an attractive object is a thorn to one intent on meditation on the mark of; the unattractive. (3) An unsuitable show is a thorn to one guarding the doors of the sense faculties. (4) Keeping company with women is a thorn to the celibate life. (5) Noise is a thorn to the first jhana(trance state). (6) Thought and examination are a thorn to the second jhana(trance state). (7) bliss(piti) is a thorn to the third jhana(trance state). (8) In-and-out breathing is a thorn to the fourth jhana. (9) perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana) are a thorn to the attainment of the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana). (10) lust(raag) is a thorn, hatred is a thorn, and delusion(moha) is a thorn. Dwell thornless, bhikkhus! Dwell without thorns! The arahants are thornless. The arahants are without thorns. The arahants are thornless and without thorns."


73 Wished For (Itthadhamma sans. Iccha-dharma)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these ten things that are wished for, desired, agreeable, and rarely gained in the world. What ten? (1) Wealth is wished for, desired, agreeable, and rarely gained in the world. (2) Beauty . . . (3) Health . . . (4) Virtuous behavior . . . (5) Celibacy — (6) Friends . . . (7) Learning . .". (8) panna(divine knowledge) . . . (9) Good qualities . . . (10) The heavens are wished for, desired, agreeable, and rarely gained in the world. [136] These are the ten things that are wished for, desired, agreeable, and rarely gained in the world.

"There are ten [other] things, bhikkhus, that are obstructions to these ten things that are wished for, desired, agree able, and rarely gained in the world. (1) Indolence and lack of initiative are obstructions to [the acquisition of] wealth. (2) Not adorning and beautifying oneself are obstructions to beauty. (3) Doing what is unbeneficial is an obstruction to health. (4) Bad friendship is an obstruction to virtuous behavior. (5) Non restraint of the sense faculties is an obstruction to celibacy. (6) Duplicity is an obstruction to friendships. (7) Non-recitation is an obstruction to learning. (8) Unwillingness to listen and not asking questions are obstructions to panna(divine knowledge). (9) Not applying oneself and lack of reflection are obstructions to good qualities. (10) Wrong practice is an obstruction to the heavens. These are the ten [other] things that are obstructions to those ten things that are wished for, desired, agreeable, and rarely gained in the world.

"There are ten [other] things, bhikkhus, that are nutriments for these ten things that are wished for, desired, agreeable, and rarely gained in the world. (1) Diligence and initiative are nutriments for [the acquisition of] wealth. (2) Adorning and beautifying oneself are nutriments for beauty. (3) Doing what is beneficial is a nutriment for health. (4) Good friendship is a nutriment for virtuous behavior. (5) Restraint of the sense faculties is a nutriment for celibacy. (6) Sincerity is a nutriment for friendships. (7) Recitation is a nutriment for learning. (8) Willingness to listen and asking questions are nutriments for panna(divine knowledge). (9) Applying oneself and reflection are nutriments for good qualities. (10) Right practice is a nutriment for the heavens. These are the ten [other] things that are nutriments for those ten things that are wished for, desired, agreeable, and rarely gained in the world." [137]


74 Growth 2090 (Vaddhi sans. Vriddhi)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), growing in ten ways, a noble disciple grows by a noble growth, and he absorbs the essence and the best of this life. What ten? (1) He grows in fields and land; (2) in wealth and grain; (3) in wives and children; (4) in slaves, workers, and servants; (5) in livestock; (6)— (10) in faith, virtuous behavior, learning, generosity, and panna(divine knowledge). Growing in these ten ways, a noble disciple grows by a noble growth, and he absorbs the essence and the best of this life."


One who grows here in wealth and grain,
in children, wives, and livestock,
is wealthy and famous, honored
by relatives, friends, and royalty.


Such a discerning good man —
who grows here in faith and virtuous behavior,
in panna(divine knowledge), generosity, and learning
grows in both ways in this life.


75 Migasala 2091[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Then, in the morning, the Venerable Ananda dressed, took his bowl and robe, and. went to the house of the female lay follower Migasala, where he sat down on the seat prepared for him. Then the female lay disciple Migasala approached the Venerable Ananda, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said:

"Bhante Ananda, just how should this [338] teaching of the Lord(Buddha) be understood, where one who is celibate and one who is not celibate both have exactly the same destination in their future life? My father Purana was celibate, living apart, abstaining from sexual intercourse, the common person's practice. When he died, the Lord(Buddha) declared: 'He attained to the state of a once-returner(1 rebirth,sakdagami) and has been reborn in the Tusita group [of dev as]' My paternal uncle Isidatta 2092 was not celibate but lived a contented married life. When he died, the Lord(Buddha) also declared: 'He attained to the state of a once-returner(1 rebirth,sakdagami) and has been reborn in the Tusita group [of devas(angels/gods)].' Bhante Ananda, just how should this teaching of the Lord(Buddha) be understood, where one who is celibate and one. who is not celibate both have exactly the same destination in their future life?"

"It was just in this way, sister, that the Lord(Buddha) declared it."

Then, when the Venerable Ananda had received alms food at Migasala's house, he rose from his seat and departed. After his meal, on returning from his alms round, he went to the Lord(Buddha) , paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said: "Here, Bhante, in the morning, I dressed, took my bowl and robe, and went to the house of the female lay follower Migasala. . . . [139] [all as above, down to] . . . When she asked me this, I replied: 'It was just in this way, sister, that the Lord(Buddha) declared it.'"

[The Lord(Buddha) said:] "Who, indeed, is the female lay follower Migasala, a unwise, incompetent woman with a woman's intellect? And who are those [who have] the knowledge of other persons as superior and inferior? 2093

"There are, Ananda, these ten types of persons found existing in the world. What ten?

(1) "Here, Ananda, there is one person who is immoral and does not understand as it really is that liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), where that immorality of his ceases without remainder. 2094 And he has not listened [to the teachings], become learned [in them], penetrated [them] by view, and he does not attain temporary liberation. With the breakup of the body, after death, he heads for deterioration, not for distinction; he is one going to deterioration, not to distinction.

(2) "Then, Ananda, there is one person who is immoral yet understands as it really is that liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), [140] where that immorality of his ceases without remainder. And he has listened [to the teachings], become learned [in them], penetrated [them] by view, and he attains temporary liberation. With the breakup of the body, after death, he heads for distinction, not for deterioration; he is one going to distinction, not to deterioration.

"Ananda, those who are judgmental will pass such judgment on them: 'This one has the same qualities as the other. Why should one be inferior and the other superior?' That [judgment] of theirs will indeed lead to their harm and suffering for a long time.

"Between them, Ananda, the person who is immoral, and who understands as it really is that liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), where that immorality of his ceases without remainder; who has listened [to the teachings], become learned [in them], penetrated [them] by view, and who attains tempo rary liberation, surpasses and excels the other person. For what reason? Because the Dhamma-stream carries him along. But who can know this difference except the Tathagata(Buddha)?

"Therefore, Ananda, do not be judgmental regarding people. Do not pass judgment on people. Those who pass judgment on people harm themselves. I alone, or one like me, may pass judgment on people. [141]

(3) "Then, Ananda, there is one person who is virtuous yet does not understand as it really is that liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), where that virtuous behavior of his ceases without remainder. And he has not listened [to the teachings] . . . he does not attain temporary liberation. With the breakup of the body, after death, he heads for deterioration, not for distinction; he is one going to deterioration, not to distinction.

(4) "Then, Ananda, there is one person who is virtuous and understands as it really is that liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), where that virtuous behavior of his ceases with out remainder. And he has listened [to the teachings] . . . and he attains temporary liberation. With the breakup of the body, after death, he heads for distinction, not for deterioration; he is one going to distinction, not to deterioration.

"Ananda, those who are judgmental will pass such judgment on them ... I alone, or one like me, may pass judgment on people.

(5) "Then, Ananda, there is one person who is strongly prone to lust(raag) and does not understand as it really is that liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), where that lust(raag) of his ceases with out remainder. And he has not listened [to the teachings] . . .he does not attain temporary liberation. With the breakup of the body, after death, he heads for deterioration, not for distinction; he is one going to deterioration, not to distinction.

(6) "Then, Ananda, there is one person who is strongly prone to lust(raag) yet understands as it really is that liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), where that lust(raag) of his ceases without remainder. And he has listened [to the teachings] . .'. and he attains temporary liberation. [142] With the. breakup of the body, after death, he heads for distinction, not for deterioration; he is one going to distinction, not to deterioration;

"Ananda, those who are judgmental will pass such judgment on them I alone, or one like me, may pass judgment on people.

(7) "Then, Ananda, there is one person who is prone to anger and does, not understand as it really is that liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), where that anger of his ceases without remainder. And he has not listened [to the teachings] . . .he does not attain temporary liberation. With the breakup of the body, after death, he heads for deterioration, not for distinction; he is one going to deterioration, not to distinction.

(8) "Then, Ananda, there is one person who is prone to anger yet understands as it really is that liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), where that anger of his ceases without remainder. And he has listened [to the teachings] . . . he attains temporary liberation. With the breakup of the body, after death, he heads for distinction, not for deterioration; he is one going to distinction, not to deterioration.

"Ananda, those who are judgmental will pass such judgment on them. ... I alone, or one like me, may pass judgment on people.

(9) "Then, Ananda, there is one person who is restless and does not understand as it really is that liberation of mind liberation by panna(divine knowledge), where that restlessness of his ceases without remainder. And he has not listened [to the teachings] . . .he does not attain temporary liberation. With the breakup of the body, after death, he heads for deterioration, not for distinction; he is one going to deterioration, not to distinction.

(10) "Then, Ananda, there is one person who is restless yet understands as it really is that liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), where that restlessness of his ceases without remain der. And he has listened [to the teachings], become learned [in them], penetrated [them] by view, [143] and he attains tempo rary liberation. With the breakup of the body, after death, he heads for distinction, not for deterioration; he is one going to distinction, not to deterioration.

"Ananda, those who are judgmental will pass such judgment on them: 'This one has the same qualities as the other. Why should one be inferior and the other superior? 7 That [judgment] of theirs will indeed lead to their harm and suffering for a long time.

"Between them, Ananda, the person who is restless, and who understands as it really is that liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), where that restlessness of his ceases without remain der; who has listened [to the teachings], become learned [in them], penetrated [them] by view, and who attains temporary liberation, surpasses and excels the other person. For what reason? Because the Dhamma-stream carries him along. But who can know this difference except the Tathagata(Buddha)?

"Therefore, Ananda, do not be judgmental regarding people. Do not pass judgment on people. Those who pass judgment on people harm themselves. I alone, or one like me, may pass judgment on people.

"Who, indeed, is the female lay follower Migasala, a unwise, incompetent woman with a woman's intellect? And who are those [who have] the knowledge of other persons as superior and inferior?

"These are the ten types of persons found existing in the world.

"Ananda, if Isidatta had possessed the same kind of virtuous behavior that Purana had, Purana could not have even known his destination. [144] And if Purana had possessed the same kind of panna(divine knowledge) that Isidatta had, Isidatta could not have even known his destination. In this way, Ananda, these two persons were each deficient in one respect."


76 Triple Dhamma (Tayodhamma sans. Trayo-dhamma )[edit | edit source]

(1) "Bhikkhus(Monks), if these three things 2095 were not found in the world, the Tathagata(Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One would not arise in the world, and the Dhamma(path) and discipline proclaimed by him would not shine in the world. What three? rebirth, old age, and death. If these three things were not found in the world, the Tathagata(Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One would not arise in the world, and the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by him would not shine in the world. But because these three things are found in the world, the Tathagata(Buddha), the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One arises in the world, and the Dhamma(path) and discipline proclaimed by him shines in the world.'

(2) "Without having abandoned these three things, one is incapable of abandoning rebirth, old age, and death. What three? lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha). Without having abandoned these three things, one is incapable of abandoning rebirth, old age, and death.'

( 3 ) "Without having abandoned these three things, one is incapable of abandoning lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha). What three? Personal-existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) view, doubt, and wrong grasp of behavior and observances. Without having abandoned these three things, one is incapable of abandoning lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha). [145]

(4) "Without having abandoned these, three things, one is incapable of abandoning personal-existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) view, doubt, and wrong grasp of behavior and observances. What three? Careless attention, following a wrong path, and mental sluggishness. Without having abandoned these three things, one is incapable of abandoning personal-existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) view, doubt, and wrong grasp of behavior and observances.

(5) "Without having abandoned these three things, one is incapable of abandoning careless attention, following a wrong path, and mental sluggishness. What three? Muddle-mindedness, lack of complete comprehension(sampajanna), and mental distraction. Without having abandoned these three things, one is incapable of abandoning careless attention, following a wrong path, and mental sluggishness.

(6) "Without having abandoned these three things, one is incapable of abandoning muddle-mindedness, lack of complete comprehension, and mental distraction. What three? Lack of desire to see the noble ones, lack of desire to hear the noble Dhamma, and a mind bent on criticism. Without having abandoned these three things, one is incapable of abandoning muddle-mindedness, lack of complete comprehension(sampajanna), and mental distraction.

(7) "Without having abandoned these three things, one is incapable of abandoning lack of desire to see the noble ones, lack of desire to hear the noble Dhamma, and a mind bent on criticism. What three? Restlessness, non-restraint, and immorality. Without having abandoned these three things, one is incapable of abandoning lack of desire to see the noble ones, lack of desire to hear the noble Dhamma, and a mind bent on criticism. [146]

(8) "Without having abandoned these three things, one is incapable of abandoning restlessness, non-restraint, and immorality. What three? Lack of faith, uncharitableness, and laziness. Without having abandoned these three things, one is incapable of abandoning restlessness, non-restraint, and immorality.

(9) "Without having abandoned these three things, one is incapable of abandoning lack of faith, uncharitableness, and laziness. What three? Disrespect, being difficult to correct, and bad friendship. Without having abandoned these three things, one is incapable of abandoning lack of faith, uncharitableness, and laziness,

(10) "Without having abandoned these three things, one is incapable of abandoning disrespect, being difficult to correct, and bad friendship. What three? Moral shamelessness, moral recklessness, and slothfulness. Without having abandoned these three things, one is incapable of abandoning disrespect, being difficult to correct, and bad friendship.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), one who is morally shameless and morally reckless is slothful. One who is slothful is incapable of abandoning disrespect, being difficult to correct, and bad friendship. One who has bad friends is incapable of abandoning lack of faith, uncharitableness, and lazinessOne who is lazy is incapable of abandoning restlessness, non-restraint, and immorality. One who is immoral is incapable of abandoning lack of desire to see the noble ones, lack of desire to hear the noble Dhamma, and a mind bent on criticism. One who has a mind bent on criticism is incapable of abandoning muddle-mindedness, lack of complete comprehension(sampajanna), and mental distraction. One who is [147] mentally distracted is incapable of abandoning careless attention, following a wrong path, and mental sluggishness. One who is mentally sluggish is incapable of abandoning personal existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) view, doubt, and wrong grasp of behavior and observances. One who has doubt is incapable of abandoning lust(raag), hatred, and delusion(moha). Without having abandoned lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha), one is incapable of abandoning rebirth, old age, and death.

(1) "Bhikkhus(Monks), having abandoned these three things, one is capable of abandoning rebirth, old age, and death. What three? lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha). Having abandoned these three things, one is capable of abandoning rebirth, old age, and death.

(2) "Having abandoned these three things, one is capable of abandoning lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha). What three? Personal existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) view, doubt, and wrong grasp of behavior and observances. Having abandoned these three things, one is capable of abandoning lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha).

(3) "Having abandoned these three things, one is capable of abandoning personal-existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) view, doubt, and wrong grasp of behavior and observances. What three? Careless attention, following a wrong path, and mental sluggishness. Having abandoned these three things, one is capable of abandoning personal-existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) view, doubt, and wrong grasp of behavior and observances.

(4) "Having abandoned these three things, one is capable of abandoning careless attention, following a wrong path, and mental sluggishness. What three? Muddle-mindedness, lack of complete comprehension(sampajanna), and mental distraction. Having abandoned these three things, one is capable of abandoning careless attention, following, a wrong path, and mental sluggishness. [148]

(5) "Having abandoned these three things, one is capable of abandoning muddle-mindedness, lack of complete comprehension(sampajanna), and mental distraction. What three? Lack of desire to see the noble ones, lack of desire to hear the noble Dhamma, and a mind bent on criticism. Having abandoned these three things, one is capable of abandoning muddle-mindedness, lack of complete comprehension, and mental distraction.

(6) "Having abandoned these three things, one is capable of abandoning lack of desire to see the noble ones, lack of desire to hear the noble Dhamma, and a mind bent on criticism. What three? Restlessness, non-restraint, and immorality. Having abandoned these three things, one is capable of abandoning lack of desire to see the noble ones, lack of desire to hear the noble Dhamma, and a mind bent on criticism.

(7) "Having abandoned these three things, one is capable of abandoning restlessness, non-restraint, and immorality. What three? Lack of faith, uncharitableness, and laziness. Having abandoned these three things, one is capable of abandoning restlessness, non-restraint, and immorality.

(8) "Having abandoned these three things, one is capable of abandoning lack of faith, uncharitableness, and laziness. What three? Disrespect, being difficult to correct, and bad friendship. Having abandoned these three things, one is capable of abandoning lack of faith, uncharitableness, and laziness.

(9) "Having abandoned these three things, one is capable of abandoning disrespect, being difficult to correct, and bad friendship. What three? Moral shamelessness, moral reckless ness, and slothfulness. Having abandoned these three things, one is capable of abandoning disrespect, being difficult to correct, and bad friendship.

(10) "Bhikkhus(Monks), one who has a sense of moral shame and moral dread is alertful. One who is alertful is capable of abandoning disrespect, being difficult to speak to, and bad friend ship. One who has good friends [149] is capable of abandoning lack of faith, uncharitableness, and laziness. One who is energetic is capable of abandoning restlessness, non-restraint, and immorality. One who is virtuous is capable of abandoning lack of desire to see the noble ones, lack of desire to hear the noble Dhamma, and a mind bent on criticism. One whose mind is not bent on criticism is capable of abandoning muddle-mindedness, lack of complete comprehension(sampajanna), and mental distraction. One who has an undistracted mind is capable of abandoning careless attention, following a wrong path, and mental sluggishness. One who has an unsluggish mind is capable of abandoning personal-existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) view, doubt, and wrong grasp of behavior and observances. One without doubt is capable of abandon ing lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha). Having abandoned lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha), one is capable of abandoning rebirth, old age, and death."


77 The Crow (Kaka)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), a crow has ten bad qualities. What ten? It is destructive and impudent, ravenous and voracious, cruel and pitiless, weak and raucous, muddle-minded and acquisitive. A crow has these ten bad qualities. So too, an evil bhikkhu has ten bad qualities. What ten? He is destructive and impudent, ravenous and voracious, cruel and pitiless, weak and raucous, muddle minded and acquisitive. An evil bhikkhu has these ten bad qualities." [150]


78 The Niganthas (Jains)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), the Niganthas(Jains) have ten bad qualities. What ten? (1) The Niganthas are without faith, (2) immoral, (3) morally shameless, (4) morally reckless, (5) and devoted to bad persons. (6) They extol themselves and disparage others. (7) They grasp their own views,hold to them tightly, and relinquish them with difficulty. (8) They are deceivers, (9) have evil desires, and (10) hold wrong views. 2096 The Niganthas have these ten bad qualities."


79 Grounds for Resentment (l) [2097] (Aghatavatthu)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these ten grounds for resentment. What ten? (1) [Thinking:] 'They acted for my harm' one harbors resentment. (2) [Thinking:] 'They are acting for my harm' one harbors resentment. (3) [Thinking:] 'They will act for my harm' one harbors resentment. (4) [Thinking:] 'They acted for the harm of one who is pleasing and agreeable to me' one harbors resentment. (5) [Thinking:] 'They are acting for the harm of one who is pleasing and agreeable to me' one harbors resentment. (6) [Thinking:] 'They will act for the harm of one who is pleasing and agreeable to me' one harbors resentment. (7) [Thinking:] 'They acted for the benefit of one who is displeasing and disagreeable to me' one harbors resentment. (8) [Thinking:] 'They are acting for the benefit of one who is displeasing and disagree able to me' one harbors resentment. (9) [Thinking:] 'They will act for the benefit of one who is displeasing and disagreeable to me,' one harbors resentment. (10) And one becomes angry without a reason. 2098 These, bhikkhus, are the ten grounds for resentment,"


80 Removing Resentment ( 2 ) 2099 (Aghatapativinaya)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these ten ways of removing resentment. What ten? (1) [Thinking:] 'They acted for my harm, but what can be done about it?' one removes resentment. [151] (2) [Think ing:] 'They are acting for my harm, but what can be done about it?' one removes resentment. (3) [Thinking:] 'They will act for my harm, but what can be done about it?' one removes resent ment. (4) [Thinking:] 'They acted . . (5) . . 'They are acting . . ' (6) . . . 'They will act for the harm of one who is pleasing and agreeable to me, but what can be done about it?' one removes resentment (7) [Thinking:] 'They acted. . .' (8) . . . 'They are act ing . . .' (9) . . . 'They will act for the benefit of one who is displeasing and disagreeable to me, but what can be done about it?' one removes resentment: (10) And one does hot become angry without a reason. These, bhikkhus, are the ten ways of removing resentment,"



IV. The Elders (Theravaggo sans. Sthivara-varga)[edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


81 Bahuna[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Campa on a bank of the Gaggara Lotus Pond. Then the Venerable Bahuna approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

"Bhante, from how many things is the Tathagata(Buddha) released, detached, and emancipated, that he dwells with a mind free from boundaries?" [152]

"Bahuna, it is because the Tathagata(Buddha) is released, detached, and emancipated from ten things that he dwells with a mind free from boundaries. What ten? (1) It is because the Tathagata(Buddha) is released, detached, and emancipated from form that he dwells with a mind free fromi boundaries. (2)-(5) It is because the Tathagata(Buddha) is released, detached, and emancipated from sensation(vedana) ... perception(sanna/sangya) . . . one's characteristics(sankhara/sanskar) . . . consciousness that he dwells with a mind free from boundaries. (6)-(10) It is because the Tathagata(Buddha) is released, detached, and emancipated from rebirth . . . old age . . . death . . . suffering . . . defilements that he dwells with a mind free from boundaries.

"Just as a blue, red, or white lotus flower, though born in the water and grown up in the water, rises up above the water and stands unsoiled by the water, 2100 even so, Bahuna, it is because the Tathagata(Buddha) is released, detached, and emancipated from these ten things that he dwells with a mind free from boundaries."


82 Ananda[edit | edit source]

Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord(Buddha) then said to him:

(1) "It is impossible, Ananda, that a bhikkhu without faith will achieve growth, progress, and maturity in this Dhamma and discipline(2) It is impossible that an immoral bhikkhu . . (3) ... a bhikkhu of little learning ... (4) ... a bhikkhu who is difficult to correct . . . [153] (5) . . . a bhikkhu who has bad friends . . . (6) . . . a lazy bhikkhu(monk) . . . (7) ... a muddle-minded bhikkhu ... (8) ... a bhikkhu who is not content . .. (9) .... a bhikkhu of evil desires ... (10) ... a bhikkhu who holds wrong view will achieve growth, progress, and maturity in this Dhamma and discipline. It is impossible that a bhikkhu Who possesses these ten qualities will achieve growth, progress, and maturity in this Dhamma and discipline.

(1 ) "It is possible, Ananda, that a bhikkhu endowed with faith will achieve growth, progress, and maturity in this Dhamma and discipline. (2) It is possible that a virtuous bhikkhu . . . (3) . . . a bhikkhu of much learning . . . (4) ... a bhikkhu who is easy to correct . . . (5) .. a bhikkhu who has good friends . . . (6) . . . an energetic bhikkhu . . . (7) a mindful(meditating/sati) bhikkhu . . . (8) ... a contented bhikkhu ... (9) ... a bhikkhu of few desires . . . (10) . . . a bhikkhu who holds right view will achieve growth, progress, and maturity in this Dhamma and discipline. It is possible that a bhikkhu who possesses these ten qualities will achieve growth, progress, and. maturity in this Dhamma and discipline."


83 Punniya [2101][edit | edit source]

Then the Venerable Punniya approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

"Bhante, why is it that at times the Tathagata(Buddha) is disposed to teach the Dhamma and at times is not disposed [to teach]?"

(1) "When, Punniya, a bhikkhu is endowed with faith but does not approach him, the Tathagata(Buddha) is not disposed to teach the Dhamma. (2) But when a bhikkhu is endowed with faith and approaches him, the Tathagata(Buddha) is disposed to teach. (3) "When, Punniya, a bhikkhu is endowed with faith and approaches him, but he does not attend on him . . . (4) When he attends on him but does not ask questions . . . (5) When he asks questions but does not listen to the Dhamma with eager ears . . . ( 6 ) When he listens to the Dhamma with eager ears, but having heard it, does not retain it in mind . . . (7) When, having heard it, he retains it in mind but does not examine the meaning of the teachings that have been retained in mind . . ( 8 ) When he examines the meaning of the teachings that have been retained in mind but does not [155] understand the meaning and the Dhamma and then practice in accordance with the Dhamma... (9) When he understands the meaning and the Dhamma and then practices in accordance with the Dhamma, but he is not a good speaker with a good delivery, one gifted with speech that is polished, clear, articulate, expressive of the meaning ... ( 10 ) When he is a good speaker with a good delivery, one gifted with speech that is polished, clear, articulate, expressive of the meaning, but he does not instruct, encourage, inspire, and gladden his fellow monks, the Tathagata(Buddha) is not disposed to teach the Dhamma.

"But, Punniya, (1) when a bhikkhu is endowed with faith, ( 2 ) approaches [the Tathagata(Buddha)], (3) attends on [the Tathagata(Buddha)], (4) asks questions, and (5) listens to the Dhamma with eager ears; and ( 6 ) having heard the Dhamma, he retains it in mind, (7) examines the meaning of the teachings he has retained in mind, and ( 8 ) understands the meaning and the Dhamma and then practices in accordance with the Dhamma; and (9) he is a good speaker with a good delivery, one gifted with speech that is polished, clear, articulate, expressive of the meaning; and ( 10 ) he instructs, encourages, inspires, and gladdens his fellow monks, the Tathagata(Buddha) is disposed to teach the Dhamma. When, Punniya, one possesses these ten qualities, the Tathagata(Buddha) is entirely disposed to teach the Dhamma."


84 Declaration (Byakarana sans. Vyakta-karana)[edit | edit source]

There the Venerable Mahamoggallana addressed the bhikkhus: "Friends, bhikkhus!"

"Friend," those bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Mahamoggallana said this:

"Here, friends, 4 bhikkhu declares final knowledge thus: 'I understand: "Destroyed is rebirth, the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming back to any state of being." The Tathagata(Buddha) [156] or his disciple who is a jhana(trance state)-attainer — skilled in attainment, skilled in others' minds, skilled in the ways of others' minds — questions him, interrogates him,' and cross-examines him. When he is being questioned, interrogated, and cross-examined by the Tathagata(Buddha) or his disciple, he comes to an impasse and is flustered. He meets with calamity, meets with disaster, meets with calamity and disaster.

"The Tathagata(Buddha) or his disciple who is a jhana(trance state)-attainer . . . encompasses his mind with his own mind and considers: 'Why does this venerable one declare final knowledge thus: "I under stand: 'Destroyed is rebirth, the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming back to any state of being.'"?' The Tathagata(Buddha) or his disciple, having encompassed his mind with his own mind, understands:

(1) "This venerable one is prone to anger and his mind is often obsessed by anger. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), obsession by anger is a case of decline. '

(2) "This venerable one is hostile and his mind is often obsessed by hostility. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), obsession by hostility is a case of decline.'

(3) "This venerable one is prone to denigration and his mind is often obsessed by denigration. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), obsession by denigration is a case of decline.'

(4) "This venerable one is insolent and his mind is often obsessed by insolence. But in the Dhamma(path) and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), obsession by insolence is a case of decline.'

(5) "This venerable one is envious and his mind is often obsessed by envy. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), obsession by envy is a case of decline.'

(6) "This venerable one is miserly and his mind is often obsessed by miserliness. [157] But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), obsession by miserliness is a case of decline.'

(7) "This venerable one is crafty and his mind is often obsessed by craftiness. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), obsession by craftiness is a case of decline.'

(8) "This venerable one is deceitful and his mind is often obsessed by deceitfulness. But in the Dhamma(path) and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), obsession by deceitfulness is a case of decline.'

(9) "This venerable one has evil desires and his mind is often obsessed by desire. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), obsession by desire is a case of decline.'

(10) "When there is something further to be done, 2102 this venerable one comes to a stop along the way on account of some lower achievement of distinction. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), coming to a stop along the way is a case of decline.'

"Truly, friends, it is impossible for a bhikkhu who has not abandoned these ten things to achieve growth, progress, and maturity in this Dhamma(path) and discipline. But it is possible for a bhikkhu who has abandoned these ten things to achieve growth, progress, and maturity in this Dhamma and discipline."


85 The Boaster (Katthi)[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Venerable Mahacunda was dwelling among the Cetis at Sahajati. There the Venerable Mahacunda addressed the bhikkhus:

"Friends, bhikkhus!"

"Friend!" those bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Mahacunda said this:

"Here, friends, a bhikkhu is a boaster, one who brags about achievements: 'I attain and emerge from the first jhana(trance state). I attain and emerge from the second jhana(trance state) . . . the third jhana(trance state) . . . the fourth jhana(trance state) . . . {158] . . . the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space .. , the base of the infinity of consciousness . . . the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness . . . the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception. I attain and emerge from the cessation of sensation(vedana) and perception(sanna/sangya).' The Tathagata(Buddha) or his disciple who is a jhana(trance state)-attainer — skilled in attainment, skilled in others' minds, skilled in the ways of others' minds — questions him, interrogates him, and cross examines him. When he is being questioned, interrogated, and cross-examined by the Tathagata(Buddha) or by his disciple, he comes to an impasse and is flustered. He meets with calamity, meets with disaster, meets with calamity and disaster.

"The Tathagata(Buddha) or his disciple who is a jhana(trance state)-attainer . . . encompasses his mind with his own mind and considers: 'Why is this venerable one a boaster, one who brags about achieve ments: "I attain and emerge from the first jhana(trance state) ... I attain and emerge from the cessation of sensation(vedana) and perception(sanna/sangya)"? 'The Tathagata(Buddha) or his disciple, having encompassed his mind with his own mind, understands:

(1) "For a long time this venerable one's conduct has been broken, flawed, blemished, and blotched, and he does not consistently observe and follow virtuous behavior. This venerable one is immoral. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), immorality is a case of decline.

(2) "This venerable one is without faith. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), lack of faith is a case of decline. '

(3) "This venerable one is of little learning and without proper conduct. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), little learning is a case of decline.' [159]

(4) "This venerable one is difficult to correct. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), being difficult to correct is a case of decline.'

(5) "This venerable one has bad friends. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), bad friendship is a case of decline.'

(6) "This venerable one is lazy. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), laziness is a case of decline.'

(7) "This venerable one is muddle-minded. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), muddle mindedness is a case of decline.'

(8) "This venerable one is a deceiver. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), deceitfulness is a case of decline.'

(9) "This venerable one is difficult to support. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), being difficult to support is a case of decline.'

(10) "This venerable one is unwise. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), lack of panna(divine knowledge) is a case of decline.'

"Suppose, friends, that one man would say to his companion: 'Whenever you need money for anything, my friend, just ask me and I'll give it to you', When the companion has need of money, he says to his friend: 'I need money, friend. Give me some', The other says: 'In that case, friend, dig here.' He digs there but doesn't find anything. He then says: 'You lied to me, friend, you spoke falsely when you told me to dig here'. The other says: 'I didn't lie to you, friend, I didn't speak falsely. Rather, dig there'. He digs there as well but doesn't find anything. Again, he says: 'You lied to me, friend, you spoke falsely when you told me to dig there'. The other says: 'I didn't lie to you, friend, I didn't speak falsely. [160] Rather, dig there.' He digs there as well but doesn't find anything. He then says:. 'You lied to me, friend, you spoke falsely when you told me to dig there.' 2103 The other says: 'I didn't lie to you, friend, I didn't speak falsely. I was insane, out of my mind.'

"So too, friends, a bhikkhu is a boaster, one who brags about achievements: 'I attain and emerge from the first jhana(trance state)' . . . [all as above down to:] [161] . . . (10) 'This venerable one is unwise. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), lack of panna(divine knowledge) is a case of decline.'

"Truly, friends, it is impossible for a bhikkhu who has not abandoned these ten things to achieve growth, progress, and maturity in this Dhamma and discipline. But it is possible for a bhikkhu who has abandoned these ten things to achieve growth, progress, and maturity in this Dhamma and discipline."


86 Final Knowledge (Adhimana)[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Venerable Mahakassapa was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the squirrel sanctuary. There the Venerable [162] Mahakassapa addressed the bhikkhus: "Friends, bhikkhus!"

"Friend," those bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Mahakassapa said this:

"Here, friends, a bhikkhu declares final knowledge thus: 'I understand: "Destroyed is rebirth, the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming back to any state of being" The Tathagata(Buddha) or his disciple who is a jhana(trance state)-attainer — skilled in attainment, skilled in others' minds, skilled in the ways of others' minds — questions him, interrogates him, and cross-examines him. When he is being questioned, interrogated, and cross-examined by the Tathagata(Buddha) or his disciple, he comes to an impasse and is flustered, he meets with calamity, meets with disaster, meets with calamity and disaster.

"The Tathagata(Buddha) or his disciple who is a jhana(trance state)-attainer . . . encompasses his mind with his own mind and considers: 'Why does this venerable one declare final knowledge thus: "I understand: 'Destroyed is rebirth . . . there is no more coming back to any state of being [born]'"?' The Tathagata(Buddha) or his disciple, having encompassed his mind with his own mind, understands: 'This venerable one overestimates himself, imagines that his estimate of himself is valid, thinks that he has attained what he has not attained, accomplished what he has not accomplished, and achieved what he has not achieved, and by overestimation of himself he declares final knowledge thus: "I understand: 'Destroyed is rebirth . . . there is no more coming back to any state of being."" .

"The Tathagata(Buddha) or his disciple who is a jhana(trance state)-attainer . . . encompasses his mind with his own mind and considers: 'Why does this venerable one overestimate himself and imagine that his estimate of himself is valid; why does he think that he has attained what he has not attained, accomplished what he has not accomplished, and achieved what he has not achieved; and why, by overestimation of himself, does he declare final knowledge thus: "I understand: 'Destroyed is [163] rebirth . . . there is no more coming back to any state of being"'?'

"The Tathagata(Buddha) or his disciple who is a jhana(trance state)-attainer . . . having encompassed his mind with his own mind, understands: 'This venerable one has learned much, remembers what he has learned, and accumulates what he has learned. Those teach ings that are good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, which proclaim the perfectly complete and pure brahmacariya(celibate holy life) — such teachings as these he has learned much of, retained in mind, recited verbally, investigated mentally, and penetrated well by view. Therefore this venerable one overestimates himself and imagines that his estimate of himself is valid; he thinks that he has attained what he has not attained, accomplished what he has not accomplished, and achieved what he has not achieved; and by overestimation of himself he declares final knowledge thus: "I understand: "Destroyed is rebirth . . . there is no more coming back to any state of being""

"The Tathagata(Buddha) or his disciple who is a jhana(trance state)-attainer . . . having encompassed his mind with his own mind, understands:

(1) "This venerable one is full of longing and his mind is often obsessed by longingBut in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), obsession by longing is a case of decline.'

(2) "This venerable one is full of ill will and his mind is often obsessed by ill will. But in the Dhamma(path) and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), obsession by ill will is a case Of decline.'

(3) "This venerable one is given to dullness and drowsiness and his mind is often obsessed by dullness and drowsiness. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), obsession by dullness and drowsiness is a case of decline.'

(4) "This venerable one is restless and his mind is often obsessed by restlessness. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), obsession by restlessness is a case of decline.'

(5) "This venerable one is given to doubt and his mind is often obsessed by doubt. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), obsession by doubt is a case of decline.'

(6) "This venerable one delights in work, takes delight in work, is devoted to delight in work. [164] But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), delight in work is a case of decline.'

(7) "This venerable one delights in talk, takes delight in talk, is devoted to delight in talk. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), delight in talk is a case of decline.'

(8) "This venerable one delights in sleep, takes delight in sleep, is devoted to delight in sleep. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), delight in sleep is a case of decline.'

(9) "This venerable one delights in company, takes delight in company, is devoted to delight in company. But in the Dhamma and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), delight in company is a case of decline.'

(10) "When there is something further to be done, 2104 this venerable one comes to a stop along the way on account of some lower achievement of distinction. But in the Dhamma(path) and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata(Buddha), coming to a stop along the way is a case of decline'

"Truly, friends, it is impossible for a bhikkhu who has not abandoned these ten things to achieve growth, progress, and maturity in this Dhamma and discipline. But it is possible for a bhikkhu who has abandoned these ten things to achieve growth, progress, and maturity in this Dhamma and discipline."


87 Disciplinary Issues (Nappiya)[edit | edit source]

There the Lord(Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus with reference to the bhikkhu Kalandaka: 2105 "Bhikkhus!"

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied.

The Lord(Buddha) said this:

(1) "Here, a bhikkhu is a maker of disciplinary issues and he does not speak in praise of the settlement of disciplinary issues. When a bhikkhu is a maker of disciplinary issues and does not speak in praise of the settlement of disciplinary issues, this is a quality that does not lead to affection, respect, esteem, accord, or unity. 2106 [165]

(2) "Again, a bhikkhu does not desire training and he does not speak in praise of undertaking the training. When a bhikkhu does not desire training . . . this, too, is a quality that does not lead to . . . unity.

(3) "Again, a bhikkhu has evil desires and he does not speak in praise of the removal of desire. When a bhikkhu has evil desires . . . this, too, is a quality that does not lead to . . . unity .

(4) "Again, a bhikkhu is prone to anger and he does not speak in praise of the removal of anger. When a bhikkhu is prone to anger . ..this, too, is a quality that does not lead to . . . unity.

(5) "Again, a bhikkhu(monk) is one who denigrates [others] and he does not speak in praise of the removal of denigration. When a bhikkhu is one who denigrates . . . this, too, is a quality that does not lead to . . . unity.

(6) "Again, a bhikkhu is crafty and he does not speak in praise of the removal of craftiness. When a bhikkhu is crafty . . . this, too, is a quality that does not lead to . . . unity.

(7) "Again, a bhikkhu is deceitful and he does not speak in praise of the removal of deceitfulness. When a bhikkhu is deceitful . . . this, too, is a quality that does not lead to . . . unity. [166]

(8) "Again, a bhikkhu is not inclined to pay attention to teachings and he does not speak in praise of paying attention to teachings. When a bhikkhu is not inclined to pay attention to teachings . . . this, too, is a quality that does not lead to . . . unity.

(9) "Again, a bhikkhu is not inclined to seclusion and he does not speak in praise of seclusion. When a bhikkhu is not inclined to seclusion . . . this, too, is a quality that does not lead to . . . unity. .

(10) "Again, a bhikkhu does not show hospitality to his fellow monks and he does not speak in praise of one who shows hospitality. When, a bhikkhu does not show hospitality to his fellow monks and he does not speak in praise of one who shows hospitality, this, too, is a quality that does not lead to affection, respect, esteem, accord, or unity.

"Although such a bhikkhu might wish: 'Oh, if only my fellow monks would honor, respect, esteem, and venerate me!' yet his fellow monks do not honor, respect, esteem, and venerate him. For what reason? Because his wise fellow monks see that he has not abandoned those bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma).

"Suppose a wild colt would wish: 'Oh, if only people would assign me a thoroughbred's place, feed me a thoroughbred's food, and give me a thoroughbred's grooming!' yet people do not assign him a thoroughbred's place, feed him a thoroughbred's food, and give him a thoroughbred's grooming. [167] For what reason? Because wise people see that he has not abandoned his tricks, ploys, gambits, and wiles. So too, although such a bhikkhu might wish: 'Oh, if only my fellow monks would honor, respect, esteem, and venerate mb!' yet his fellow monks do not honor, respect, esteem, and venerate him. For what reason? Because his wise fellow monks see that he has not abandoned those bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma).

(1) "But a bhikkhu is not a maker of disciplinary issues and he speaks in praise of the settlement of disciplinary issues. When a bhikkhu is not a maker of disciplinary issues and speaks in praise of the settlement of disciplinary issues, this is a quality that leads to affection, respect, esteem, accord, and unity'.

(2) "Again, a bhikkhu desires training and he speaks in praise of undertaking the training. When a bhikkhu desires training . . . this, too, is a quality that leads to . . . unity.'

(3) "Again, a bhikkhu has few desires and he speaks in praise of the removal of desire. When a bhikkhu has few desires . . . this, too, is a quality that leads to . . .unity. '

(4) "Again, a bhikkhu is not prone to anger and he speaks in praise of the removal of anger. When a bhikkhu is not prone to anger . . . this, too, is a quality that leads to . . . unity.'

(5) "Again, a bhikkhu is not one who denigrates [others] and he speaks in praise of the removal of denigration. When a bhikkhu is not one who denigrates [others] . . . this, too, is a quality that leads to ... unity. [168]

(6) "Again, a bhikkhu(monk) is not crafty and he speaks in praise of the removal of craftiness. When a bhikkhu is not crafty ... this, too, is a quality that leads to ... unity.

(7) "Again, a bhikkhu is not deceitful and he speaks in praise of the removal of deceitfulhess. When a bhikkhu is not deceitful . . . this, too, is a quality that leads to . . . unity.

(8) "Again, a bhikkhu is inclined to attend to teachings and he speaks in praise of attending to teachings. When a bhikkhu is inclined to attend to teachings . . this, too, is a quality that leads to . . . unity.

(9) "Again, a bhikkhu is inclined to seclusion and he speaks in praise of seclusion. When a bhikkhu is inclined to seclusion . . . this, too, is a quality that leads to . . . unity.

(10) "Again, a bhikkhu shows hospitality to his fellow monks and he speaks in praise of one who shows hospitality. When a bhikkhu shows hospitality to his fellow monks and he speaks in praise of one who shows hospitality, this, too, is a quality that leads to affection, respect, esteem, accord, and unity.

"Although such a bhikkhu might not wish: 'Oh, if only my fellow monks would honor, respect, esteem, and venerate me!' yet his fellow monks honor, respect, esteem, and venerate him. For what reason? Because his wise fellow monks see that he has abandoned those bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma).

"Suppose an excellent thoroughbred horse would not wish: 'Oh, if only people would assign me a thoroughbred's place, feed me a thoroughbred's food, and give me a thoroughbred's grooming!' yet people assign him a thoroughbred's place, feed him a thoroughbred's food, [169] and give him a thorough bred's grooming. For what reason? Because wise people see that he has abandoned his tricks, ploys, gambits, and wiles. So too, although such a bhikkhu might not wish: 'Oh, if only my fellow monks would honor, respect, esteem, and venerate me!' yet his fellow monks honor, respect, esteem, and venerate him. For what reason? Because his wise fellow monks see that he has abandoned those bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma)."


88 One Who Insults 2107 (Akkosaka)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), when a bhikkhu is one who insults and disparages his fellow monks, a reviler of the noble ones, it is impossible and inconceivable that he will not incur at least one of these ten disasters. What ten? (1) He does not achieve what he has not yet achieved. (2) He falls away from what he has achieved. (3) His good qualities are not polished. 2108 (4) He overestimates his good qualities, or (5) leads the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) dissatisfied, or (6) commits a certain defiled offense, or (7) contracts a severe illness, or (8) goes mad and becomes mentally deranged. (9) He dies confused. (10) With the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell. When a bhikkhu is one who insults and disparages his fellow monks, a reviler of the noble ones, it is impossible and inconceivable that he will not incur at least one of these ten disasters." [170]


89 Kokalika [2109][edit | edit source]

Then the bhikkhu Kokalika approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said: "Bhante, Sariputta and Moggallana have sinful desires and have come under the control of sinful desires."

[The Lord(Buddha) replied:] "Do not say so, Kokalika! Do not say so, Kokalika! 2110 Place confidence in Sariputta and Moggallana, Kokalika. Sariputta and Moggallana are well behaved."

A second time the bhikkhu Kokalika said to the Lord(Buddha): "Bhante, although I consider the Lord(Buddha) worthy of faith and trust, [I still say that] Sariputta and Moggallana have evil desires and have come under the control of evil desires."

"Do not say so, Kokalika! . . . Sariputta and Moggallana are well behaved."

A third time the bhikkhu Kokalika said to the Lord(Buddha): "Bhante, although I consider the Lord(Buddha) worthy of faith and trust, [I still say that] Sariputta and Moggallana have evil desires and have come under the control of evil desires."

"Do not say so, Kokalika! Do not say so, Kokalika! Place confidence in Sariputta and Moggallana, Kokalika, Sariputta and Moggallana are well behaved."

Then the bhikkhu Kokalika rose from his seat, paid homage to the Lord(Buddha), circumambulated the Lord(Buddha) keeping the right side toward him, and departed. Not long after the bhikkhu Kokalika had left, his entire body became covered with boils the size of mustard seeds. These then grew to the size of mung beans; then to. the size of chickpeas; then to the size of jujube pits; then to the size of jujube fruits; then to the size of myrobalans; then to the size of unripe belli fruits; 2111 then to the size of ripe belli fruits. When they had grown to the size of ripe belli fruits, they burst open, [171 ] exuding pus and blood. He then just lay on banana leaves like a fish that had swallowed poison.

Then the independent brahma Tudu approached the bhikkhu Kokalika, 2112 stood in the air, and said to him: "Place confidence in Sariputta and Moggallana, Kokalika. Sariputta and Moggallana are well behaved."

"Who are you, friend?"

"I am the independent brahma Tudu."

"Didn't the Lord(Buddha) declare you to be a non-returner(no earthly rebirth,anagami), friend? Then why have you come back here? See how much wrong you have done." 2113

Then the independent brahma Tudu addressed the bhikkhu Kokalika in verse:


"When a person has taken rebirth an axe is born inside his mouth with which the unwise cuts himself by uttering wrongful speech.


"He who praises one deserving blame 2114
or blames one deserving praise
casts with his mouth an unlucky throw
by which he finds no happiness.


"Slight is the unlucky throw at dice
that results in the loss of one's wealth,
(the loss) of all, oneself included;
much worse is this unlucky throw
of harboring hate against the holy ones.


"For a hundred thousand
and thirty-six nirabbudas, plus five abbudas, 2115
the slanderer of noble ones goes to hell,
having defamed them with evil speech and mind." [172]

Then the bhikkhu Kokalika died on account of that illness, and because of his resentment against Sariputta and MoggallSna, after death he was reborn in the red-lotus hell. 2116

Then, when the night had advanced, Brahma Sahampati, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's Grove, approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, stood to one side, and said to him: "Bhante, the bhikkhu Kokalika has died, and because of his resentment against Sariputta and Moggallana, after death he has been reborn in the red-lotus hell." This is what Brahma Sahampati said. He then paid homage to the Lord(Buddha), circumambulated him keeping the right side toward him, and disappeared right there.

Then, when the night had passed, the Lord(Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus: "Bhikkhus(Monks), last night, when the night had advanced, Brahma Sahampati approached me and said to me . . . [as above] . . . He then paid homage to me, circumambulated me keeping the right side toward me, and disappeared right there."

When this was said, a certain bhikkhu said to the Lord(Buddha): "How long, Bhante, is the life span in the red-lotus hell?" 2117

"The life span in the red-lotus hell is long, bhikkhu. It is not easy to count it and say it is so many [173] years, or so many hundreds of years, or so many thousands of years, or so many hundreds of thousands of years."

"Then is it possible, Bhante, to give a simile?"

"It is, bhikkhu," the Lord(Buddha) said: "Suppose there was a Kosalan cartload of twenty measures of sesamum seed. At the end of every hundred years a man would remove one seed from it. In this manner the Kosalan cartload of twenty measures of sesamum seed might be depleted and eliminated more quickly than (1) a life in a single abbuda hell would go by. (2) One life in the nirabbuda hell is the equivalent of twenty lives in the abbuda hell; (3) one life in the ababa hell is the equivalent of twenty lives in the nirabbuda hell; (4) one life in the ahaha hell is the equivalent of twenty lives in the ababa hell; (5) one life in the atata hell is the equivalent of twenty lives in the ahaha hell; (6) one life in the water-lily hell is the equivalent of twenty lives in the ababa hell; ( 7 ) one life in the sweet-fragrance hell is the equivalent of twenty lives in the water-lily hell; (8) one life in the blue lotus hell is the equivalent of twenty lives in the sweet-fragrance hell; (9) one life in the white-lotus hell is the equivalent of twenty lives in the blue-lotus hell; and (10) one life in the red-lotus hell is the equivalent of twenty lives in the white-lotus hell. Now, because he harbored resentment against Sariputta and Moggallana, the bhikkhu Kokalika has been reborn in the red-lotus hell."

This is what the Lord(Buddha) said. Having said this, the Sugata(Lord Buddha), the Teacher, further said this: [174]

[Here Buddha repeats the words spoken by Brahma Turu above:]


"When a person has taken rebirth
an axe is born inside his mouth
with which the unwise cuts himself
by uttering wrongful speech.


"He who praises one deserving blame
or blames one deserving praise
casts with his mouth an unlucky throw
by which he finds no happiness.


"Slight is the unlucky throw at dice
that results in the loss of one's wealth,
(the loss) of all, oneself included;
much worse is this unlucky throw
of harboring hate against the holy ones.


"For a hundred thousand
and thirty-six nirabbudas, plus five abbudas,
the slanderer of noble ones goes to hell,
having defamed them with evil speech and mind."


90 Powers of desirelessness 2118 (Khinasavabala)[edit | edit source]

Then the Venerable Sariputta approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord(Buddha) then said to him:

"Sariputta, when a bhikkhu's taints have been destroyed, how many powers does he possess by reason of which he can claim [to have attained] the destruction of the taints: 'My taints have been destroyed'?"

"Bhante, when a bhikkhu's taints have been destroyed, he possesses ten powers by reason of which he can claim [to have attained] the destruction of the taints: 'My taints have been destroyed. What ten?

(1) "Here, Bhante, abhikkhu with taints destroyed has clearly seen all conditioned phenomena(sanharas/sanskaras/emotions) as they really are with correct panna(divine knowledge) as impermanent. [175] This is a power of a bhikkhu(monk) with taints destroyed on the basis of which he claims [to have attained] the destruction of the taints: 'My taints have been destroyed'

(2) "Again, a bhikkhu with taints destroyed has clearly seen sensual pleasures as they really are with correct panna(divine knowledge) as similar to a charcoal pit. This is a power of a bhikkhu with taints destroyed . . .

(3) " Again, the mind of a bhikkhu with taints destroyed slants, slopes, and inclines to seclusion; it is withdrawn, delights in renunciation, and is entirely finished with all things that are a basis for the taints. This is a power of a bhikkhu with taints destroyed ...

(4) "Again, a bhikkhu with taints destroyed has developed and well developed the four establishments of mindfulness(meditation/sati); This is a power of a bhikkhu with taints destroyed . . .

(5) — (10) "Again, a bhikkhu with taints destroyed has developed and well developed the four right strivings . . . the four bases for psychic potency(magic/iddhi) . . . the five spiritual faculties . . . the five powers [176] . . . the seven factors of enlightenment . . . the noble eightfold path. This is a power of a bhikkhu with taints destroyed on the basis of which he claims [to have attained] the destruction of the taints: 'My taints have been destroyed.'

"Bhante, when a bhikkhu's taints have been destroyed, he possesses these ten powers by reason of which he can claim [to have attained] the destruction of the taints: 'My taints have been destroyed"



V. Upali [2119][edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


91 One Who Enjoys Sensual Pleasures 2120 (Kamabhogi)[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Then the householder Anathapindika approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord(Buddha) then said to him: [177]

"Householder, there are these ten kinds of persons who enjoy sensual pleasures found existing in the world. What ten? 2121

[I. Exposition]

[A. Those Who Seek Wealth Unrighteously]

(1) "Here, householder, someone who enjoys sensual pleasures seeks wealth unrighteously, by violence. Having done so, he does not make himself happy and pleased, nor does he share the wealth and do meritorious deeds.

(2) "Someone else who enjoys sensual pleasures seeks wealth unrighteously, by violence. Having done so, he makes himself happy and pleased, but he does not share the wealth and do meritorious deeds.

(3) "And still someone else who enjoys sensual pleasures seeks wealth unrighteously, by violence. Having done so, he makes himself happy and pleased, and he shares the wealth and does meritorious deeds.

[B. Those Who Seek Wealth Both Righteously and Unrighteously]

(4) "Next, householder, someone who enjoys sensual pleasures seeks wealth both righteously and unrighteously, both by violence and without violenceHaving done so, he does not make himself happy and pleased; nor does he share the wealth and do meritorious deeds.

(5) "Someone else who enjoys sensual pleasures seeks wealth both righteously and unrighteously, both by violence and with out violence. Having done so, he makes himself happy and pleased, but he does not share the wealth and do meritorious deeds.

(6) "And still someone else who enjoys sensual pleasures seeks wealth both righteously and unrighteously, both by violence and without violence. Having done so, he makes himself happy and pleased, and he shares the wealth and does meritorious deeds.

[C. Those Who Seek Wealth Righteously]

(7) "Next, householder, someone who enjoys sensual pleasures seeks wealth righteously, without violence. Having done so, he does not make himself happy and pleased, nor does he share the wealth and do meritorious deeds.

(8) "Someone else who enjoys sensual pleasures seeks wealth righteously, without violence. Having done so, [178] he makes himself happy and pleased, but he does not share the wealth and do meritorious deeds.

(9) "And still someone else who enjoys sensual pleasures seeks wealth righteously, without violence. Having done so, he makes himself happy and pleased, and he shares the wealth and does meritorious deeds. But he uses his wealth while being tied to it, infatuated with it, and blindly absorbed in it, not see ing the danger in it and understanding the escape.

(10) "And still someone else who enjoys sensual pleasures seeks wealth righteously, without violence. Having done so, he makes himself happy and pleased, and he shares the wealth and does meritorious deeds. And he uses his wealth without being tied to it, infatuated with it, and blindly absorbed in it, seeing the danger in it and understanding the escape..

[II. Evaluation]

[A. Those Who Seek Wealth Unrighteously]

(1) "The one enjoying, sensual pleasures who seeks wealth unrighteously, by violence, and does not make himself happy and pleased, and does not share the wealth and do meritorious deeds, may be criticized on three grounds. The first ground on which he maybe criticized is that he seeks wealth unrighteously, by violence. The second ground on which he may be criticized is that he does not make himself happy and pleased. The third ground on which he may be criticized is that he does not share the wealth and do meritorious deeds. This one enjoying sensual pleasures may be criticized on these three grounds.

(2) "The one enjoying sensual pleasures who seeks wealth unrighteously, by violence, and makes himself happy and pleased, but does not share the wealth and do meritorious deeds, may be criticized on two grounds and praised on one ground. The first ground on which he may be criticized is that he seeks wealth unrighteously, by violence. The one ground on which he may be praised is that he makes himself happy and pleased. The second ground on which he may be criticized is that he does not share the wealth and do meritorious deeds. This one enjoying sensual pleasures may be criticized on these two grounds and praised on this one ground.

(3) "The one enjoying sensual pleasures who seeks wealth unrighteously, by violence, and makes himself happy and pleased, and shares the wealth and does meritorious deeds, may be criticized on one ground and praised on two grounds. The one ground on which he may be criticized is that he seeks wealth unrighteously, by violence. The first ground on which he may be praised is that he makes himself happy and pleased. The second ground on which he may be praised is that he shares the wealth and does meritorious deeds. This one enjoying sen sual pleasures may be criticized on this one ground and praised on these two grounds.

[B. Those Who Seek Wealth Righteously and Unrighteously]

(4) "Next, householder, the one enjoying sensual pleasures who seeks wealth both righteously and unrighteously, both by violence and without violence, and does not make himself happy and pleased, and does not share the wealth and do meritorious deeds, maybe praised on one ground and criticized on three grounds. The only ground on which he may be praised is that he seeks wealth righteously, without violence. The first ground on which he may be criticized is that he seeks wealth unrighteously, by violence. The second ground on which he may be criticized is that he does not make himself happy and pleased. The third ground on which he may be criticized is that he does not share the wealth and do meritorious deeds. This one enjoying sensual pleasures may be praised on this one ground and criticized on these three grounds.

(5) "The one enjoying sensual pleasures who seeks wealth both righteously and unrighteously, both by violence and with out violence, and makes himself happy and pleased, but does not share the wealth and do meritorious deeds, may be praised on two grounds and criticized on two grounds. The first ground on which he may be praised is that he seeks wealth righteously, without violence. The first ground on which he may be criticized is that he seeks wealth unrighteously, by violence. The second ground on which he may be praised is that he makes himself happy and pleased. The second ground on which he may be criticized is that he does not share the wealth and do meritorious deeds. [180] This one enjoying sensual pleasures may be praised on these two grounds and criticized on these two grounds.

(6) "The one enjoying sensual pleasures who seeks wealth both righteously and unrighteously, both by violence and without violence, and makes himself happy and pleased, and shares the wealth and does meritorious deeds, may be praised on three grounds and criticized on one ground . The first ground on which he may be praised is that he seeks wealth righteously, without violence. The one ground on which lie may be criticized is that he seeks wealth unrighteously,; by violence. The second ground on which he may be praised is that he makes himself happy and pleased. The third ground on which he may be praised is that he shares the wealth and does meritorious deeds. This one enjoying sensual pleasures may be praised on these three grounds and criticized on this one ground.

[C. Those Who Seek Wealth Righteously]

(7) "Next, householder, the one enjoying sensual pleasures who seeks wealth righteously, without violence, and does not make himself happy and pleased, and does not share the wealth and do meritorious deeds, may be praised on one ground and criticized on two grounds. The one ground on which he may be praised is that he seeks wealth righteously, without violence. The first ground on which he may be criticized is that he does not make himself happy and pleased. The second ground on which he may be criticized is that he does not share the wealth and do meritorious deeds. This one enjoying sensual pleasures may be praised on this one ground and criticized on these two grounds.

(8) "The one enjoying sensual pleasures who seeks wealth righteously, without violence, and makes himself happy and pleased, but does not share the wealth and do meritorious deeds, may be praised on two grounds and criticized on one ground. The first ground on which he may be praised is that he seeks wealth righteously, without violence. The second ground on which he may be praised is that he makes himself happy and pleased. The one ground on which he may be criticized is that he does not share the wealth and do meritorious deeds. This one enjoying sensual pleasures may be praised on these two grounds and criticized on this one ground.

(9) "The one enjoying sensual pleasures who seeks wealth righteously, without violence, and makes himself happy and pleased, and shares it and does meritorious deeds, but uses that wealth while being tied to it, infatuated with it, and blindly absorbed in it, not seeing the danger in it and understanding the escape — he may be praised on three grounds and criticized on one ground. The first ground on which he may be praised is that he seeks wealth righteously, without violence. The second ground on which he may be praised is that he makes himself happy and pleased. The third ground on which he may be praised is that he shares the wealth and does meritorious deeds. The one ground on which he may be criticized is that he uses that wealth while being tied to it, infatuated with it, and blindly absorbed in it, not seeing the danger in it and understanding the escape. This one enjoying sensual pleasures may be praised on these three grounds and criticized on this one ground.

(10) "The one enjoying sensual pleasures who seeks wealth righteously, without violence, and makes himself happy and pleased, and shares it and does meritorious deeds, and uses that wealth without being tied to it, infatuated with it, and blindly absorbed in it, seeing the danger in it and understanding the escape — he may be praised on four grounds. The first ground on which he may be praised is that he seeks wealth righteously, without violence. The second ground on which he may be praised is that he makes himself happy and pleased. The third ground on which he may be praised is that he shares the wealth and does meritorious deeds. The fourth ground on which he may be praised is that he uses that wealth without being tied to it, infatuated with it, and blindly absorbed in it, seeing the danger in it and understanding the escape. This one enjoying sensual pleasures may be praised on these four grounds.

[Conclusion}

"These, householder, are the ten kinds of persons who enjoy sensual pleasures found existing in the world. Of these ten, [182] the foremost, the best, the preeminent, the supreme, and the finest is the one enjoying sensual pleasures who seeks wealth righteously, without violence, and having obtained it, makes himself happy and pleased; and shares the wealth and does meritorious deeds; and uses that wealth without being tied to it, infatuated with it, and blindly absorbed in it, seeing the danger in it and understanding the escape. Just as from a cow comes milk, from milk curd, from curd butter, from butter ghee, and from ghee comes cream-of-ghee, which is reckoned the foremost of all these, so too, of these ten kinds of persons who enjoy sensual pleasures, the foremost, the best, the pre-eminent, the supreme, and the finest is the one who seeks wealth righteously, without violence, and having obtained it, makes himself happy and pleased; and shares the wealth and does meritorious deeds; and uses that wealth without being tied to it, infatuated with it, and blindly absorbed in it, seeing the danger in it and understanding the escape."


92 Dangers [2122] (Bhaya)[edit | edit source]

Then the householder Anathapindika approached the Lord(Buddha) , paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord(Buddha) then said to him:

"Householder, when a noble disciple has eliminated five perils and enmities, possesses the four factors of stream-entry(7 rebirths,sotapatti), and has clearly seen and thoroughly penetrated with panna(divine knowledge) the noble method, he might, if he so wished, declare of himself: 'I am one finished with hell, the animal realm, and the sphere of afflicted spirits; finished with the plane of misery, the bad destination, the lower world; I am a stream-enterer(7 rebirths,sotapatti), no longer subject to [rebirth in] the lower world, fixed in destiny, heading for enlightenment'

"What are the five perils and enmities that have been eliminated? [183] (1) Householder, one who destroys life, with the destruction of life as condition, creates peril and enmity pertain ing to the present life and peril and enmity pertaining to future lives, and he also experiences mental pain and dejection. One who abstains from the destruction of life does not create such peril and enmity pertaining to the present life or such peril and enmity pertaining to future lives, nor does he experience mental pain and dejection. For one who abstains from the destruction of life, that peril and enmity has thus been eliminated.

(2) "One who takes what is not given ... (3) One who engages in sexual misconduct . . . (4) One who speaks falsely ... (5) One who indulges in liquor, wine, and intoxicants, the basis for slothfulness, with indulgence in liquor, wine, and intoxicants as condition, creates peril and enmity pertaining to the present life and peril and enmity pertaining to future lives, and he also experiences mental pain and dejection. One who abstains from liquor, wine, and intoxicants, the basis for slothfulness, does not create such peril and enmity pertaining to the present life or such peril and enmity pertaining to future lives, nor does he experience mental pain and dejection. For one who abstains from liquor, wine, and intoxicants, the basis for slothfulness, that peril and enmity has thus been eliminated, "These are the five perils and enmities that have been eliminated.

"And what are the four factors of stream-entry(7 rebirths,sotapatti) that he possesses? (6) Here', householder, a noble disciple possesses unwavering confidence in the Buddha thus: "The Lord(Buddha) is an arahant, perfectly enlightened, accomplished in true knowledge and conduct, fortunate, knower of the world, unsurpassed trainer of persons to be tamed, teacher of devas(angels/gods) and humans, the Enlightened One, the Lord(Buddha),' (7) He possesses unwavering confidence in the Dhamma thus: 'The Dhamma is well expounded by the Lord(Buddha), directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise' (8) He possesses unwavering confidence in the Sangha thus: 'The Sangha of the Lord(Buddha)'s disciples is practicing the good way, practicing the straight way, practicing the true way, practicing the proper way; that is, the four pairs of persons, the eight types of individuals — this Sangha of the Lord(Buddha)'s disciples is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of reverential salutation, the unsurpassed field of merit for the world' (9) He possesses the virtuous behavior loved by the noble ones, [184] unbroken, flawless, unblemished, unblotched, freeing, praised by the wise, ungrasped, leading to samadhi(self absorption/trance). These are the four factors of stream-entry(7 rebirths,sotapatti) that he possesses.

"And what is the noble method that he has clearly seen and thoroughly penetrated with panna(divine knowledge)? 2123 (10) Here, householder, the noble disciple reflects thus: 'When this exists, that comes to be; with the arising of this, that arises. When this does not exist, that does not come to be; with the cessation of this, that ceases. That is, with ignorance as condition, one's character/behavior(sankhara/sanskar) [come to be]; with one's characteristics(sankhara/sanskar) as condition, consciousness; with consciousness as condition, mind(naam)-and-form(body); with mind(naam) and-form(body) as condition, the six sense spheres; with the Six sense spheres as condition, contact; with contact as condition, sensation(vedana); with sensation(vedana) as condition, craving(tanha/trishna); with craving(tanha/trishna) as condition, clinging; with clinging as condition, existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth); with existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth) as condition, rebirth; with rebirth as condition, old age and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish come to be. Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.

"'But with the remainder less fading away and cessation of ignorance comes cessation of one's characteristics(sankhara/sanskar); with the cessation of one's characteristics(sankhara/sanskar), cessation of consciousness; with the cessation of consciousness, cessation of mind(naam)-and-form(body); with the cessation of mind(naam)-and-form(body), cessation of the six sense spheres; with the cessation of the six sense spheres, cessation of contact; with the cessation of contact, cessation of sensation(vedana); with the cessation of sensation(vedana), cessation of craving(tanha/trishna); with the cessation of craving(tanha/trishna), cessation of clinging; with the cessation of clinging, cessation of existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth); with the cessation of existence(bhavo/cause for rebirth), cessation of rebirth; with the cessation of rebirth, old age and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish cease. Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering.'

“This is the noble method that he has clearly seen and thoroughly penetrated with panna(divine knowledge).

"Householder, when a noble disciple has eliminated these five perils and enmities, and he possesses these four factors of stream-entry(7 rebirths,sotapatti), and he has clearly seen and thoroughly penetrated with panna(divine knowledge) this noble method, he might, if he so wished, declare of himself; 'I am one finished with hell, the animal realm, and the sphere of afflicted spirits; finished with the plane of misery, the bad destination, the lower world; I am a stream-enterer(7 rebirths,sotapatti), no longer subject to [rebirth in] the lower world, fixed in destiny, heading for enlightenment"


93 What View (Kimditthika)[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Then the householder Anathapindika left Savatthi in the middle of the day in order to see the Lord(Buddha). It then occurred to him: "It is not the proper time to see the Lord(Buddha), who is in seclusion, nor to see the esteemed bhikkhus, who are also in seclusion. Let me go to the park of the ascetics of other sects."

Then the householder Anathapindika went to the park of the ascetics of other sects. Now on that occasion the ascetics of other sects had assembled and were making an uproar as they loudly and boisterously sat discussing various pointless topics. The ascetics saw the householder Anathapindika coming in the distance and silenced one another: "Sirs, be quiet. Sirs, do not make any noise. Here comes the householder Anathapindika, a disciple of the ascetic Gotama, one among the ascetic Gotama's white-robed lay disciples who reside in Savatthi. Now these venerable ones are fond of quiet, disciplined in quiet, and speak in praise of quiet. Perhaps if he finds that our assembly is quiet, he will think to approach us." Then those ascetics of other sects became silent.

Then the householder Anathapindika approached those ascetics and exchanged greetings with them. When they had concluded their greetings [186] and cordial talk, he sat down to one side. The ascetics then said to him:

"Tell us, householder, what is the ascetic Gotama's view?"

"Bhante, I don't know the Lord(Buddha)'s view in its entirety."

"So, householder, you say you don't know the ascetic Gotama's view in its entirety. Then tell us, what is the bhikkhus' view?"

"Bhante, I also don't know the bhikkhus' view in its entirety."

"So, householder you say you don't know the ascetic Gotama's view in its entirety and you also don't know the bhikkhus' view in its entirety. Then tell us, what is your view?"

"It isn't hard for me to explain my view, Bhante. But first explain your own views. Afterward it won't be hard for me to explain my view."

When this was said, one ascetic said to the householder Anathapindika: (1) "'The world is eternal; this alone is true, any thing else is wrong': such is my view, householder." (2) Another ascetic said: "'The world is non-eternal; this alone is true, anything else is wrong': such is my view, householder." (3)— (4) Still another said: "'The world is finite' . . . A The world is infinite' . . . (5)— (6) -The soul and the body are the same' . , . 'The soul is one thing, the body another' . . . (7)— (10) 'The Tathagata(Buddha) exists after death' . . . 'The Tathagata(Buddha) does not exist after death' . . . 'The Tathagata(Buddha) both exists and does not exist after death' . . . 'The Tathagata(Buddha) neither exists nor does not exist after death'; this alone is true, anything else is wrong: such is my View, householder." 2124

When this was said, the householder Anathapindika said to those ascetics: "Bhante, this venerable one said thus: The world is eternal; this alone is true, anything else is wrong": such is my view, [187] householder.' This view of his has arisen because of his own careless attention or learned(sankhattam) from someone else's utterance. Now this view has come into being and is learned(sankhattam), a product of (self)awareness, dependently originated. But whatever has come into being and is learned (sankhattam), a product of (self)awareness, dependency originated, is impermanent. Whatever is impermanent is suffering. It is just suffering that he is attached to and holds to.

"Bhante, this [other] venerable one said thus: '"The world is non-eternal; this alone is true, anything else is wrong": such is my view, householder.' This view of his has also arisen because of his own careless attention or learned (sankhattam) from someone else's utterance. Now this view has come into being and is a learned behavior(sankhattam), a product of (self)awareness, dependency originated. But whatever has come into being and is learned (sankhattam), a product of (self)awareness, dependently originated, is impermanent. Whatever is impermanent is suffering. It is just suffering that he is attached to and holds to.

"Bhante, this venerable one said thus: "The world is finite". ... "The world is infinite" ... "The soul and the body are the same" ... "The soul is one thing, the body another" . . . "The Tathagata(Buddha) exists after death" . ... "The Tathagata(Buddha) does not exist after death" . . . "The Tathagata(Buddha) both exists and does not exist after death" . . . "The Tathagata(Buddha) neither exists nor does not exist after death"; this alone is true, anything else is wrong: such is my view, householder.' This view of his has also arisen because of his own careless attention or learned from someone else's utterance. Now this view has come into being and is a learned behavior(sankhattam), a product of (self)awareness, dependently originated. But whatever has come into being and is learned behavior(sankhattam), a product of (self)awareness, dependently originated, is impermanent. Whatever is impermanent is suffering. It is just suffering that he is attached to and holds to." [188]

When this was said, those ascetics said to the householder Anathapindika: "We have each explained our own views, householder. Now tell us your view."

"Bhante, whatever has come into being and is learned behavior(sankhattam), a product of (self)awareness, dependently originated, is impermanent. Whatever is impermanent is suffering. Whatever is suffering is not mine; I am not this; this is not my self. That is my view."

"Householder, whatever has come into being and is learned behavior(sankhattam), a product of (self)awareness, dependently originated, is impermanent. Whatever is impermanent is suffering. It is just suffering that you are attached to and hold to."

"Bhante, whatever has come into being and is the learned behavior(sankhattam), a product of (self)awareness, dependently originated, is impermanent. Whatever is impermanent is sufferingHaving clearly seen what is suffering as it really is with correct panna(divine knowledge) thus: 'This is not mine; I am not this; this is not my self'. I understand as it really is the superior escape from it."

When this was said, those ascetics sat silenced, disconcerted, hunched over, downcast, glum, and speechless. Then the householder Anathapindika, having understood that those ascetics [sat] silenced . . . and speechless, rose from his seat and went to the Lord(Buddha). He paid homage to the Lord(Buddha), sat down to one side, and reported to the Lord(Buddha) his entire conversation with those ascetics.

[The Lord(Buddha) said:] "Good, good, householder! It is in such a way that those hollow men should from time to time be thoroughly refuted with reasoned argument." 2125 Then the Lord(Buddha) instructed, encouraged, inspired, and gladdened the householder Anathapindika with a Dhamma talk. Then, when the householder Anathapindika had been instructed; encouraged, inspired, and gladdened by the Lord(Buddha) with a Dhamma talk, [189] he rose from his seat, paid homage to the Lord(Buddha), circumambulated him keeping the right side toward him, and departed.

Then, not long after the householder Anathapindika had left, the Lord(Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus: "Bhikkhus(Monks), if any bhikkhu, even one ordained for a hundred years in this Dhamma and discipline, would thoroughly refute with reasoned argument the ascetics of other sects, he would refute them just as the householder Anathapindika has done."


94 Vajjiyamahita[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Campa on a bank of the Gaggara Lotus Pond. Then the householder Vajjiyamahita left Campa in the middle of the day to see the Lord(Buddha). It then occurred to him: "It is not the proper time to see the Lord(Buddha), who is in seclusion, nor to see the esteemed bhikkhus, who are also in seclusion. Let me go to the park of the ascetics of other sects."

Then the householder Vajjiyamahita went to the park of the ascetics of other sects . . . [all as in 10:93] [190] .

Then the householder Vajjiyamahita approached those wanderers and exchanged greetings with them. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side. The ascetics then said to him:

"Is it true, householder, as it is said, that the ascetic Gotama criticizes all austerities and that he unreservedly condemns and reproves all who live a harsh and austere life?"

"No, Bhante, the Lord(Buddha) does not criticize all austerities and he does not unreservedly condemn and reprove all who live a harsh and austere life. The Lord(Buddha) criticizes what deserves criticism and praises what is praiseworthy. By criticizing what deserves criticism and praising what is praiseworthy, the Lord(Buddha) speaks on the basis of distinctions; he does not speak about such matters one-sidedly." 2126

When this was said, a ascetic said to the householder Vajjiyamahita: "Wait a moment, householder! That ascetic Gotama whom you are praising is an abolitionist who refrains from making definite declarations."

"I will deal with that point, too, Bhante. The Lord(Buddha) has validly declared: 'This is beneficial(kusala)' and: 'This is harmful(akusala) .' Thus, when he declares what is beneficial(kusala) and what is harmful(akusala), the Lord(Buddha) makes definite declarations. He is not an abolitionist who refrains from making definite declarations."

When this was said, those ascetics [191] sat silenced, disconcerted, hunched over, downcast, glum, and speechless. Then the householder Vajjiyamahita, having understood that those ascetics [sat] silenced . . . and speechless, rose from his seat and went to the Lord(Buddha). He paid homage to the Lord(Buddha) , sat down to one side, and reported to the Lord(Buddha) his entire conversation with those ascetics of other sects.

[The Lord(Buddha) said:] "Good, good, householder! It is in such a way that those hollow men should from time to time be thoroughly refuted with reasoned argument."

(1)— (2) "I do not say, householder, of every kind of austerity that it should be practiced; nor do I say of every kind of austerity that it should not be practiced. (3)-(4) I do not say of every observance that it should be undertaken; nor do I say of every observance that it should not be undertaken. (5)-(6) I do not say that one should strive in every way; nor do I say that one should not strive in any way. (7)— (8) I do not say that one should make every kind of relinquishment; nor do I say that one should not make any kind of relinquishment. (9)— (10) I do not say that one should attain every kind of liberation; nor do I say that one should not attain any kind of liberation.

(1)— (2) "If, householder, when one practices a particular austerity, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase and beneficial(kusala) qualities decline, then, I say, one should not practice such austerity. But if, when one practices a particular austerity, harmful(akusala) qualities decline and beneficial(kusala) [192] qualities increase, then, I say, one should practice such austerity.

(3)— (4) "If, householder, when one undertakes a particular observance, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase and beneficial(kusala) qualities decline, then, I say, one should not undertake such an observance. But if, when one undertakes a particular observance, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline and beneficial(kusala) qualities increase, then, I say, one should undertake such an observance.

(5)— (6) "If, householder, when one strives in a particular way, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase and beneficial(kusala) qualities decline, then, I say, one should not strive in such a way. But if, when one strives in a particular way, harmful(akusala) qualities decline and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase, then, I say, one should strive in such a way.

(7)—(8) "If, householder, when one relinquishes something, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline, then, I say, one should not make such a relinquish ment. But if, when one relinquishes something, harmful(akusala) qualities decline and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase, then, I say, one should make such a relinquishment.

(9)— (10) "If, householder, when one attains a particular liberation, harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) decline, then, I say, one should not attain such a liberation. But if, when one attains a particular liberation, harmful(akusala) qualities decline and beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) increase, then, I say, one should attain such a liberation."

Then, when the householder Vajjiyamahita had been instructed, encouraged, inspired, and gladdened by the Lord(Buddha) with a Dhamma talk, he rose from his seat, paid homage to the Lord(Buddha), circumambulated him keeping the right side toward him, and departed.

Then, not long after the householder Vajjiyamahita had ’left, the Lord(Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus: "Bhikkhus(Monks), if any bhikkhu, even one who has long had little dust in his eyes regarding this Dhamma and discipline, would -thoroughly refute with reasoned argument the ascetics of other sects, he would refute them in just such a way as the householder Vajjiyamahita has done." [193]


====95 Uttiya

Then the ascetic Uttiya approached the Lord(Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to the Lord(Buddha):

(1) "How is it. Master Gotama, is the world eternal? Is this alone true and anything else wrong?"

"Uttiya, I have not declared: 'The world is eternal; this alone is true, anything else is wrong.'"

(2) "Then, Master Gotama, is the world not eternal? Is this alone true and anything else wrong?"

"Uttiya, I also have not declared: 'The world is not eternal; this alone is true, anything else is wrong"

(3) — (4) "How is it then. Master Gotama, is the world finite? . . . Is the world infinite? . . . (5)— (6) Are the soul and the body the same? ... Is the soul one thing, the body another? . . . (7)— (10) Does the Tathagata(Buddha) exist after death? . . .Does the Tathagata(Buddha) not exist after death? . . . Does the Tathagata(Buddha) both exist and not exist after death? . . . Does the Tathagata(Buddha) neither exist nor not exist after death? Is this alone true and anything else wrong?"

"Uttiya, I also have not declared: 'The Tathagata(Buddha) neither exists nor does not exist after death; this alone is true, anything else is wrong.'" 2127

"When I asked you: 'How is it. Master Gotama, is the world eternal? Is this alone true and anything else wrong?' you said: 'Uttiya, I have not declared: "The world is eternal; this alone is true, anything else is wrong" But when I asked you: 'Then, Master Gotama, is the world not eternal? Is this alone true and anything else wrong?' you said: 'Uttiya, I also have not declared: "The world is not eternal; this alone is true, any thing else is wrong" When I asked you: 'How is it then Master Gotama, is the world finite? . . . Does the Tathagata(Buddha) neither exist nor not exist after death? Is this alone true and anything else wrong?' [194] you said: 'Uttiya, I also have not declared: "The Tathagata(Buddha) neither exists nor does not exist after death; this alone is true, anything else is wrong/" What, then, has Master Gotama declared?"

"Through direct knowledge(abhinna), Uttiya, I teach the Dhamma to my disciples for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the passing away of pain and dejection, for the achievement of the method, for the realization of nibbana(nirvana)."

"But when Master Gotama, through direct knowledge(abhinna), teaches the Dhamma to his disciples for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the passing away of pain and dejection, for the achievement of the method, for the realization of nibbana(nirvana), will the entire world be thereby emancipated, or half the world, or a third of the world?"

When this was asked, the Lord(Buddha) remained silent. Then it occurred to the Venerable Ananda: "The ascetic Uttiya had better not adopt the evil view: "When I ask the ascetic Gotama the most elevated question of all, he falters and does not answer." 128 It must be that he is unable to do so.' This would lead to the ascetic Uttiya's harm and suffering for a long time.

Then the Venerable Ananda said to the ascetic Uttiya: "Well then, friend Uttiya, I will give you a simile. Some intelligent people here understand the meaning of what is said by means of a simile. Suppose a king had a frontier city with strong ramparts, walls, and arches, and with a single gate. The gate keeper posted there would be wise, competent, and intelligent; one who keeps out strangers [195] and admits acquaintances. While he is walking along the path that encircles the city he would nor see a cleft or an opening in the walls even big enough for a cat to slip through. He might not know how many living beings enter or leave the city, but he could be sure that what ever large living beings enter or leave the city all enter and leave through that gate. So too, friend Uttiya, the Tathagata(Buddha) has no concern whether the entire world will be emancipated, or half the world, or a third of the world. But he can be sure that all those who have been emancipated, or who are being emancipated, or who will be emancipated from the world first abandon the five hindrances, corruptions of the mind that weaken panna(divine knowledge), and then, with their minds well established in the four establishments of mindfulness(meditation/sati), develop correctly the seven factors of enlightenment. It is in this way that they have been emancipated or are being emancipated or will be emancipated from the world.

"Friend Uttiya, you asked the Lord(Buddha) from a different angle the same question that you had already asked him.. 2129 Therefore the Lord(Buddha) did not answer you." [496]


96 Kokanuda 2330[edit | edit source]

On one occasion the Venerable Ananda was dwelling at Rajagaha in the Hot Springs Park. Then, as the night was receding, the Venerable Ananda rose and. went to the hot springs to batheHaving bathed in the hot springs and come back out, he stood in one robe drying his limbs. The ascetic Kokanada, too, rose as the night was receding and went to the hot springs to bathe. He saw the Venerable Ananda from a distance and said to him:

"Who is here, friend?"

"I am a bhikkhu, friend."

"From which group of bhikkhus, friend?"

"From the ascetics following the Sakyan son."

"If you could take the time to answer my question, I would like to ask you about a certain point."

"You may ask, friend. When I hear your question. I'll know [whether I can answer it]."

"How is it, sir, do you hold the view: (1) 'The world is eternal; this alone is true, anything else is wrong'?"

"I don't hold such a view, friend."

"Then do you hold the view: (2) 'The world is not eternal; this alone is true, anything else is wrong'?"

"I don't hold such a view, friend."

"Do you hold the view: (3)— (4) 'The world is finite' . . . 'The world is infinite' . . . (5) -(6) 'The soul and the body are the same'

. . . 'The soul is one thing, the body another' . .. . (7)-(10) 'The Tathagata(Buddha) exists after death' . . . 'The Tathagata(Buddha) does not exist after death' . . . 'The Tathagata(Buddha) both exists and [197] does not exist after death' . . . 'The Tathagata(Buddha) neither exists nor does not exist after death; this alone is true, anything else is wrong'?"

"I don't hold such a view, friend."

"Could it then be that you do not know and see?"

"It isn't the case, friend, that I do not know and see. I know and see."

"When I asked you: 'How is it, sir, do you hold the view: "The world is eternal; this alone is true, anything else is wrong"?' you said: 'I don't hold such a view, friend.' But when I asked you: 'Then do you hold the view: "The world is not eternal; this alone is true, anything else is wrong"?' you said: I don't hold such a view, friend'. When I asked you: 'Do you hold the view: "The world is finite" . . . "The Tathagata(Buddha) neither exists nor does not exist after death; this alone is true, anything else is wrong"?' you said: 'I don't hold such a view, friend.' Then when I asked you: 'Could it then be that you do not know and see?' you said: 'It isn't the case, friend, that I do not know and see. I know and see.' How, friend, should the meaning of this statement be understood?"

"'The world is eternal; this alone is true, anything else is wrong,' friend: this is a speculative view. 'The world is not eternal; this alone is true, anything else is wrong': this is a speculative view. 'The world is finite' . . . 'The world is infinite' . . 'The soul and the body are the same' . . . 'The soul is one thing, the body another' 'The Tathagata(Buddha) exists after death' . . . 'The Tathagata(Buddha) does not exist after death' . . . 'The Tathagata(Buddha) both exists and does not exist after death' . . . 'The Tathagata(Buddha) neither exists nor does not exist after death; this alone is true, anything else is wrong': this is a speculative view.

"To the extent, friend, that there is a speculative view, a basis for views, 2131 a foundation for views, obsession with views, the origination of views, and the uprooting of views, I know and see this. When 1 know and see this, why should I say: 'I do not know and see.' I know, friend, I see."

"What is your name? And how are you known by your fellow monks?"

"My name is Ananda, and my fellow monks know me as Ananda."

"Indeed, I did not realize that I was consulting the great teacher, the Venerable Ananda! If I had realized that this was the Venerable Ananda, I wouldn't have spoken so much. Let the Venerable Ananda please pardon me."


97 Worthy of Gifts (Ahuneyya)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing ten qualities, a bhikkhu is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of reverential salutation, an unsurpassed field of merit for the world.

What ten?

(1) "Here, a bhikkhu is virtuous; he dwells restrained by the Patimokkha, possessed of good conduct and resort, seeing danger in minute faults. Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them.

(2) "He has learned much, remembers what he has learned, and accumulates what he has learned. Those teachings that are good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning [199] and phrasing, which proclaim the perfectly complete and pure brahmacariya(celibate holy life) — such teachings as these he has learned much of, retained in mind, recited verbally, investigated mentally, and penetrated well by view.

(3) "He has good friends, good companions, good comrades.

(4) "He holds right view and has a correct perspective.

(5) "He wields the various kinds of psychic potency(magic/iddhi): having been one, he becomes many; having been many, he becomes one; he appears and vanishes; he goes unhindered through a wall, through a rampart, through a mountain as though through space; he dives in and out of the earth as though it were water; he walks on water without sinking as though it were earth; seated cross-legged, he travels in space like a bird; with his hand he touches and strokes the moon and sun so powerful and mighty; he exercises mastery with the body as far as the brahma world.

(6) "With the divine ear element, which is purified and surpasses the human, he hears both kinds of sounds, the divine and human, those that are far as well as hear.

(7) "He understands the minds of other beings and persons, having encompassed them with his own mind. He understands a mind with lust(raag) as a mind with lust(raag), and a mind without lust(raag) as a mind without lust(raag); a mind with hatred as a mind with hatred, and a mind without hatred as a mind without hatred; a mind with delusion(moha) as a mind, with delusion(moha), and a mind with out delusion(moha) as a mind without delusion(moha); a contracted mind as contracted and a distracted mind as distracted; an exalted mind as exalted and an unexalted mind as unexalted; a surpassable mind as surpassable and an unsurpassable mind as unsurpassable; a self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita) mind as self-absorbed(in-trance/samahita) and an unconcentrated(asamahita) mind as unconcentrated(asamahita); a liberated mind as liberated and an unliberated mind as unliberated. 2137

(8) "He recollects his manifold past abodes(of past rebirths) that is, one rebirth, two rebirths, three rebirths, four rebirths, [200] five rebirths, ten rebirths. twenty rebirths, thirty rebirths, forty rebirths, fifty rebirths, a hundred rebirths, a thousand rebirths, a hundred thousand rebirths, many eons of world-dissolution, many eons of world-evolution, many eons of world-dissolution and world-evolution thus: "There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life span; passing away from there, I was reborn elsewhere, and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appear ance, such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life span; passing away from there, I was reborn here.' Thus he recollects his manifold past abodes(of past rebirths) with their aspects and details.

(9) "With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and being reborn, inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he understands how beings fare in accordance with their kamma(karma/deeds) thus: "These beings who engaged in misconduct by body, speech, and mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong view, and undertook kamma(karma/deeds) based on wrong view, with the breakup of the body, after death, have been reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell; but these beings who engaged in good conduct by body, speech, and mind, who did not revile the noble ones, who held right view, and undertook kamma(karma/deeds) based on right view, with the breakup of the body, after death, have been reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world'. Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and being reborn, inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he understands how beings fare in accordance with their kamma(karma/deeds).

(10) "With the destruction of the taints, he has realized for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, he dwells in it.

"Possessing these ten qualities, a bhikkhu is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of reverential salutation, an unsurpassed field of merit for the world."


98 An Elder (Thera sans. Sthivara)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(monks), possessing ten qualities, an elder bhikkhu dwells at ease in whatever quarter hedivesv What ten? (1) An elder is of long-standing, long gone forth[into hermit life]. (2) He is virtuous. . . . Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them. (3) He has learned much . . . and penetrated well by view. (4) Both Patimokkhas have been well transmitted to him in detail, well analyzed, well mastered, well determined in terms of the rules and their detailed explication. (5) He is skilled in the origination and settlement of disciplinary issues. (6) He loves the Dhamma(path) and is pleasing in his assertions, filled with a lofty joy pertaining to the Dhamma and discipline. (7) He is content with any kind of robe, almsfood, lodging, and medicines and provisions for the sick. (8) He is graceful when going forward and returning, and also well restrained when sitting among the houses. (9) He gains at will, without trouble or difficulty, the four jhanas(trance states) that constitute the higher mind and are pleasant dwellings in this very life. (10) With the destruction of the taints, he has realized for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, he dwells in it. Possessing these ten qualities, an elder bhikkhu dwells at ease in whatever quarter he lives."


99 Upali[edit | edit source]

Then the Venerable Upali approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, [202] and said: "Bhante, I wish to resort to remote lodgings in forests and jungle groves."

"Remote lodgings in forests and jungle groves are hard to endure, Upali. Solitude is hard to undertake and hard to delight in. When, he is alone, the woods steal the mind of a bhikkhu who does not gain samadhi(self absorption/trance). It can be expected that one who says 'I do not gain samadhi(self absorption/trance), yet I will resort to remote lodgings in forests and jungle groves' will either sink or float away. 2133

"Suppose, Upali, there was a large lake, and a bull elephant seven or eight cubits in size would come along. He might think: 'Let me enter this lake and playfully wash my ears and back. I will bathe and drink, come out, and set off wherever I want'. He then enters the lake and playfully washes his ears and back. He bathes and drinks, comes out, and sets off wherever he wants. How so? Because his large body finds a footing in the depths.

"Then a hare or a cat comes along. It might think: 'How is a bull elephant different from myself? I'll enter this lake and play fully wash my ears and back. [203] I will bathe and drink, come out, and set off wherever I want'. Then, without reflecting, it hastily enters the deep lake. It can be expected that it will either sink or float away. Why so? Because its small body does not find a footing in the depths. So too, it can be expected that one who would say: 'I do not gain samadhi(self absorption/trance), yet I will resort to remote lodgings in forests and jungle groves,' will either sink or float away.

"Suppose, Upali, a young infant boy, lying on his back, would play with his own urine and feces. What do you think, isn't that a completely unwise type of amusement?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"Sometime later, when that boy grows up and his faculties mature, he would play the games that are typical for boys games With toy plows, stick games, somersaults, games with pinwheels, games with measures made of leaves, games with toy chariots, games with toy bows. What do you think, isn't this amusement more excellent and sublime than the former kind?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"At a still later time, as that boy continues to grow up and his faculties mature still more, he enjoys himself furnished and endowed with the five objects of sensual pleasure: with forms cognizable by the eye that are wished for, desired, agreeable, pleasing, connected with sensual pleasure, tantalizing; with sounds cognizable by the ear . . . with odors cognizable by the nose . . . with tastes cognizable by the tongue . . . with tactile objects cognizable by the body [204] that are wished for, desired, agreeable, pleasing, connected with sensual pleasure, tantalizing. What do you think, isn't this amusement more excellent and sublime than the former kind?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"Here, Upali, the Tathagata(Buddha) arises in the world, 2134 an arahant, perfectly enlightened, accomplished in true knowledge and conduct, fortunate, knower of the world, unsurpassed trainer of persons to be tamed, teacher of devas(angels/gods) and humans, the Enlightened One, the Lord(Buddha). Having realized with his own direct knowledge(abhinna) this world with its devas(angels/gods), Mara, and Brahma, this population with its ascetics and brahmins, with its devas(angels/gods) and humans, he makes it known to others. He teaches the Dhamma that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing; he reveals the perfectly complete and pure brahmacariya(celibate holy life).

"A householder or householder's son or one born in some other clan hears this Dhamma. He then acquires faith in the Tathagata(Buddha) and considers thus: 'Household life is crowded and dusty; life gone forth[into hermit life] is wide open. If is not easy, while living at home, to lead the brahmacariya(celibate holy life) that is utterly perfect and pure as a polished conch shell. Suppose I shave off my hair and beard, put on ochre robes, and go forth from the household life into hermit life'. On a later occasion, having abandoned a small or a large fortune, having abandoned a small or a large circle of relatives, he shaves off his hair and beard, puts on ochre robes, and goes forth from the household life into hermit life.

"Having thus gone forth[into hermit life] and possessing the bhikkhus' train ing and way of life, having abandoned the destruction of life, he abstains from the destruction of life; with the rod(violence) and weapon laid aside, conscientious and kindly, he dwells compassionate toward all living beings. Having abandoned taking what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given; he takes only what is given, expects only what is given, and dwells honestly without thoughts of theft. Having abandoned sexual activity, he observes celibacy, living apart, abstaining from sexual intercourse, the common person's practice.

"Having abandoned false speech, he abstains from false speech; he speaks truth, adheres to truth; he is trustworthy and reliable, no deceiver of the world. Having abandoned divisive speech, he abstains from divisive speech; he does not repeat elsewhere what he has heard here in order to divide [those people] from these, nor does he repeat to these what he has heard elsewhere in order to divide [these people] from those; thus he is one who reunites those who are divided, a promoter of unity, who enjoys concord, rejoices in concord, delights in concord, a speaker of words that promote concord. Having abandoned harsh speech, he abstains from harsh speech; he speaks words that are gentle, pleasing to the ear, lovable, words that go to the heart, courteous words that are desired by many people and agreeable to many people. Having abandoned idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter; he speaks at a proper time. speaks what is fact, speaks on what is beneficial, speaks on the Dhamma and the discipline; at the proper time he speaks words that are worth recording, reasonable, succinct, and beneficial.

"He abstains from injuring seeds and plants. He eats once a day, abstaining from eating at night and outside the proper time. He abstains from dancing, singing, instrumental music, and unsuitable shows. He abstains from adorning and beautifying himself by wearing garlands and applying scents and unguents. He abstains from high and large beds. He abstains from accepting gold and silver, raw grain, raw meat, women and girls, men and women slaves, goats and sheep, fowl and pigs, elephants, cattle, horses, and mares, fields and land. He abstains from going on errands and running messages; from buying and selling; from cheating with weights, metals, and measures; [206 ] from accepting bribes, deceiving, defrauding, and trickery. He abstains from wounding, murdering, binding, brigandage, plunder, and violence.

"He is content with robes to protect his body and almsfood to maintain his stomach, and wherever he goes he sets out taking only these with him. Just as a bird, wherever it goes, flies with its wings as its only burden, so too, a bhikkhu is content with robes to protect his body and almsfood to maintain his stomach, and wherever he goes he sets out taking only these with him . Possessing this aggregate of noble virtuous behavior, he experiences blameless bliss within himself.

"Having seen a form with the eye, he does not grasp at its marks and features. Since, if he left the eye faculty unrestrained, bad harmful(akusala) states of longing and dejection might invade him, he practices restraint over it; he guards the eye faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the eye faculty. Having heard a sound with the ear . . . Having smelled an odor with the nose . . . Having tasted a taste with the tongue . . , Having felt a tactile object with the body. . .Having cognized a mental phenomenon with the mind, he does not grasp at its marks and features. Since, if he left the mind faculty unrestrained, bad harmful(akusala) states of longing and dejection might invade him, he practices restraint over it; he guards the mind faculty, he undertakes the restraint of the mind faculty. Possessing this noble restraint of the faculties, he experiences unsullied bliss within himself.

"He acts with complete comprehension(sampajanna) when going forward and returning; he acts with complete comprehension(sampajanna) when look ing ahead and looking away; he acts with complete comprehension when bending and stretching his limbs; he acts with complete comprehension when wearing his robes and carrying his outer robe and bowl; he acts with complete comprehension(sampajanna) when eating, drinking, consuming food, and tasting; he acts with complete comprehension when defecating and urinating; he acts with complete comprehension when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, and keeping silent.

"Possessing this aggregate of noble virtuous behavior, and this [207] noble restraint of the faculties, and this noble mindfulness(meditation/sati) and complete comprehension(sampajanna), he resorts to a secluded lodging; the forest, the root of a tree, a mountain, a ravine, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a jungle thicket, an open space, a heap of straw.

"Having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, he sits down, folding his legs crosswise, straighten ing his body, and establishing mindfulness(meditation/sati) in front of him. Having abandoned longing for the world, he dwells with a mind free from longing; he purifies his mind from longing. Having abandoned ill will and hatred, he dwells with a mind free from ill will, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings; he purifies his mind from ill will and hatred. Having abandoned dullness and drowsiness, he dwells free from dullness and drowsiness, perceptive of light, mindful(meditating/sati) and completely comprehending; he purifies his mind from dullness and drowsiness. Having abandoned restlessness and remorse, he dwells without agitation, with a mind inwardly peaceful; he purifies his mind from restlessness and remorse. Having abandoned doubt, he dwells having gone beyond doubt, unperplexed about beneficial(kusala) qualities; he purifies his mind from doubt.

(1) "Having thus abandoned these five hindrances, defile ments of the mind, qualities that weaken panna(divine knowledge), secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from harmful(akusala) states, he enters upon and dwells in the first jhana(trance state), winch consists of bliss(piti) and happiness(sukha) born of seclusion, accompanied by thought and examination. What do you think, isn't this dwelling more excellent and sublime than those that precede it?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"It is when they see this quality within themselves that my disciples resort to remote lodgings in forests and jungle groves. But they still haven't attained their own goal. 2135

(2) "Again, Upali, with the subsiding of thought and examination, the bhikkhu enters and dwells in the second jhana(trance state). . . . What do you think, isn't this dwelling more excellent and sub lime than those that precede it?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"It is when they see this quality, too, within themselves that my disciples resort to remote lodgings in forests and jungle groves. But they still haven't attained their own goal.

(3) "Again, Upali, with the fading away as well of bliss(piti) . . . he enters and dwells in the third jhana(trance state). . . . What do you think, isn't this dwelling more excellent and sublime than those that precede it?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"It is when they see this quality, too,, within themselves that my disciples resort to remote lodgings in forests and jungle groves. But they still haven't attained their own goal.

(4) "Again, Upali, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain ... he enters and dwells in the fourth jhana(trance state). . . . What do you think, isn't this dwelling more excellent and sublime than those that precede it?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"It is when they see this quality, too, within themselves that my disciples resort to remote lodgings in forests and jungle groves. But they still haven't attained their own goal.

(5) "Again, Upali, with the complete surmounting of perception(sanna/sangya) of forms, with the passing away of perceptions(sanna/sangya) of sensory impingement, with non-attention to perceptions(sanna/sangya) of diversity, [perceiving] 'space is infinite' the bhikkhu enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of space. What do you think, isn't this dwelling more excellent and sublime than those that precede it?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"It is when they see this quality, too, within themselves that my disciples resort to remote lodgings in forests and jungle groves. But they still haven't attained their own goal.

(6) "Again, Upali, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of. space, [perceiving] 'consciousness is infinite,' he enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness. What do you think, isn't this dwelling more excellent and sublime than those that precede it?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"It is when they see this quality, too, within themselves that my disciples resort to remote lodgings in forests and jungle groves. But they still haven't attained their own goal.

(7) "Again, Upali, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of the infinity of consciousness, [perceiving] 'there is nothing' he enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness. What do you think, Upali, isn't this dwelling more excellent and sublime than those that precede it?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"It is when they see this quality, too, within themselves that my disciples resort to remote lodgings in forests and jungle groves. But they still haven't attained their own goal.

(8) "Again, Upali; by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of nothingness, [perceiving] 'this is peaceful, this is sublime,' he enters and dwells in the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non perception(sanna/sangya). What do you think, isn't this dwelling more excellent and sublime than those that precede it?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"It is when they see this quality, too, within themselves that my disciples resort to remote lodgings in forests and jungle groves. But they still haven't attained their own goal. .

(9) "Again, Upali, by completely surmounting the sphere(ayatana) of neither-perception(sanna/sangya)-nor-non-perception, he enters and dwells in the cessation of perception(sanna/sangya) and sensation(vedana). (10) And having seen with panna(divine knowledge), his taints are utterly destroyed. What do you think, isn't this dwelling more excellent and sublime than those that precede it?"

"Yes, Bhante."

"It is when they see this quality, too, within themselves that my disciples resort to remote lodgings in forests and jungle groves. And they dwell having attained their own goal.

"Come, Upali, dwell within the Sangha. While you dwell within the Sangha you will be at ease."


100 Incapable (Abhabba)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus; without having abandoned these ten things, one is incapable of realizing arahantship. What ten? lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh). delusion(moha), anger, hostility, denigration, insolence, envy, miserliness, and conceit. Without having abandoned these ten things, one is incapable of realizing arahantship.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), having abandoned these ten things, one is capable of realizing arahantship. What ten? lust(raag) . . . conceit. Having abandoned these ten things, one is capable of realizing arahant ship " [210]



The Third Fifty[edit | edit source]

I. Monk's perceptions (Samanasannavagggo sans. Sramana-Sangya-Varga)[edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


101 Monk's perceptions(Samanasanna sans. Sramana-Sangya)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), when these three ascetic perceptions(sanna/sangya) 2138 are developed and cultivated, they fulfill seven things. What three?

(1) "I have entered upon a classless condition; (2) my living is dependent upon others; (3) my deportment should be different.' When these three perceptions(sanna/sangya) of an ascetic are developed and cultivated, they fulfill seven things. What seven?

(1) "One consistently acts and behaves in accord with virtuous behavior. (2) One is without longing, (3) without ill will, (4) and without arrogance. (5) One is desirous of training. [211] (6) One uses the requisites for maintaining one's life with an awareness of their purpose. (7) One is energetic. When, bhikkhus, these three perceptions(sanna/sangya) of an ascetic are developed and cultivated, they fulfill these seven things."


102 Factors of Enlightenment (Bojjhanga sans. Bodhyanga)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), when these seven factors of enlightenment are developed and cultivated, they fulfill the three true knowledges. What seven?

(1) "The enlightenment factor of mindfulness(meditation/sati), (2) the enlightenment factor of discrimination of phenomena(dhamma vicaya), (3) the enlightenment factor of energy(exertion/viriya) , (4) the enlightenment factor of bliss(piti), (5) the enlightenment factor of tranquility(passaddhi), (6) the enlightenment factor of samadhi(self absorption/trance), and (7) the enlightenment factor of equanimity(upekkha). When these seven factors of enlightenment are developed and cultivated, they fulfill the three true knowledges. What three?

(8) "Here, a bhikkhu recollects his manifold past abodes(of past rebirths), that is, one rebirth, two rebirths . . . Thus he recollects his manifold pas abodes with their aspects and details. 2139

(9) "With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human ... he understands how beings fare in accordance with their kamma(karma/deeds).

(10) "With the destruction of the taints, he has realized for himself with direct knowledge(abhinna), in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by panna(divine knowledge), and having entered upon it, he dwells in it.

"When, bhikkhus, these seven factors of enlightenment are developed and cultivated, they fulfill these three true knowledges."


103 The, Wrong Course (Micchata sans. Mithyata)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), in dependence on the wrong course there is failure(vipatti), not success. And how is it that in dependence on the wrong course there is failure(vipatti), not success?

(1) "For one of wrong view, (2) wrong intention originates. For one of wrong intention, (3) wrong speech originates. For one of wrong speech, [212] (4) wrong action originates. For one of wrong action, (5) wrong livelihood originates. For one of wrong livelihood, (6) wrong effort originates. For one of wrong effort, (7) wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati) originates. For one of wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati), (8) wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance) originates. For one of wrong concentration, (9) wrong knowledge originates. For one of wrong knowledge, (10) wrong liberation originates. 2140 In this way, in dependence on the wrong course, there is failure(vipatti), not success.

"In dependence on the right course, there is success, not failure(vipatti). And how is it that in dependence on the right course, there is success, not failure(vipatti)?

(1) "For one of right view, (2) right intention originates. For one of right intention, (3) right speech originates. For one of right speech, (4) right action originates. For one of right action, (5) right livelihood originates. For one of right livelihood, (6) right effort originates. For one of right effort, (7) right mind fulness originates. For one of right meditation(sati/mindfulness), (8) right samadhi(self absorption/trance) originates. For one of right samadhi(self absorption/trance), (9) right knowledge originates. For one of right knowledge, (10) right liberation originates. 2141 In this way, in dependence on the right course, there is success, not failure(vipatti)."


104 A Seed [2142] (Bija)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), for a person of wrong view, wrong intention, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness, wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance), wrong knowledge, and wrong liberation, whatever bodily kamma(karma/deeds), verbal kamma(karma/deeds), and mental kamma(karma/deeds) he instigates and undertakes in accordance with that view, and whatever his (self)awareness, yearning, inclination, and one's character/behavior(sankhara/sanskar), all lead to what is unwished for, undesired, and disagreeable, to harm and suffering. For what reason? Because the view is bad.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, a seed of neem, bitter cucumber, or bit ter gourd were planted in moist soil. [213] Whatever nutrients it would take up from the soil and from the water would all lead to its bitter, pungent, and disagreeable flavor. For what reason? Because the seed is bad. So too, for a person of wrong view and wrong liberation, whatever bodily kamma(karma/deeds), verbal kamma(karma/deeds), and mental kamma(karma/deeds) he instigates and undertakes in accordance with that view, and whatever his (self)awareness, yearning, inclination, and one's character/behavior(sankhara/sanskar), all lead to what is unwished for, undesired, and disagreeable, to harm and suffering. For what reason? Because the view is bad.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), for a person of right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness(meditation/sati), right samadhi(self absorption/trance), right knowledge, and right liberation, whatever bodily kamma(karma/deeds), verbal kamma(karma/deeds), and mental kamma(karma/deeds) he instigates and undertakes in accordance with that view, and whatever his (self)awareness, yearning, inclination, and one's character/behavior(sankhara/sanskar), all lead to what is wished for desired, and agree able, to well-being and happiness. For what reason? Because the view is good.

"Suppose, bhikkhus, a seed of sugar cane, hill rice, or grape were planted in moist soil. Whatever nutrients it would take up from the soil and from the water would all lead to its agree able, sweet, and delectable flavor. For what reason? Because the seed is good. So too, for a person of right view . . . [214] . . . and right liberation, whatever bodily kamma(karma/deeds), verbal kamma(karma/deeds), and mental kamma(karma/deeds) he instigates and undertakes in accordance with that view, and whatever his (self)awareness, yearning, inclination, and one's character(sankhara/sanskar), all lead to what is wished for, desired, and agreeable, to well-being and happiness. For what reason? Because the view is good."


105 True Knowledge (Vijja sans. Vidya)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(monks), ignorance — accompanied by moral shamelessness and moral recklessness — is the forerunner in entering upon harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma). 2143 (1) For a unwise person immersed in ignorance, wrong view originates. (2) For one of wrong view, wrong intention originates. (3) For one of wrong intention, wrong speech originates. (4) For one of wrong speech, wrong action originates. (5) For one of wrong action, wrong livelihood originates. (6) For one of wrong livelihood, wrong effort originates. (7) For one of wrong effort, wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati) originates. (8) For one of wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati), wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance) originates. (9) For one of wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance), wrong knowledge originates. (10) For one of wrong knowledge, wrong liberation originates.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), true knowledge — accompanied by a sense of moral shame and moral dread — is the forerunner in enter ing upon beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma). (1) For a wise person who has arrived at true knowledge, right view originates. (2) For one of right view, right intention originates. (3) For one of right intention, right speech originates. (4) For one of right speech, right action originates. (5) For one of right action, right livelihood originates. (6) For one of right livelihood, right effort originates. (7) For one of right effort, right meditation(sati/mindfulness) originates. (8) For one of right meditation(sati/mindfulness), right samadhi(self absorption/trance) originates. (9) For one of right samadhi(self absorption/trance), right knowledge originates. (10) For one of right knowledge, right liberation originates." 2144


106 Wearing Away (Nijjara sans. Nirjara)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these ten cases of wearing away. 2145 What ten?

(1) "For one of right view, wrong view is worn away, and the numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong view as condition are also worn away, and with right view as condition, numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) reach fulfill ment by development.

(2) "For one of right intention, wrong intention is worn away, and the numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong intention as Condition are also worn away, and with right intention as condition, numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities reach fulfillment by development.

(3)For one of right speech, wrong speech is worn away. and the numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong speech as condition are also worn away, and with right speech as condition, numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) reach fulfillment by development.

(4) "For one of right action, wrong action is worn away, and the numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong action as condition are also worn away, and with right action as condition, numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) reach fulfillment by development.

(5) "For one of right livelihood, wrong livelihood is worn away, and the numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong livelihood as condition are also worn away, and with right livelihood as condition, numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities reach fulfillment by development.

(6) "For one of right effort, wrong effort is worn away, and the numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong effort as condition are also worn away, and with right effort as condition, numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) reach fulfill ment by development.

(7) "For one of right meditation(sati/mindfulness), wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati) is worn away, and the numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati) as condition are also worn away, and with right meditation(sati/mindfulness) as condition, numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities reach fulfillment by development.

(8) "For one of right samadhi(self absorption/trance), wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance) is worn away, and the numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance) as condition are also worn away, and with right samadhi(self absorption/trance) as condition, numerous [216] beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) reach fulfillment by development.

(9) "For one of right knowledge, wrong knowledge is worn away, and the numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong knowledge as condition are also worn away, and with right knowledge as condition, numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities reach fulfillment by development.

(10) "For one of right liberation, wrong liberation is worn away, and the numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong liberation as condition are also worn away, and with right liberation as condition, numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities reach fulfillment by development.

"These are the ten cases of wearing away."


107 Washing (Dhovana)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there is a country in the south named Dhovana 2146 [' Washing' ], where there is food, drink, victuals, comestibles, refreshments, tonics, dancing, singing, and music. There is this 'Washing,' bhikkhus; that I do not deny. Yet this 'Washing' is low, common, for worldlings, ignoble, unbeneficial; it does not lead to disenchantment(nibbida), to dispassion(viraga), to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge(abhinna), to enlightenment, to nibbana(nirvana).

"But I will teach, bhikkhus, a noble washing that leads exclusively to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge(abhinna), to enlightenment, to nibbana(nirvana). In dependence on this washing, beings subject to rebirth are freed from rebirth; beings subject to old age are freed from old age; beings subject to death are freed from death; beings subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish are freed from sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and. anguish. Listen and attend closely. I will speak. "

"Yes, Bhante," those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"And what, bhikkhus, is that noble washing? [217]

(1) "For one of right view, wrong view is washed away, and the numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong view as condition are also washed away, and with right view as condition, numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) reach fulfill ment by development.

(2) — (9) "For one of right intention, wrong intention is washed away . . .For one of right speech, wrong speech is washed away . . . For one of right action, wrong action is washed away . . . For one of right livelihood, wrong livelihood is washed away . . . For one of right effort, wrong effort is washed away . . . For one of right meditation(sati/mindfulness), wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati) is washed away . . . For one of right samadhi(self absorption/trance), wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance) is washed away . . . For one of right knowledge, wrong knowledge is washed away. . .

(10) "For one of right liberation, wrong liberation is washed away, and the numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong liberation as condition are also washed away, and with right liberation as condition, numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities reach fulfillment by development.

"This, bhikkhus, is that noble washing that leads exclusively to disenchantment(nibbida), to dispassion(viraga), to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to nibbana(nirvana). In dependence on this washing, beings subject to rebirth are freed from rebirth; beings subject to old age are freed from old age; beings subject to death are freed from death; beings subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish are freed from sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish." [218]


108 Physicians (Tikicchaka sans. cikitsaka)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), physicians prescribe a purgative for eliminating ailments originating from bile, phlegm, and wind. There is this purgative, bhikkhus; that I do not deny. Yet this purgative sometimes succeeds and sometimes fails.

"But I will teach, bhikkhus, a noble purgative that always succeeds and never fails. In dependence on this purgative, beings subject to rebirth are freed from rebirth; beings subject to old age are freed from old age; beings subject to death are freed from death; beings subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish are freed from sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish. Listen and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, Bhante," those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"And what, bhikkhus, is that noble purgative that always succeeds and never fails?

(1) "For one of right view, wrong view is purged, and the numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong view as condition are also purged, and with right view as condition, numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) reach fulfillment by development.

(2) — (9) "For one of right intention, wrong intention is purged . . . For one of right speech, wrong speech is purged . ..For one of right action, wrong action is purged . . . For one of right live lihood, wrong livelihood is purged . . . For one of right effort wrong effort is purged . . .For one of right meditation(sati/mindfulness), wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati) is purged . . . [219] For one of right samadhi(self absorption/trance), wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance) is purged . . . For one of right knowledge, wrong knowledge is purged . . .

(10) "For one of right liberation, wrong liberation is purged, and the numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong liberation as condition are also purged, and with right liberation as condition, numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) reach fulfillment by development.

"This, bhikkhus, is that noble purgative that always succeeds and never fails, and in dependence on which beings subject to rebirth are freed from rebirth; beings subject to old age are freed from old age; beings subject to death are freed from death; beings subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish are freed from sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish."


109 Emetic (Vamana)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), physicians prescribe an emetic(vomit causing) for eliminating ail ments originating from bile, phlegm, and wind. There is this emetic, bhikkhus; that I do not deny. Yet this emetic sometimes succeeds and sometimes fails.

"But I will teach, bhikkhus, a noble emetic that always succeeds and never fails. In dependence on this emetic, beings subject to rebirth are freed from rebirth; beings subject to old age are freed from old age; beings subject to death are freed from death; beings subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish are freed from sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish. Listen and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, Bhante," those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"And what, bhikkhus, is that noble emetic that always succeeds and never fails? [220]

(lj "For one of right view, wrong view is vomited up, and the numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong view as condition are also vomited up, and with right view as condition, numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) reach fulfill ment by development.

(2)— (9) "For one of right intention, wrong intention is vomited up . . . For one of right speech, wrong speech is vomited up . . . For one of right action, wrong action is vomited up . . . For one of right livelihood, wrong livelihood is vomited up . . . For one of right effort, wrong effort is vomited up . . . For one of right mindfulness, wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati) is vomited up . . . For one of right samadhi(self absorption/trance), wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance) is vomited up . . . For one of right knowledge, wrong knowledge is vomited up ...

(10) "For one of right liberation, wrong liberation is vomited up, and the numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong liberation as condition are also vomited up, and with right liberation as condition, numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities reach fulfillment by development.

"This, bhikkhus, is that noble emetic that always succeeds and never fails, and in dependence on which beings subject to rebirth are freed from rebirth; beings subject to old age are freed from old age; beings subject to death are freed from death; beings subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish are freed from sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish."


110 Ejected (Niddhamaniya)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(monks), there are these ten things to be ejected. What ten?

(1) "For one of right view, wrong view is ejected, and the numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong view as condition are also ejected, and with right view as condition, numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) reach fulfillment by development. [221]

(2) — (9) "For one of right intention, wrong intention is ejected . . . For one of right speech, wrong speech is ejected . . . For one of right action, wrong action is ejected . . . For one of right live lihood, wrong livelihood is ejected . . . For one of right effort, wrong effort is ejected . . . For one of right meditation(sati/mindfulness), wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati) is ejected . . .For one of right samadhi(self absorption/trance), wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance) is ejected . . . For one of right knowledge, wrong knowledge is ejected

(10) "For one of right liberation, wrong liberation is ejected, and the numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong liberation as condition are also ejected, and with right liberation as condition, numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) reach fulfillment by development.

"These are the ten things to be ejected."


111 One Beyond Training (1) (Asekha1 sans. Ashaikhya)[edit | edit source]

Then a certain bhikkhu approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said;

"It is said, Bhante, 'one beyond training, one beyond training' In what way, Bhante, is a bhikkhu one beyond training?" 2147

"Here, bhikkhu, a bhikkhu possesses (1) the right view of one beyond training. He possesses (2) the right intention . . . (3) the right speech . . . (4) the right action . . . (5) the right livelihood . . . (6) the right effort . . . (7) the right meditation(sati/mindfulness) . . . (8) the right samadhi(self absorption/trance) . . . (9) the right knowledge . . . (10) the right liberation of one beyond training. It in this way that a bhikkhu is one beyond training." [222]


112 One Beyond Training (2) (Asekha2 sans. Ashaikhya)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these ten qualities of one beyond train ing. What ten? The right view of one beyond training; the right intention . . . the right speech . . the right action . . . the right livelihood ; : : the right effort . . ; the right meditation(sati/mindfulness) . . . the right samadhi(self absorption/trance) . . . the right knowledge . . . the right liberation of one beyond training. These are the ten qualities of one beyond training."



II. PACCOROHANIVAGGO[edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


113 Non-Dhamma (1) (Adhamma1 sans. Adharma)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and harmful should be under stood, and what is the Dhamma(path) and beneficial should also be understood. 2148 Having understood what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and harmful, and also what is the Dhamma and beneficial, one should practice in accordance with the Dhamma and with what is beneficial.

"And what, bhikkhus, is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and harmful? Wrong view, wrong intention, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong Livelihood, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati), wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance), wrong knowledge, and wrong liberation. [223] This is what is said to be non-Dhamma(wrong path) and harmful.

"And what, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma and beneficial? Right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right meditation(sati/mindfulness), right samadhi(self absorption/trance), right knowledge, and right liberation. This is what is said to be the Dhamma and beneficial.

"When it was said: 'Bhikkhus, what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and harmful should be understood, and what is the Dhamma and beneficial should also be understood. Having understood what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and harmful, and also what is the Dhamma ind beneficial, one should practice in accordance with the Dhamma and with what is beneficial,' it is with reference to his that this was said."


114 Non-Dhamma (2) (Adhamma2 sans. Adharma)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma should be understood, and what is harmful and what is beneficial should also be understood. Having understood what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma, and also what is harmful and what is beneficial, one should practice in accordance with the Dhamma and with what is beneficial.

"And what, bhikkhus, is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma? And what is harmful and what is beneficial?

(1) "Wrong view is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right view is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong view as condition: these are harmful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that reach fulfillment by development with right view as condition: these are beneficial.

(2) "Wrong intention is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right intention is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong intention as condition: these are harmful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that reach fulfillment by development with right intention as condition: these are beneficial.

(3) "Wrong speech is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right speech is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong speech as condition: these are harmful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that reach fulfillment by development with right speech as condition: these are beneficial.

(4) "Wrong action is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right action is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong action as condition: [224] these are harmful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that reach fulfillment by development with right action as condition: these are beneficial.

(5) "Wrong livelihood is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right livelihood is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong livelihood as condition: these are harm ful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that reach fulfillment by development with right livelihood as condition: these are beneficial.

(6) "Wrong effort is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right effort is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong effort as condition: these are harmful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that reach fulfillment by development with right effort as condition: these are beneficial.

(7) "Wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati) is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right meditation(sati/mindfulness) is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati) as condition: these are harm ful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that reach fulfillment by development with right meditation(sati/mindfulness) as condition: these are beneficial.

(8) "Wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance) is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right samadhi(self absorption/trance) is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance) as condition: these are harmful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that reach fulfill ment by development with right samadhi(self absorption/trance) as condition, these are beneficial.

(9) "Wrong knowledge is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right knowledge is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong knowledge as condition, these are harm ful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that reach fulfillment by development with right knowledge as condition: these are beneficial.

(10) "Wrong liberation is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right liberation is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong liberation as condition: these are harm ful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that reach fulfillment by development with right liberation as condition: these are beneficial.

"When it was said: "Bhikkhus(Monks), what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma should be understood, and what is harm ful and what is beneficial should also be understood. Having understood what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma, and also what is harmful and what is beneficial, one should practice in accordance with the Dhamma and with what is beneficial," it is with reference to this that this was said.'"


115 Non-Dhamma (3) (Adhamma3 sans. Adharma)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(monks), what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma should be understood, and what is harmful and what is beneficial should also be understood. Having understood what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma, and also what is harmful and what is beneficial, one should practice in accordance with the Dhamma and with what is beneficial."

This is what the Lord(Buddha) said. Having said this, the Sugata(Lord Buddha) rose frorh his seat and entered his dwelling. 2149 Then, soon after the Lord(Buddha) had left, the bhikkhus considered: "Friends, the Lord(Buddha) taught this brief synopsis: 'Bhikkhus, what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma(right path) should be understood . . . one should practice in accordance with the Dhamma and with what is beneficial.' Then he rose from his seat and entered his dwelling without expounding its meaning in detail. Now who will expound its meaning in detail? ' Then it occurred to them: "The Venerable Ananda is praised by the Teacher and esteemed by his wise fellow monks; he is capable of expounding the detailed meaning of this brief synopsis. Let us approach the Venerable Ananda and ask him the meaning of this. We will retain it in mind as he explains it to us."

Then those bhikkhus approached the Venerable Ananda and exchanged greetings with him after which they sat down to one side and said: "Friend Ananda, the Lord(Buddha) taught this brief synopsis. . . . Then he rose from his seat and entered his dwelling without expounding the meaning in detail. Soon after he left, we considered: 'Friends, the Lord(Buddha) [2261 taught this brief synopsis [all as above down to:] . . . Let us approach the Venerable Ananda and ask him the meaning of this. We will retain it in mind as he explains it to us, Let the Venerable Ananda expound it to us."

[The Venerable Ananda replied:] "Friends, it is as though a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wandering in search of heartwood, would pass over the root and trunk of a great tree possessed of heartwood, thinking that heartwood should be sought among the branches and foliage. And so it is with you. When you were face to face with the Teacher you passed by the Lord(Buddha), thinking to ask me about the meaning. For, friends, knowing, the Lord(Buddha) knows; see ing, he sees; he has become vision, he has become knowledge, he has become the Dhamma, he has become Brahma; he is the expounder, the proclaimer, the elucidator of meaning, the giver of the deathless(amata/amrit), the lord of the Dhamma, the Tathagata(Buddha). That was the time when you should have approached the Lord(Buddha) [227] and asked him about the meaning. You should have retained it in mind as he would have explained it to you,"

"Surely, friend Ananda, knowing, the Lord(Buddha) knows; seeing, he sees; he has become vision . . . the Tathagata(Buddha). That was the time when we should have approached the Lord(Buddha) and asked him about the meaning, and we should have retained it in mind as he would have explained it to us. Yet the Venerable Ananda is praised by the Teacher and esteemed by his wise fellow monks. He is capable of expounding the detailed meaning of this synopsis. Let the Venerable Ananda expound it without finding it troublesome'.

"Then listen, friends, and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, friend," those bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Ananda said this:

"Friends, the Lord(Buddha) taught this brief synopsis with out expounding the detailed meaning: 'Bhikkhus, what is non Dhamma and what is the Dhamma should be understood, and what is harmful and what is beneficial should also be under stood. Having understood what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma, and also what is harmful and what is beneficial, one should practice in accordance with the Dhamma and with what is beneficial. Now what, friends, is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma? And what is harmful and what is beneficial?

(1) "Wrong view, friends, is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right view is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong view as condition: these are harmful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that reach fulfillment by development with right view as condition: these are beneficial.

(2) — (9) "Wrong intention is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right intention is the Dhamma(right path) , . . Wrong speech is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right speech [228] is the Dhamma — Wrong action is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right action is the Dhamma . . Wrong livelihood is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right livelihood is the Dhamma . . . Wrong effort is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right effort is the Dhamma . . . Wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati) is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right meditation(sati/mindfulness) is the Dhamma . . . Wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance) is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right samadhi(self absorption/trance) is the Dhamma . . . Wrong knowledge is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right knowledge is the Dhamma . . .

(10) "Wrong liberation is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right liberation is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong liberation as condition: these are harm ful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that reach fulfill ment by development with right liberation as condition: these are beneficial.

"Friends, it is in this way that I understand the detailed mean ing of the Lord(Buddha)'s brief synopsis. Now, if you wish, you may go to the Lord(Buddha) himself and ask him about the mean ing of this. You should retain it in mind as the Lord(Buddha) explains it to you."

"Yes, friend," those bhikkhus replied, and having delighted and rejoiced in the Venerable Ananda's statement, they rose from their seats and went to the Lord(Buddha). After paying homage to him, they sat down to one side and said to the Lord(Buddha)

"Bhante, the Lord(Buddha) taught this synopsis ...[they here

relate all 'that' had taken place, adding:] [229] , . .Then, Bhante, we approached the Venerable Ananda and asked him about the meaning. The Venerable Ananda expounded the meaning to us in these ways, in these terms and phrases."

"Good, good, bhikkhus! Ananda is wise. Ananda has great panna(divine knowledge). If you had approached me and asked me the meaning of this, I would have explained it to you in the same way as Ananda. Such is the meaning of this, and so you should, retain it in mind."


116 Ajita [2150][edit | edit source]

Then the ascetic Ajita approached the Lord(Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side [230] and said to the Lord(Buddha):

"Master Gotama, I have a fellow ascetic named Pandita. 2151 He has thought out five hundred arguments 2152 by which those of other sects, when rebutted, know: 'We've been rebutted'.

Then the Lord(Buddha) addressed the bhikkhus: "Do you remember, bhikkhus, Pandita's cases?"

"This is the time for it. Lord(Buddha)! This is the time for it. Sugata(Lord Buddha)! Having heard this from the Lord(Buddha), the bhikkhus will retain in mind whatever the Lord(Buddha) says."

"Well then, bhikkhus, listen and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, Bhante," those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"Here, someone refutes and disproves a doctrine contrary to the Dhamma with a doctrine contrary to the Dhamma. In this way, he delights an assembly contrary to the Dhamma. For this reason, the assembly contrary to the Dhamma becomes loud and boisterous, exclaiming: 'He is truly wise, sir! He is truly wise, sir!' 2153

"Someone refutes and disproves a doctrine that accords with the Dhamma by means of a doctrine contrary to the Dhamma. In this way, he delights an assembly contrary to the Dhamma. For this reason, the assembly contrary to the Dhamma becomes loud and boisterous, exclaiming: 'He is truly wise, sir! He is truly wise, sir!'

"Someone refutes and disproves both a doctrine that accords with the Dhamma and a doctrine contrary to the Dhamma by means of a doctrine contrary to the Dhamma. In this way, he delights an assembly contrary to the Dhamma: For this reason, the assembly contrary to the Dhamma becomes loud and boisterous, exclaiming: 'He is truly wise, sir! He is truly wise, sir!' 2154

"Someone refutes and disproves both a doctrine that accords with the Dhamma and a doctrine contrary to the Dhamma by means of a doctrine that accords with the Dhamma. In this way, he delights an assembly contrary to the Dhamma. For that reason, the assembly contrary to the Dhamma becomes loud and boisterous, exclaiming: 'He is truly wise, sir! He is truly wise, sir!'

"Someone refutes and disproves a doctrine that accords with the Dhamma with a doctrine that accords with the Dhamma. In this way, he delights an assembly that accords with the Dhamma. For this reason, the assembly that accords with the Dhamma becomes loud and boisterous, exclaiming: 'He is truly wise, sir! He is truly wise, sir!']

"Bhikkhus(Monks), what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma should be understood, and what is harmful and what is beneficial should be understood. Having understood what is non Dhamma and what is the Dhamma, and what is harmful and what is beneficial, one should practice in accordance with the Dhamma and with what is beneficial. . . .

(The sutta continues exactly as in 10:114, ending:)

"When it was said: 'Bhikkhus, what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma(right path) should be understood, and what is harmful and what is beneficial should be understood. Having under stood what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma, and what is harmful and what is beneficial, one should practice in accordance with the Dhamma and with what is beneficial' it is with reference to this that this was said."


117 Sangarava[edit | edit source]

Then the brahmin Sangarava approached the Lord(Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to the Lord(Buddha):

"Master Gotama, what is the near shore? What is the far shore?"

" Brahmin, (1) wrong view is the near shore, right view the far shore. (2) Wrong intention is the near shore, right intention the far shore. (3) Wrong speech is the near shore, right speech the far shore. (4) Wrong action is the near shore, right action the far shore.. (5) Wrong livelihood is the near shore, right livelihood the far shore. (6) Wrong effort is the near shore, right effort the far shore. (7) Wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati) is the near shore, right mindfulness(meditation/sati) the far shore. (8) Wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance) is the near shore, right samadhi(self absorption/trance) the far shore. (9) Wrong knowledge is the near shore, right knowledge the far shore. (10) Wrong liberation is the near shore, right liberation the far shore. The one, brahmin, is the near shore, the other the far shore."


Few are those people
who go beyond.
The rest merely run
along the [near] shore.


When the Dhamma is rightly expounded
those people who practice accordingly
are the ones who will go beyond
the realm of Death so hard to cross.


Having left the dark qualities behind,
a wise person should develop the bright ones.
Having come from home into hermit life,
where it is hard to take delight


There in seclusion one should seek delight,
having left behind sensual pleasures.
Owning nothing, the wise person
should cleanse himself of mental defilements.


Those whose minds are rightly well developed
in the enlightenment factors,
who through non-clinging find delight
in the relinquishment of grasping:
luminous, with taints destroyed,
they are the quenched ones in the world. 2157


118 Near Shore (Orimatir)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the near shore and the far shore: Listen and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, Bhante," those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"What, bhikkhus, is the near shore, and what is the far shore? (1) Wrong view, bhikkhus, is the near shore, right view the far shore . . . (10) Wrong liberation is the near shore, right liberation the far shore. The one, bhikkhus, is the near shore, the other the far shore."

[The verses attached are identical with those of the preceding sutta.]


119 Paccorohani (1)[edit | edit source]

Now on that occasion, on the uposatha day, the brahmin Janussoni stood to one side not far from the Lord(Buddha), with his head washed, wearing a new pair of linen clothes, holding a handful of wet [234] kusa grass. The Lord(Buddha) saw him standing there and said to him:

"Why is it, brahmin, that on the uposatha day you stand to one side with your head washed, wearing a new pair of linen clothes, holding a handful of wet kusa grass? What is happening today with the brahmin clan?"

"Today, Master Gotama, is the brahmin clan's paccorohani festival." 2158

"But how do the brahmins observe the paccorohani festival?"

"Here, Master Gotama, on the uposatha day, the brahmins wash their heads and put on a pair of new linen clothes. They then smear the ground with wet cow dung, cover this with green kusa grass, and lie down between the boundary and the fire house. In the course of the night, they get up three times, and with reverential salutation pay homage to the fire: 'We descend in honor of the revered one. We descend in honor of the revered one. 2159 They offer abundant ghee, oil, and butter to the fire. When the night has passed, they offer excellent food of various kinds to brahmins. It is in this way. Master Gotama, that the brahmins observe the paccorohani festival."

"The paccorohani festival in the Noble One's discipline, brahmin, is quite different from the paccorohani festival of the brahmins."

"But how. Master Gotama, is the paccorohani festival observed in the Noble One's discipline? It would be good if Master Gotama would teach me the Dhamma by explaining how the paccorohani festival is observed in the Noble One's discipline."

"Well then, brahmin, listen and attend closely. I will speak." . .

"Yes, sir," the brahmin Janussoni replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this: [235]

(1) "Here, brahmin, the noble disciple reflects thus: 'The result of wrong view is bad both in this present life and in future lives.' Having reflected thus, he abandons wrong view; he descends from wrong view.

(2) "... 'The result of wrong intention is bad both in this present life and in future lives.' Having reflected thus, he abandons wrong intention; he descends from wrong intention.

(3) ". . . 'The result of wrong speech is bad both in this present life and in future lives.' Having reflected thus, he abandons wrong speech; he descends from wrong speech.

(4) ". . . 'The result of wrong action is bad both in this present life and in future lives.' Having reflected thus, he abandons wrong action; he descends from wrong action.

(5) . . 'The result of wrong livelihood is bad both in this present life and in future lives.' Having reflected thus, he abandons wrong livelihood; he descends from wrong livelihood.

(6) "... 'The result of wrong effort is bad both in this present life and in future lives.' Having reflected thus, he abandons wrong effort; he descends from wrong effort.

(7) "... 'The result of wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati) is bad both in this present life and in future lives.' Having reflected thus, he abandons wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati); he descends from wrong mindfulness.

(S) . . 'The result of wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance) is bad both in this present life and in future lives'. Having reflected thus, he abandons wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance); he descends from wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance).

(9) . . 'The result of wrong knowledge is bad both in this present life and in future lives'. Having reflected thus, he abandons wrong knowledge; he descends from wrong knowledge.

(10) . . 'The result of wrong liberation is bad both in this present life and in future lives'. Having reflected thus, he abandons wrong liberation; he descends from wrong liberation.

"It is in this way, brahmin, that the paccorohani festival is observed in the Noble One's discipline."

"The paccorohani festival in the Noble One's discipline. Master Gotama, is quite different from the paccorohani festival of the brahmins. And the paccorohani festival of the brahmins is not worth a sixteenth part of the paccorohani festival in the Noble One's discipline. [236]

"Excellent, Master Gotama! Excellent, Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma(path) clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the darkness so those with good eyesight can see forms. I now go for refuge to Master Gotama, to the Dhamma, and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. Let Master Gotama consider me a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."


120 Paccorohani (2)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), I will teach you the noble paccorohani festival. Listen. ...

"And what, bhikkhus, is the noble paccorohani festival? (1) Here; the noble disciple reflects thus: 'The result of. wrong view is bad both in this present life and in future lives.' Having reflected thus, he abandons wrong view; he descends from wrong view. (2) 'The result of wrong intention' . . (3) . . . wrong speech,. . (4) . . . wrong action . . . (5) . . . wrong livelihood ... (6) . . . wrong effort . . . (7) . . . wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati) . . . (8) . . . wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance) . . . (9) . . . wrong knowledge . . . (10) . . . wrong liberation is bad both in this present life and in future lives. Having reflected thus, he abandons wrong liberation; he descends from wrong liberation. This is called the noble paccorohani festival."


121 Forerunner (Pubbangama sans. Purva-gaman)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), just as the dawn is the forerunner and precursor of the sunrise, so right view is the forerunner and precursor of beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma). For one of right view, right intention originates. For one of right intention, right speech originates. For one of right speech, right action originates. For one of right action, right livelihood originates. For one of right livelihood, right effort originates. For one of right effort, right meditation(sati/mindfulness) originates. For one of right meditation(sati/mindfulness), right samadhi(self absorption/trance) [237] originates. For one of right samadhi(self absorption/trance), right knowledge originates. For one of right knowledge, right liberation originates."


122 Destruction of Taints (Asavakkhaya sans. Ashrava-kshaya)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), these ten things, when developed and cultivated, lead to the destruction of the taints. What ten? Right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right meditation(sati/mindfulness), right samadhi(self absorption/trance), right knowledge, and right liberation. These ten things, when developed and cultivated, lead to the destruction of the taints."



III. Purified Section (Parisuddhavaggo sans. Parishuddha-varga)[edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


123 First[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), these ten things are purified and cleansed nowhere else but in the Sugata(Lord Buddha)'s discipline. What ten? Right view . . . and right liberation. These ten things are purified and cleansed nowhere else but in the Sugata(Lord Buddha)'s discipline." .


124 Second[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(monks), these ten things when unarisen arise nowhere else but in the Sugata(Lord Buddha)'s discipline. What ten? [238] Right view and right liberation. These ten things. ..."


125 Third[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), these ten things are of great fruit and benefit nowhere else but in the Sugata(Lord Buddha)'s discipline. What ten? Right view . . . and right liberation. These ten things. . .


126 Fourth[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), these ten things culminate in the removal of lust(raag), hatred, and delusion(moha) nowhere else but in the Sugata(Lord Buddha)'s discipline. What ten? Right view . . . and right liberation. These ten things "


127 Fifth[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), these ten things lead exclusively to disenchantment(nibbida), to dispassion(viraga), to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge(abhinna), to enlightenment, to nibbana(nirvana), nowhere else but in the Sugata(Lord Buddha)'s discipline. What ten? Right view . .and right liberation. These ten things. ..."


128 Sixth[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), these ten things, developed and cultivated, when unarisen arise nowhere else but in the Sugata(Lord Buddha)'s discipline. What ten? [239] Right view . . . and right liberation. These ten things.


129 Seventh[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), these ten things, when developed and cultivated, are of great fruit and benefit nowhere else but in the Fortunate One's discipline. What ten? Right view . . . and right liberation. These ten things. ..."


130 Eighth[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), these ten things, when developed and cultivated, culminate in the removal of lust(raag), hatred(dosa/dvesh), and delusion(moha) nowhere else but in the Sugata(Lord Buddha)'s discipline. What ten? Right view . . . and right liberation. These ten things "


131 Ninth[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), these ten things, when developed and cultivated, lead exclusively to disenchantment(nibbida), to dispassion(viraga), to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge(abhinna), to enlightenment, to nibbana(nirvana), nowhere else but in the Sugata(Lord Buddha)'s discipline. What ten? Right view . . . and right liberation. These ten things.. ..."


132 Tenth[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these ten wrong courses. What ten? Wrong view, wrong intention, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati), wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance), wrong knowledge, and wrong liberation. These are the ten wrong courses."


133 Eleventh[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), there are these ten right courses. What ten? Right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right meditation(sati/mindfulness), right samadhi(self absorption/trance), right knowledge, and right liberations These are the ten right courses."



IV. Good Section (Sadhuvaggo)[edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


134 Good (Sadhu)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), I will teach you what is good and what is bad. Listen and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, Bhante," those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"And what, bhikkhus, is bad? Wrong view, wrong intention, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati), wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance), wrong knowledge, and wrong liberation. This is called bad.

"And what, bhikkhus, is good? [241] Right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right meditation(sati/mindfulness), right samadhi(self absorption/trance), right knowledge, and right liberation. This is called good."


135 - 144 The Noble Dhamma, Etc.[edit | edit source]

(135) "Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the noble Dhamma and the ignoble Dhamma . . . (136) . . . the beneficial(kusala) and the harmful(akusala) . . (137) . . . what is beneficial and what is harmful . . . [242] . . . (138) . . . the Dhamma and what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) . . . ( l39) . . . the tainted Dhamma and the taintless one . (140) . . . the blameworthy Dhamma and the blameless one . . [243] (141) . . . the tormenting Dhamma and the untormenting one . . . ( 142 ) the Dhamma that leads to building up and the one that leads to dismantling . . . (143) . . . the Dhamma with suffering as its outcome and the one with happiness as its outcome . . . (214) (144) . . the Dhamma that results in suffering and the one that results in happiness...

"And what, bhikkhus, is the (path) that results in suffer ing? Wrong view ... . and wrong liberation. This is called the Dhamma that results in suffering.

"And what, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma that results in hap piness? Right view . . . and right liberation. This is called the Dhamma that results in happiness."



V. Noble[edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


145 The Noble Path[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), I will teach you the noble path and the ignoble path. 2160 Listen and attend closely. . . . And what, bhikkhus, is the ignoble path?. Wrong view . . . and wrong liberation. This is called the ignoble path.

And what, bhikkhus, is the noble path? Right view . . . and right liberation. This is called the noble path."


146-154 The Dark Path , Etc.[edit | edit source]

(146) "Bhikkhus(Monks), I will teach you the dark path and the bright path 2161 . . . [245] . . .. (147) ... . the good Dhamma(path) and the bad Dhamma . . . (148) . . . the Dhamma of a good person and that of a bad person . . . (149) . . . the Dhamma to be aroused and the one not to be aroused . . . (150) . . . the Dhamma to be pursued and the one not to be pursued . . . (151) . . . the Dhamma to be developed and the one not to be developed . . . (152) . . . the Dhamma to be cultivated and the one not to be cultivated . . . (153) . . . the Dhamma to be recollected and the one not to be recollected . . . (154) . . . the Dhamma to be realized and the one not to be realized

"And what, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma not to be realized? Wrong view... and wrong liberation. This is called the Dhamma not to be realized.

"And what, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma to be realized? Right view . . . and right liberation. This is called the Dhamma to be realized."



The Fourth Fifty[edit | edit source]

I. Persons Sections (Puggalavagggo sans. Purush-yugal-varga)[edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


155 Associate With (Sevitabba)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), one should not associate with a person who possesses ten qualities. What ten? Wrong view, wrong intention, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness(meditation/sati), wrong samadhi(self absorption/trance), wrong knowledge, and wrong liberation. One should not associate with a person who possesses these ten qualities.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), one should associate with a person who possesses ten qualities. What ten? Right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right samadhi(self absorption/trance), right knowledge, and right liberation. One should associate with a person who possesses these ten qualities."


156— 166 Resort , Etc. (Bhajitabba)[edit | edit source]

(156) "Bhikkhus(Monks), one should not resort to a person who pos sesses ten qualities . . . one should resort to . . . (157) . . . one should not attend on . . . one should attend on . . . (158) . . . one should

not venerate . . . one should venerate (159) . . . one should not

praise . . . one should praise . . . (160) . . . one should not revere . . . one should revere ... (161) ... one should not show deference to . . . one should show deference to a person who possesses ten qualities ... . (162) ... a person who possesses ten qualities is not successful . . . is successful . . . (163) ... is not purified ... is purified . . . (164) . . . does not overcome conceit . . . overcomes conceit . . . (165) ... . does not grow in panna(divine knowledge) . . . grows in panna(divine knowledge) . . . (166) . . .generates much demerit . . .generates much merit. What ten? Right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right meditation(sati/mindfulness), right samadhi(self absorption/trance), right knowledge, and right liberation. A person who possesses these ten qualities generates much merit."



II. Janussoni Section[edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


167 Brahmanapaccorohani (l) [2162][edit | edit source]

Now on that occasion, on the uposatha day, the brahmin Janussoni stood to one side not far from the Lord(Buddha), with his head washed, wearing a new pair of linen clothes, holding a handful of wet kusa grass. The Lord(Buddha) saw him standing there and said to him:

"Why is it, brahmin, that on the uposatha day you stand to one side with your head washed, wearing a new pair of linen clothes, holding a handful of wet kusa grass? What is happening today with the brahmin clan? "

"Today, Master Gotama, is the brahmin clan's paccorohani festival." [250]

"But how, brahmin, do the brahmins observe the paccorohani. festival?" .

"Here, Master Gotama, on the uposatha day, the brahmins wash their heads and put on a pair of new linen clothes. They then smear the ground with wet cow dung, cover this with green kusa grass, and lie down between the boundary and the fire house. In the course of the night, they get up three times, and with reverential salutation pay homage to the fire: 'We descend in honor of the revered one. We descend in honor of the revered one.' They offer abundant ghee, oil, and butter to the fire. When the night has passed, they offer excellent food of various kinds to brahmins. It is in this way. Master Gotama, that the brahmins observe the paccorohani festival."

"The paccorohani festival in the Noble One's discipline, brahmin, is quite different from the paccorohani festival of the brahmins."

"But how. Master Gotama, is the paccorohani festival observed in the Noble One's discipline? It would be good if Master Gotama would teach me the Dhamma by explaining how the paccorohani festival is observed in the Noble One's discipline."

"Well then, brahmin, listen and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, sir," the brahmin Janussoni replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

(1) "Here, brahmin, the noble disciple reflects thus: 'The result of the destruction of life is bad both in this present life and in future lives'. Having reflected thus, he abandons the destruction of life; he descends from the destruction of life.

(2) "... 'The result of taking what is not given is bad both in this present life and in future lives.' Having reflected thus, he abandons taking what is not given; he descends from taking what is not given.

(3) ". . . 'The result of sexual misconduct is bad bothin this present life and in future lives'. Having reflected thus, he abandons sexual misconduct; he descends from sexual misconduct.

(4) . 'The result of false speech is bad both in this present life and in future lives.' [251] Having reflected thus, he abandons false speech; he descends from false speech.

(5) . . 'The result of divisive speech is bad both in this present life and in future lives.' Having reflected thus, he abandons divisive speech; he descends from divisive speech.

(6) . . 'The result of harsh speech is bad both in this present life and in future lives.' Having reflected thus, he abandons harsh speech; he descends from harsh speech.

(7) . 'The result of idle chatter is bad both in this present life and.in future lives'. Having reflected thus, he abandons idle chatter; he descends from idle chatter.

(8) ". . . "The result of longing is bad both in this present life and in future lives'. Having reflected thus, he abandons long ing; he descends from longing.

(9) ". . . 'The result of ill will is bad both in this present life and in future lives'. Having reflected thus, he abandons ill will; he descends from ill will.

(10) ". . . 'The result of wrong view; is bad both in this present life and in future lives.' Having reflected thus, he abandons wrong view; he descends from wrong view.

"It is in this way, brahmin, that the paccorohanl festival is observed in the Noble One's discipline."

"The paccorohanl festival in the Noble One's discipline. Master Gotama, is quite different from the paccorohanl festival of the brahmins. And the paccorohanl festival of the brahmins is not worth a sixteenth part of the paccorohanl festival in the Noble One's discipline.

"Excellent, Master Gotama! . . . [as in 10:119] . . . Let Master Gotama consider me a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."


168 Ariyapaccorohani (2)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), I will teach you the noble paccorohanl festival. Listen. ...

"And what, bhikkhus, is the noble paccorohanl festival? [252] (1) Here, the noble disciple reflects thus: 'The result of the destruction of life is bad both in this present life and in future lives.' Having reflected thus, he abandons the destruction of life; he descends from the destruction of life. (2) 'The result of taking what is not given . . . (3) . . . sexual misconduct . . . (4) . . . false speech . . . (5) . . . divisive speech . . . (6) . . . harsh speech . . . (7) . . . idle chatter . . . (8) . . . longing . . . (9) ... ill will . . . (10) . . . wrong view is bad both in this present life and in future lives.' Having reflected thus, he abandons wrong view; he descends from wrong view. This is called the noble paccorohani festival."


169 Sangarava [2163][edit | edit source]

Then the brahmin Sangarava approached the Lord(Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and. cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to the Lord(Buddha):

"Master Gotanta, what is the near shore? What is the far shore?"

"Brahmin, (1) the destruction of life is the near shore, abstention from the destruction of life the far shore. (2) Taking what is not given is the near shore, abstention from taking what is not given the far shore. (3) Sexual misconduct is the near shore, abstention from sexual misconduct the far shore. (4) False speech is the near shore, abstention from false speech the far shore. (5) Divisive speech is the near shore, abstention from divisive speech the far shore. (6) Harsh speech is the near shore, abstention from harsh speech the far shore. (7) Idle chatter is the near shore, abstention from idle chatter the far shore. (8) Longing is the near shore, non-longing the far shore. (9) Ill will is the near shore, goodwill the far shore. (10) Wrong view is the near shore, right view the far shore. The one, brahmin, is the near shore, the other the far shore." [253]


Few are those people
who go beyond.
The rest merely run
along the (near) shore.


When the Dhamma is rightly expounded
those people who practice accordingly
are the ones who will go beyond
the realm of Death so hard to cross.


Having left the dark qualities behind,
a wise person should develop the bright ones.
Having come from home into hermit life,
where it is hard to take delight —


There in seclusion one should seek delight,
having left behind sensual pleasures.
Owning nothing, the wise person
should cleanse himself of mental defilements.


Those whose minds are rightly well developed
in the enlightenment factors,
who through non-clinging find delight
in the relinquishment of grasping:
luminous, with taints destroyed,
they are the quenched ones in the world.


170 The Near Shore (Orima)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), I will teach you the near shore and the far shore. Listen and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, Bhante," those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"What, bhikkhus, is the near shore, and what is the far shore? (1) The destruction of life, bhikkhus, is the near shore, abstention from the destruction of life the far shore. (2) Taking what is not given is the near shore, abstention from taking what is not given the far shore. (3) Sexual misconduct is the near shore, abstention from sexual misconduct the far shore. (4) False speech is the near shore, abstention from false speech the far shore. (5) Divisive speech is the near shore, abstention from divisive speech the far shore. (6) Harsh speech is the near shore, abstention from harsh speech the far shore. (7) Idle chatter is the near shore, abstention from idle chatter the far shore. (8) Longing is the near shore, non-longing the far shore. (9) Ill will is the near shore, goodwill the far shore. (10) Wrong view is the near shore, right view the far shore. The one, bhikkhus, is the near shore, the other the far shore."

[The verses attached are identical with those of the preceding sutta.]


Few are those people
who go beyond.
The rest merely run
along the [near] shore.


When the Dhamma(path) is rightly expounded
those people who practice accordingly
are the ones who will go beyond
the realm of Death so hard to cross.


Having left the dark qualities behind,
a wise person should develop the bright ones.
Having come from home into hermit life,
where it is hard to take delight —


There in seclusion one should seek delight,
having left behind sensual pleasures.
Owning nothing, the wise person
should cleanse himself of mental defilements.


Those whose minds are rightly well developed
in the enlightenment factors,
who through nonclinging find delight
in the relinquishment of grasping:
luminous, with taints destroyed,
they are the quenched ones in the world.


171 Non-Dhamma (1) (Adhamma sans. Adharma)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(monks), what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and harmful should be understood, and what is the Dhamma and beneficial should also be understood. Having understood what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and harmful, and also what is the Dhamma and beneficial, one should practice in accordance with the Dhamma and with what is beneficial.

"And what, bhikkhus, is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and harmful? The destruction of life, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, false speech, divisive speech, harsh speech, idle chatter. longing, ill will, and wrong view. This is what is said to be non-Dhamma(wrong path) and harmful.

"And what, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma and beneficial? Abstention from the destruction of life, abstention from taking what is not given, abstention from sexual misconduct, abstention from false speech, abstention from divisive speech, abstention from harsh speech, abstention from idle chatter, non-longing, good will, and right view. This is what is said to be the Dhamma and beneficial.

"When it was said: 'Bhikkhus, what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and harmful should be understood, and what is the Dhamma and beneficial should also be understood. Having understood what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and harmful, and also what is the Dhamma and beneficial, one should practice in accordance with the Dhamma and with what is beneficial, it is with reference to this that this was said." [255]


172 Non-Dhamma (2) (Adhamma2 sans. Adharma)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma(right path) should be understood, and what is harmful and what is beneficial should also be understood. Having understood what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma, and also what is harm ful and what is beneficial, one should practice in accordance with the Dhamma(path) and with what is beneficial."

This is what the Lord(Buddha) said. Having said this, the Sugata(Lord Buddha) rose from his seat and entered his dwelling. Then, soon after the Lord(Buddha) had left, the bhikkhus considered: "Friends, the Lord(Buddha) taught this brief synopsis: 'Bhikkhus, what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma should be understood . . . one should practice in accordance with the Dhamma and with what is beneficial.' Then he rose from his seat and entered his dwelling without expounding its meaning in detail. Now who will expound its meaning in detail? ' Then it occurred to them: "The Venerable Mahakaccana is praised by the Teacher and esteemed by his wise fellow monks; he is capable of expounding the detailed meaning of this brief synopsis. Let us approach the Venerable Mahakaccana and ask him the meaning of thus. We will retain it in mind as he explains it to us."

Then those bhikkhus approached the Venerable Mahakaccana and exchanged greetings with him, after which they sat down to one side and said: "Friend Mahakaccana, the Lord(Buddha) taught this brief synopsis [256] . . . Then he rose from his seat

and entered his dwelling without expounding the meaning in detailSoon after he left, we considered: 'Friends, the Lord(Buddha) taught this brief synopsis. . . . (all as above down to:] ... Let us approach the Venerable Mahakaccana and ask him the meaning of this. We will retain it in mind as he explains it to us.' Let the Venerable Mahakaccana expound it to us."

[The . Venerable Mahakaccana replied:] "Friends, it is as though a man needing heartwood, seeking heartwood, wander ing in search of heartwood, would pass over the root and trunk of a great tree possessed of heartwood, thinking that heartwood should be sought among the branches and foliage. And so it is with you. When you were face to face with the Teacher you passed by the Lord(Buddha), thinking to ask me about the meaning. For, friends, knowing, the Lord(Buddha) knows; seeing, he sees; he has become vision, he has become knowledge, he has become the Dhamma, he has become Brahma; he is the expounder, the prpclaimer, the elucidator of meaning, the giver of the death less, the lord of the Dhamma, the Tathagata(Buddha). That was the time when you [257] should have approached the Lord(Buddha) and asked him about the meaning. You should have retained it in mind as he would have explained it to you."

"Surely, friend Kaccana, knowing, the Lord(Buddha) knows; seeing, he sees; he has become vision . . . the Tathagata(Buddha). That was the time when we should have approached the Lord(Buddha) and asked him about the meaning, and we should have retained it in mind as he would have explained it to us. Yet the Venerable Mahakaccana is praised by the Teacher and esteemed by his wise fellow monks. He is capable of expounding the detailed meaning of this synopsis. Let the Venerable Mahakaccana expound it without finding it troublesome."

"Then listen, friends, and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, friend," those bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Mahakaccana said this:

"Friends, the Lord(Buddha) taught this brief synopsis with out expounding the detailed meaning: 'Bhikkhus, what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what i.s the Dhamma should be understood, and what is harmful and what is beneficial should also be understood. Having understood what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma, and also what is harmful and what is beneficial, one should practice in accordance with the Dhamma and with what is beneficial.' Now what, friends, is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma? And what is harmful and what is beneficial?

(1) "The destruction of life, friends, is non-Dhamma(wrong path); abstention from the destruction of life is the Dhamma: The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with the destruction of life as condition: these are harmful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities that reach fulfillment by development with abstention from the destruction of life as condition: these are beneficial.

(2) "Taking what is not given is non-Dhamma(wrong path); abstention from taking what is not given is the Dhamma. [258] The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with taking what is not given as condition: these are harmful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that reach fulfillment by development with abstention from taking what is not given as condition: these are beneficiaL

(3) "Sexual misconduct is non-Dhamma(wrong path); abstention from sexual misconduct is the Dhamma. The numerous badharmful(akusala) qualities that originate with sexual misconduct as. condition: these are harmful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities that reach fulfillment by development with abstention from sexual misconduct as condition: these are beneficial.

(4) "False speech is non-Dhamma(wrong path); abstention from false speech is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities that originate with false speech as Condition: these are harmful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that reach fulfillment by development with abstention from false speech as condition: these are beneficial. ;

(5) "Divisive speech is non-Dhamma(wrong path); abstention from divisive speech is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities that originate with divisive speech as condition: these are harmful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that reach fulfillment by development with abstention from divisive speech as condition: these are beneficial.

(6) "Harsh speech is non-Dhamma(wrong path); abstention from harsh speech is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities that originate with harsh speech as condition: these are harmful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that reach fulfillment by development with abstention from harsh speech as condition: these are beneficial.

(7) "Idle chatter is non-Dhamma(wrong path); abstention from idle chatter is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with idle chatter as condition: these are harmful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that reach fulfillment by development with abstention from idle chatter as condition: these are beneficial.

(8) "Longing is non-Dhamma(wrong path); non-longing is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with longing as condition: these are harmful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities that reach fulfillment by development with non longing as condition: these are beneficial.

(9) "Ill will is non Dhamma; good will is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that, originate with ill will as condition: these are harmful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities that reach fulfillment by development with good will as condition: these are beneficial.

(10) "Wrong view is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right view is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong view as condition: these are harmful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that reach fulfillment by development with right view as condition: these are beneficial.

"Friends, [259] it is in this way that I understand the detailed meaning of the Lord(Buddha)'s brief synopsis. Now, if you wish, you may go to the Lord(Buddha) himself and ask him about the meaning of this. You should retain it in mind as the Lord(Buddha) explains it to you."

"Yes, friend," those bhikkhus replied, and having delighted and rejoiced in the Venerable Mahakaccana's statement, they rose from their seats and went to the Lord(Buddha). After pay ing homage to him, they sat down to one side and said to the

Lord(Buddha): "Bhante, the Lord(Buddha) taught this synopsis [they here relate all that had taken place, adding:] . . . Then, Bhante, we approached, the Venerable Mahakaccana and asked him about the meaning. The Venerable Mahakaccana expounded the meaning to us in these ways, in these terms and phrases."

"Good, good, bhikkhus! Mahakaccana is wise. Mahakaccana has great panna(divine knowledge). If you had approached me and asked me the meaning of this, I would have explained it to you in the same way as Mahakaccana. Such is the meaning of this, and so. you should retain it in mind."


173 Non-Dhamma(Wrong Path) (3) (Adhamma3 sans. Adharma)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma should be understood, and what is harmful and what is beneficial should also be understood. Having understood what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma, and also what is harmful and what is beneficial, one should practice in accordance with the Dhamma and with what is beneficial:

"And what, bhikkhus, is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma? And what is harmful and what is beneficial?

(1) "The destruction of life is non-Dhamma(wrong path); abstention from the destruction of life is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with the destruction of life as condition: these are harmful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities that reach fulfillment by development with abstention from the destruction of life as condition: these are beneficial.

(2) "Taking what is not given is non-Dhamma(wrong path); abstention from taking what is not given is the Dhamma(right path). . . . (3) Sexual misconduct [261] is non-Dhamma(wrong path); abstention from sexual mis conduct is the Dhamma. . . . (4) False speech is non-Dhamma(wrong path); abstention from false speech is the Dhamma. . . (5) Divisive speech is non-Dhamma(wrong path); abstention from divisive speech is the Dhamma. . . . (6) Harsh speech is non-Dhamma(wrong path); abstention from harsh speech is the Dhamma. .. .(7) Idle chatter is non-Dhamma(wrong path); abstention from idle chatter is the Dhamma. . . . (8) Longing is non-Dhamma(wrong path); non-longing is the Dhamma (9) Ill will is non Dhamma; goodwill is the Dhamma.

(10) "Wrong view is non-Dhamma(wrong path); right view is the Dhamma. The numerous bad harmful(akusala) qualities(Dhamma) that originate with wrong view as condition: these are harmful. The numerous beneficial(kusala) qualities(Dhamma) that reach fulfillment by development with right view as condition: these are beneficial.

"When it was said: 'Bhikkhus, what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma should be understood, and what is harmful and what is beneficial should be understood. Having understood what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) and what is the Dhamma, and what is harmful and what is beneficial, one should practice in accordance with the Dhamma and with what is beneficial,' it is with reference to this that this was said.'


174 Causes of Kamma(Deeds) (Kammanidana sans. Karma-nidana)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(monks), the destruction of life, I say, is threefold: caused by greed, caused by hatred, and caused by delusion(moha). Taking what is not given, I say, is also threefold: caused by greed, caused by hatred, and caused by delusion(moha). Sexual misconduct, I say, is also threefold: caused by greed, caused by hatred, and caused by delusion(moha)! False speech, I say, is also threefold: caused by greed, caused by hatred, and caused by delusion(moha). Divisive speech, I say, is also threefold: caused by greed, caused by hatred, and caused by delusion(moha). Harsh speech, I say, is also threefold: caused by greed, caused by hatred, and caused by delusion(moha). Idle chat ter, I say, is also threefold: caused by greed, caused by hatred, and caused by delusion(moha). Longing, [262] I say, is also threefold: caused by greed, caused by hatred, and caused by delusion(moha). Ill will, I say, is also threefold: caused by greed, caused by hatred, and caused by delusion(moha). Wrong view, I say, is also threefold: caused by greed, caused by hatred, and caused by delusion(moha).

"Thus, bhikkhus, greed is a source and origin of kamma(karma/deeds); hatred is a source and origin of kamma(karma/deeds); delusion(moha) is a source and origin of kamma(karma/deeds). With the destruction of greed, a source of kamma(karma/deeds) is extinguished. With the destruction of hatred, a source of kamma(karma/deeds) is extinguished. With the destruction of delusion(moha), a source of kamma(karma/deeds) is extinguished."


175 Avoidance (Parikammana)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), this Dhamma offers a means of avoidance. It does not lack a means of avoidance. And how does this Dhamma offer a means of avoidance and not lack a means of avoidance?

(1) "One who destroys life has abstention from the destruction of life as the means to avoid it. (2) One who takes what is not given has abstention from taking what is not given as the means to avoid it. (3) One who engages in sexual misconduct has abstention from sexual misconduct as the means to avoid it. (4) One who speaks falsely has abstention from false speech as the means to avoid it. (5) One who speaks divisively has abstention from divisive speech as the means to avoid it. (6) One who speaks harshly has abstention from harsh speech as the means to avoid it. (7) One who indulges in idle chatter has abstention from idle chatter as Ihe means to avoid it. (8) One full of longing has non-longing as the means to avoid it. (9) One full of ill will has good will as the means to avoid it. (10) One who holds wrong view has right view as the means to avoid it.

"It is in this way, bhikkhus, that this Dhamma offers a means of avoidance and does not lack a means of avoidance." [263]


176 Cunda[edit | edit source]

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Lord(Buddha) was dwelling at Pava in the mango grove of Cunda, the smith's son. 2165 Then Cunda, the smith's son, approached the Lord(Buddha), paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Lord(Buddha) then said to him:

"Cunda, whose rites of purity 2166 do you prefer?"

"Bhante, I prefer the rites of purity prescribed by the brahmins of the west who carry around waterpots, wear garlands of water plants, tend the sacred fire, and immerse themselves in water."

"And how, Cunda, do the brahmins of the west prescribe their rites of purity?"

"Here, Bhante, the brahmins of the west enjoin a disciple thus: 'Come, good man, having gotten up early, you should stroke the ground from your bed. If you don't stroke the ground, you should stroke wet cow dung. If you don't stroke wet cow dung, you should stroke green grass. If you don't stroke green grass, you should tend the sacred fire. If you don't tend the sacred fire, you should pay homage to the sun with reverential salutation. If you don't pay homage to the sun with reverential salutation, you should immerse yourself in water three times including the evening.' It is in this way that the brahmins of the west prescribe their rites of purity. It is their rites of purity that I prefer."

"Cunda, purification in the Noble One's discipline is quite different from the rites of purity prescribed by the brahmins of the west who carry around waterpots, wear garlands of water plants, tend the sacred fire, and immerse themselves in water." [264]

"But how, Bhante,' does purification come about in the Noble One's discipline? It would be good if the Lord(Buddha) would teach me the Dhamma(path) in a way that explains how purification comes about in the Noble One's discipline."

"Well then, Cunda, listen and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, Bhante," Cunda, the smith's son, replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"Impurity by body, Cunda, is threefold. Impurity by speech is fourfoldImpurity by mind is threefold .

" And how, Cunda, is impurity by body threefold?

(1) "Here, someone destroys life. He is murderous, bloody handed, given to blows and violence, merciless to living beings.

(2) "He takes what is not given. He steals the wealth and property of others in the village or forest.

(3) "He engages in sexual misconduct. He has sexual relations with women who are protected by their mother, father, mother and father, brother, sister, or relatives; who are protected by their Dhamma; who have a husband; whose violation entails a penalty; or even with one already engaged. 2167

"It is in this way that impurity by body is threefold.

"And how, Cunda, is impurity by speech fourfold?

(4) "Here, someone speaks falsehood. If he is summoned to a council, to an assembly, to his relatives' presence, to his guild, or to the court, and questioned as a witness thus: 'So, good man, tell what you know,' then, not knowing, he says, 'I know,' or knowing, he says, 'I do not know'; not seeing, he says, 'I see,' or seeing, he says, 'I do not see.' Thus [265] he consciously speaks falsehood for his own ends, or for another's ends, or for some trifling worldly end.

(5) "He speaks divisively. Having heard something here, he repeats it elsewhere in order to divide [those people] from these; or having heard something elsewhere, he repeats it to these people in order to divide [them] from those. Thus he is one who divides those who are united, a creator of divisions, one who enjoys factions, rejoices in factions, delights in factions, a speaker of words that create factions.

(6) "He speaks harshly. He utters such words as are rough, hard, hurtful to others, offensive to others, bordering on anger, unconducive to samadhi(self absorption/trance).

(7) "He indulges in idle chatter. He speaks at an improper time, speaks falsely, speaks what is unbeneficial, speaks contrary to the Dhamma and the discipline; at an improper time he speaks such words as are worthless, unreasonable, rambling, and unbeneficial.

"It is in this way that impurity by speech is fourfold.

"And how, Cunda, is impurity by mind threefold?

(8) "Here, someone is full of longing. He longs for the wealth and property of others thus; 'Oh, may what belongs to another be mine!' ,

(9) "He has a mind of ill will and intentions of hate thus: 'May these beings be slain, slaughtered, 2166 cut off, destroyed, or annihilated?'

(10) "He holds wrong view and has an incorrect perspective thus: 'There is nothing given, nothing sacrificed, nothing offered; there is no fruit or result of good and bad actions; there is no this world, no other world; there is no mother, no father; there are no beings spontaneously reborn; there are in the world no ascetics and brahmins of right conduct and right practice who, having realized this world and the other world for them selves by direct knowledge(abhinna), make them known to others.'

"It is in this way that impurity by mind is threefold.

"These, Cunda, are the ten courses of harmful(akusala) kamma(karma/deeds). If one engages in these ten courses of harmful(akusala) kamma(karma/deeds), then, if one gets up early and strokes the ground from one's bed, one is impure, and if one doesn't stroke the ground, one is impure. If one strokes wet cow dung, one is impure, and if one doesn't stroke wet cow dung, one is impure. If one strokes green grass, one is impure, and if one doesn't stroke green grass, one is impure. If one tends the sacred fire, one is impure, and if one doesn't tend the sacred fire, one is impure; If one pays homage to the sun with reverential salutation, one is impure, and if one doesn't pay homage to the sun with reverential salutation, one is impure. If one immerses oneself in water three times including the evening, one is impure, and if one doesn't immerse one self in water three times including the evening, one is impure. For what reason? Because these ten courses of harmful(akusala) kamma(karma/deeds) are themselves impure and defiling. It is because people engage in these ten courses of harmful(akusala) kamma(karma/deeds) that hell, the animal realm, the sphere of afflicted spirits, and other bad destinations are seen.

"Purity by body, Cunda, is threefold. Purity by speech is fourfold. Purity by mind is threefold.

"And how, Cunda, is purity by body threefold?

(1) "Here, someone, having abandoned the destruction of life, abstains from the destruction of life. With the rod(violence) and weapon laid aside, conscientious and kindly, he dwells compassionate toward all living beings.

(2) "Having abandoned the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. He does not steal the wealth and property of others in the village or in the forest.

(3) "Having abandoned sexual misconduct, he abstains from sexual misconduct. He does not have sexual relations with women who are protected by their mother, father, mother and father, brother, sister, or relatives; who are protected by their Dhamma; who have a husband; whose violation entails a pen alty; or even with one already engaged.

"It is in this way that purity by body is threefold.

"And how, Cunda, is purity by speech fourfold?

(4) "Here, someone, having abandoned false speech, abstains from false speech. If he is summoned to a council, to an assembly, to his relatives' presence, to his guild, or to the court, and questioned as a witness thus: 'So, good man, tell what you know' then, not knowing, he says, 'I do not know' or knowing, he says, 'I know'; not seeing, he says, 'I do not see' or seeing, he says, "I see' Thus he does not consciously speak falsehood for his own ends, or for another's ends, or for some trifling worldly end.

(5) "Having abandoned divisive speech, he abstains from divisive speech. Having heard something here, he does not repeat it elsewhere in order to divide [those people] from these; or having heard something elsewhere, he does not repeat it to these people in order to divide [them] from those. Thus he is one who reunites those who are divided, a promoter of unity, who enjoys concord, rejoices in concord, delights in concord, a speaker of words that promote concord.

(6) "Having abandoned harsh speech, he abstains from harsh speech. He speaks such words as are gentle, pleasing to the ear, and lovable, as go to the heart, are courteous, desired by many, and agreeable to many.

(7) "Having abandoned idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He speaks at a proper time, speaks truth, speaks what is beneficial, speaks on the Dhamma and the discipline; at a proper time he speaks such words as are worth recording, reasonable, succinct, and beneficial.

"It is in this way that purity by speech is fourfold.

" And how, Cunda, is purity by mind threefold?

(8) "Here, someone is without longing. He does not long for the wealth and property of others thus: 'Oh, may what belongs to another be mine!'

(9) "He is of good will and his intentions are free of hate thus: 'May these beings live happily, free from enmity, affliction, and anxiety!'

(10) "He holds right view [268] and has a correct perspective thus: 'There is what is given, sacrificed, and offered; there is fruit and result of good and bad actions; there is this world and the other world; there is mother and father; there are beings spontaneously reborn; there are in the world ascetics and brahmins of right conduct and right practice who, having realized this world and the other world for themselves by direct knowledge, make them known to others.'

"It is in this way that purity by mind is threefold."

"These, Cunda, are the ten courses of beneficial(kusala) kamma(karma/deeds). If one engages in these ten courses of beneficial(kusala) kamma(karma/deeds), then, if one gets up early and strokes the ground from one's bed, one is pure, and if one doesn't stroke the ground, one is pure. If one strokes wet cow dung, one is pure, and if one doesn't stroke wet cow dung, one is pure. If one strokes green grass, one is pure, arid if one doesn't stroke green grass, one is pure. If one tends the sacred fire, one is pure, and if one doesn't tend the sacred fire, one is pure. If one pays homage to the sun with reverential salutation, one is pure, and if one doesn't pay homage to the sun with reverential salutation; one is pure. If one immerses oneself in water three times including the evening, one is pure, and if one doesn't immerse oneself in water three times including the evening, one is pure. For what reason? Because these ten courses of beneficial(kusala) kamma(karma/deeds) are themselves pure and purifying. It is because people engage in these ten courses of beneficial(kusala) kamma(karma/deeds) that the devas(angels/gods), human beings, and other good destinations are seen."

When, this was said, Cunda, the smith's son, said to the Lord(Buddha): "Excellent, Bhante! . . . Let the Lord(Buddha) accept me as a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life." [269]


177 Janussoni[edit | edit source]

Then the brahmin Janussoni approached the Lord(Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to the Lord(Buddha):

"Master Gotama, we brahmins give gifts and perform the memorial rites for the dead 2169 with the thought: 'Let our gift be of benefit to our departed relatives and family members. Let our departed relatives and family members partake of our gift'. Can our gift. Master Gotama, actually be of benefit to our departed relatives and family members? Can our departed relatives and family members actually partake of our gift?"

"On a right occasion, brahmin, it can be of benefit, not on a wrong occasion. "

"But, Master Gotama, what is a right occasion and what is a wrong occasion?"

"Here, brahmin, someone destroys life, takes what is not given, engages in sexual misconduct, speaks falsehood, speaks divisively, speaks harshly, indulges in idle chatter; he is full of longing, has a mind of ill will, and holds wrong view. With the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in hell. 2170 He sustains himself and subsists there on the food of the hell-beings. This is a wrong occasion, when the gift is not of benefit to one living there.

"Someone else destroys life . . . and holds wrong view. With the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in the animal realm. He sustains himself and subsists there on the food of animals. This, too, is a wrong occasion, when the gift is not of benefit to one living there.

"Still another abstains from the destruction of life, from taking what is not given, from sexual misconduct, from false speech, from divisive [270] speech, from harsh speech, from idle chatter; he is without longing, of good will, and holds right view. With the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in companionship with human beings. He sustains himself and subsists there on the food of human beings. This, too, is a wrong occasion, when the gift is not of benefit to one living there.

"Still another abstains from the destruction of life . . . and holds right view. With the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in companionship with the devas(angels/gods). He sustains himself and subsists there on the food of devas(angels/gods). This, too, is a wrong occasion, when the gift is not of benefit to one living there.

"Still another destroys life . . . and holds wrong view. With the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in the sphere of afflicted spirits. He sustains himself and subsists there on the food of afflicted spirits, or else he sustains himself there on what his friends, companions, relatives, or family members in this world offer to him. This is a right occasion, when the gift is of benefit to one living there." . ..

"But, Master Gotama, who partakes of the gift if that deceased relative or family member has not been reborn in that place?"

"Other departed relatives or family members who have, been reborn 2171 in that place partake of the gift."

"But, Master Gotama, who partakes of the gift if neither that deceased relative or family member nor any others have been reborn in that place?" .

"Over this long stretch of time [in. samsara], brahmin, it is impossible and inconceivable for that place to be devoid of one's departed relatives and family members. Further, for the donor too it is not fruitless."

"Does Master Gotama consider [the value of giving donation] even on the wrong occasion?" 2172

"Brahmin, I consider [the value of giving donation] even on the wrong occasion.

"Here, brahmin, someone destroys life, takes what is not given, engages in sexual misconduct, speaks falsehood, speaks divisively, speaks harshly, indulges in idle chatter; he is full of longing, has a mind of ill will, and holds wrong view. He gives an ascetic or a brahmin food and drink; clothing and a vehicle; garlands, scents, and unguents; bedding, dwellings, and light ing. With the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in companionship with elephants. There he gains food and drink, garlands and various ornaments.

"Since he here destroyed life . . . and held wrong view, with the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in companion ship with elephants. But since he gave an ascetic or a brahmin food and drink ... he there gains food and drink, garlands and various ornaments.,

"Someone else destroys life . . . and holds wrong view. He gives an ascetic or a brahmin food and drink . . . and lighting. With the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in companionship with horses . . . cattle . . . dogs. There he gains food and drink, garlands and various ornaments.

"Since he here destroyed life . . . [272] . . . and held wrong view, with the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in companionship with horses . . . cattle . . . dogs. But since he gave an ascetic or a brahmin food and drink . . . he there gains food and drink, garlands and various ornaments.

"Still another abstains from the destruction of life, from taking what is not given, from sexual misconduct, from false speech, from divisive speech, from harsh speech, from idle chatter; he is without longing, of good will, and holds right view. He gives an ascetic or a brahmin food and drink; clothing and a vehicle; garlands, scents, and unguents; bedding, dwellings, and lighting. With the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in companionship with human beings. There he gains the five objects of human sensual pleasure.

"Since he here abstained from the destruction of life . . . and held right view, with the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in companionship with human beings. And since he gave an ascetic or a brahmin food and drink . . . he there gains the five objects of human sensual pleasure.

"Still another abstains from the destruction of life . . . and holds right view. He gives an ascetic or a brahmin food and drink . . . and lighting. With the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in companionship with the dev as.. There he gains the five objects of celestial sensual pleasure.

"Since he here abstained from the destruction of life . . . and held right view, with the breakup of the body, after death, he is reborn in companionship with the devas(angels/gods). And since he gave an ascetic or a brahmin food and drink . . . he there gains the five objects of celestial sensual pleasure. [That is why I said:] 'Further, for the donor too it is not fruitless"

"It's astounding and amazing. Master Gotama, that there is reason to give gifts and perform the memorial rites for the dead, since for the donor too it is not fruitless."

"So it is, brahmin! So it is, brahmin! For the donor too it is not fruitless."

"Excellent, Master Gotama! . . . Let Master Gotama accept me as a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."



III. Good [2173] (Sadhuvaggo sans. Sadhuvarga)[edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


178 Good (Sadhu)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), I will teach you what is good and what is bad. Listen and attend closely I will speak."

"Yes, Bhante," those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this: •

"And what, bhikkhus, is bad? The destruction of life, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, false speech, divisive speech, harsh speech, idle chatter, longing, ill will, and wrong view. This is called bad.

"And what, bhikkhus, is good? Abstention from the destruction of life, abstention from taking what is not given, abstention from sexual misconduct, abstention from false speech, abstention from divisive speech, abstention from harsh speech, abstention from idle chatter, non-longing, good will, and right view. This is called good."


179-188 The Noble Dhamma Etc. (Ariyadhamma,Kusala, Attha, Dhamma, Asava, Vajja, Tapaniya )[edit | edit source]

(179) "Bhikkhus(Monks), I will teach you the noble Dhamma and the ignoble Dhamma. And what, bhikkhus, is ignoble? The destruction of life, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, false speech, divisive speech, harsh speech, idle chatter, longing, ill will, and wrong view. This is called ignoble. And what, bhikkhus, is noble? Abstention from the destruction of life, abstention from taking what is not given, abstention from sexual misconduct, abstention from false speech, abstention from divisive speech, abstention from harsh speech, abstention from idle chatter, non-longing, good will, and right view. This is called noble.

[Similarly] (180) . . . the beneficial(kusala) and the harmful(akusala) ... . . . (181) . . . what is beneficial and what is harmful . . . (182) . . . the Dhamma and what is non-Dhamma(wrong path) . . . (183) . . . the tainted Dhamma and the taintless one . ... [276] . . . (184) . . . the blameworthy Dhamma and the blameless one . . . (185) . . . the tormenting Dhamma and the un tormenting one . . . (186) . . . the Dhamma that leads to building up and the one that leads to dismantling . . . (187) the Dhamma with suffering as its outcome and the one with happiness as its outcome . . . (188) . . . the Dhamma that results in suffering and the one that results in happiness

"And what, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma that results in suffer ing? The destruction of life . . . and wrong view. This is called the Dhamma that results in suffering.

"And what, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma that results in happiness? Abstention from the destruction of life . . . and right view. This is called the Dhamma that results in happiness."



IV. Noble Path (Ariyamaggavagga sans. Aryamarg-varga)[edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


189 The Noble Path (Ariyamagga)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I will teach you the noble path and the ignoble path. Listen and attend closely And what, bhikkhus, is the ignoble path? And what, bhikkhus, is ignoble? The destruction of life, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, false speech, divisive speech, harsh speech, idle chatter, longing, ill will, and wrong view. This is called ignoble. "And what, bhikkhus, is noble path? Abstention from the destruction of life, abstention from taking what is not given, abstention from sexual misconduct, abstention from false speech, abstention from divisive speech, abstention from harsh speech, abstention from idle chatter, non-longing, good will, and right view. This is called good. This is called the noble path.


190-l98 The Dark Path, Etc.[edit | edit source]

(190) "Bhikkhus(Monks), I will teach you the dark path and the bright path And what, bhikkhus, is the dark path? The destruction of life, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, false speech, divisive speech, harsh speech, idle chatter, longing, ill will, and wrong view. This is called dark path. "And what, bhikkhus, is bright path? Abstention from the destruction of life, abstention from taking what is not given, abstention from sexual misconduct, abstention from false speech, abstention from divisive speech, abstention from harsh speech, abstention from idle chatter, non-longing, good will, and right view. This is called good. This is called the bright path.

[Similarly] (191) . ... the good Dhamma(right path) and the bad Dhamma . . . [279] (192) . . the Dhamma of a good person and that of a bad person . . . (193) . . . the Dhamma to be aroused and that not to be aroused . . . (194) . . . the Dhamma to be pursued and that not to be pursued . . . [280] (195) . . . the Dhamma to be developed and that not to be developed . . . (196) . . . the Dhamma to be cultivated and that not to be cultivated . . . (197) . . . the Dhamma to be recollected and that not to be recollected . . . [281] (198) . . . the Dhamma to be realized and that not to be realized. ...

"And what, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma not to be realized? The destruction of life ... . and wrong view. This is called the Dhamma not to be realized.

"And what, bhikkhus, is the Dhamma to be realized? Abstention from the destruction of life . . . and right view. This is called the Dhamma to be realized."



V. Another Chapter on Persons [2174][edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


199 Associate With[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), one should not associate with a person who possesses ten qualities. What ten? He destroys life, takes what is not given, engages in sexual misconduct, speaks falsehood, speaks divisively, speaks harshly, indulges in idle chatter; he is full of longing, has a mind of ill will, and holds wrong view. One should not associate with a person who possesses these ten qualities.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), one should associate with a person who possesses ten qualities. What ten? He abstains from the destruction of life, from taking what is not given, from sexual misconduct, from false speech, from divisive speech, from harsh speech, from idle chatter; he is without longing, of good will, and holds right view. One should associate with a person who possesses these ten qualities."


200 - 210 Resort , Etc. [2175] [edit | edit source]

(200) "Bhikkhus(Monks), one should not resort to a person who possesses ten qualities What ten? He destroys life, takes what is not given, engages in sexual misconduct, speaks falsehood, speaks divisively, speaks harshly, indulges in idle chatter; he is full of longing, has a mind of ill will, and holds wrong view. One should not associate with a person who possesses these ten qualities. "Bhikkhus(Monks), one should resort to a person who possesses ten qualities. What ten? He abstains from the destruction of life, from taking what is not given, from sexual misconduct, from false speech, from divisive speech, from harsh speech, from idle chatter; he is without longing, of good will, and holds right view. One should resort to a person who possesses these ten qualities

[similarly] (201) . . . one should not attend on . . . one should attend on . {202) . . . one should not venerate . . .one should venerate ... . (203) . . . one should not praise . . . one should praise ... (204) . . . one should not revere . . . one should revere . . . (205) . . . one should not show deference to ... one should show deference to a person who possesses ten qualities. . . . (206) A person who possesses ten qualities is not successful . . . is successful ... (207) . . . is not purified ... is purified . . . (208) . . . does not overcome conceit . . . overcomes conceit . . . (209) . . . does not grow in panna(divine knowledge) . . . grows in panna(divine knowledge) . . . (210) . . . generates much demerit . . . generates much merit. What ten? He abstains from the destruction of life, from taking what is not given, from sexual misconduct, from false speech, from divisive speech, from harsh speech, from idle chatter; he is without longing, of good will, and holds right view. A person who possesses these ten qualities generates much merit."



An Extra Fifty[edit | edit source]

I. The Deed-Born Body (Karajakaya-vaggo)[edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


211 Hell-Heaven (1) (NirayaSagga1 sans.Narak-Swarg)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing ten qualities, one is deposited in hell as if brought there. What ten?

(1) "Here, someone destroys life; he is murderous, bloody handed, given to blows and violence, merciless to living beings.

(2) "He takes what is not given; he steals the wealth and property of others in the village or forest.

(3) "He engages in sexual misconduct; he has sexual relations with women who are protected by their mother, father, mother and father, brother, sister, or relatives; who are protected by their Dhamma; who have a husband; whose violation entails a penalty; or even with one already engaged.

(4) "He speaks falsehood. If he is summoned to a council, to an assembly, to his relatives' presence, to his guild, or to the court, and questioned as a witness thus: 'So, good man, tell what you know, then, not knowing, he says, 'I know,' or knowing, he says, 'I do not know'; not seeing, he says, 'I see,' or seeing, he says, 'I do not see.' Thus he consciously speaks falsehood for his own ends, or for another's ends, or for some trifling worldly end.

(5) "He speaks divisively. Having heard something here, he repeats it elsewhere in order to divide [those people] from these; or having heard something elsewhere, he repeats it to these people in order to divide [them] from those. Thus he is one who divides those who are united, a creator of divisions, one who enjoys factions, rejoices in factions, delights in factions, a speaker of words that create factions.

(6) "He speaks harshly. He utters such words as are rough, hard, hurtful to others, offensive to others, bordering on anger, unconducive to samadhi(self absorption/trance).

(7) "He indulges in idle chatter. He speaks at an improper time, speaks falsely, speaks what is unbeneficial, speaks contrary to the Dhamma(path) and the discipline; at an improper time he speaks such words as are worthless, unreasonable, rambling, and unbeneficial. [284]

(8) "He is full of longing. He longs for the wealth and property of others thus: 'Oh, may what belongs to another be mine!'

(9) "He has a mind of ill will and intentions of hate thus: 'May these beings be slain, slaughtered, cut off, destroyed, or annihilated!'

(10) "He holds wrong view and has an incorrect perspective thus: 'There is nothing given(donation), nothing sacrificed, nothing offered; there is no fruit or result of good and bad actions; there is no this world, no other world; there is no mother, no father; there are no beings spontaneously reborn; there are in the world no ascetics and brahmins of right conduct and right practice who, having realized this world and the other world for them selves by direct knowledge(abhinna), make them known to others.'

"One possessing these ten qualities is deposited in hell as if brought there.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), one possessing ten qualities is deposited in heaven as if brought there. What ten?

(1) "Here, someone, having abandoned the destruction of life, abstains from the destruction of life. With the rod(violence) and weapon laid aside, conscientious and kindly, he dwells compassionate toward all living beings.

(2) "Having abandoned the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. He does not steal the wealth and property of others in the village or in the forest.

(3) "Having abandoned sexual misconduct, he abstains from sexual misconduct. He does not have sexual relations with women who are protected by their mother, father, mother and father, brother, sister, or relatives; who are protected by their Dhamma; who have a husband; whose violation entails a penalty; or even with one already engaged.

(4) "Having abandoned false speech, he abstains from false speech. If he is summoned to a council, to an assembly, to his relatives' presence, to his guild, or to the court, and questioned as a witness thus: 'So, good man, tell what you know,' then, not knowing, he says, I do not know,' or knowing, he says, 'I know'; not seeing, he says, 'I do not see,' or seeing, he says, 'I see.' Thus he does not consciously speak falsehood for his own ends, or for another's ends, or for some trifling worldly end. [285]

(5) "Having abandoned divisive speech, he abstains from divisive speech. Having heard something here, he does not repeat it elsewhere in order to divide [those people] from these; or having heard something elsewhere, he does not repeat it to these people in order to divide [them] from those. Thus he is one who reunites those who are divided, a promoter of unity, who enjoys concord, rejoices in concord, delights in concord, a speaker of words that promote concord.

(6) "Having abandoned harsh speech, he abstains from harsh speech. He speaks such words as are gentle, pleasing to the ear, and lovable, as go to the heart, are courteous, desired by many, and agreeable to many.

(7) "Having abandoned idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He speaks at a proper time, speaks truth, speaks what is beneficial, speaks on the Dhamma and the discipline; at a proper time he speaks such words as are worth recording, reasonable, succinct, and beneficial.

(8) "He is without longing. He does not long for the wealth and property of others thus: "Oh, may what belongs to another be mine!'

(9) "He is of good will and his intentions are free of hate thus: 'May these beings live happily, free from enmity, affliction, and anxiety!'

(10) "He holds right view and has a correct perspective thus: 'There is what is given, sacrificed, and offered; there is fruit and result of good and bad actions; there is this world and the other world; there is mother and father; there are beings spon taneously reborn; there are in the world ascetics and brahmins of right conduct and right practice who, having realized this world and the other world for themselves by direct knowledge(abhinna), make them known to others.

"One possessing these ten qualities is deposited in heaven as if brought there."


212 Hell-Heaven (2) (NirayaSagga2 Sans. Narak-Swarg )[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing ten qualities, one is deposited in hell as if brought there. What ten? 2176

(t) "Here, someone destroys life; he is murderous, bloody handed, given to blows and violence, merciless to living beings. (2) He takes what is not given . . . (3) He engages in sexual misconduct . . . (4) He speaks falsehood . . . (5) He speaks divisively . . . (6) He speaks harshly [286] ... (7) He indulges in idle chatter . . . (8) He is full of longing . . . (9) He has a mind of ill will and intentions of hate . . . (10) He holds wrong view and has an incorrect perspective thus: 'There is nothing given . . . there are in the world no ascetics and brahmins of right conduct and right practice who, having realized this world and the other world for themselves by direct knowledge(abhinna), make them known to others.' One possessing these ten qualities is deposited in hell as if brought there.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), one possessing ten qualities is deposited in heaven as if brought there. What ten?

(1) "Here, someone, having abandoned the destruction of life, abstains from the destruction of life; with the rod(violence) and weapon laid aside, conscientious and kindly, he dwells compassionate toward all living beings. (2) Having abandoned the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given . . . (3) Having abandoned sexual misconduct, he abstains from sexual misconduct . . . (4) Having abandoned false speech, he abstains from false speech . . . (5) Having abandoned divisive speech, he abstains from divisive speech . . . (6) Having abandoned harsh speech, he abstains from harsh speech . . . (7) Having abandoned idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter . (8) He is without longing . . . (9) He is of good will . . . (10) He holds right view and has a correct perspective thus: 'There is what is given . . . there are in the world ascetics and brahmins of right conduct and right practice who, having realized this world and the other world for themselves by direct knowledge(abhinna), make them known to others.' One possessing these ten qualities is deposited in heaven as if brought there."


213 Women (Matugama)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(monks), possessing ten qualities, women are deposited in hell as if brought there. What ten? [287] (1) They destroy life . . . [as above] . . . and (10) hold wrong view. Possessing these ten qualities, women are deposited in hell as if brought there.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing ten qualities, women are deposited in heaven as if brought there. What ten? (1) They abstain from the destruction of life . ... [as above] . . .and (10) hold right view. Possessing these ten qualities, women are deposited in heaven as if brought there."


214 Female Lay Follower (Upasika)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing ten qualities, a female lay follower is deposited in hell as if brought there. What ten? (1) She destroys life . . . and (10) holds wrong view. Possessing these ten qualities, a female lay follower is deposited in hell as if brought there.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing ten qualities, a female lay follower is deposited in heaven as if brought there. What ten? (1) She abstains from the destruction of life . . .and (10) holds right view. Possessing these ten qualities, a female lay follower is deposited in heaven as if brought there."


215 Self-Confidence (Visarada)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing ten qualities, a female lay follower dwells without self-confidence at home. What ten? (1) She destroys life . . . and (10) holds wrong view. Possessing these ten qualities, a female lay follower dwells without self-confidence at home.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing ten qualities, a female lay follower dwells self-confident at home. What ten? (1) She abstains from the destruction of life . . . and (10) holds right view. Possessing these ten qualities, a female lay follower dwells self-confident at home."


216 Creeping (Samsappaniya)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), I will teach you an exposition of the Dhamma on creeping. [2177] Listen and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, Bhante," those bhikkhus replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"And what, bhikkhus, is that exposition of the Dhamma on creeping? Bhikkhus, beings are the owners of their kamma(karma/deeds), the heirs of their kamma(karma/deeds); they have kamma(karma/deeds) as their origin, kamma(karma/deeds) as their relative, kamma(karma/deeds) as their resort; whatever kamma(karma/deeds) they do, good or bad, they are its heirs.

(1) "Here, someone destroys life; he is murderous, bloody handed, given to blows and violence, merciless to living beings. He creeps along by body, speech, and mind. 2178 His bodily kamma(karma/deeds) is crooked; his verbal kamma(karma/deeds) is crooked; his mental kamma(karma/deeds) is crooked. His destination is crooked; his rebirth is crooked. But for one with a crooked destination and rebirth, I say, there is one of two destinations: either the exclusively painful hells or a species of creeping animal. And what are the species of creeping animals? The snake, the scorpion, the centipede, the mongoose, the cat, the mouse, and the owl, 2179 or any other animals that creep away when they see people. Thus a being is reborn from a being; one is reborn through one's deeds. When one has been reborn, contacts affect one. It is in this way, I say, that beings are the heirs of their kamma(karma/deeds).

(2) "Someone takes what is not given . . . (3) . . . engages in sexual misconduct . . . (4) . . . speaks falsehood . . . (5) . . speaks divisively . . . (6) . . . speaks harshly . . . (7) . . . indulges in idle chatter . . . (8) ... is full of longing . . . (9) . . . has a mind of ill will and intentions of hate . (10) . . . holds wrong view and has an incorrect perspective thus: 'There is nothing given . . . there are in the world no ascetics and brahmins of right conduct and right practice who, having realized this world and the other world for themselves by direct knowledge(abhinna), make them known to others. He creeps along by body, speech, and mind. His bodily kamma(karma/deeds) is crooked . . . His destination is crooked; [290] his rebirth is crooked. . . . Thus a being is reborn from a being; one is reborn through one's deeds. When one has been reborn, contacts affect one. It is in this way, I say, that beings are the heirs of their kamma(karma/deeds).

"Bhikkhus(Monks), beings are the owners of their kamma(karma/deeds), the heirs of their kamma(karma/deeds); they have kamma(karma/deeds) as their origin, kamma(karma/deeds) as their relative, kamma(karma/deeds) as their resort; whatever kamma(karma/deeds) they do, good or bad, they are its heirs.

(1) "Here, haying abandoned the destruction of life, someone abstains from the destruction of life; with the rod(violence) and weapon laid aside, conscientious and kindly, he dwells compassion ate toward all living beings. He does not creep along by body, speech, and mind. His bodily kamma(karma/deeds) is straight; his verbal kamma(karma/deeds) is straight; his mental kamma(karma/deeds) is straight. His destination is straight; his rebirth is straight. But for one with a straight destination and rebirth, I say, there is one of two destinations: either the exclusively pleasant heavens or eminent families, such as those of affluent khattiyas, affluent brahmins, or affluent householders, [families that are] rich, with great wealth and property, abundant gold and silver, abundant treasures and belongings, abundant wealth and grain. Thus a being is reborn from a being; one is reborn through one's deeds. When one has been reborn, contacts affect one. It is in this way, I say, that beings are the heirs of their kamma(karma/deeds).

(2) "Having abandoned the taking of what is not given, some one abstains from taking what is not given ... (3) . . .abstains from sexual misconduct ... [291] (4) . . . abstains from false speech . . . (5) . . . abstains from divisive speech . . . (6) . . . abstains from harsh speech . , . (7) . . . abstains from idle chatter . . . (8) ... is without longing . . . (9) ... is of good will . . . (10) . . . holds right view and has a correct perspective thus: 'There is what is given . . . there are in the world ascetics and brahmins of right conduct and right practice who, having realized this world and the other world for themselves by direct knowledge(abhinna), make them known to others.' He does not creep along by body, speech, and mind. His bodily kamma(karma/deeds) is straight . . . His destination is straight; his rebirth is straight. . . . Thus a being is reborn from a being; one is reborn through one's deeds. When one has been reborn. contacts affect one. It is in this way, I say, that beings are the heirs of their kamma(karma/deeds).

"Bhikkhus(Monks), beings are the owners of their kamma(karma/deeds), the heirs of their kamma(karma/deeds); they have kamma(karma/deeds) as their origin, kamma(karma/deeds) as their relative, kamma(karma/deeds) as their resort; whatever kamma(karma/deeds) they do, good or bad, they are its heirs.

"This, bhikkhus, is that exposition of the Dhamma on creep ing." [292]


227 Conscious Action (1) (Sancetanika1)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I do not say that there is a termination of conscious kamma(karma/deeds) 2160 that has been done and accumulated so long as one has not experienced [its results], and that may be in this very life, or in the [next] rebirth, or on some subsequent occasion. But I do not say that there is making an end of suffering so long as one has not experienced [the results of] conscious kamma(karma/deeds) that has been done and accumulated. 2161

"As to this, bhikkhus, there is a threefold corruption and failure(vipatti) of bodily kamma(karma/deeds), 2182 arisen from harmful(akusala) (self)awareness, having a painful outcome and result; a fourfold corruption and failure(vipatti) of verbal kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from harmful(akusala) (self)awareness, having a painful outcome and result; and a threefold corruption and failure(vipatti) of mental kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from harmful(akusala) (self)awareness, having a painful outcome and result.

"And how, bhikkhus, is there a threefold corruption and failure(vipatti) of bodily kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from harmful(akusala) (self)awareness, having a painful outcome and result?

(1) "Here, someone destroys life. He is murderous, bloody handed, given to blows and violence, merciless to living beings.

(2) "He takes what is not given. He steals the wealth and property of others in the village or forest.

(3) "He engages in sexual misconduct. He has sexual relations with women who are protected by their mother, father, mother and father, brother, sister, or relatives; who are protected by their Dhamma; who have a husband; whose violation entails a penalty; or even with one already engaged.

"It is in this way that there is a threefold corruption and failure(vipatti) of bodily kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from harmful(akusala) (self)awareness, having a painful outcome and result.

"And how, bhikkhus, is there a fourfold corruption and failure(vipatti) of verbal kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from harmful(akusala) (self)awareness, having a painful outcome and result? [293]

(4) "Here, someone speaks falsehood. If he is summoned to a council, to an assembly, to his relatives' presence, to his guild, or to the court, and questioned as a witness thus: 'So, good man, tell what you know' then, not knowing, he says, 'I know or knowing, he says, 'I do not know'; not seeing, he says, 'I see,' or seeing, he says, 'I do not see'. Thus he consciously speaks falsehood for his own ends, or for another's ends, or for some trifling worldly end.

(5) "He speaks divisively. Having heard something here, he repeats it elsewhere in order to divide [those people] from these; of having heard something elsewhere, he repeats it to these people in order to divide [them] from those. Thus he is one who divides those who are united, a creator of divisions, one who enjoys factions, rejoices in factions, delights in factions; a speaker of words that create factions.

(6) "He speaks harshly. He utters such words as are rough, hard, hurtful to others, offensive to others, bordering on anger, unconducive to samadhi(self absorption/trance).

(7) "He indulges in idle chatter. He speaks at an improper time, speaks falsely, speaks what is unbeneficial, speaks con trary to the Dhamma and the discipline; at an improper time he speaks such words as are worthless, unreasonable, rambling, and unbeneficial.

"It is in this way that there is a fourfold corruption and failure(vipatti) of verbal kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from harmful(akusala) (self)awareness, having a painful outcome and result.

"And how, bhikkhus, is there a threefold corruption and failure(vipatti) of mental kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from harmful(akusala) (self)awareness, having a painful outcome and result?

(8) "Here, someone is full of longing. He longs for the wealth and property of others thus: 'Oh, may what belongs to another be mine!'

(9) "He has a mind of ill will and intentions of hate thus: 'May these beings be slain, slaughtered, cut off, destroyed, or annihilated!'

(10) "He holds wrong view and has an incorrect perspective thus: 'There is nothing given, nothing sacrificed, nothing offered; there is no fruit or result of good and bad actions; there no this world, no other world; there is no mother, no father; lere are no beings spontaneously reborn; [294] there are in re world no ascetics and brahmins of right conduct and right practice who, having realized this world and the other world themselves by direct knowledge(abhinna), make them known to others.'

"It is in this way that there is a threefold corruption and failure(vipatti) of mental kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from harmful(akusala) (self)awareness, havig a painful outcome and result.

"It is, bhikkhus, because of the threefold corruption and failure(vipatti) of bodily kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from harmful(akusala) (self)awareness, that with the breakup of the body, after death, beings are reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the. lower world, in hell; or it is because of the fourfold corruption and failure(vipatti) of verbal kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from harmful(akusala) (self)awareness, that with the breakup of the body, after death, beings are reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell; or it is because of the threefold corruption and failure(vipatti) of mental kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from harmful(akusala) (self)awareness, that with the breakup of the body, after death, beings are reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell. Just as dice, when thrown upward, will rest firmly wherever they fall, 2183 so too, it is because of the threefold corruption and failure(vipatti) of bodily kamma(karma/deeds) ... or it is because of the fourfold corruption and failure(vipatti) of verbal kamma(karma/deeds) ... or it is because of the threefold corruption and failure(vipatti) of mental kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from harmful(akusala) (self)awareness, that with the breakup of the body, after death, beings are reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad estination, in the lower world, in hell.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), I do not say that there is a termination of conscious kamma(karma/deeds) that has been done and accumulated so long as ne has not experienced [its results], and that may be in this very life, or in the [next] rebirth, or on some subsequent occasion. But I do not say that there is making an end of suffering as long as one has not experienced [the results of] conscious kamma(karma/deeds) that has been done and accumulated.

"As to this, bhikkhus, there is a threefold success of bodily kamma, arisen from beneficial(kusala) (self)awareness, having a pleasant out line and result; a fourfold success of verbal kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from beneficial(kusala) (self)awareness, having a pleasant outcome and result; and a threefold success of mental kamma(karma/deeds), [295] arisen from beneficial(kusala) (self)awareness, having a pleasant outcome and result.

"And how, bhikkhus, is there a threefold success of bodily kamma, arisen from beneficial(kusala) (self)awareness, having a pleasant outcome and result?

(1) "Here, someone, having abandoned the destruction of life, abstains from the destruction of life. With the rod(violence) and weapon laid aside, conscientious and kindly, he dwells compassionate toward all living beings.

(2) "Having abandoned the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. He does not steal the wealth and property of others in the village or in the forest.

(3) "Having abandoned sexual misconduct, he abstains from sexual misconduct. He does not have sexual relations with women who are protected by their mother, father, mother and father, brother, sister, or relatives; who are protected by their Dhamma; who have a husband; whose violation entails a penalty; or even with one already engaged.

"It is in this way that there is a threefold success of bodily kamma, arisen from beneficial(kusala) (self)awareness, having a pleasant outcome and result.

"And how, bhikkhus, is there a fourfold success of verbal kamma, arisen from beneficial(kusala) (self)awareness, having a pleasant outcome and result?

(4) "Here, having abandoned false speech, someone abstains from false speech. If he is summoned to a council, to an assembly, to his relatives' presence, to his guild, or to the court, and questioned as a witness thus: 'So, good man, tell what you know,' then, not knowing, he says, 'I do not know' or knowing, he says, 'I know'; not seeing, he says, 'I do not see,' or seeing, he says, 'I see.' Thus he does not consciously speak falsehood for his own ends, or for another's ends, or for some trifling worldly end.

(5) "Having abandoned divisive speech, he abstains from divisive speech. Having heard something here, he does not repeat it elsewhere in order to divide [those people] from these; or having heard something elsewhere, he does not repeat it to these people in order to divide [them] from those. Thus he is one who reunites those who are divided, [296] a promoter of unity, who enjoys concord, rejoices in concord, delights in concord, a speaker of words that promote concord.

(6) "Having abandoned harsh speech, he abstains from harsh speech. He speaks such words as are gentle, pleasing to the ear, and lovable, as go to the heart, are courteous, desired by many, and agreeable to many.

(7) "Having abandoned idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He speaks at a proper time, speaks truth, speaks what is beneficial, speaks on the Dhamma and the discipline; at a proper time he speaks such words as are worth recording, reasonable, succinct, and beneficial.

"It is in this way that there is a fourfold success of verbal kamma, arisen from beneficial(kusala) (self)awareness, having a pleasant outcome and result.

"And how, bhikkhus, is there a threefold success of mental kamma, arisen from beneficial(kusala) (self)awareness, having a pleasant outcome and result?

(8) "Here, someone is without longing. He does not long for the wealth and property of others thus: 'Oh, may what belongs to another be mine!'

(9) "He is of good will and his intentions are free of hate thus: 'May these beings live happily, free from enmity, affliction, and anxiety!'

(10) 'He holds right view and has a correct perspective thus: 'There is what is given, sacrificed, and offered; there is fruit and result of good and bad actions; there is this world and the other world; there is mother and father; there are beings spontaneously reborn; there are in the world ascetics and brahmins of right conduct and right practice who, having realized this world and the other world for themselves by direct knowledge(abhinna), make them known to others.'

"It is m this way that there is a threefold success of mental kamma, arisen from beneficial(kusala) (self)awareness, having a pleasant outcome and result.

"It is, bhikkhus, because of the threefold success of bodily kamma, arisen from beneficial(kusala) (self)awareness, chat with the breakup of the body, after death, beings are reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world; or it is because of the fourfold success of verbal kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from beneficial(kusala) (self)awareness, that with the breakup of the body, after death, beings are reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world; or it is because of the threefold success of mental kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from beneficial(kusala) (self)awareness, that with the breakup-of the body, after death, beings are reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world. Just as dice, when thrown upward, will rest firmly wherever they fall, so too, it is because of the threefold success of bodily kamma(karma/deeds) . . . [297] ... or it is because of the fourfold success of verbal kamma(karma/deeds) ... or it is because of the threefold success of mental kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from beneficial(kusala) (self)awareness, that with the breakup of the body, after death, beings are reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), I do not say that there is a termination of conscious kamma(karma/deeds) that has been done and accumulated so long as one has not experienced [its results], and that may be in this very life, or in the [next] rebirth, or on some subsequent occasion. But I do not say that there is making an end of suffering so long as one has not experienced [the results of] conscious kammas that have been done and accumulated."


218 Conscious Action (2) 2184 (Sancetanika2)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(monks), I do not say that there is a termination of conscious kamma(karma/deeds) that has been done and accumulated so long as one has not experienced [its results]; and that may be in this very life, or in the [next] rebirth, or on some subsequent occasion. But I do not say that there is making an end of suffering so long as one has not experienced [the results of] conscious kamma(karma/deeds) that has been done and accumulated.

"As to this, bhikkhus, there is a threefold corruption and failure(vipatti) of bodily kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from harmful(akusala) (self)awareness, having a painful outcome and result; a fourfold corruption and failure(vipatti) of verbal kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from harmful(akusala) (self)awareness, having a painful outcome and result; and a threefold corruption and failure(vipatti) of mental kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from harmful(akusala) (self)awareness, having a painful outcome and result.

(1)— (10) "And how, bhikkhus, is there a threefold corruption and failure(vipatti) of bodily kamma(karma/deeds) ...a fourfold corruption and failure(vipatti) of verbal kamma(karma/deeds) . . . [298] . . .a threefold corruption and failure(vipatti) of mental kamma(karma/deeds)?. . . [all as in 10:217] . . . having a painful out come and result.

"It is, bhikkhus, because of the threefold corruption and fail ure of bodily kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from harmful(akusala) (self)awareness . . . or it is because of the fourfold corruption and failure(vipatti) of verbal kamma, arisen from harmful(akusala) (self)awareness . : . or it is because of the threefold corruption and failure(vipatti) of mental kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from harmful(akusala) (self)awareness, that with the breakup of the body, after death, beings are reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), I do not say that there is a termination of conscious kamma(karma/deeds) that has been done and accumulated so long as one has not experienced [its results], and that may be in this very life, or in the [next] rebirth, or on some subsequent occasion. But I do not say that there is making an end of suffering so long as one has not experienced [the results of] conscious kamma(karma/deeds) that has been done and accumulated.

"As to this, bhikkhus, there is a threefold success of bodily kamma, arisen from beneficial(kusala) (self)awareness, having a pleasant out come and result. There is a fourfold success of verbal kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from beneficial(kusala) (self)awareness, having a pleasant outcome and result. There is a threefold success of mental kamma(karma/deeds), arisen from beneficial(kusala) (self)awareness, having a pleasant outcome and result.

(1)— (10) "And how, bhikkhus, is there a threefold success of bodily kamma(karma/deeds) ... a fourfold success of verbal kamma(karma/deeds) . . . . . . a threefold success of mental kamma(karma/deeds)? . . . [all as in 10:217] . . . having a painful outcome and result.

"It is, bhikkhus, because of the threefold success of bodily kamma(karma/deeds) ... or it is because of the fourfold success of verbal kamma(karma/deeds) . . . or it is because of the threefold success of mental kamma, arisen from beneficial(kusala) (self)awareness, that with the breakup of the body, after death, beings are reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world.

"Bhikkhus(Monks), I do not say that there is a termination of conscious kamma(karma/deeds) that has been done and accumulated so long as one has not experienced [its results], and that may be in this very life, or in the [next] rebirth, or on some subsequent occasion. But I do not say that there is making an end of suffering so long as one has not experienced [the results of] conscious kamma(karma/deeds) that has been done and accumulated."


219 The Deed-Born Body (Karajakaya)[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), I do not say that there is a termination of conscious kamma(karma/deeds) that has been done and accumulated so long as one has not experienced [its results], and that may be in this very life, or in the [next] rebirth, or on some subsequent occasion. But I do not say that there is making an end of suffering so long as one has not experienced [the results of] conscious kamma(karma/deeds) that has been done and accumulated. 2165

"This noble disciple, bhikkhus, who is thus devoid of long ing, devoid of ill will, unconfused, completely comprehending, ever mindful(meditating/sati), dwells pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with loving-kindness(metta), likewise the second quarter, the third quarter, and the fourth quarter. Thus above, below, across, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he dwells pervading the entire world with a mind imbued with loving-kindness(metta), vast, exalted, measureless, without enmity, without ill will. He understands thus: 'Previously, my mind was limited and undeveloped, but now it is measureless and well developed. No measurable kamma(karma/deeds) remains or persists there' 2186 [300]

"What do you think, bhikkhus, if a youth were to develop the liberation of mind by loving kindness from his childhood on, would he do a bad deed?" 2187

"No, Bhante." . .

"Could suffering affect him if he does no bad deed?"

"No, Bhante. For on what account could suffering affect one who does no bad deed?" 2188

"A woman or a man should develop this liberation of mind by lovingkindness. A woman or a man cannot take this body with them when they go. Mortals have mind as their core. 2189 '

"[The noble disciple] understands: 'Whatever bad deed I did here in the past with this deed-born body 2190 is all to be experienced here. It will not follow along.' 2191 When the liberation of mind by loving-kindness(metta) has been developed in this way, it leads to non-returning(no earthly rebirth,anagami) for a wise bhikkhu here 2192 who does not penetrate to a further liberation. 2193

"This noble disciple, bhikkhus, who is thus devoid of long ing, devoid of ill will, unconfused, completely comprehending, ever mindful(meditating/sati), dwells pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with compassion . . . with a mind imbued with altruistic joy . . . with a mind imbued with indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha), likewise the second quarter, the third quarter, and the fourth quarter. Thus above, below, across, and everywhere, and to all as to hirnself, he dwells pervading the entire world with a mind imbued with indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha), vast, exalted, measureless, without enmity, without ill will. He understands thus: 'Previously, my mind was limited and undeveloped, but how it is measureless and well developed. No measurable [301] kamma(karma/deeds) remains or persists there.' "What do you think, bhikkhus, if a youth would develop the liberation of mind by indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha), from his childhood on, would he do a bad deed?"

"No, Bhante "

"Could suffering affect him if he does no bad deed?"

"No, Bhante. For on what account could suffering affect one who does no bad deed?"

"A woman or a man should develop this liberation of mind by indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha). A woman or a man cannot take this body with them when they go. Mortals have mind as their core.

"[The noble disciple] understands: 'Whatever bad deed I did here in the past with this deed-born body is all to be experienced here. It will not follow along' When the liberation of mind by indifference(withdrawing within/upekkha) has been developed in this way, it leads to non returning(no earthly rebirth,anagami) for a wise bhikkhu(monk) here who does not penetrate to a further liberation."


220 Conduct Contrary to the Dhamma (Adhammacariya sans. Adharma-cariya)[edit | edit source]

Then a certain brahmin approached the Lord(Buddha) and exchanged greetings with him. When they had exchanged greetings and cordial talk; he sat down to one side and said to the Lord(Buddha):

"Master Gotama, why is it that some beings here, with the breakup of the body, after death, are reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell?"

"It is, brahmin, because of unrighteous conduct, conduct contrary to the Dhamma, that some beings here, with the breakup of the body, after death, are reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell.

"Master Gotama, why is it that some beings here, [302] with the breakup of the body, after death, are reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world?"

"It is, brahmin, because of righteous conduct, conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, that some beings here, with the breakup of the body, after death, are reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world."

"I do not understand in detail the meaning of Master Gotama's statement that he has spoken in brief. Please let Master Gotama teach me the Dhamma in such a way that I might understand the meaning in detail."

"Well then, brahmin, listen and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, sir," that brahmin replied. The Lord(Buddha) said this:

"Brahmin, unrighteous conduct, conduct contrary to the Dhamma, is threefold by way of the body, fourfold by way of speech, and threefold by way of the mind.

"And how, brahmin, is unrighteous conduct, conduct contrary to the Dhamma, threefold by way of the body? . . . [here and below, the explanations are as in 10:217] ... It is in this way that unrighteous conduct, conduct contrary to the Dhamma, is threefold by way of the mind.

"It is, brahmin, because of such unrighteous conduct, con duct contrary to the Dhamma, that some beings here, with the breakup of the body, after death, are reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell.

"Brahmin, righteous conduct, conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, is threefold by way of the body, fourfold by way of speech, and threefold by way of the mind'

"And how, brahmin, is righteous conduct, conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, threefold by way of the body? . '. . [303] ... It is in this way that righteous conduct, conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, is threefold by way of the mind.

"It is, brahmin, because of such righteous conduct, conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, that some beings here, with the breakup of the body, after death, are reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world. .

"Excellent, Master Gotama! . . . Let Master Gotama accept me as a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."



II. Similarity (Samanna-vaggo)[edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


221[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(monks), possessing ten qualities, one is deposited in hell as if brought there. What ten? (1) One destroys life, (2) takes what is not given, (3) engages in sexual misconduct, (4) speaks falsely, (5) speaks divisively, (6) speaks harshly, (7) indulges in idle chatter, (8) is full of longing, (9) has a mind of ill will, and (10) holds wrong view. Possessing these ten qualities, one is deposited in hell as if brought there. [304]

"Possessing ten qualities, one is deposited in heaven as if brought there. What ten? (1) One abstains from the destruction of life, (2) abstains from taking what is not given, (3) abstains from sexual misconduct, (4) abstains from false speech, (5) abstains from divisive speech, (6) abstains from harsh speech, (7) abstains from idle chatter, (8) is without longing, (9) is of good will, and (10) holds right view. Possessing these ten qualities, one is deposited in heaven as if brought there."


222[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing twenty qualities, one is deposited in hell as if brought there. What twenty? (1) One destroys life one self and (2) encourages others to destroy life . . . (19) one holds wrong view oneself and (20) encourages others in wrong view. Possessing these twenty qualities, one is deposited in hell as if brought there.

"Possessing twenty qualities, one is deposited in heaven as if brought there. What twenty?. (1) One abstains from the destruction of life oneself and (2) encourages others to abstain from the destruction of life . . . [305] . . . (19) one holds right view oneself and . (20) encourages others in right view. Possessing these twenty qualities, one is deposited in heaven as if brought there."


223[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing thirty qualities, one is deposited in hell as if brought there. What thirty? (1) One destroys life oneself, (2) encourages others to destroy life, and (3) approves of the destruction of life . . . (28) one holds wrong view oneself, (29) encourages others in wrong view, and (30) approves of wrong view. Possessing these thirty qualities, one is deposited in hell as if brought there.

"Possessing thirty qualities, one is deposited in heaven as if brought there. What thirty? [306] (1) One abstains from the destruction of life oneself, (2) encourages others to abstain from the destruction of life, and (3) approves of abstaining from the destruction of life . . . (2.8) one holds right view oneself, (29) encourages others in right view, and (30) approves of right view. Possessing these thirty qualities, one is deposited in heaven as if brought there."


224[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing forty qualities, one is deposited in hell as if brought there. What forty? (1) One destroys life oneself, (2) encourages others to destroy life, (3) approves of the destruction of life, and (4) speaks in praise of the destruction of life . . . [307] . . . {37) one holds wrong view oneself, (38) encourages others in wrong view, (39) approves of wrong view, and (40) speaks in praise of wrong view. Possessing these forty qualities, one is deposited in hell as if brought there.

"Possessing forty qualities, one is deposited in heaven as if brought there. What forty? (1) One abstains from the destruction of life oneself, (2) encourages others to abstain from the destruction of life, (3) approves of abstaining from the destruction of life, and (4) speaks in praise of abstaining from the destruction of life . . . [308] ... . (37) one holds right view oneself, (38) encourages others in right view, (39) approves of right view, and (40) speaks in praise of right view. Possessing these forty qualities, one is deposited in heaven as if brought there."


225-228[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing ten qualities, one maintains oneself in a maimed and injured condition . . . preserves oneself unmaimed and uninjured ..." "Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing twenty qualities . . . thirty qualities . . . forty qualities, one maintains oneself in a maimed and injured condition preserves oneself unmaimed and uninjured ..."


229 - 232[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing ten qualities, with the breakup of the body, after death, someone here is reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, [309] in hell . . . someone here is reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world." "Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing twenty qualities . . . thirty qualities . . . forty qualities, someone here is reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell . . . someone here is reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world."


233 - 236[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing ten qualities, one maybe understood as a unwise . . . one may be understood as a wise person." "Bhikkhus(Monks), possessing twenty qualities . . . thirty qualities . . . forty qualities, one may be understood as a unwise . . . one may be understood as a wise person."



III. Lust(Raag) and So Forth Repetition Series [2195][edit | edit source]


Pali Versions : Pali-English Version and Pali-Devanagri Version


237 [2196][edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), for direct knowledge(abhinna) of lust(raag), ten things are to be developed. What ten? The perception(sanna/sangya) of unattractiveness, the perception(sanna/sangya) of death, the perception(sanna/sangya) of the repulsiveness of food, the perception(sanna/sangya) of non-delight in the entire world, the perception(sanna/sangya) of impermanence(aniccha/anitya), the perception(sanna/sangya) of suffering in the impermanent, the perception(sanna/sangya) of non-self in what is suffering, the perception of abandoning, the perception(sanna/sangya) of dispassion(viraga), and the perception(sanna/sangya) of cessation. For direct knowledge(abhinna) of lust(raag), these ten things are to be developed." [310]


238[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(monks), for direct knowledge(abhinna) of lust(raag), ten things are to be developed. What ten? The perception(sanna/sangya) of impermanence(aniccha/anitya), the perception(sanna/sangya) of non-self, the perception(sanna/sangya) of the repulsiveness of food, the perception(sanna/sangya) of non-delight in the entire world, the perception of a skeleton, the perception(sanna/sangya) of a worm-infested corpse, the perception(sanna/sangya) of a livid corpse, the perception(sanna/sangya) of a festering corpse, the perception(sanna/sangya) of a fissured corpse, and the perception(sanna/sangya) of a bloated corpse. For direct knowledge(abhinna) of lust(raag), these ten things are to be developed."


239[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), for direct knowledge(abhinna) of lust(raag), ten things are to be developed. What ten? Right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right meditation(sati/mindfulness), right samadhi(self absorption/trance), right knowledge, and right liberation. For direct knowledge of lust(raag), these ten things are to be developed." 2197


240 — 266[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), for full understanding of lust(raag) . . . for the utter destruction. . . for the abandoning . . . for the destruction . . . for the van ishing . . . for the fading away . . . for the cessation . . . 2198 for the giving up . . . for the relinquishment of lust(raag) . . . these ten things are to be developed."


267-746[edit | edit source]

"Bhikkhus(Monks), for direct knowledge(abhinna) . . . for full understanding . . . for the utter destruction . . . for the abandoning . . . for the destruction . . . for the vanishing . . . for the fading away . . . for the cessation . . . for the giving up . . . for the relinquishment of hatred ... of delusion ... of anger ... of hostility ... of denigration ... of insolence . . . of envy ... . of miserliness . . . of deceitfulness ... of craftiness . . . of obstinacy ... of vehemence ... of conceit ... of arrogance . . . of intoxication . . . of slothfulness.. . . these ten things are to be developed."

This is what the Lord(Buddha) said. Elated, those bhikkhus delighted in the Lord(Buddha)'s statement.

The Book of the Tens is finished.


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